Research Skills Tutorial
- Turning A Topic Into A Research Question
- Getting Background Information About Your Topic
- Portfolio Activity 1
Types of Information Sources
- Scholarly, Popular and Trade Information Sources
- Primary, Secondary and Tertiary Information Sources
- Current and Retrospective Information Sources
- Information Sources for Different Audiences and Purposes
- Portfolio Activity 2
- Library Databases vs. the Web
- Creating a Concept Chart
- Boolean Operators
- Refining Results by Date, Peer Review and Document Type
- Advanced Searching
- Advanced Searching with Descriptors
- Descriptor Chaining
- Citation Chaining (or Reference Mining)
- Searching Outside the SUNY Empire Library
- Searching Google
- Portfolio Activity 3
- Understanding Search Results
- Saving Search Results
- Portfolio Activity 4
- Credible Sources
- What Does the Information Source Tell You About Itself?
- Some More About Validity
- Portfolio Activity 5
- What Is Citing?
- What Is a Citation?
- Citation Styles
- Citing Tools and Tips
- Practice Activity 6
- Practice Activity 7 - Final Project
Information sources are often classified as physical (print, analog) versus online (electronic, digital,) text versus audio-video and book versus journal.
Here are some common information source types with descriptions of how current their information usually is, what kind of information is contained in them, and where to find them.
- Currency : Current within a few months to a few years of publication. Look at the list of references used. What is the most recent date you can find? That should tell you when they stopped researching and started writing. But bear in mind that experimental/observational data they gathered may be a year or two older than that.
- Type of Information : Most recent research within the subject of the journal. Scholarly journal articles are important in all academic subject areas, but especially in the sciences, where most researchers do not write books.
- Where to Find : Print journals are delivered to subscribers and libraries. Some journals are Open Access and make all their content online for free. Some journals allow authors to keep a copy of their articles online in a repository and you can usually find these through Google Scholar. Libraries subscribe to article databases. Those subscriptions make millions of articles available to users at those institutions.
- Currency : News magazine articles should be current within a few days to a few months of publication. But many magazine articles are based on scholarly articles, so their information is not as new.
- Type of Information : Current events and editorials (news magazines). Non-scholarly articles about topics of interest within the subject of the magazine.
- Where to Find : Print magazines are delivered to homes and libraries. Some magazines have an online presence, but access to older articles may require a subscription. Some library databases have full-text articles from magazines.
- Currency : Current within a few minutes to a day of publication. Corrections made after the fact can change content later.
- Type of Information : Current events and editorials.
- Where to Find : Print newspapers are delivered to homes and libraries. Many newspapers have an online presence but access to older articles may require a subscription. Libraries can subscribe to newspaper databases.
Monographs (a.k.a. Scholarly Books)
- Currency : Information may be two or three years old. Just like with journals, look for the most recent date in the bibliography, and that should tell you around when the author(s) were researching and writing. Bear in mind that experimental/observational data the author(s) gathered may be a year or two older than that.
- Type of Information : Scholarly research on a topic. Not as recent as a journal article, but may address a whole subject rather than just a piece of it. Monographs are very important in the humanities.
- Where to Find : Monographs are primarily available through academic libraries. Some are in print, some are e-books. These e-books are not available to consumers, but are generally meant to be read via a web browser or downloaded as a PDF.
- Currency : Varies widely. Books on hot topics may be published within a few weeks but, as a result, they may contain errors. Other books take two or more years to get to print, and the research may be even older.
- Type of Information : Non-scholarly information and opinion.
- Where to Find : Nonfiction books are found in bookstores and mainly public libraries. e-book versions may be available for consumers via Kindle, Nook, iPad, etc. Nonfiction books on academically relevant topics that are of reasonably high quality are also collected by academic libraries. Some of them may be available through academic libraries in formats that are read in web browsers or downloaded as PDF.
- Currency : Print reference resources often have annual updates, so the information in them should be only about a year old. Online reference resources may be updated continuously. Many statistical resources have older data because it takes a long time to organize it all. Historical resources summarize and synthesize established knowledge, rather than keeping up with the newest findings. The important thing is that reference resources usually tell you how old their information is.
- Type of Information : Summary and synthesis of what is known about a topic. Materials to be referred to; for example, facts and figures, dates, names, measurements, statistics, quotations, instructions, equations, formulae, definitions, explanations, charts, graphs, diagrams, maps.
- Where to Find : Traditionally, reference resources are available as books or series of books. They can be purchased by consumers but are often far too expensive. They can be found in the reference sections of public and academic libraries. Not all print reference sources are books; for example, there are also maps. More and more reference resources are available in online format, and as they go online, they become less and less linear, taking advantage of the ability to link and include multimedia. Online reference resources are available through specialized library databases, and there are also many of them on the web. Some are free and some require an individual subscription.
