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Writing a Research Paper Conclusion | Step-by-Step Guide

Published on October 30, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on December 7, 2022.

The conclusion of a research paper is where you wrap up your ideas and leave the reader with a strong final impression. It has several key goals:

The content of the conclusion varies depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or constructs an argument through engagement with sources .

Table of contents

Step 1: restate the problem, step 2: sum up the paper, step 3: discuss the implications, research paper conclusion examples, frequently asked questions about research paper conclusions.

The first task of your conclusion is to remind the reader of your research problem . You will have discussed this problem in depth throughout the body, but now the point is to zoom back out from the details to the bigger picture.

While you are restating a problem you’ve already introduced, you should avoid phrasing it identically to how it appeared in the introduction . Ideally, you’ll find a novel way to circle back to the problem from the more detailed ideas discussed in the body.

For example, an argumentative paper advocating new measures to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture might restate its problem as follows:

Meanwhile, an empirical paper studying the relationship of Instagram use with body image issues might present its problem like this:

“In conclusion …”

Avoid starting your conclusion with phrases like “In conclusion” or “To conclude,” as this can come across as too obvious and make your writing seem unsophisticated. The content and placement of your conclusion should make its function clear without the need for additional signposting.

Having zoomed back in on the problem, it’s time to summarize how the body of the paper went about addressing it, and what conclusions this approach led to.

Depending on the nature of your research paper, this might mean restating your thesis and arguments, or summarizing your overall findings.

Argumentative paper: Restate your thesis and arguments

In an argumentative paper, you will have presented a thesis statement in your introduction, expressing the overall claim your paper argues for. In the conclusion, you should restate the thesis and show how it has been developed through the body of the paper.

Briefly summarize the key arguments made in the body, showing how each of them contributes to proving your thesis. You may also mention any counterarguments you addressed, emphasizing why your thesis holds up against them, particularly if your argument is a controversial one.

Don’t go into the details of your evidence or present new ideas; focus on outlining in broad strokes the argument you have made.

Empirical paper: Summarize your findings

In an empirical paper, this is the time to summarize your key findings. Don’t go into great detail here (you will have presented your in-depth results and discussion already), but do clearly express the answers to the research questions you investigated.

Describe your main findings, even if they weren’t necessarily the ones you expected or hoped for, and explain the overall conclusion they led you to.

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Having summed up your key arguments or findings, the conclusion ends by considering the broader implications of your research. This means expressing the key takeaways, practical or theoretical, from your paper—often in the form of a call for action or suggestions for future research.

Argumentative paper: Strong closing statement

An argumentative paper generally ends with a strong closing statement. In the case of a practical argument, make a call for action: What actions do you think should be taken by the people or organizations concerned in response to your argument?

If your topic is more theoretical and unsuitable for a call for action, your closing statement should express the significance of your argument—for example, in proposing a new understanding of a topic or laying the groundwork for future research.

Empirical paper: Future research directions

In a more empirical paper, you can close by either making recommendations for practice (for example, in clinical or policy papers), or suggesting directions for future research.

Whatever the scope of your own research, there will always be room for further investigation of related topics, and you’ll often discover new questions and problems during the research process .

Finish your paper on a forward-looking note by suggesting how you or other researchers might build on this topic in the future and address any limitations of the current paper.

Full examples of research paper conclusions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.

While the role of cattle in climate change is by now common knowledge, countries like the Netherlands continually fail to confront this issue with the urgency it deserves. The evidence is clear: To create a truly futureproof agricultural sector, Dutch farmers must be incentivized to transition from livestock farming to sustainable vegetable farming. As well as dramatically lowering emissions, plant-based agriculture, if approached in the right way, can produce more food with less land, providing opportunities for nature regeneration areas that will themselves contribute to climate targets. Although this approach would have economic ramifications, from a long-term perspective, it would represent a significant step towards a more sustainable and resilient national economy. Transitioning to sustainable vegetable farming will make the Netherlands greener and healthier, setting an example for other European governments. Farmers, policymakers, and consumers must focus on the future, not just on their own short-term interests, and work to implement this transition now.

