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Thesis Statement Of Reading Newspaper
In 1899, a large number of New York newsboys’ took a stand against two powerful newspaper publishers and their unfair costs for newspapers. This youth-led campaign has become known as The Newsboys’ Strike of 1899. Due to this stand in history, future strikes were inspired and attention was drawn to the harsh practice of child labor. “Extra! Extra! Read all about it!” It is 1899; the voices of newsboys fill the New York City streets. Since newspapers were the only type of media, the demand for them was high as they were the only way to receive information on the hot topic at the time: the Spanish-American war. The Spanish-American war began in 1898 and everyone wanted to know what was happening with the war. The demand of newspapers caused a
The Role Of Newspapers In Colonial Times
Newspapers in the colonial times of America were the biggest way of communication throughout the colonies. A newspaper is a serial publication containing news, other informative articles, and usually advertisements. They are relatively inexpensive, both to print and/or purchase, and provide a lot of useful information to people that otherwise, would have remained clueless about what was happening outside their town. “Hand-written newsletters” had been around much longer than what we would call “newspapers”, although after the invention of the printing press, newspapers were less often handwritten.
What Is Thoreau's View Of Communication Technology
In Henry David Thoreau’s Walden, Thoreau talks about his opinions on communications technology at the time and how he does not believe that it is good for people. Throughout the entire reading Thoreau talks about how people need to keep simple and how communications technologies are no exception to him. However, communications technologies of the times were steps forward in connecting people in ways that would not be possible otherwise.
Samuel Morse: The Invention Of The Telegraph
In the early 1800’s, print news coverage was extremely slow. Papers mostly stuck to reporting on local stories. Foreign news was rare, and usually weeks old. Newspapers would copy news from one other to fill up their papers with stories. However, in the 1820’s the Journal of Commerce and Courier and Enquirer in New York City began to compete for business, and the race was on for speedy news updates. All sorts of means were used to collect news stories from across the states, such as the Pony Express, where wiry young many relay-raced horses across the wild west to deliver mail (Encyclopedia.com), carrier pigeon, express trains, and sephamore systems. The telegraph put an end to all of these means, and was a complete game
The Enlightenment Research Paper
The Printing press made its first debut in the 15th century, which helped spread ideas throughout European cities. Print culture during the enlightenment used text and visual communication to spread word about the movement to the English colonies. The rise of literacy increased within British American colonies. Literacy was regular for most men than women. Books, pamphlets, and newspapers were published and distributed. The first newspaper was made in Boston in 1690 and was called the “Publick Occurrences”. About 70 year later every city had their own weekly newspaper. By the mid-1700s, as the colonies multiplied in size the newspaper began to publish alliterations between colonist and the growth of the city. One of the main books was the Bible, the other was the almanac. The almanac was mainly used by farmers to predict the weather for the upcoming season. This allowed farmers to plan ahead. The most successful was Benjamin Franklin’s, “Poor Richard’s Almanac” The name came from a pen name, Richard
Essay On Early 1900s Technology
The reporters in the early 1900s had to be very detailed and descriptive in order for people to know what they were talking about. Today, we have televisions that broadcast all of the news stories. Many Americans sit in front of the TV every day for entertainment. Now we have everything we need right around us. The TV has a major impact on our society.
Essay On Media Bias
When thinking of the media you think they are reporting the appropriate and accurate information not based on any personal opinions and feelings. Also one would not think the media would be reporting based on one side of politics or the other. The media is extremely biased when it comes to politics and news. While some of the media is conservative-biased I believe the mass media is liberal-biased. Majority of media outlets are liberal companies, media personnel and journalists will identify themselves as democrats and liberals more so than republicans or conservatives and lastly the left side (liberals) of the mass media is persuasive on what information to report.
Argumentative Essay On Media Bias
Bias is defined as being prejudice in favor of or against one thing, person, or group compared with another, usually in a way considered to be unfair. Americans experience some sort of bias every day, however, media bias is likely the most prevalent. Media can be biased towards liberals, conservatives, or any other political leaning. According to University of Oklahoma Professor, Keith Gaddie, the mainstream media mostly suffers from liberal bias - which is usually hostile toward conservative candidates and causes. Media bias can misinform, exaggerate truths, and cause confusion during voting season.
