## How to Develop a Good Research Hypothesis

## What is Hypothesis?

## What is a Research Hypothesis?

## Essential Characteristics of a Good Research Hypothesis

- Is the language clear and focused?
- What is the relationship between your hypothesis and your research topic?
- Is your hypothesis testable? If yes, then how?
- What are the possible explanations that you might want to explore?
- Does your hypothesis include both an independent and dependent variable?
- Can you manipulate your variables without hampering the ethical standards?
- Does your research predict the relationship and outcome?
- Is your research simple and concise (avoids wordiness)?
- Is it clear with no ambiguity or assumptions about the readers’ knowledge
- Is your research observable and testable results?
- Is it relevant and specific to the research question or problem?

## Source: Educational Hub

How to formulate an effective research hypothesis.

## 1. State the problem that you are trying to solve.

Make sure that the hypothesis clearly defines the topic and the focus of the experiment.

## 2. Try to write the hypothesis as an if-then statement.

Follow this template: If a specific action is taken, then a certain outcome is expected.

## 3. Define the variables

## 4. Scrutinize the hypothesis

The types of research hypothesis are stated below:

It predicts the relationship between a single dependent variable and a single independent variable.

It predicts the relationship between two or more independent and dependent variables.

## 3. Directional Hypothesis

5. Associative and Causal Hypothesis

## 6. Null Hypothesis

## Research Hypothesis Examples of Independent and Dependent Variables:

Research Hypothesis Example 1 The greater number of coal plants in a region (independent variable) increases water pollution (dependent variable). If you change the independent variable (building more coal factories), it will change the dependent variable (amount of water pollution).

Research Hypothesis Example 2 What is the effect of diet or regular soda (independent variable) on blood sugar levels (dependent variable)? If you change the independent variable (the type of soda you consume), it will change the dependent variable (blood sugar levels)

## Importance of a Testable Hypothesis

- There must be a possibility to prove that the hypothesis is true.
- There must be a possibility to prove that the hypothesis is false.
- The results of the hypothesis must be reproducible.

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## How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples

Published on May 6, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on December 2, 2022.

## Example: Hypothesis

Daily apple consumption leads to fewer doctor’s visits.

## Table of contents

## Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more types of variables .

- An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls.
- A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

## Step 1. Ask a question

## Step 2. Do some preliminary research

## Step 3. Formulate your hypothesis

## 4. Refine your hypothesis

- The relevant variables
- The specific group being studied
- The predicted outcome of the experiment or analysis

## 5. Phrase your hypothesis in three ways

## 6. Write a null hypothesis

- H 0 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has no effect on their final exam scores.
- H 1 : The number of lectures attended by first-year students has a positive effect on their final exam scores.

## Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

## Cite this Scribbr article

McCombes, S. (2022, December 02). How to Write a Strong Hypothesis | Steps & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved March 10, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/methodology/hypothesis/

## Is this article helpful?

## Shona McCombes

## What Is A Research (Or Scientific) Hypothesis? A plain-language explanation + examples

By: Derek Jansen (MBA) | Reviewed By: Dr Eunice Rautenbach | June 2020

## Research Hypothesis 101

- Introduction to hypotheses
- Research (scientific) hypotheses
- Requirements for a research hypothesis
- Definition of a research hypothesis
- The null hypothesis

## What is a hypothesis?

Hypothesis: sleep impacts academic performance.

## What is a research hypothesis?

Let’s take a look at these more closely.

## Need a helping hand?

## Hypothesis Essential #1: Specificity & Clarity

## Hypothesis Essential #2: Testability (Provability)

For example, consider the hypothesis we mentioned earlier:

So, remember the mantra – if you can’t test it, it’s not a hypothesis 🙂

## Defining A Research Hypothesis

You’re still with us? Great! Let’s recap and pin down a clear definition of a hypothesis.

## What about the null hypothesis?

And there you have it – hypotheses in a nutshell.

## Psst… there’s more (for free)

## You Might Also Like:

Very useful information. I benefit more from getting more information in this regard.