As social media becomes increasingly central to young people’s everyday lives, it is important to understand how different platforms affect their developing self-conception. By testing the effect of daily Instagram use among teenage girls, this study established that highly visual social media does indeed have a significant effect on body image concerns, with a strong correlation between the amount of time spent on the platform and participants’ self-reported dissatisfaction with their appearance. However, the strength of this effect was moderated by pre-test self-esteem ratings: Participants with higher self-esteem were less likely to experience an increase in body image concerns after using Instagram. This suggests that, while Instagram does impact body image, it is also important to consider the wider social and psychological context in which this usage occurs: Teenagers who are already predisposed to self-esteem issues may be at greater risk of experiencing negative effects. Future research into Instagram and other highly visual social media should focus on establishing a clearer picture of how self-esteem and related constructs influence young people’s experiences of these platforms. Furthermore, while this experiment measured Instagram usage in terms of time spent on the platform, observational studies are required to gain more insight into different patterns of usage—to investigate, for instance, whether active posting is associated with different effects than passive consumption of social media content.

If you’re unsure about the conclusion, it can be helpful to ask a friend or fellow student to read your conclusion and summarize the main takeaways.

You can also get an expert to proofread and feedback your paper with a paper editing service .

The conclusion of a research paper has several key elements you should make sure to include:

No, it’s not appropriate to present new arguments or evidence in the conclusion . While you might be tempted to save a striking argument for last, research papers follow a more formal structure than this.

All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the results and discussion sections if you are following a scientific structure). The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.

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Conclusion Examples: Strong Endings for Any Paper

conclusion example with paragraph

Some might argue that a conclusion is one of the most important components of any research paper or article. It's your last opportunity to make a good impression on your reader. If you can confidently say you’ve fully answered the question posed, or are leaving the readers with a thought-provoking consideration, you've done well. Explore a variety of different papers with great conclusion examples.

Professional Conclusion Examples

When it comes to good conclusion examples, a good rule of thumb is to restate your thesis statement if you have one. Your conclusion should also refer back to your introduction, summarize three main points of your essay and wrap it all up with a final observation. If you conclude with an interesting insight, readers will be happy to have spent time on your writing. See how a professional writer creates a thought-provoking conclusion.

Professional Essay Conclusion Example

The New Yorker published an op-ed by Fergus McIntosh titled A Trip to St. Kilda, Scotland's Lost Utopia in the Sea . He's making the case that St. Kilda's inhabitants are not out of touch as so many travelers seem to believe. Take a look at how he brings it all home.

"Mainlanders always knew that St. Kilda was there, and to describe its people as uncontacted is hyperbole — so why does it, in common with other abandoned places and lost or threatened cultures, arouse such fascination? Perhaps it’s because, in our globalizing, urbanizing, capitalist age, such places remind us that there are alternative ways to relate to the world, and the people, around us: they spur our utopian imagination."

Scientific Paper Conclusion Example

In this research paper , the author summarizes her main findings while also supporting the conclusions she's drawn. In an effort to fully engage the reader in her area of study, she proposes suggestions for future research. This was her way of leaving the readers wanting more.

"Recent research on cold-water immersion incidents has provided a more complete understanding of the physiological processes occurring during drowning and near-drowning accidents. Current findings suggest that the cooperative effect of the mammalian diving reflex and hypothermia plays a critical role in patient survival during a cold-water immersion incident. However, the relationship between the two processes is still unclear. Because it is impossible to provide an exact reproduction of a particular drowning incident within the laboratory, research is hampered by the lack of complete details surrounding drowning incidents. Consequently, it is difficult for comparisons to be drawn between published case studies. More complete and accurate documentation of cold-water immersion incidents—including time of submersion; time of recovery; and a profile of the victim including age, sex, physical condition—will facilitate easier comparison of individual situations and lead to a more complete knowledge of the processes affecting long-term survival rates for drowning victims. Once we have a clearer understanding of the relationship between hypothermia and the mammalian diving reflex, and of the effect of such factors as the age of the victim, physicians and rescue personnel can take steps to improve patient care both at the scene and in the hospital."

Report Conclusion Example

This is the end of a book review by Nanette Scarpellini for the Journal of Air Transportation World Wide . Scarpellini uses her conclusion to reiterate her main points about the author making what could be a dull topic entertaining and offering a suggestion for a future edition. Take a look at how she wraps it all up in her conclusion.