History Of False Advertising
Magazine advertising began in June 1826 when a French newspaper was the first ever to put paid advertisement on Its pages. At the beginning of the 19th-century ads in magazines weren’t as much as popular as now because paid advertisements back then had a special tax. But shortly the invention of the rotary press, the number of magazines who increased their pages with advertisements encouraging the buyer of their product are so many. At that time, magazines just became available to the middle-class people, not just the rich ones. Therefore, magazines sales increased so much and a lot of copies are made. That marked the beginning of magazines developments as its becoming one of the leading media in the world all because they started putting ads
Walter Ong Orality And Literacy Analysis
A large portion of Walter Ong’s writings in Orality and Literacy focused on matters that were not quantifiable. It may seem unfair to fault the author because of the uncertain records of pre-writing civilizations, but Ong’s writing’s in chapter three of his book focused on a comparison between generalized points of oral and literate cultures, which created an argument that did not acknowledge basic trends evident in contemporary writing. It is important to note that Ong published his book in the 1980’s, but Ong’s claims neglected a historical analysis that traces back to the use and development of tools like clay tokens, let alone modern technological advancements. Specifically, through Ong’s claim that “by contrast with literate societies,
Media Thesis Statement
Thesis Statement: Social media is not a reliable source of news because of its vulnerability to fake information, lack of validation, and the journalists’ inclusion of biases.
Speech On Importance Of Reading
Everyone knows that reading is important, but have you ever asked yourself why is that so? Reading is one of the most beneficial and practical activities that a human being can do. Unfortunately it is a disappointment that people these days read less. As we know, books were the main source of entertainment centuries ago, but with the widespread of technological advances such as the cinema, television, internet, among others, many people left their books on the bookshelf. The purpose of this speech is to present the benefits and the importance of reading. The reasons are that it is through reading that a person is going to be able to discover new ideas, concepts, meet new places and people that time, money or reality sometimes prohibited. It develops your communication tools and expands you knowledge and the conception around you.
Evolution Of Mass Media Essay
It has come to our attention that media is changing since its origin. In mid last century newspaper and magazine were the principle source of mass communications. Later the radio provided another source to achieve the majority. Individuals frequently tuned in to get records of what is happening in the world, getting to know the current trends. Newspapers were still sought after and still utilized frequently. After that TV turned into a fundamental source of assets for the mass communications. The TV was a mix of the radio and the newspaper and individuals were interested in it. In 1962, the dispatch of a satellite offered access to overall news.
The Internet: The Importance Of The Internet
“Media has become as necessary as food and clothing. Media is a mirror of the modern society; in fact, it is the media which forms our lives. The principle of the media is to let people know about modern, new relationships and to tell about the most modern discussion and fashion. The media still very backward behind other economic sectors because international communication is closely bound up with culture, language and tradition” (Karachi, M.(n.d). Media has many important types we already use in our daily life such as the internet and TV also radio and print media like newspaper and magazine. Nowadays the social media is the main part of humanity life; humans use the media in many ways at home, at work also in college and at school. It’s like a shadow of humansthat all the time uses it. The media the that interests audiences. I think the media is an important thing actually now we cannot live without it, because we need it every time.
Uses And Gratification Theory: Literature Review And Critical Theory
Newspaper firms have started to search for online delivery channels so as to retain the young readers. As a result, they have transferred a considerable amount of their delivery channels from print to online format. Most of the media firms have started to implement a 360-degree strategy that integrates content decisions “shaped by the potential to generate consumer value and returns through multiple platforms of expression of that content via a number of distribution outlets” (Doyle, 2010).
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Thesis Statement Newspaper Project. A thesis statement: Tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
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Presentation on theme: "Thesis Statement Newspaper Project. A thesis statement: Tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion."— Presentation transcript:
Research Paper Thesis Statement
is a fancy term for a one sentence summary that describes the main purpose or point of your paper. is a fancy term for a one sentence summary that describes.
How to Write a Great Essay The easy way…. Step 1 Read the prompt Reread to the prompt to make sure you understand the question Use the A-B-C strategy.
Thesis Statements. What is a Thesis Statement? it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper. directly answers the question asked of you.
Thesis Statements 1.Subject – your topic 2.Opinion – your argument 3.Blueprint of Reason – how you plan to argue/prove your opinion.
Developing Your Thesis Statement
The Thesis Statement APUSH. What is it? Provides an answer to all parts of the question Sets forth a central arguable position in response to question;
Thesis Statement ► What is a thesis statement? tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion. is.
TOPIC RESEARCH THESIS. It tells the reader how you will interpret the subject It tells the reader what to expect. It directly answers the question.
Subject + opinion= thesis. Tells the reader how you will interpret the subject in discussion A road map for the paper; tells the reader what to expect.
SURVEY OF LITERATURE. tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion. is a road map for the paper;
Introduction Thesis Analysis. tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion directly answers the question.
Topic + Opinion = Thesis Statement
Crafting Thesis Statements and Utilizing Topic Sentences UWC Writing Workshop Spring 2014.
Thesis Statements (Or as I like to say, “What’s your point?”)
is a fancy term for a one sentence summary of what the main purpose or point of your paper. is a fancy term for a one sentence summary of what the main.
Thesis Statements What is a thesis statement? How do thesis statements work in your writing? How can you discover or refine one for your draft? This presentation.