- Currency : Varies widely. Some textbook editors publish a new edition every year, and their information should be current within a year or two of the edition's publication date. Other textbooks in less time-sensitive disciplines may contain information that is more historical in nature.
- Type of Information : Information on a topic arranged in such a way that a beginner can acquire knowledge about that topic systematically. Textbooks are meant to be used as part of taking a course, but are usually written so that they are complete and understandable on their own. Textbooks may have supplemental materials like questions to guide your reading or self-quizzes as well as accompanying multimedia material. Some e-textbooks come with fully integrated multimedia.
- Where to Find : In libraries that have a physical location and physical collection, some textbooks may be in the stacks or held on reserve for short-term loan. Most textbook publishers do not make textbooks available as e-books for libraries. Instead, textbooks, whether print or e-book, must be purchased by the individual student. Some textbooks may also be rented for the duration of the course.
- Unpublished conference papers
- Unpublished theses and dissertations
- Working papers
- Notes and logs kept by researchers
- Academic courseware, professors' teaching notes, students' lecture notes
- Company annual reports
- Project and study reports
- Institutional reports
- Technical reports
- Reports put out by government agencies
- Data and statistics
- Unpublished letters and manuscripts
- Patents, technical standards
- Newsletters, product catalogs, and certain other types of ephemera with a strong informational value
- Preprints of articles
- And much more!
Certain kinds of gray literature can be found in databases. Others are best found by searching the web.
Sometimes it is difficult to ascertain the author or organization responsible for the information, which can make gray literature may be difficult to cite.
What about video? What about the Web? Neither is a source type; video is a format, and the Web is a delivery method. You can find a video format textbook. You can find a scholarly article on the web. It does not necessarily change what kind of information is contained in it, who is responsible for that information, what kind of quality control is behind it, or how current that information is.
Please note: If you need to request accommodations with content linked to on this guide, on the basis of a disability, please contact Accessibility Resources and Services by emailing them at [email protected] Requests for accommodations should be submitted as early as possible to allow for sufficient planning. If you have questions, please visit the Accessibility Resources and Services website https://www.esc.edu/accessibility/
- << Previous: Ch. 2 - Understanding Information Sources
- Next: Scholarly, Popular and Trade Information Sources >>
- Last Updated: Jan 26, 2023 12:19 PM
- URL: https://subjectguides.esc.edu/researchskillstutorial
- Safety & Security
- ITS Service Desk
- Facilities & Maintenance
- College Policies
- Web Accessibility
- Freedom of Information
© 2022 SUNY Empire State College The Torch logo is a trademark of SUNY Empire State College.
Information Literacy Guide: About
- Recognise your info need
- Think about your need
- Read about your topic
- Defining keywords
- Cost of information
- Searching Techniques
- Information Finding Tools and Systems
- Types of Information Sources
- Evaluating Information
- Communicating Information
- Legal & Ethical Use
About this Guide
This Information Literacy guide is designed to teach the most commonly needed information concepts in higher education learning. It is applicable for all levels of information searching and use.
The guide has been adapted specifically for the University of Fort Hare (UFH) community.
IN THIS GUIDE:
What is Information Literacy?
- Determining an Information Need
- Finding Information
- Evaluating Information Sources
- Legal and Ethical Use of Information
Video Tutorial: Information Literacy in a Nutshell
Source : Instructional Services, David L. Rice Library
Information Literacy is a set of abilities requiring individuals to “recognize when information is needed and have the ability to locate, evaluate, and use effectively the needed information.”
Information Literacy forms the basis for lifelong learning. It is common to all disciplines, to all learning environments, and to all levels of education. It enables learners to master content and extend their investigations, become more self-directed, and assume greater control over their own learning.
An information literate person is able to:
- Determine the extent of information needed;
- Access the needed information effectively and efficiently;
- Evaluate information and its sources critically;
- Incorporate selected information into one’s knowledge base;
- Use information effectively to accomplish a specific purpose;
- Understand the economic, legal, and social issues surrounding the use of information, and access and use information ethically and legally.
Source: Information literacy competency standards for higher education. (2000).
This guide will enable students to:
- Demonstrate the ability to analyze and articulate information needs, demonstrate an understanding of query construction techniques.
- Demonstrate the ability to critically evaluate information by being aware of a variety of standard evaluation methods.
- Demonstrate the ability to organize information and be aware of a variety of writing and referencing styles such as Harvard and APA.
- Learners must be aware of the legal and ethical implications of using information, including SA copyright laws and aspects of plagiarism.
After completing this guide, you will be able to:
- define your need for information
- find the correct information
- evaluate the information found
- understand the legal and ethical implications when using information
- communicate the information effectively
- Next: Determining Info Need >>
- Last Updated: Sep 27, 2021 8:50 AM
- URL: https://ufh.za.libguides.com/infolit
- My Library Account
Internet Sources for Research Help Guide
Can i use internet sources, did you know internet history.