"Aviation History is a collection of significant events in aviation accented by the people who made it happen and correlated with world affairs. The book’s use of color and vivid stories helps to make the advancements come to life as something more than significant events on a timeline. While at times the stories may clutter the page, they also breathe life into what is considered by many to be a dull subject. The author’s enthusiasm for the topic is obvious throughout the book. More thorough proofreading could help alleviate some of the confusion that is caused by typos and a few mislabeled illustrations. The credibility of the content does not suffer due to these obvious errors which will likely be corrected in the next edition."

Examples of Conclusions for Students

While not all students are professional writers, you can still wow your audience with your conclusion. As you review these, take note of the manner in which the writer tied their ideas together, made a call to the reader or left off with some compelling food for thought.

College Essay Conclusion Example

Here we have a college entrance essay worth reading . This student recalls when she used to sit in a blue armchair in her parents' café and read, people-watch and imagine. In the conclusion, she refers back to the blue armchair and that cozy world but also looks forward to finding her niche. You'll see why Johns Hopkins uses this on their website for the model of college entrance essays.

"To say that I have figured out all of who I am would be a lie. Unlike the world of fantasy, there is no single defining moment—no Excalibur, no Sorting Hat—that marks my complete evolution. My niche in the world constantly changes, but what remains steadfast is my commitment to a life of service and adventure, albeit it isn’t as cozy as the blue armchair."

Thesis Conclusion Example

When it comes to a thesis or research paper conclusion example, it's important to end it on a high note. See a thesis conclusion example to get an idea for your thesis paper.

The purpose of this research was to identify effective strategies for dealing with repetitive motions identified in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder. Based on the analysis conveyed, it can be concluded that there are multiple behavior modification therapies important for the improvement of this behavior. Future exploration into behavior modification techniques could be useful to finding further therapy techniques. The amount this could improve the lives of others with repetitive motion behaviors is worth exploring.

Conclusion Example for Project

When you think of a project conclusion, there are all different types of projects out there. You might be doing a literature project or a science project. Whatever the case, you want to end with a bang. Check out a conclusion example for a high school science fair project.

Through my analysis of Huggies and Pampers brand diapers, it’s been proven that Huggies is the sure winner in leak protection and fluid retention. As you can see through my experiment, using Huggies over Pampers can help parents to avoid embarrassing diaper leaks and ensure their baby’s skin stays dry avoiding diaper rash and skin irritation. But that begs the question, is Huggies the best in leak protection among all brands? That would take a bit more research.

Formulating Your Conclusion

There is some important information you need to write a conclusion . In addition to restating your thesis and highlighting your main points, you could add a relevant quotation from an authoritative source. This will not work in every case, but if, for example, you were writing a reflective essay on a piece of literature, you might quote a famous scholar who also reviewed that piece.

Additionally, it may be worth taking this opportunity to tie your argument to a larger context, such as relating your central theme to a particular group in society or even a global concept.

What Not to Do in a Conclusion

When it comes to crafting the perfect conclusion, there are a lot of different things you should do. But there are also a few things you’ll want to avoid.

The Last Word

Take some time to go over your conclusion. Remember, it’s an opportunity to pull your thoughts together and magnify the central theme of your writing. It's the cream cheese frosting to that red velvet cupcake you just baked. Don't allow it to be an after-thought to a paper you want to get off your plate. It could end up being the five or so sentences that a reader carries with them forever. Now that you’ve mastered a great conclusion, learn how to write a strong introduction through examples .

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: Examples & Tips

You might be wondering about how to write a conclusion paragraph for a research paper. It may seem like your readers should understand your main arguments by the end, so there is no need for it. However, there are several aspects that prove the importance of a conclusion section in research.

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Its first and primary function is, of course, a summary of all the main ideas and evidence in the paper. Sometimes research can be quite lengthy so putting all the thoughts you want to share in one place is very handy. Moreover, the conclusion shows how important your work is and suggests new ways of looking at the problem.

Our guide and research paper conclusion example are here to help you with your assignment!

🔗 References

❗ importance of a conclusion in a research paper.

A conclusion intends to remind the readers about the main arguments and findings of the whole paper. However, it also highlights the significance of the work. Both these functions help create a long-lasting, memorable impression from your research paper , so always include this part and try to think of the ways to make it even more effective.

Since having a strong concluding paragraph is so crucial for the overall success, you might want to check out a step-by-step guide on writing it. It can assure you don’t miss any vital moments. Moreover, you need to find out what conclusion type would be the best!

👣 How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper Step by Step

Below are only a few simple steps that can allow you to write the most persuasive research paper.