Duane Theobald Something to Consider… Have you seen something like this before? Does it make sense?
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Tips and Examples for Writing Thesis Statements
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This resource provides tips for creating a thesis statement and examples of different types of thesis statements.
Tips for Writing Your Thesis Statement
1. Determine what kind of paper you are writing:
- An analytical paper breaks down an issue or an idea into its component parts, evaluates the issue or idea, and presents this breakdown and evaluation to the audience.
- An expository (explanatory) paper explains something to the audience.
- An argumentative paper makes a claim about a topic and justifies this claim with specific evidence. The claim could be an opinion, a policy proposal, an evaluation, a cause-and-effect statement, or an interpretation. The goal of the argumentative paper is to convince the audience that the claim is true based on the evidence provided.
If you are writing a text that does not fall under these three categories (e.g., a narrative), a thesis statement somewhere in the first paragraph could still be helpful to your reader.
2. Your thesis statement should be specific—it should cover only what you will discuss in your paper and should be supported with specific evidence.
3. The thesis statement usually appears at the end of the first paragraph of a paper.
4. Your topic may change as you write, so you may need to revise your thesis statement to reflect exactly what you have discussed in the paper.
Thesis Statement Examples
Example of an analytical thesis statement:
The paper that follows should:
- Explain the analysis of the college admission process
- Explain the challenge facing admissions counselors
Example of an expository (explanatory) thesis statement:
- Explain how students spend their time studying, attending class, and socializing with peers
Example of an argumentative thesis statement:
- Present an argument and give evidence to support the claim that students should pursue community projects before entering college
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How to Make a Strong Thesis Statement
We've all been there: up into the late hours of the night, struggling through writing a paper that you are completely unsure about (that just so happens to be due tomorrow). Your paper seems to meander and not make sense and you are frustrated. Most often when we struggle with a paper it's because our thesis statements aren't in order.
Think of your paper's thesis statement like a coverline on the front of a magazine. Though the story inside may be hundreds or even thousands of words long, the coverline on the front details what the story is about in just a few succinct, compelling words. The coverline will give you an argument as to why you should pick the magazine up from the rack and put it on the conveyor belt along with your other groceries. The same goes for your paper's thesis statement. Its purpose in your paper is to make an argument about your topic in a way that pieces and organizes all of your evidence together. The thesis statement should keep the reader engaged and make them want to read more.
Most importantly, the thesis statement should perfectly sum up what the rest of the paper is saying. Have you ever seen a really good movie trailer and then been extremely disappointed by the movie itself because it wasn't what the trailer portrayed it to be? Think about that as you write a thesis statement to go in your paper. You want your thesis statement to be compelling, but you also want your thesis to be backed up with evidence in the body of the paper so that the reader doesn't feel duped at the end.
So, you know that a thesis statement is important and central to your paper, but how do you go about writing an effective one? Here are a few examples of what to do (and what not to do) when writing your thesis statement.
The thesis should go at the beginning of the paper
Because the thesis is so central and integral to how the rest of your paper reads, it should go in the first paragraph (or at least one of the first few paragraphs) in the paper. Much like a lede sentence in a newspaper article, the thesis tells the reader what the rest of the article is about and clues them into what they can expect the rest of the way. If the thesis were to go anywhere but the beginning, this would be confusing to your audience as they wouldn't know the point of why they were reading in the first place.
Make your thesis give direction to the rest of your paper
All thesis statements make arguments about your topic, but good thesis statements give direction to how the rest of the paper will be shaped. In order to accomplish this, your thesis should lend itself to several reasons that elaborate on your claim. For example, the thesis "College athletes should be paid," while certainly an argument, isn't effective because it lacks a sense of structure. This argument doesn't naturally lend itself to body paragraphs. However, if you wrote your thesis as, "College athletes deserve compensation because it is the ethical and moral thing to do," then you have two potential reasons that support your claims, thus giving shape to the rest of the paper.
Because you have added in a claim to your argument, you can now spend several paragraphs discussing (with your evidence to back it up) things such as the time college athletes devote to their sport and then several paragraphs on how many collegiate athletes come from poverty and how difficult it is for them to make it. With these claims it will be much easier for you to figure out how to structure your paper effectively.
Make sure your argument is debatable
Though it's good to question everything that you learn with a bit of healthy skepticism, there are certain truths that we as a public already know. For example, everyone knows that rent is high in New York City . This statement is unequivocal and therefore it would not be interesting to write a thesis statement that simply said, "New York City's rents are among the highest in the world." This isn't something that can be argued for or against—it is simply a fact that most people know.
The moment your fact becomes an actual thesis statement is when you add the argument to it. You could take your fact: "New York City's rents are among the highest in the world" and then add the argument, "and should be rent controlled in order to preserve the multi-cultural and unique identity that it has historically had."