- Online Library Resources
- Scholarly Resources
- Government Resources
- Primary Sources
- Critiquing Websites
- Using Google Effectively
Some professors think that internet sources shouldn't be used in research projects. To be sure, a lot of material on the internet is not trustworthy -- a lot of the content is biased or factually incorrect. But there is a lot of valid and useful information available on the internet.
As a researcher and writer, it is your job to be able to tell the difference. To learn more, visit the Critiquing Websites tab.
What we know as the internet began as an internal network for ARPA -- the Advanced Research Projects Agency -- in the early 1960s, during a time of increased military and scientific research, a result of the "space race" between the United States and the then-Soviet Union. (ARPA became the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency .) This internal network, named ARPANET, was a way by which scientists could exchange information electronically between two specified points.
The internet, as we know it, has only been in existence since the 1990s. The "World Wide Web" was introduced by CERN and created by Tim Berners-Lee .
The internet is not managed by a central governing body. Rather it is a global, non-regulated interconnected system. Some technical aspects of the system are managed by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), particularly the creation of unique identifiers, such as URLs (domain names) and internet protocol (IP) numbers.
- Next: Online Library Resources >>
[email protected] 202-274-6120
Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube
Library Research: An Introduction
Types of information sources.
- Developing a Search Strategy
- Searching for Triton Library Books
- Searching I-Share
- Searching Library Databases
- Evaluating Sources
- Citing Sources & Tools
When finished, select "Clear Chat History" at the top of the box.
Chat reference service is available during Library Hours .
If offline, call 708-456-0300 ext. 3215 or email [email protected] .
Introduction & Learning Objectives
Information can come from virtually anywhere — social media, blogs, personal experiences, books, journal and magazine articles, expert opinions, newspapers, and websites — and the type of information you need will change depending on the question you are trying to answer. Different assignments require information from a variety of sources; therefore, you need to understand where to go to find certain types of information.
After reviewing the material in this section, students will be able to:
- Differentiate different types of information sources
- Select a type of source needed for a specific information need based on appropriateness
- Explain the difference between scholarly and popular articles
The Information Timeline
What is an academic journal?
- Include facts, figures, addresses, statistics, definitions, dates, etc.
- Useful for finding factual or statistical information or for a brief overview of a particular topic.
- Examples : dictionaries, encyclopedias, directories
Newspapers (News sources)
- Provides very current information about events, people, or places at the time they are published
- Useful for information on current events or to track the development of a story as it unfolds
- Examples : The Chicago Tribune , The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal , CNN
- Include articles on diverse topics of popular interest and current events
- Articles typically written by journalists or professional writers
- Geared toward the general public
- Examples : Time , Newsweek , National Geographic
Academic Journals (Peer-reviewed or scholarly journals)
- Include articles written by and for specialists/experts in a particular field
- Articles must go through a peer review process before they're accepted for publication
- Articles tend to have a narrower focus and more analysis of the topic than those in other types of publications
- Include cited references or footnotes at the end of research articles
- Examples: Journal of Communication , The Historian , Journal of the American Medical Association
- Cover virtually any topic, fact or fiction
- Useful for the complete background on an issue or an in-depth analysis of a theory or person
- Can take years to publish, so may not always include the most current information
- Examples: The Politics of Gun Control , To Kill a Mockingbird , Hemingway and Faulkner in their Time
- Next: Developing a Search Strategy >>
- Last Updated: Jan 11, 2023 10:44 AM
- URL: https://library.triton.edu/research
Types of Sources and Where to Find Them: Primary Sources
Historians and other scholars classify sources as primary or secondary . This distinction is important because it will affect how you understand these sources. In this first video of a 2-part tutorial, we will discuss primary sources.
Primary sources are most often produced around the time of the events you are studying. They reflect what their creator observed or believed about the event. These sources serve as the raw material that you’ll analyze and synthesize in order to answer your research question, and they will form key pieces of evidence in your paper’s argument. Secondary sources, in contrast, provide an interpretation of the past based on primary sources.
This newspaper article is an example of a primary source. It describes a visit Nixon made to the Soviet Union in 1959. It was written the day after by a journalist who witnessed the event, and it reflects what the journalist and his editors thought their readers would care about at the time. Another example is this pamphlet, which compiles legal testimony from a witch trial. It was published in 1646, the same year as the trial it documents. But, given the nature of the topic, you would probably want to research the pamphlet’s author, John Davenport, to determine the reliability of the transcription or what might have motivated him to publish it.
However, you should be aware that there’s nothing inherent in a source that makes it primary or secondary. Instead, its category depends on how you treat it, which in turn depends on your research question. For example, Black Reconstruction in America , written in 1935 by W.E.B. Du Bois, could be used as a secondary source for research about 19th-century America, since Du Bois draws on a range of government reports, biographies, and existing historical narratives in order to make a claim about the past. However, it could also be used as a primary source for research about Du Bois’s life or black intellectual culture during the 1930s.