📑 Types & Examples of Research Paper Conclusions

You may be assigned to write a persuasive or argumentative paper. Or your professor might ask you to develop an analytical or comparative research paper.

Should you write their conclusions in the same way? The answer is “No”. When you write different types of assignments, you need different conclusions.

Argumentative Research Paper Conclusion

To write an excellent argumentative paper conclusion, you need to highlight the most persuasive and strong arguments you have — no need to add many details. In addition, don’t forget you should include the essential components of the conclusion, such as paraphrasing your thesis statement, which points out your opinion on the chosen topic. If you used a strong thesis statement generator , it won’t be hard to do.

Argumentative Research Paper Conclusion Example

Right now, Earth is facing the issue of the sixth extinction, which causes numerous species to fade every day. There are at least three ideas people might use to prevent their total extinction in the next fifty years. More ways of recycling, new approaches to plastic production, and conservation of species could be life-saving.

Analytical Research Paper Conclusion

First, you should restate your thesis statement and summarize the critical points of your arguments. The main difference between the analytical research paper conclusion and other types is that there should definitely be a highlight of a broader context. It means you can add some meaning to the findings.

Analytical Research Paper Conclusion Example

Elon Musk has made a revolution in the way we pay, drive, and even fly. His ideas come only from the desire to make things easier, but eventually, they change the world. Musk first thought about PayPal when he was a student, and now it’s one of the most popular online payment systems. The same with Tesla cars.

Comparative Research Paper Conclusion

An effective comparative paper conclusion requires some analytical skills. You need to be very careful in looking through facts to clearly formulate your findings. Moreover, the sources need to be trustworthy. And, as usual, you need to add a paraphrased thesis statement and a few words about the importance of your study research.

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Comparative Research Paper Conclusion Example

Electric cars are proven to be more efficient and effective than gas cars. Not only do they produce fewer emissions, but the drivers reach their destination point faster. Moreover, gas cars are more expensive to maintain. It all derives from the specifics of the electric cars’ engines, which are much simpler.

❌ Common Mistakes You Should Avoid

Are you ready to pass your writing? Wait! Have you checked it for the most common mistakes? If no, below are several general errors you should avoid.

Very, very useful website for students. I appreciate people who kindly share brilliant writing tips with others! Thanks a lot!

Great article! It helped me to complete my research papers conclusion that was a real nightmare for me! Thank you so much for it!

I was on my way to completing my research paper and going to finish the conclusion by copy-pasting the introduction. Thank God, I wanted to read some articles on conclusion writing. After reading your post on this question, I completed my conclusion following your instructions. Believe my research paper is worth an excellent mark!

Custom Writing

In response to a comment from Lynn: Thank you for noting this unfortunate mistake in the text. Obviously, we spend a lot of time compiling, writing, and editing materials, but there’s always room for a simple human error! Thanks again, and have a great day! 🙂

This helped a lot, thanks =)

This helped me so much! Thank you!

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conclusion of research paper sample

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: Your 2023 Guide

conclusion of research paper sample

What Is a Conclusion in Research Papers

A conclusion in research paper is the final piece of the puzzle, the last chapter in the story, the grand finale of a long and arduous journey. It is the point where the researcher can finally step back and say, 'I have found what I was looking for.' But it is more than just a summary of the findings. A conclusion is a reflection on the entire research process, a chance for the researcher to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of their methodology and to make recommendations for future research. It is a time to celebrate successes, acknowledge limitations, and offer suggestions for improvement.

You may know how to start a research paper ; however, making a compelling ending requires a thorough understanding too. A conclusion is an opportunity to connect the research findings to a larger context, discuss how the results contribute to the broader field of study and suggest possible applications in real-world scenarios. It is a moment of closure but also a starting point for new avenues of inquiry.