Only when you add the argument does it really become a thesis statement (and also becomes something that your audience would likely want to read on about).
Smaller is better when it comes to thesis statements
Papers are often more focused when the argument you are trying to make is smaller. If your argument is overly broad (think something like, "child care should be more affordable in the United States"), then your paper will most likely be meandering and lack a sense of direction. With a topic so large, there is too much information to cover effectively in such a short amount of time and space. When you make the argument smaller and localize it (something like "Childcare should be publicly subsidized in California"), then it's easier to zero in on facts and provide evidence to your audience.
Ensure that your thesis statement actually answers the research question
Sometimes you may be so busy researching and making sure that your thesis statement is effective that you may forget to check if the paper is actually responding correctly to the paper prompt. For example, if your teacher asked you to write an essay on Atticus Finch's parenting style in To Kill a Mockingbird , then writing your paper and your thesis statement on how Boo Radley is the mockingbird won't be answering the question. Even if the essay and thesis statement are strong, the paper won't be addressing the issue your teacher wanted you to explore.
Your thesis will emerge from the writing process (particularly from revisions)
Many novice writers think that your thesis statement should come out fully formed when they first start typing. What really happens is that you have a loose idea of an argument when you first start and the more you read and write on your subject, the clearer your argument will become. The thesis statement will really take shape, however, when you are in the thick of the writing process. As you revise, trim, rearrange, and add your paragraphs, your thesis statement will have more clarity. Remember, your thesis statement should be a succinct summary of what your body of evidence is saying.
Nuance is okay
In an academic argument it's not necessarily about earth shattering revelations as much as it is approaching a question in a new way or coming to a new insight of a particular problem. For example, instead of a thesis that claims to solve world peace, a thesis on what you can do to make your local community a better place can be much more powerful. Don't feel like you have to solve all of the world's problems in your paper. A good argument doesn't solve major problems; it looks at problems under a new light. Good research is done in small increments and often looking at things under a microscope rather than making grand pronouncements.
Thesis statement examples
The following are a few examples of weak thesis statements versus effective and strong thesis statements on well-known paper topics. Use these example thesis statements as a guide to help you think about how you should structure your argument for your particular topic. (Note that these essay topics are for example and are very general and should not be copied for the purposes of your essay.)
Topic 1: Climate Change
What not to do: Climate change is man-made.
How to fix it: Due to the harrowing statistics of climate change, communities should lead the way in diminishing the effects of global warming by investing more in recycling, public transportation and/or carpooling, and promoting the use of clean energy.
Why we fixed it: The first thesis statement definitely gives an argument, but doesn't provide any context or evidence on why the author has come to this conclusion. The first statement is also very broad; the topic is too large and would easily get off track in the body of the paper. The second statement has been narrowed down significantly. It provides solutions and gives the writer a loose structure to follow in the rest of the paper.
Topic 2: The Great Gatsby
What not to do: F. Scott Fitzgerald has a negative view of the American Dream.
How to fix it: Jay Gatsby's quick rise in social stature and economic status and his ultimate undoing by the "old money" crowd in F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby represents the author's skeptical and pessimistic view of the so-called American Dream.
Why we fixed it: Though this first statement is an argument that is debatable, it doesn't really give us any context or claims as to how F. Scott Fitzgerald shows us this in his writing. In the second thesis statement, we can clearly see how the writer came to this conclusion about Fitzgerald's opinion through concrete evidence. We can also see how the writer will be able to organize the rest of the paragraphs and discuss Gatsby's social stature, economic status, and the conflict between new and old money.
Topic 3: To Kill a Mockingbird
What not to do: Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird tells us exactly how to fix racism.
How to fix it: Tom Robinson's unfair conviction and death in Harper Lee's To Kill a Mockingbird sheds light on the role of systemic racism in the American justice system.
Why we fixed it: This statement reveals something interesting and sheds new light on a problem. The first thesis statement makes a very grand and overarching claim that can't possibly be supported by evidence. Again, it's always best to narrow down your argument and remember that you don't need to solve all of the world's problems in your paper.
Topic 4: Obesity in American Children in the South
What not to do: Children in the Southern part of the United States are more likely to be obese.
How to fix it: Childhood obesity rates in the South have doubled in the last 30 years because of poor access to healthy foods, an increased dependence on technology for entertainment, and high poverty levels in the southern region of the United States.
Why we fixed it: The first statement isn't really an argument, but more of a summary of what the literature says. It doesn't really explain why children from the South are more likely to be obese. The second thesis statement, however, provides us with some insight as well as gives us a structure for the rest of the paper with three concrete reasons that we can go into depth about.
How to go forward
It's no secret that writing is tough. In fact, it's one of the toughest things you'll do in your academic career. However, lots of practice and a clear understanding of how to write a thesis, how it works best, and what things you will need to include in it will make you a better writer and also a better researcher.