Please what is the difference between alternate hypothesis and research hypothesis?

## Trackbacks/Pingbacks

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## The Craft of Writing a Strong Hypothesis

## Table of Contents

## What is a Hypothesis?

## Different Types of Hypotheses

## 1. Null hypothesis

## 2. Alternative hypothesis

- Directional hypothesis: A hypothesis that states the result would be either positive or negative is called directional hypothesis. It accompanies H1 with either the ‘<' or ‘>' sign.
- Non-directional hypothesis: A non-directional hypothesis only claims an effect on the dependent variable. It does not clarify whether the result would be positive or negative. The sign for a non-directional hypothesis is ‘≠.'

## 3. Simple hypothesis

## 4. Complex hypothesis

## 5. Associative and casual hypothesis

## 6. Empirical hypothesis

## 7. Statistical hypothesis

## Characteristics of a Good Hypothesis

- A research hypothesis has to be simple yet clear to look justifiable enough.
- It has to be testable — your research would be rendered pointless if too far-fetched into reality or limited by technology.
- It has to be precise about the results —what you are trying to do and achieve through it should come out in your hypothesis.
- A research hypothesis should be self-explanatory, leaving no doubt in the reader's mind.
- If you are developing a relational hypothesis, you need to include the variables and establish an appropriate relationship among them.
- A hypothesis must keep and reflect the scope for further investigations and experiments.

## Separating a Hypothesis from a Prediction

## Finally, How to Write a Hypothesis

Quick tips on writing a hypothesis

## 1. Be clear about your research question

## 2. Carry out a recce

## 3. Create a 3-dimensional hypothesis

## 4. Write the first draft

## 5. Proof your hypothesis

## Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

1. what is the definition of hypothesis.

## 2. What is an example of hypothesis?

## 3. What is an example of null hypothesis?

## 4. What are the types of research?

## 5. How to write a hypothesis?

• Your hypothesis should be able to predict the relationship and outcome.

• Avoid wordiness by keeping it simple and brief.

• Your hypothesis should contain observable and testable outcomes.

• Your hypothesis should be relevant to the research question.

## 6. What are the 2 types of hypothesis?

• Alternative hypotheses test the claim that "there is a difference between two data groups".

## 7. Difference between research question and research hypothesis?

## 8. What is plural for hypothesis?

## 9. What is the red queen hypothesis?

## 10. Who is known as the father of null hypothesis?

## 11. When to reject null hypothesis?

## You might also like

## AI tools for researchers: Optimize your workflows with these research assistants

## Research Methodology: Everything You need to Know

## How To Write a Research Question

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## How to Write a Research Hypothesis

## Jonny Rhein, BA

BA, English Colorado State University

## Article Tags

Getting Your Research Published

## Popular Categories

## What is a research hypothesis?

## Research Hypothesis

## What makes an effective research hypothesis?

## Research hypothesis checklist

Once you’ve written a possible hypothesis, make sure it checks the following boxes:

- It must be testable: You need a means to prove your hypothesis. If you can’t test it, it’s not a hypothesis.
- It must include a dependent and independent variable: At least one independent variable ( cause ) and one dependent variable ( effect ) must be included.
- The language must be easy to understand: Be as clear and concise as possible. Nothing should be left to interpretation.
- It must be relevant to your research topic: You probably shouldn’t be talking about cats and dogs if your research topic is outer space. Stay relevant to your topic.

## How to create an effective research hypothesis

A possible initial question could be: Why is the sky blue?

## Do the preliminary research

## Write a draft hypothesis

## Make your working draft perfect

## Write a null hypothesis

## Why is it important to have a clear, testable hypothesis?

Characteristics that make a hypothesis weak include:

Aside from publication chances, Dr. Gareth Dyke believes a clear hypothesis helps efficiency.

## Types of research hypotheses

There can be overlap in these types of hypotheses.

## Simple hypothesis

Example: Drinking soda (independent variable) every day leads to obesity (dependent variable).