So, let's delve into the following sections to find out how to write a conclusion for a research paper that will leave a lasting impression on your audience.

avoid conclusion

Related article: ' HOW TO START A RESEARCH PAPER '

Outline for a Research Paper Conclusion

When wondering how to make a research paper outline , the first step is to get familiar with the general structure. Here we prepared a research paper conclusion example, so let's take a close look at what information to include in a conclusion outline:

I. Summary of main findings

II. Restate the research question/objective

III. Discuss the implications of the findings

IV. Acknowledge limitations and suggest future research

V. Concluding statement

Here is the full guide on ' HOW TO MAKE A RESEARCH PAPER OUTLINE '

Tips on How to Make a Conclusion in Research

By following these tips, you won't have to wonder 'how to make a conclusion in research' anymore and will effectively highlight its significance.

tips conclusion research

How to Develop a Compelling Conclusion

Here are some main points to help you not just summarize the key thoughts of your work, but to go deeper to warrant a better grade:

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How to Make a Conclusion Effective Rhetorically

Here are some unique tips on how to start conclusion in research rhetorically from our law essay writing :

Making a Conclusion Effective Logically

By using these logical strategies from our custom dissertation writing , you can make your research paper conclusion more coherent, persuasive, and effective.

Things to Avoid in the Conclusion of Your Research Paper

By avoiding these common pitfalls, you can ensure that their conclusions are clear, concise, and effective in summarizing their research's main findings and implications.

things to avoid in concusion

Research Paper Conclusion Example

That’s pretty much everything you need to know about how to summarize a research paper. There are two things left: to take a look at the research paper conclusion example from our custom dissertation writing team.

If you liked the sample, you might also be interested in a research proposal example APA . And if you'd rather have experts handle the writing for you, contact us today! We provide writing, editing, and proofreading help to anyone who needs a quick solution to academic stress. Just send us your request and we will write paper asap.

Final Thoughts

Now that you know what is a conclusion in research, you can agree that it requires careful consideration and planning. By following the general rules and tips outlined in this article, researchers can write paper that effectively summarizes the key findings and insights of their research in a logical and rhetorically effective manner.

At EssayPro, we offer a range of writing services to help researchers and students succeed in their academic pursuits. Whether you need help with writing academic research papers, editing, or proofreading, we have the expertise and skills to help you achieve your goals.

So why wait? Contact our professional essay writers today to learn more about our services and how we can help you succeed in your academic and professional endeavors. Let us help you craft an effective research paper conclusion sample that will leave a lasting impression on your readers and elevate the impact of your research.

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Organizing Academic Research Papers: Purpose of Guide

Purpose of guide.

This guide is intended to help you organize and write a quality academic research paper. Also included are recommendations regarding how to manage specific course assignments. Note that, if you have specific questions about how to write a research paper, you should always seek advice from your professor before you begin. Specific requirements stated by your professor will always supersede instructions provided in these general guidelines.

Thanks to Dr. Robert V. Labaree of the Von KleinSmid Center Library for International and Public Affairs, University of Southern California Libraries , for sharing the content of this guide.

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How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: Effective Tips and Strategies

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: Effective Tips and Strategies

Writing a research paper is both deemed an essential and dreaded part of academics. The writing process can actually be a fruitful experience, although many students see it as a daunting task. A research paper has lots of pivotal facets, each calling for knowledge-gathering, understanding the subject, and effort to put the pieces together. However, in this article, we will only pay attention to the conclusion and how to construct one that leaves a lasting impact on the readers.

According to Faryadi (2012), writing a conclusion is as difficult as writing the introduction; meanwhile, Holewa states that writing the conclusion is the hardest part of the writing process. As the last part of a research paper format , the conclusion is the point where the writer has already exhausted his or her intellectual resources. Conclusion, however, is what readers often remember the most and, therefore, must also be the best part of your written research (Holewa, 2004).

Unlike what others may have come to believe, the conclusion is not a mere summarization of an article, an essay, or a research paper. Simply put, the conclusion goes beyond restating the introduction and body of your research. In this article, we walk you through the process of formulating an effective research paper conclusion by understanding its purpose, the strategies you can use, and what you should avoid doing when writing the concluding section of your research paper.

How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper Table of Contents

What is a research paper conclusion, why is conclusion necessary in a research paper, effective strategies in writing a conclusion, what to avoid including in your conclusion, picking the right strategy to use in writing your paper’s conclusion.

The conclusion is the part of the research paper that brings everything together in a logical manner. As the last part of a research paper, a conclusion provides a clear interpretation of the results of your research in a way that stresses the significance of your study. A conclusion must be more extensive and encompassing compared to a particular finding and, in the same vein, various findings may be integrated into a single conclusion (Baron, 2008).

Unlike the introduction where you open a dialogue with your readers about the problem and/or present research questions , arguments, and what knowledge gaps you aim to bridge, the conclusion provides a clear and concise picture of how you are able to accomplish all of these. The conclusion is where you describe the consequences of your arguments by justifying to your readers why your arguments matter (Hamilton College, 2014).