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What Makes a Thesis Statement Spectacular? — 5 things to know
Table of Contents
What Is a Thesis Statement?
A thesis statement is a declarative sentence that states the primary idea of an essay or a research paper . In this statement, the authors declare their beliefs or what they intend to argue in their research study. The statement is clear and concise, with only one or two sentences.
Thesis Statement — An Essential in Thesis Writing
A thesis statement distills the research paper idea into one or two sentences. This summary organizes your paper and develops the research argument or opinion. The statement is important because it lets the reader know what the research paper will talk about and how the author is approaching the issue. Moreover, the statement also serves as a map for the paper and helps the authors to track and organize their thoughts more efficiently.
A thesis statement can keep the writer from getting lost in a convoluted and directionless argument. Finally, it will also ensure that the research paper remains relevant and focused on the objective.
Where to Include the Thesis Statement?
The thesis statement is typically placed at the end of the introduction section of your essay or research paper. It usually consists of a single sentence of the writer’s opinion on the topic and provides a specific guide to the readers throughout the paper.
6 Steps to Write an Impactful Thesis Statement
Step 1 – analyze the literature.
Identify the knowledge gaps in the relevant research paper. Analyze the deeper implications of the author’s research argument. Was the research objective mentioned in the thesis statement reversed later in the discussion or conclusion? Does the author contradict themselves? Is there a major knowledge gap in creating a relevant research objective? Has the author understood and validated the fundamental theories correctly? Does the author support an argument without having supporting literature to cite? Answering these or related questions will help authors develop a working thesis and give their thesis an easy direction and structure.
Step 2 – Start with a Question
While developing a working thesis, early in the writing process, you might already have a research question to address. Strong research questions guide the design of studies and define and identify specific objectives. These objectives will assist the author in framing the thesis statement.
Step 3 – Develop the Answer
After initial research, the author could formulate a tentative answer to the research question. At this stage, the answer could be simple enough to guide the research and the writing process. After writing the initial answer, the author could elaborate further on why this is the chosen answer. After reading more about the research topic, the author could write and refine the answers to address the research question.
Step 4 – Write the First Draft of the Thesis Statement
After ideating the working thesis statement, make sure to write it down. It is disheartening to create a great idea for a thesis and then forget it when you lose concentration. The first draft will help you think clearly and logically. It will provide you with an option to align your thesis statement with the defined research objectives.
Step 5 – Anticipate Counter Arguments Against the Statement
After developing a working thesis, you should think about what might be said against it. This list of arguments will help you refute the thesis later. Remember that every argument has a counterargument, and if yours does not have one, what you state is not an argument — it may be a fact or opinion, but not an argument.
Step 6 – Refine the Statement
Anticipating counterarguments will help you refine your statement further. A strong thesis statement should address —
- Why does your research hold this stand?
- What will readers learn from the essay?
- Are the key points of your argumentative or narrative?
- Does the final thesis statement summarize your overall argument or the entire topic you aim to explain in the research paper?
5 Tips to Create a Compelling Thesis Statement
A thesis statement is a crucial part of any academic paper. Clearly stating the main idea of your research helps you focus on the objectives of your paper. Refer to the following tips while drafting your statement:
1. Keep it Concise
The statement should be short and precise. It should contain no more than a couple of sentences.
2. Make it Specific
The statement should be focused on a specific topic or argument. Covering too many topics will only make your paper weaker.
3. Express an Opinion
The statement should have an opinion on an issue or controversy. This will make your paper arguable and interesting to read.
4. Be Assertive
The statement should be stated assertively and not hesitantly or apologetically. Remember, you are making an argument — you need to sound convincing!
5. Support with Evidence
The thesis should be supported with evidence from your paper. Make sure you include specific examples from your research to reinforce your objectives.
Thesis Statement Examples *
Example 1 – alcohol consumption.
High levels of alcohol consumption have harmful effects on your health, such as weight gain, heart disease, and liver complications.
This thesis statement states specific reasons why alcohol consumption is detrimental. It is not required to mention every single detriment in your thesis.
Example 2 – Benefits of the Internet
The internet serves as a means of expediently connecting people across the globe, fostering new friendships and an exchange of ideas that would not have occurred before its inception.
While the internet offers a host of benefits, this thesis statement is about choosing the ability that fosters new friendships and exchange ideas. Also, the research needs to prove how connecting people across the globe could not have happened before the internet’s inception — which is a focused research statement.
*The following thesis statements are not fully researched and are merely examples shown to understand how to write a thesis statement. Also, you should avoid using these statements for your own research paper purposes.