## Complex hypothesis

A complex hypothesis shows the relationship of two or more independent and dependent variables.

## Directional hypothesis

## Non-directional hypothesis

## Associative hypothesis

An associative hypothesis says that when one variable changes, so does the other variable.

## Alternative hypothesis

An alternative hypothesis states that the variables have a relationship.

Example: An apple a day keeps the doctor away.

## Null hypothesis

Researchers use a null hypothesis to work to be able to reject it. A null hypothesis:

Example: An apple a day does not keep the doctor away.

## Logical hypothesis

A logical hypothesis is a suggested explanation while using limited evidence.

Example: Bats can navigate in the dark better than tigers.

## Empirical hypothesis

- An apple a day keeps the doctor away.
- Two apples a day keep the doctor away.
- Three apples a day keep the doctor away.

## Statistical hypothesis

Example: 70% of people who live in Illinois are iron deficient.

## Causal hypothesis

Example: Using tobacco products causes cancer.

## Final thoughts

## Share with your colleagues

Share your work as a preprint and help move science forward.

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## Pioneering Women in Science

## What are Reporting Guidelines for Research?

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## Forming a Good Hypothesis for Scientific Research

## Formulating a Hypothesis

Falsifiability, operational definitions, types of hypotheses, examples of hypotheses.

## The Hypothesis in the Scientific Method

- Forming a question
- Performing background research
- Creating a hypothesis
- Designing an experiment
- Collecting data
- Analyzing the results
- Drawing conclusions
- Communicating the results

## Elements of a Good Hypothesis

- Is your hypothesis based on your research on a topic?
- Can your hypothesis be tested?
- Does your hypothesis include independent and dependent variables?

To form a hypothesis, you should take these steps:

- Collect as many observations about a topic or problem as you can.
- Evaluate these observations and look for possible causes of the problem.
- Create a list of possible explanations that you might want to explore.
- After you have developed some possible hypotheses, think of ways that you could confirm or disprove each hypothesis through experimentation. This is known as falsifiability.

## Hypothesis Checklist

- Does your hypothesis focus on something that you can actually test?
- Does your hypothesis include both an independent and dependent variable?
- Can you manipulate the variables?
- Can your hypothesis be tested without violating ethical standards?

- Simple hypothesis : This type of hypothesis suggests that there is a relationship between one independent variable and one dependent variable.
- Complex hypothesis : This type of hypothesis suggests a relationship between three or more variables, such as two independent variables and a dependent variable.
- Null hypothesis : This hypothesis suggests no relationship exists between two or more variables.
- Alternative hypothesis : This hypothesis states the opposite of the null hypothesis.
- Statistical hypothesis : This hypothesis uses statistical analysis to evaluate a representative sample of the population and then generalizes the findings to the larger group.
- Logical hypothesis : This hypothesis assumes a relationship between variables without collecting data or evidence.

A few examples of simple hypotheses:

- "Students who eat breakfast will perform better on a math exam than students who do not eat breakfast."
- Complex hypothesis: "Students who experience test anxiety before an English exam will get lower scores than students who do not experience test anxiety."
- "Motorists who talk on the phone while driving will be more likely to make errors on a driving course than those who do not talk on the phone."

Examples of a complex hypothesis include:

- "People with high-sugar diets and sedentary activity levels are more likely to develop depression."
- "Younger people who are regularly exposed to green, outdoor areas have better subjective well-being than older adults who have limited exposure to green spaces."

Examples of a null hypothesis include:

- "Children who receive a new reading intervention will have scores different than students who do not receive the intervention."
- "There will be no difference in scores on a memory recall task between children and adults."

Examples of an alternative hypothesis:

- "Children who receive a new reading intervention will perform better than students who did not receive the intervention."
- "Adults will perform better on a memory task than children."

## Collecting Data on Your Hypothesis

## Descriptive Research Methods

## Experimental Research Methods

## A Word From Verywell

Nevid J. Psychology: Concepts and Applications. Wadworth, 2013.