Derntl (2014) also describes conclusion as the counterpart of the introduction. Using the Hourglass Model (Swales, 1993) as a visual reference, Derntl describes conclusion as the part of the research paper that leads the readers from narrow or specific results to broader and more general conclusion.

conclusion of research paper sample

Just like the final chord in a song, a conclusion is necessary to make a research paper complete and well done (CRLS Research Guide, 2018). While your introduction sets the expectations and the body of your research paper presents your methodology and detailed analyses, the conclusion is where you demonstrate the significance of your findings, insights, and observations. The conclusion creates a bigger picture of your research work that helps your readers view the subject of your study as a whole and in a new light.

As the author of your research paper, the conclusion plays an important role in giving you the opportunity to have the final word, create a good impression, and end your paper on a positive note. In order to achieve this, your conclusion must possess the key characteristics of an effective concluding section. And, an effective concluding section is also one of the most important characteristics of good research .

conclusion of research paper sample

In terms of length, the conclusions of professional empirical research articles usually have five to six paragraphs, while student/novice papers typically have two- to three-paragraph conclusions (Powner, 2017).

Your research paper conclusion is the opposite of the introduction not just in placement but also in structure. The introduction generally follows the inverted triangle format with the general statement element on top, narrowing down to the main point of research. The conclusion, on the other hand, follows the inverted introduction structure by opening with the highlights of your research and ending with a general but relevant statement that encourages readers to think, as well as challenges them to take action based on the new pieces of knowledge they have gained from your research paper (Purdue Global Campus, n.d.).

conclusion of research paper sample

Several studies that analyzed how conclusions are framed (see for instance Bunton, 2005 and Lewkowicz, 2012) found that most authors either restate and consolidate a research problem or synthesize the research work. When consolidating the problem, authors either present the solutions, products, or results of a research problem and/or assumptions (Soler-Monreal, C. 2019). Nonetheless, in general, writing an effective conclusion for your research paper can be achieved using any of the following strategies:

Synthesizing instead of summarizing

As mentioned previously, the conclusion is not a summary of your research paper. While a summary can be an element of this section, the conclusion goes beyond simply restating your ideas and analyses. Instead of repeating what you already said in the abstract, introduction, and body of your study, demonstrate to your reader how the essential elements in your research paper coherently fit together (The Writing Center UNC, n.d.).

Echoing the introduction

This approach to writing the conclusion brings your reader to a full circle by using or referring to the same elements you used in your introduction or by drawing parallels. An example of this would be retelling a scenario you described in your introduction, but this time while creating a new understanding of the subject based on the results of your study that further reinforces your arguments and/or hypotheses.

Redirecting the reader

Your conclusion plays the role of being your readers’ bridge back to the real world after welcoming them into your study through your introduction and immersing them in your methodologies, analyses, and results. Redirecting your readers is a way of challenging them to take the information they get from your research study and apply them in real life. This strategy can also be approached by proposing a course of action for further studies or solutions to an existing issue.

Challenging your own conclusion

Also called the “so what” game, this strategy requires challenging your own ideas by asking yourself “So what?” while you are in the process of developing your conclusion. Once you are done putting your conclusion to paper, go through it with someone who will challenge what you wrote (The Writing Center UNC, n.d.). You can ask a friend to read your conclusion with you and have them ask “So what?” after every statement. This strategy can help you find loopholes in your conclusion and refine it in the process.

Addressing limitations

This strategy implores you, the researcher, to identify the weak points in your research paper, which include the aspects where your argument is lacking, or if there are instances where your conclusion might be incorrect. This strategy is useful in writing conclusions for scientific papers as well as experiments (Writing Tutorial Services, Indiana University, n.d.).

Demonstrating ideas to create a new picture or meaning

All relevant data must be interpreted in appropriate depth. Explain how the methodologies or mechanisms used as well as your observations that help arrive at your study’s results. There are times when your study may not yield the results you expected. In cases such as this, explain to your readers why this may have happened. If the results are in line with your expectations, proceed to describe your theory supported by your evidence (Caprette, 1995).

Posing questions

Research studies are motivated by questions. Posing research questions , either to your readers or in general, may help your readers gain a new perspective on the topic, which they may not have held before reading your conclusion. It may also bring your main points together to create or develop a new idea from your research study.