One of the main challenges of dealing with primary sources is locating them. Many historical documents have never been published, and they may only be available in archives. For example, here is a page from the expense book of a student enrolled in the University of Illinois in 1930. It is a unique document located in the Student Life and Culture Archive here on campus, and it is only accessible to those who can come to the archive in person. This, on the other hand, is a published primary source: a diary, written in 1912, and first published several decades later. Our copy is in the Main Stacks.
Some of these materials, like letters, were not published at the time of creation, but have been subsequently published in a book, or digitized and made available online. For some topics, historical documents might be difficult to find because they have been lost or were never created in the first place. In other cases, the primary sources might exist, but not in English. Therefore, when you begin to formulate a topic, you will want to think about what kinds of evidence will be available to you.
When thinking about how to find or make sense of primary sources, you should ask yourself three questions:
- When and where was it created?
- Who created it?
- For what purpose or audience was it produced?
Depending on the topic and time period that you are studying, you’ll have to look for different kinds of primary sources. For example, if you are interested in the issue of birth control in 20 th century America, you can expect to find many primary sources, including:
- court cases
- legislative documents
- newspaper articles
- and letters
If you are interested in a topic from a more distant historical time period, such as the status of Jews during the Renaissance, you may have to look harder, but you can still find documents such as:
- and pamphlets
If you’re interested in first-person accounts, you’ll want to take a look at sources like:
- oral histories
- literary works
- or polemical writings
You’ll have to determine if the source is a reliable account, or created with the intention of imposing a particular understanding of an event or situation. Were they created at the time of the events they recount, or were they written many years later? Some sources might make this point of view obvious, whereas others might pretend to be authoritative.
In other cases, you’ll want to think about what kinds of organizations might have created records related to your topic. You might be able to find:
- government reports
- court records
- transactions of an association
- annual reports and financial records
- or reports of non-governmental organizations.
Again, you’ll want to determine the circumstances of the document’s creation. Was it an internal document, created to gather information, or was it intended to persuade others inside or outside the group to take a certain course of action?
Visual material can also provide a powerful window onto the time period you are studying. For instance, maps not only reveal contemporary political boundaries, but also how people thought of them. Other visual sources include:
- travel narratives
- and motion pictures
Keep in mind that primary sources can have multiple meanings. For example, this 1854 map provides evidence about the 1854 London cholera outbreak, but it also reflects a new understanding of how disease spreads and a concern with illness as a social problem.
You can find published primary sources by using the online catalog , or by searching in a digital collection of historical documents, such as the Gerritsen Collection of Women’s History, Chronicling America, and Empire Online. The History Library maintains a list of these collections on its website.
Remember, though, that these databases will not explicitly categorize the items they list as primary and secondary, and may even contain documents that you might want to use as a secondary source, so you’ll have to use your own judgment. For example, you might be interested in this Dictionary of Women’s Employment for the information it contains about wages, or for the attitudes that it conveys about what kinds of jobs are appropriate for women.
You can also find primary sources by consulting published bibliographies, and by looking at the secondary literature on your topic to see what sources other scholars have used in their research.
- Extended University
- UTEP Connect
- August 2019
Long gone are the days of being limited to your college’s library for academic research. With the internet came new ways of searching scholarly acceptable sources—from peer-reviewed articles in online academic journals to eBooks and research databases. Even social media platforms, at one time widely shunned by professors, have become useful research sources.
The downside to the incredible amount of scholarly acceptable sources available within a few clicks is the sheer volume of information out there —it can be daunting to know where to start without a few reliable go-to resources up your sleeve. So that’s exactly what we’ve compiled: four suggestions of solid sources to start your academic research online.
NB: Acceptable academic research sources can vary by professor, so it’s a good idea to check your course syllabus and/or consult your instructor before beginning research to ensure you’re adhering to their policies.
- Google Scholar
There are thousands of academic journals online covering a broad array of disciplines. Google Scholar is a great place to start. You can use this free tool to search peer-reviewed articles in academic journals as well as other sources including books, abstracts and court opinions, professional societies, online repositories, universities, and other web sites. Google Scholar even provides a list of where else in the literature a particular article is cited, which is handy for continuing your research by reading related content. It’s important to note, though, that you’ll only be able to access the articles you find via Google Scholar if they are freely available online. In most cases you’ll be able to read the abstract, but to access the full text you may need a subscription to the respective journal, which may be available via your university’s library but not directly from Google Scholar.
- Data Published by Government Agencies
The U.S. Census Bureau website should be an essential part of your research toolkit. In addition to its primary mission of conducting the U.S. Census every 10 years, the Bureau conducts more than 100 surveys of households and businesses across the country annually. These surveys go far beyond population and demographic information; just a sampling of the areas the Census Bureau collects rich data on include employment, housing, crime, consumer expenditures, and health. The Bureau makes its vast wealth of information publicly available and easy to sort, analyze, and visualize with free tools and apps on its website.