An official website of the United States government

## Research questions, hypotheses and objectives

* Michael G. DeGroote School of Medicine, the

## Bradley A. Petrisor

† Division of Orthopaedic Surgery and the

## Forough Farrokhyar

§ Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ont

## Mohit Bhandari

## Objectives of this article

## Research question

## FINER criteria for a good research question

Adapted with permission from Wolters Kluwer Health. 2

## PICOT criteria 1

## Research hypothesis

## Research objective

## Tips for developing research questions, hypotheses and objectives for research studies

- Perform a systematic literature review (if one has not been done) to increase knowledge and familiarity with the topic and to assist with research development.
- Learn about current trends and technological advances on the topic.
- Seek careful input from experts, mentors, colleagues and collaborators to refine your research question as this will aid in developing the research question and guide the research study.
- Use the FINER criteria in the development of the research question.
- Ensure that the research question follows PICOT format.
- Develop a research hypothesis from the research question.
- Develop clear and well-defined primary and secondary (if needed) objectives.
- Ensure that the research question and objectives are answerable, feasible and clinically relevant.

## Research Hypothesis: Definition, Types, & Examples

BSc (Hons) Psychology, MRes, PhD, University of Manchester

Learn about our Editorial Process

Associate Editor for Simply Psychology

BSc (Hons), Psychology, MSc, Psychology of Education

## Types of research hypotheses

## Null Hypothesis

## Nondirectional Hypothesis

E.g., there will be a difference in how many numbers are correctly recalled by children and adults.

## Directional Hypothesis

E.g., adults will correctly recall more words than children.

## Falsifiability

## Can a hypothesis be proven?

Upon analysis of the results, an alternative hypothesis can be rejected or supported, but it can never be proven to be correct. We must avoid any reference to results proving a theory as this implies 100% certainty, and there is always a chance that evidence may exist which could refute a theory.

## How to write a hypothesis

- 1. To write the alternative and null hypotheses for an investigation, you need to identify the key variables in the study.The independent variable is manipulated by the researcher and the dependent variable is the outcome which is measured.
- 2. Operationalized the variables being investigated.Operationalisation of a hypothesis refers to the process of making the variables physically measurable or testable, e.g. if you are about to study aggression you might count the number of punches given by participants
- 3. Decide on a direction for your prediction. If there is evidence in the literature to support a specific effect on the independent variable on the dependent variable, write a directional (one-tailed) hypothesis.If there are limited or ambiguous findings in the literature regarding the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable, write a non-directional (two-tailed) hypothesis.
- 4. Write your hypothesis. A good hypothesis is short (i.e. concise) and comprises clear and simple language.

## What are examples of a hypothesis?

- The alternative hypothesis states that students will recall significantly more information on a Monday morning than on a Friday afternoon.
- The null hypothesis states that there will be no significant difference in the amount recalled on a Monday morning compared to a Friday afternoon. Any difference will be due to chance or confounding factors.

## IMAGES

## VIDEO

## COMMENTS

paper. • 2. As noted, a research hypothesis is more than just a topic. It has two elements. (variables) that are in relation to each other.

Research hypothesis is a statement that introduces a research question and proposes an expected result. It is an integral part of the scientific method that

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet

A research hypothesis (also called a scientific hypothesis) is a statement about the expected outcome of a study (for example, a dissertation or thesis).

A research hypothesis is an assumption or a tentative explanation for a specific process observed during research. Unlike a guess, research

A research hypothesis is more specific than a general hypothesis. It is an educated, expected prediction of the outcome of a study that is testable.

A hypothesis is a tentative statement about the relationship between two or more variables. It is a specific, testable prediction about what you

Null hypotheses are used in the sciences. In the scientific method, a null hypothesis is formulated, and then a scientific investigation is conducted to try to

The research hypothesis should be stated at the beginning of the study to guide the objectives for research. Whereas the investigators may state the hypothesis

A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a precise, testable statement of what the researcher(s) predict will be the outcome of the study.