Coming up with an effective conclusion includes avoiding approaches that can hinder you from developing a compelling concluding section of your research paper. Here are some of the strategies to avoid when you are writing your research paper conclusion:

Generic and obvious opening phrases

Do not start your conclusion with generic phrases, such as “In conclusion,” “In summary,” “In closing,” etc. While this may be an effective transition during an oral presentation, it does not work the same way on actual paper where your readers can tell exactly which part of your paper they are reading.

Adding new information

The conclusion part of your research paper should have room for any information relevant to your study but is not referenced anywhere else in your research paper. All significant information should be in the body. Conclusion is not the appropriate section to introduce new information as it is where you are supposed to communicate with your readers the value of your research study.

Long and elaborate discussion

Your research paper’s conclusion must be concise and straightforward. Avoid dwelling on descriptions and interpretations that should have been in the body of your paper, including discussing methodologies and results of your studies in detail. While a brief summary of your study is included in your conclusion, the focus should be more about the insights, evaluations, implications, etc., drawn from your study (Sacred Heart University Library, n.d.).

Apologizing

As you reach the concluding part of your research paper, you may have doubts regarding your research paper. You may question yourself if you have done enough work and may feel compelled to apologize. Do not undermine your authority over your research by expressing doubts regarding your approach and apologizing for not being able to include other methodologies that you may deem to be better than yours. You are aware that you have immersed yourself in your research and have covered all the bases to produce a sound and well-backed research study.

Appealing to your readers’ emotions

Your conclusion, just like the rest of your research paper, is meant to be analytical, not emotional. Avoid making sentimental statements to appeal to your readers’ emotions as this has the tendency to fall out of character with what should be a logical and scientific research study (The Writing Center UNC, n.d.).

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How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

Last Updated: December 11, 2022 References Approved

This article was co-authored by Christopher Taylor, PhD . Christopher Taylor is an Adjunct Assistant Professor of English at Austin Community College in Texas. He received his PhD in English Literature and Medieval Studies from the University of Texas at Austin in 2014. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 41 testimonials and 82% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 2,227,761 times.

The conclusion of a research paper needs to summarize the content and purpose of the paper without seeming too wooden or dry. Every basic conclusion must share several key elements, but there are also several tactics you can play around with to craft a more effective conclusion and several you should avoid to prevent yourself from weakening your paper's conclusion. Here are some writing tips to keep in mind when creating a conclusion for your next research paper.

Sample Conclusions

Writing a basic conclusion.

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Making Your Conclusion as Effective as Possible

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Avoiding Common Pitfalls

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Christopher Taylor, PhD

To write a conclusion for a research paper, start by restating your thesis statement to remind your readers what your main topic is and bring everything full circle. Then, briefly summarize all of the main points you made throughout your paper, which will help remind your readers of everything they learned. You might also want to include a call to action if you think more research or work needs to be done on your topic by writing something like, "Despite efforts to contain the disease, more research is needed to develop antibiotics." Finally, end your conclusion by explaining the broader context of your topic and why your readers should care about it, which will help them understand why your topic is relevant and important. For tips from our Academic co-author, like how to avoid common pitfalls when writing your conclusion, scroll down! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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Academic Phrases for Writing Conclusion Section of a Research Paper

Overview   |   Abstract   |  Introduction  |   Literature Review  |  Materials & Methods  |  Results & Discussion  |  Conclusion & Future Work  |  Acknowledgements & Appendix

A research paper should end with a well-constructed conclusion. The conclusion is somewhat similar to the introduction. You restate your aims and objectives and summarize your main findings and evidence for the reader. You can usually do this in one paragraph with three main key points, and one strong take-home message. You should not present any new arguments in your conclusion. You can raise some open questions and set the scene for the next study. This is a good place to register your thoughts about possible future work. Try to explain to your readers what more could be done? What do you think are the next steps to take? What other questions warrant further investigation? Remember, the conclusion is the last part of the essay that your reader will see, so spend some time writing the conclusion so that you can end on a high note.