The U.S. Department of Labor’s Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) is another website you’ll want to bookmark and reference often in your research. The BLS website contains dozens of up-to-date maps, tables, databases, and calculators for finding and sorting hundreds of data sets related to consumer pricing, national and regional employment, labor productivity, and working conditions.
Other agencies that compile and publish statistical data valuable for academic research include:
- Bureau of Justice Statistics (crime-related data)
- Bureau of Transportation Statistics (data related to the country’s transportation systems)
- National Center for Science and Engineering Statistics (data on research and development, STEM education, and the science and engineering workforce)
- National Center for Education Statistics (information on the condition of American education)
- U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)’s Office of Policy Development and Research (data related to housing needs, market conditions, and community development issues).
- Research Databases Through Your School Library
University libraries often have subscriptions to research databases such as ProQuest, EBSCO, and LexisNexis Academic. These powerful tools allow students to search and access billions of premium, vetted documents, eBooks, and other resources ranging in topic from news, legal, medical, business, and more—even if these documents would have been behind a paywall if accessed via Google or another search engine. These research databases are extremely useful (and extremely expensive), so be sure to take advantage of free student access through your university library’s subscriptions.
- Social Media
Just 15 years ago, the only ways to source a quote from a subject matter expert was with an in-person interview, a phone call, or an email. But with nearly 3.5 billion people —including world leaders, religious figures, and scientists and scholars at the top of their fields—using social media in 2019, sites like Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram can be great resources to find first-hand quotes as well as news and official statements from organizations and government agencies. Tip: use the advanced search features on these sites to help narrow down the results to only the posts most relevant to your research.
If you’re looking to advance your education with an online degree or certificate, UTEP Connect has the programs aligned with the skills employers value most in 2019. Plus, every UTEP Connect online student has full access to the UTEP Library , which has subscriptions to leading academic journals and databases to make conducting research for coursework easy and efficient. We invite you to explore our online programs and see what it will take to make that next step into your profession. If you are interested in learning more about our team and UTEP Connect’s 100% online undergraduate, master’s, and graduate certificate programs, reach out. An enrollment counselor will contact you directly.
Connect With Us
The University of Texas at El Paso Extended University UTEP Connect Online Programs 500 W University Ave. El Paso, Texas 79968
E: [email protected] P: 1-800-684-UTEP
- Introduction to Academic Research
- East Tennessee State University
- Picking a Topic
- Background Research
- Evaluating Sources
- Primary, Secondary, and Tertiary Sources
- Popular and Scholarly Sources
- Find Articles and Books
- Citing Sources
Video on evaluating websites from ProQuest's Research Companion
Source Evaluation Aid
Use ProQuest's Research Companion's Source evaluation Aid to help you critically evaluate websites, periodicals, or books.
Learn about lateral reading, one of the most effective ways to evaluate web sources. John Green of CrashCourse explains why you should learn to read laterally and exactly how to do so.
You might have discovered since you've come to ETSU that many professors are leery about allowing students to use web sites in research papers. The truth is that the internet contains a lot of information that is not available elsewhere (e. g. the U.S. government publishes almost exclusively to the internet). How do you find appropriate web sites for your college papers?
Here are two suggestions that should help when you use Google:
1. Use Google Scholar . Google Scholar can help you identify the most relevant research including peer-reviewed papers, theses, books, and abstracts and articles from academic publishers, professional societies, preprint repositories, universities and other scholarly organizations.
The easiest ways to find Google Scholar is to google "Scholar" or type the URL, "https://scholar.google.com/" into either the search or address box.
You can make this search more powerful by setting a library link for ETSU. Click on Settings (located in the upper right corner of the page). The library links button is located on the left side of the page under the language link. We recommend that you set a language limit to English unless you can read other languages.
2. Use domain searching. Not all domains are created equal (the domain is the part of the URL that comes after the dot). The three domains that would be most useful for your searches will be:
.gov (government sites. These sites include local, state, and federal government sites for the United States.) .edu (educational sites. This domain includes mostly colleges and universities.) .org (noncommercial sites. This domain includes nonprofit and nongovernmental organizations, philanthropies, charities, religious organizations, educational and cultural institutions, arts organizations, and sports clubs.)
To search within a domain, type in your keyword(s) followed by site:.gov (or .edu or .org). Do not leave a space between the colon and the dot. Example: racial profiling site:.gov
- << Previous: Find Articles and Books
- Next: Citing Sources >>
- Last Updated: Jan 27, 2023 2:58 PM
- URL: https://libraries.etsu.edu/research/intro
- University of Wisconsin–Madison
- University of Wisconsin-Madison
- Research Guides
- iSchool Library
- Tools for Research in Library & Information Studies
Tools for Research in Library & Information Studies : Home
- Library Catalog
- Library Literature & Information Science Full Text
- Library, Information Science & Technology Abstracts
- Library and Information Science Abstracts
- Digital Repositories
- Other LIS Resources
- Citing Sources
About this guide
Many tools are available for conducting research specific to Library & Information Studies topics. Becoming familiar with these tools can be a decisive factor for successfully learning and contributing to the field.