A gripping thesis statement is developed by understanding it from the reader’s point of view. Be aware of not developing topics that only interest you and have less reader attraction. A harsh yet necessary question to ask oneself is — Why should readers read my paper? Is this paper worth reading? Would I read this paper if I weren’t its author?
A thesis statement hypes your research paper. It makes the readers excited about what specific information is coming their way. This helps them learn new facts and possibly embrace new opinions.
Writing a thesis statement (although two sentences) could be a daunting task. Hope this blog helps you write a compelling one! Do consider using the steps to create your thesis statement and tell us about it in the comment section below.
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What this handout is about.
This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can craft or refine one for your draft.
Writing in college often takes the form of persuasion—convincing others that you have an interesting, logical point of view on the subject you are studying. Persuasion is a skill you practice regularly in your daily life. You persuade your roommate to clean up, your parents to let you borrow the car, your friend to vote for your favorite candidate or policy. In college, course assignments often ask you to make a persuasive case in writing. You are asked to convince your reader of your point of view. This form of persuasion, often called academic argument, follows a predictable pattern in writing. After a brief introduction of your topic, you state your point of view on the topic directly and often in one sentence. This sentence is the thesis statement, and it serves as a summary of the argument you’ll make in the rest of your paper.
What is a thesis statement?
A thesis statement:
- tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion.
- is a road map for the paper; in other words, it tells the reader what to expect from the rest of the paper.
- directly answers the question asked of you. A thesis is an interpretation of a question or subject, not the subject itself. The subject, or topic, of an essay might be World War II or Moby Dick; a thesis must then offer a way to understand the war or the novel.
- makes a claim that others might dispute.
- is usually a single sentence near the beginning of your paper (most often, at the end of the first paragraph) that presents your argument to the reader. The rest of the paper, the body of the essay, gathers and organizes evidence that will persuade the reader of the logic of your interpretation.
If your assignment asks you to take a position or develop a claim about a subject, you may need to convey that position or claim in a thesis statement near the beginning of your draft. The assignment may not explicitly state that you need a thesis statement because your instructor may assume you will include one. When in doubt, ask your instructor if the assignment requires a thesis statement. When an assignment asks you to analyze, to interpret, to compare and contrast, to demonstrate cause and effect, or to take a stand on an issue, it is likely that you are being asked to develop a thesis and to support it persuasively. (Check out our handout on understanding assignments for more information.)
How do I create a thesis?
A thesis is the result of a lengthy thinking process. Formulating a thesis is not the first thing you do after reading an essay assignment. Before you develop an argument on any topic, you have to collect and organize evidence, look for possible relationships between known facts (such as surprising contrasts or similarities), and think about the significance of these relationships. Once you do this thinking, you will probably have a “working thesis” that presents a basic or main idea and an argument that you think you can support with evidence. Both the argument and your thesis are likely to need adjustment along the way.
Writers use all kinds of techniques to stimulate their thinking and to help them clarify relationships or comprehend the broader significance of a topic and arrive at a thesis statement. For more ideas on how to get started, see our handout on brainstorming .
How do I know if my thesis is strong?
If there’s time, run it by your instructor or make an appointment at the Writing Center to get some feedback. Even if you do not have time to get advice elsewhere, you can do some thesis evaluation of your own. When reviewing your first draft and its working thesis, ask yourself the following :
- Do I answer the question? Re-reading the question prompt after constructing a working thesis can help you fix an argument that misses the focus of the question. If the prompt isn’t phrased as a question, try to rephrase it. For example, “Discuss the effect of X on Y” can be rephrased as “What is the effect of X on Y?”
- Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? If your thesis simply states facts that no one would, or even could, disagree with, it’s possible that you are simply providing a summary, rather than making an argument.
- Is my thesis statement specific enough? Thesis statements that are too vague often do not have a strong argument. If your thesis contains words like “good” or “successful,” see if you could be more specific: why is something “good”; what specifically makes something “successful”?
- Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? If a reader’s first response is likely to be “So what?” then you need to clarify, to forge a relationship, or to connect to a larger issue.
- Does my essay support my thesis specifically and without wandering? If your thesis and the body of your essay do not seem to go together, one of them has to change. It’s okay to change your working thesis to reflect things you have figured out in the course of writing your paper. Remember, always reassess and revise your writing as necessary.
- Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? If a reader’s first response is “how?” or “why?” your thesis may be too open-ended and lack guidance for the reader. See what you can add to give the reader a better take on your position right from the beginning.
Suppose you are taking a course on contemporary communication, and the instructor hands out the following essay assignment: “Discuss the impact of social media on public awareness.” Looking back at your notes, you might start with this working thesis:
Social media impacts public awareness in both positive and negative ways.
You can use the questions above to help you revise this general statement into a stronger thesis.
- Do I answer the question? You can analyze this if you rephrase “discuss the impact” as “what is the impact?” This way, you can see that you’ve answered the question only very generally with the vague “positive and negative ways.”
- Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not likely. Only people who maintain that social media has a solely positive or solely negative impact could disagree.
- Is my thesis statement specific enough? No. What are the positive effects? What are the negative effects?
- Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? No. Why are they positive? How are they positive? What are their causes? Why are they negative? How are they negative? What are their causes?
- Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? No. Why should anyone care about the positive and/or negative impact of social media?
After thinking about your answers to these questions, you decide to focus on the one impact you feel strongly about and have strong evidence for:
Because not every voice on social media is reliable, people have become much more critical consumers of information, and thus, more informed voters.
This version is a much stronger thesis! It answers the question, takes a specific position that others can challenge, and it gives a sense of why it matters.
Let’s try another. Suppose your literature professor hands out the following assignment in a class on the American novel: Write an analysis of some aspect of Mark Twain’s novel Huckleberry Finn. “This will be easy,” you think. “I loved Huckleberry Finn!” You grab a pad of paper and write:
Mark Twain’s Huckleberry Finn is a great American novel.
You begin to analyze your thesis:
- Do I answer the question? No. The prompt asks you to analyze some aspect of the novel. Your working thesis is a statement of general appreciation for the entire novel.
Think about aspects of the novel that are important to its structure or meaning—for example, the role of storytelling, the contrasting scenes between the shore and the river, or the relationships between adults and children. Now you write:
In Huckleberry Finn, Mark Twain develops a contrast between life on the river and life on the shore.
- Do I answer the question? Yes!
- Have I taken a position that others might challenge or oppose? Not really. This contrast is well-known and accepted.
- Is my thesis statement specific enough? It’s getting there–you have highlighted an important aspect of the novel for investigation. However, it’s still not clear what your analysis will reveal.
- Does my thesis pass the “how and why?” test? Not yet. Compare scenes from the book and see what you discover. Free write, make lists, jot down Huck’s actions and reactions and anything else that seems interesting.
- Does my thesis pass the “So what?” test? What’s the point of this contrast? What does it signify?”
After examining the evidence and considering your own insights, you write:
Through its contrasting river and shore scenes, Twain’s Huckleberry Finn suggests that to find the true expression of American democratic ideals, one must leave “civilized” society and go back to nature.
This final thesis statement presents an interpretation of a literary work based on an analysis of its content. Of course, for the essay itself to be successful, you must now present evidence from the novel that will convince the reader of your interpretation.
We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.
Anson, Chris M., and Robert A. Schwegler. 2010. The Longman Handbook for Writers and Readers , 6th ed. New York: Longman.
Lunsford, Andrea A. 2015. The St. Martin’s Handbook , 8th ed. Boston: Bedford/St Martin’s.
Ramage, John D., John C. Bean, and June Johnson. 2018. The Allyn & Bacon Guide to Writing , 8th ed. New York: Pearson.
Ruszkiewicz, John J., Christy Friend, Daniel Seward, and Maxine Hairston. 2010. The Scott, Foresman Handbook for Writers , 9th ed. Boston: Pearson Education.
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The thesis statement is the central or controlling idea in a paper that explains the purpose of the paper, supports an idea, or advances a position.
If a thesis is firm and clear, it may immediately indicate the best way to organize supporting material and eliminate the need for elaborate planning. A thesis must have something to say about a subject or to present a particular viewpoint . The rest of the paper breaks down the thesis and proves it persuasively.
A thesis is different from a topic, which is a general subject area. For example, education is a general subject area that should be narrowed to a more manageable topic. Studying for the SATs narrows the broader subject area education. Brainstorming ideas about a subject helps students to come up with a topic and to formulate a "working" thesis.
A thesis for short essays may be formulated in one sentence. For longer research papers, it may take several sentences to state the thesis.
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A thesis statement is a sentence (sometimes more than one sentence) in the introduction that tells the reader the following information:
- What the topic of the paper is
- How the writer intends to discuss that topic
- It gives a blueprint for how the essay will be structured
- How the writer intends to prove or demonstrate his or her main points.
Think of your paper as a human body, and your thesis statement as the spinal cord. Without it, there is no structure.
For you as the writer, the thesis statement:
Develops through the interrelationship of thinking, reading, and writing;
Limits your research by providing you with one controlling main idea that intrigues you;
Narrows your writing to one specific claim that you can develop or prove;
Organizes your ideas so you know the important points you want to make in your paper; and
Clarifies your writing by keeping you on target to fulfill your proposed purpose.
For your readers, the thesis statement:
Identifies the main point and sub-points of your essay clearly and quickly;
Functions as a road map so your readers can easily follow your ideas; and
Gives satisfaction at the conclusion of the paper when your readers discover you have fulfilled your promise by proving or developing your main point.
Characteristics of Effective Thesis Statements
An effective thesis statement must be factual and narrow.