 The conclusion section of your research paper should include the following:

1. Overall summary

The paper concludes by arguing __ On this basis, we conclude that __ The authors concluded that __ is not confined to __ This allows the conclusion that __ The findings of this study can be understood as __ This may be considered a promising aspect of __ This may be considered a further validation of __ Remaining issues are subject of __ In summary, this paper argued that __ This aspect of the research suggested that __ In conclusion, __ seems to improve __ In summary, this paper argued that __ In conclusion, it would appear that __ The analysis leads to the following conclusions: __ It is difficult to arrive at any conclusions with regard to __ The main conclusion that can be drawn is that __ The present findings confirm __ As we have argued elsewhere __ may be considered a promising aspect of __ Ideally, these findings should be replicated in a study where __ By using __ we tested the hypothesis that __ In conclusion, __ seems to improve __ Broadly translated our findings indicate that __ This is an important finding in the understanding of the __ More generally, these basic findings are consistent with research showing that __ In addition, these findings provide additional information about __ Despite the limitations these are valuable in light of __ Overall, our results demonstrate a strong effect of __ Nevertheless, we found __ To our knowledge, this is the first report of __ Our results on __ are broadly consistent with __ The broad implication of the present research is that __ This conclusion follows from the fact that __ Collectively, our results appear consistent with __ Importantly, our results provide evidence for __ Results provide a basis for __ This experiment adds to a growing corpus of research showing __ Our data indicate that __; a result that casts a new light on __ These findings provide a potential mechanism for __ We have shown that __ Our data suggest that we still have a long way to go to __

2. Future work

Future research should consider the potential effects of __ more carefully, for example __ This assumption might be addressed in future studies. Future  research on __ might extend the explanations of __ This is very much the key component in future attempts to overcome __ In future work, investigating __ might prove important. This is desirable for future work. Future investigations are necessary to validate the kinds of conclusions that can be drawn from this study. Future studies could fruitfully explore this issue further by __ Future research is needed to delimitate __ It will be important that future research investigate __ It is a question of future research to investigate __ We believe that apart from looking for __, future research should look for __ Regardless, future research could continue to explore __ This is an issue for future research to explore. Future studies could investigate the association between __ Future studies should aim to replicate results in a larger __  Future research should be devoted to the development of __ This may constitute the object of future studies. Future research could examine __ Interesting research questions for future research that can be derived from __ In future research, more research is needed to apply and test __ This is an interesting topic for future work. Future research should further develop and confirm these initial findings by __ Future research should certainly further test whether __ As also recommended above, future research should __ Future research should examine strategically __ Future research might apply __ In addition, __ might prove an important area for future research. A number of recommendations for future research are given. Therefore, future research should be conducted in more realistic settings to __ Further research on __ issue is warranted. Further work is certainly required to disentangle these complexities in __ Looking forward, further attempts could prove quite beneficial to the literature. Further research is needed to confirm this novel finding. These result warrant further investigation via __ This provides a good starting point for discussion and further research. Further studies should investigate __ The possibility of __ warrants further investigation.

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Ksi k pss first five chepter ka conclusion h to plz send urgently Book ranjit Kumar research

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COMMENTS

  1. Writing a Research Paper Conclusion

    The conclusion of a research paper restates the research problem, summarizes your arguments or findings, and discusses the implications.

  2. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    Research paper conclusion example · Restate your research topic. · Restate the thesis. · Summarize the main points. · State the significance or

  3. Conclusion Examples: Strong Endings for Any Paper

    Scientific Paper Conclusion Example ... In this research paper, the author summarizes her main findings while also supporting the conclusions

  4. Conclusion Section for Research Papers

    do and what to avoid when writing a conclusion. This handout also contains two annotated examples--a short one and a longer one--from published articles.

  5. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: Examples & Tips

    Comparative Research Paper Conclusion Example ... Example: Electric cars are proven to be more efficient and effective than gas cars. Not only do

  6. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: Your 2023 Guide

    How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: Your 2023 Guide · Briefly summarize the main findings of the research, including any significant

  7. Organizing Academic Research Papers: 9. The Conclusion

    The conclusion is intended to help the reader understand why your research should matter to them after they have finished reading the paper.

  8. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper: Effective Tips and

    Your research paper's conclusion must be concise and straightforward. Avoid dwelling on descriptions and interpretations that should have been

  9. How to Write a Conclusion for a Research Paper

    For example, you could say something like this before you re-state your thesis in your conclusion: "Patient X was unable to complete the treatment for

  10. Academic Phrases for Writing Conclusion Section of a Research

    A research paper should end with a well-constructed conclusion. The conclusion is somewhat similar to the introduction.