This guide provides a general orientation to LIS specific resources. Many of these resources are licensed through UW-Madison, but some are available regardless of institutional affiliation.
General searching tips
1. Identify the sources you should be searching.
Before you begin research on a topic, take time to determine where to best start looking. Planning can save you an immense amount of effort.
For instance, suppose you are interested in finding out how to format the title field in a catalog record. Your goal is to successfully upload an original cataloging record to WorldCat. Given that, you would likely want to start your research by looking through the WorldCat help files. Even if they don't provide the answer you're looking for, they might provide references to helpful resources.
If you're unsuccessful by searching the WorldCat help files, you might use the catalog to locate an official MARC manual since you know that WorldCat records are written with MARC formatting. Begin searches by questioning if you are starting with the most helpful resources.
2. Narrow your search strategies based on the information you know.
Most scholarly databases and search engines allow you to narrow keyword searching to specific parts of records. A clear example is to narrow by author or title if you know this information. Most resources also allow searching subject headings or descriptors, too.
Some resources allow other types of searching. For example, the catalog allows keyword searching by call number, ISBN, or ISSN. If you know any of that information, you can devise more effective search strategies by narrowing which fields you search.
Learn about the advantages of any database you use before you start searching and you be a more efficient searcher.
3. Combine keyword searching with controlled vocabularies, subject headings, and descriptors.
Most resources use controlled vocabularies, also referred to as subject headings or descriptors, to provide access to materials. Controlled vocabularies are often helpful for finding materials that belong to a genre. By limiting keyword searching to a few terms from a controlled vocabulary, you can conduct more fine-grained searches.
4. Other useful search tips:
- Use AND, OR, and NOT to conduct more powerful searches. Some resources also allow proximity terms like NEAR that will search for terms within several words of each other.
- Use wildcard symbols to broaden searches. For example, to search for all resources about yachts, you may keyword search for yach*, which would find all resources that include words like yachts and yachting. Common wildcards are "?" and "*."
- Avoid searching for common words like "information" or "book."
- When in doubt, read the help files for the specific resource you are search.
UW-Madison Libraries resources
- UW-Madison Libraries Website UW-Madison Libraries website and library catalog.
- UW-Madison Libraries Research Guides The complete collection of UW-Madison Research Guides maintained by the General Library System.
- UW-Madison LIS Research Guides LIS research guides available from UW-Madison maintained by the iSchool Library and GLS librarians.
- UW-Madison Library Research Tutorials
- Next: Library Catalog >>
- Last Updated: Jul 6, 2022 9:30 AM
- URL: https://researchguides.library.wisc.edu/lisresearchguide
- IT Statistics
Internet data repositories as accessible educational resources
Students’ education in recent years has increasingly moved to the online education format. The need to expand the number of sources of obtaining information has become increasingly urgent. And here the following fact can help. In today’s world, the government agencies and research groups make their research data available online. All of them refer to a wide variety of topics and areas.
In this way, college students get the opportunity to work with real statements. They far exceed the number of those few measurements, which are collected during their laboratory courses in the usual way. These can be data about the environment. For example, it’s pollution, as well as data from various experiments. Also there was a rapid growth of software, various professional applications, and tools. They help college students to further understand various statistical principles and online statistics. On the one hand, it seems that all of the above facilitates the online learning process.
On the other hand, among all this variety of online data repositories, students are even more in need of qualified online help. These can be various online services. Among them you can easily get lost while looking for qualified specialists. In order not to worry about the final successful result, AssignmentBro is ready to help. Here the top writers will provide students with qualified online help on a wide range of various topics. The topics of the student’s papers can be very diverse, just like the research that will reach the scientific level. Besides all mentioned above, there is a huge database of online information. It is a vast database infrastructure, which is divided into separate types. And each of them is a comprehensive online repository of various studies and facts kept from these studies.
Among them, there are the following ones. A data lake, data warehouse, data mart, metadata repositories, data cube and etc. The data lake is a unified repository. It allows you to store structured, unstructured, or semi-structured corporate data of any scale. This information can be used for various tasks. These are advanced analytics, reporting, or visualization. The warehouse is basically a large central data repository. It contains information and statistic from different business segments and sources. Typically, those records are used for various analyzes to help users make important business decisions.
The data mart often acts as a separate section of the data warehouse. It contains information and facts usually related to marketing and finance. The above types of online data repositories can be used as educational resources. By students of finance and economics faculties during their online education. Along with that, these students often need qualified help with online finance assignment writing . Metadata repositories usually describe where the source of the data is, how it was collected, and what it means. For businesses, those repositories are important too. They help to understand the changes that have occurred. Due to the fact they contain detailed information about the specifics. Data cubes are lists of background with three or more dimensions that are stored as a table. They are used to describe the temporal sequence of image data. They also help to evaluate the collected particulars from the different perspectives.