An effective thesis statement prepares readers for facts and details, but it cannot itself be a fact. It must always be an inference that demands proof or further development. These proofs come from the literature.
UNT Dallas campus has two buildings.
Not factual enough: The UNT Dallas campus is the perfect size.
Just Right: While some might see small universities as a disadvantage, the small campus of UNT Dallas holds many advantages for students, including a close-knit campus community, smaller class sizes, and better support from professors.
2. Narrow Topic
A good thesis should be narrow, and not too broad or too vague. If the topic is too broad, you won’t be able to cover the entire topic in your paper. If it’s too narrow, you might not be able to find research, and your paper probably won’t be long enough.
Too Broad: College students have a lot of responsibilities.
Too Narrow: Student workers in the Learning Commons at UNT Dallas have many responsibilities in their course work and tutoring.
Just Right: College students who are financially independent have many responsibilities as they must maintain good grades, pay living expenses, and balance work and school.
Remember, a thesis statement is not:
- Instead , you should argue, based on facts and literature, why or why not NASA should receive more funding.
- Ask yourself--can I find anything in literature to prove this point, or is this MY opinion?
- Instead, you should argue why or why not people like chocolate OR why or why not chocolate is healthy for you based on facts and literature findings.
- Similar to the subjective opinion, ask yourself is this statement is based on facts and literature findings or if this is YOUR opinion. Although it is ok to have your own opinion, professors usually do not like to read articles about beliefs (students have been writing about these for years and years).
- Instead, you could discuss theories about politics or religions and use literature to prove or disprove those theories.
- This is too factual (the Himalayas WERE formed from a collision of tectonic plates), and there is nothing to discuss because this IS a fact in itself.
- Instead, you could compare and contrast the tectonic plate formation of different mountains.
Examples of Thesis Statements
A thesis statement f or a 5 paragraph essay conta ins three parts:.
1. A Topic: the main idea of the essay
2. The Controlling Idea: what you want to say about the topic
3. The subtopics: usually 3 examples/reasons you will discuss in your paper
Here is an example of a thesis statement.
Ex: Regularly visiting the Writing Center at UNT Dallas will help you become the best writer on the planet because it offers superhero tutors, current technology, and fantastic handouts.
The main topic explores the idea that regularly vsiting the writing center will help you become the best writer on the planet, and the subtopics further expand this opinion with three distinct examples: 1) tutors, 2) technology, and 3) the handouts.
The paper should be organized around the subtopics. For example, for the thesis written above, the writer would write one body paragraph about the tutors, one about technology, and one about the handouts.
Here is a sample essay outline based on this thesis:
- Introduce the topic of tutoring
- Thesis (last sentence of intro): Regularly visiting the Writing Center at UNT Dallas will help you become the best writer on the planet because it offers superhero tutors, current technology, and fantastic handouts.
- topic sentence
- Restate thesis
- Concluding remarks
For further assistance with the structure, see our handouts on Introductions and Conclusions and Topic Sentences.
A thesis statement for a LONG ESSAY contains two parts: A Topic: the main idea of the essay The Controlling Idea: what you want to say about the topic
Throughout the paper, your thesis promises your readers that you will prove specific facts or develop certain ideas ; therefore, every paragraph, sentence, and word in your paper must relate to this controlling idea.
Here are some examples of thesis statements.
- Baseball, once a national pastime and even an addiction, has lost its popularity because of the new interest in more violent sports.
- Since the space program has yet to provide the American people with any substantial, practical returns, it is a waste of money and should be dissolved.
- To stop the alarming rise in the number of violent crimes committed every year, our courts must hand out tougher sentences.
- Detective stories appeal to the basic human desire for thrills.
- Hemingway's war stories helped to create a new prose style.
- Bronte utilizes light and fire to symbolize the emotional expressions of the characters.
Here is a suggested outline for a long essay and how that would look in terms of your thesis statement, topic, and controlling ideas:
- Introduce the novel Jane Eyre and the topic of symbolism
- Thesis (last sentence of intro): Bronte utilizes light and fire to symbolize the emotional expressions of the characters.
- textual examples and elaboration
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2 A thesis statement: Tells the reader how you will interpret the significance of the subject matter under discussion Is a road map for the paper;
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Fox News ran 4 conservative articles, one staff-written, and one AP article. The Washington Post ran one unbiased AP article. The Guardian ran one liberal
A thesis statement is a declarative sentence that states the primary idea of an essay or a research paper.
This handout describes what a thesis statement is, how thesis statements work in your writing, and how you can discover or refine one for your draft.
Thesis Statement. The thesis statement is the central or controlling idea in a paper that explains the purpose of the paper, supports an idea, or advances a
You can find thesis statements in many places, such as in the news;
professors usually do not like to read articles about beliefs (students have