Considering all the above, we can conclude the following. The online data repositories are a huge system of online information and fact collection services. It is a wide variety of fields and activities. Among the different tools that students currently use in their educational processes , online data repositories deserve special attention. After all, when writing a college paper on a certain topic, students who use online info repositories not only find the information they need. They also learn to find, select different volumes of facts and then analyze them. In this way, they improve and refine their research skills. They also learn to systematize and analyze large amounts of information.
Carla Davis enjoys writing essays about college students and their online educational process. She also conducts research on topics related to the influence of various factors on student success. Non-trivial systems and methods for online student learning are among her favorite topics. And such are the results that can be achieved in this way.
LEAVE A REPLY
Log in to leave a comment
Intel releases software platform for quantum computing developers
Thoma Bravo buys Coupa Software for $8 bn
Telehealth startup Cerebral to lay off 15% of workforce
Most helpful apps for students
5 reasons students need technology in the classroom
Be sure to subscribe to our daily newsletter if you want more Information Technology news!
- Contact a Librarian
- Databases A-Z
- Guides by Subject
- Resources by Type
- Find Books & Articles
- Government Information
- Iowa Digital Library
- Iowa Research Online
- Special Collections & University Archives
- Iowa Women's Archives
- Course Reserves
- Office Delivery
- Borrowing From Another Library & Document Delivery
- Undergraduate Research Services (The SEAM)
- Research Consultations
- Instructional Services
- Research Data Services
- Open Educational Resources
- Distance Education
- Scholarly Publishing & Copyright
- More services...
- Check My Account
- Renew My Books
- My Interlibrary Loan
- Recommend Library Purchase
- EndNote Basic
- Collection Management
- Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion
- Publications, Plans & Reports
- Make a Gift
- History of the Library
- For the Media
- Research Guides & Tutorials
- Directions & Maps
- Assistance for Users with Disabilities
- All Campus Libraries
- Learning Commons
- Main Library Gallery
- Art Library
- Business Library
- Engineering Library
- Health Sciences Library
- Law Library
- Music Library
- Sciences Library
- Contact a Librarian or the UI Libraries
- Staff directory by name
- Staff directory by organizational unit
- Campus Libraries
Gathering Background Information: Search Online Reference Sources
- Search Online Reference Sources
- Discover Print Reference Sources
- Plan Your Search
Using wikipedia or google is a good thing, your first instinct for quick information is to do an online search using google or wikipedia. that is a perfect way to get started the only way to begin your research is to start seeking out information and freely available resources, like google and wikipedia is the easiest way to begin., the benefits of wikipedia:, we all use wikipedia, even professors and librarians. it's the largest online general reference resource and covers an impressive breadth of general information. , since wikipedia was founded in 2001, it has greatly improved its standards for creating and editing pages. there are now content policies and guidelines in place., everyone must have a registered account to create and edit pages and follow wikipedia's extensive content policies ., volunteer editors and administrators are quick to remove or take down any misleading or incorrect content., wikipedia pages also contain solid references and footnotes citing where the content creator got their information, which makes it easy for people to find potential sources for a research topic., watch the video below to learn more about wikipedia and how to use it effectively. , benefits of using library reference sources, now that you've learned a little bit about the benefits of using wikipedia, becoming familiar and using resources here at the ui libraries should be your next step. at the libraries, we have many reference tools and resources both in print and online. on this page you'll find several online resources, like online news collections and and reference databases like cq researcher or gale opposing viewpoints. , just as there are benefits of using wikipedia, there are benefits of using library resources., first, using the resources and tools the library owns and pays for is a smart use of your money as college students, staff, and faculty. , second, using library tools helps you learn college level research skills and makes you a more savvy researcher, overall. not to mention, using library databases gives you unlimited access to highly credible, peer-reviewed, scholarly literature you will not find on the internet. , using newspapers for background research.
You can find a wealth of information on just about any topic using online and print newspapers. The University of Iowa Libraries has access to more than hundreds of newspapers, available through our subscriptions. Many of these we have available online.
Online News Databases
- Ethnic News Watch Ethnic NewsWatch is an interdisciplinary, bilingual (English and Spanish) and comprehensive full text database of the newspapers, magazines and journals of the ethnic, minority and native press.
- FAIR: Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting FAIR, the national media watch group, offers criticism of media bias and censorship.
- Foreign Broadcast Information Services (FBIS) Daily Reports, 1941-1996 The United States' principal record of political and historical open source intelligence, FBIS is an index foreign media reports covering political, economic, scientific, and cultural issues and events throughout the world. FBIS includes full-text English-language and English-language translations of radio and television broadcasts, news agency transmissions, newspapers, periodicals, and government statements.
- Local News Index Local News Index, produced by the Iowa City Public Library, provides indexing for local newspapers and magazines including the Press Citizen, Daily Iowan, Little Village, Icon, Iowa City Magazine and Gazette and portions of the Cedar Rapids Gazette.
- Newslink An index of all known online national, state, international, and campus newspapers.
- Roll Call "The Newspaper of Capitol Hill," Roll Call since 1996 has offered this companion Web edition to the newsprint version. A source for Congressional news and information, it posts leading stories, editorials, election news, commentary, cartoons, etc.
- Television News Archive Searchable archive of abstracts of news broadcasts from 1968 to present (ABC, CBS, NBC), 1995 to present (CNN), selected content from PBS and FOX News. Video content from CNN viewable with RealOne media player. more... less... Descriptive summaries of the Vanderbilt University collection of network television news programs and other news-related programming collected in its archive since August 5, 1968. Loan copies of videotapes in 3/4 inch U-matic and 1/2 inch VHS format are available for a fee from the Archive.
- American Antiquarian Society Collection of books, pamphlets, broadsides, newspapers, periodicals, music, and graphic arts material printed through 1876 in what is now the United States, as well as manuscripts and a substantial collection of secondary texts, bibliographies, and digital resources and reference works related to all aspects of American history and culture before the twentieth century.
- The Annals of Iowa Includes articles on Iowa history and on subjects concerning the nation and the Midwest with an Iowa focus, including state, local, and regional studies of political, economic, social, cultural, intellectual, institutional, ethnic, religious, material culture, archeological, and architectural history.
- Archive Finder Archive Finder is a current directory which describes over 220,000 collections of primary source material housed in thousands of repositories across the United States, the United Kingdom and Ireland.
The Proquest Historical Newspapers offer full page and article images with searchable full text back to the first issue. Each newspaper collection includes digital reproductions providing access to every page from every available issue.
Users can cross-search titles.
- Detroit Free Press 1831-1999 (Proquest Historical Newspapers) This link opens in a new window
- ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Iowa Collection This link opens in a new window Includes the Des Moines Register (1871-2008) and the Iowa City Press-Citizen (1965-2008).
- Minneapolis Star Tribune (Proquest Historical Newspapers) This link opens in a new window This historical newspaper provides genealogists, researchers and scholars with online, easily-searchable first-hand accounts and unparalleled coverage of the politics, society and events of the time. Coverage: 1867 - 2001
- St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 1874-2003 (Proquest Historical newspapers) This link opens in a new window
Search Reference Sources
Search some of the Libraries' Reference Resources
Some topics will work better than others in these resources.
Top 5 Online Reference Resources besides Wikipedia
Written by experienced journalists, footnoted and professionally fact-checked. CQ Researcher provides in-depth coverage of the most important issues of the day.
Multi-part database of the online versions of seminal Oxford University Press texts. Each topical division contains the searchable version of the latest edition of published dictionaries and encyclopedias.
Gale eBooks, AKA Gale Virtual Reference Library is a database of encyclopedias and specialized reference sources for multidisciplinary research.
An online collection of reference books covering the social sciences and education, including African American Studies, Aging & Gerontology, Anthropology, Communication and Media Studies, Criminology and Criminal Justice, Economics, Education, Gender & Sexuality Studies, History, Politics, Psychology, Social Issues, Social Work & Social Policy, and Sociology.
Gale Opposing Viewpoints
Opposing Viewpoints in Context offers an engaging online experience for those seeking contextual information and opinions on hundreds of today's hottest social issues. Drawing on the acclaimed Greenhaven Press series, Opposing Viewpoints in Context features continuously updated viewpoints, topic overviews, full-text magazines, academic journals, news articles, primary source documents, statistics, images, videos, audio files and links to vetted websites organized into a user-friendly portal experience
- Next: Discover Print Reference Sources >>
- Last Updated: Feb 22, 2023 7:16 PM
- URL: https://guides.lib.uiowa.edu/reference
Some journals allow authors to keep a copy of their articles online in a repository and you can usually find these through Google Scholar.
In this Section · Books · Encyclopedias · Magazines · Databases · Newspapers · Library Catalog · Internet
These materials include electronic books, article databases, and electronic journals. Electronic books and journals provide exactly the same information as
Information can come from virtually anywhere — social media, blogs, personal experiences, books, journal and magazine articles
For example, Black Reconstruction in America, written in 1935 by W.E.B. Du Bois, could be used as a secondary source for research about 19th-century America
It's important to note, though, that you'll only be able to access the articles you find via Google Scholar if they are freely available online. In most cases
These sites include local, state, and federal government sites for the United States.) .edu (educational sites. This domain includes mostly
A digital repository is a collection of online resources. ... of mostly North American sources about library and information science.
The need to expand the number of sources of obtaining information has ... And each of them is a comprehensive online repository of various
The University of Iowa Libraries has access to more than hundreds of newspapers, available through our subscriptions. Many of these we have available online.