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Green Occupants for Green Buildings, PhD Thesis
buildings (n=12) compared to CBE database (n=358). Coloured symbols on the y-axis represent the median satisfaction score for each building set ). ...... 24 occupants' forgiveness factor, which suggests that despite having less-than-ideal thermal conditions, occupants with higher NEP scores were more tolerant of their building's shortcomings compared to occupants with lower NEP scores. Analyses of subjects' thermal sensation within the MM building indicated that observed comfort votes (Actual Mean Vote -AMV) measured in AC mode were congruent to those predicted using the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) equation. During NV mode, however, observed AMV values did not conform to the PMV values, suggesting that occupants were more adaptive to indoor operative temperatures during NV mode as opposed to when the building was in AC mode. In comparison, whilst occupants experienced significantly warmer operative temperatures in the NV building, observed thermal sensations were also found to differ...
The study assessed the performance of a newly-built sustainable hospital by comparing the thermal comfort of its patients and staff, and the ambient thermal conditions with those of two other hospitals with less sophisticated designs. Additionally, a facility management perspective was used to understand the role hospital administrators had in contributing to sustainable design outcomes and document the unanticipated challenges and unintended consequences of operating the newly-built sustainable hospital. Data were collected through thermal environment equipment, a thermal comfort survey, and interviews with care providers, patients, and facility managers. The hypotheses were that the hospital with the modern and more sophisticated sustainable ventilation design features would have a higher level of thermal comfort and lower heat index in the naturally ventilated wards than hospitals without those features and that thermal comfort would be higher in air-conditioned wards than naturally ventilated wards. The results indicate that sophisticated sustainable hospital designs can improve the ambient thermal environment and occupant thermal comfort but not all those features were necessary. The study also suggests the need for adopting an integrated sustainable design strategy to prevent or mitigate some of the facility operation challenges encountered. Additionally, the study proposes for a shift in thermal comfort standards and green building rating tools to meet the unique thermal comfort needs of hospital users.
This paper investigates how mixed-mode (MM) ventilation affects occupant comfort by presenting results from a longitudinal field study within an office building located in subtropical Sydney, Australia. The building automatically switches into air-conditioned (AC) mode whenever indoor temperatures exceed 25°C. Coincident indoor and outdoor climate measurements along with 1359 subjective comfort questionnaires were collected. Thermal sensations during natural ventilation were, on average, 2.1°C warmer than those predicted using Fanger’s PMV-PPD (Fanger 1970). Differences in thermal perception were also apparent between these two modes. Within AC mode, a +1 PMV environment elicited much ‘warmer-than-neutral’ thermal sensations than the same environment within naturally-ventilated (NV) mode, suggesting thermal perceptions were affected by the building’s mode of operation over and above the indoor climatic conditions. These discrepancies emphasize the complexity of thermal perception and the inadequacy of using PMV models to describe occupant comfort in MM buildings
Mixed-mode: these words are synonymous with the world’s emergent ‘green’ buildings, heralded as low carbon buildings of the future. While the technical efficiency of such buildings is important, the well-being, productivity, (dis)comfort, general satisfaction of the occupants, as well as environmental attitudes and beliefs, is in itself, necessarily important. Post-occupancy evaluations for occupant satisfaction, and New Ecological Paradigm questionnaires, measuring levels of environmental concern, were conducted between March and April 2009 in two academic office buildings at Macquarie University. Upon analysis, significantly higher environmental attitudes were present for occupants possessing greater tolerance of their building’s thermal environment. This paper hypothesises that occupants valuing their building highly possess greater pro-environmental attitudes compared to those valuing their building poorly, and thus provides evidence supporting the link between environmental attitudes and occupant satisfaction within green buildings.
Max Deuble , Richard de Dear
Contemporary concerns for improving environmental performance in buildings have led to an increased interest in natural ventilation (NV) either on its own or in combination with air-conditioning (mixed mode (MM)) as an alternative to traditional heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) systems. HVAC systems are widely used because they avoid many of the problems encountered with NV or MM - noise, dust, insects, odours, temperature extremes - and readily conform to steady-state conditions of thermal comfort. However, it is possible that NV or MM can provide improved indoor air quality precisely through variations associated with external climatic conditions. This article introduces an ARC (Australian Research Council) funded project evaluating comfort conditions in MM spaces, using field studies from two buildings. The first, a University campus building in Sydney, offers MM perimeter offices with air-conditioned central spaces, while the second, a commercial building in Melbourne, offers a series of MM spaces that can be used by workers from adjacent air-conditioned office spaces. The aim of the project is to evaluate the feasibility of using MM either in place of or in association with traditional HVAC systems. The outcomes of the project will be used to elaborate the justifications for inclusion of NV spaces and/or NV periods within contemporary office environments. This article presents preliminary results of the fieldwork at each location
This paper investigates how mixed-mode (MM) ventilation affects occupant comfort by presenting results from a longitudinal field study within an academic office building from a tertiary educational institution in sub-tropical Sydney, Australia. The building automatically switches into air-conditioned (AC) mode whenever indoor temperatures exceed 25 °C. Coincident indoor and outdoor climate measurements along with 1359 subjective comfort questionnaires were collected. Thermal sensations during natural ventilation did not conform to those predicted using Fanger’s PMV-PPD (1970). Differences in thermal perception were also apparent between these two modes. Within AC mode, a PMV = +1 environment elicited much ‘warmer-than-neutral’ thermal sensations than the same PMV = +1 environment within naturally-ventilated (NV) mode, suggesting thermal subjective perceptions were affected by the building’s mode of operation over and above the objective indoor climatic conditions. These discrepancies emphasize the complexity of thermal perception and the inadequacy of using PMV models to describe occupant comfort in MM buildings. ASHRAE’s Standard 55 (2010) currently classifies MM buildings as AC buildings, and as such, limits the operation of these buildings to the more restrictive PMV-PPD range of indoor thermal conditions. In contrast, EN15251 (2007) permits the more flexible adaptive comfort standard to be applied to buildings operating under NV mode. Results from this study favour EN15251’s application of the adaptive comfort model instead of PMV-PPD to MM buildings when they are operating in NV mode
Richard de Dear , Max Deuble
Green buildings, often defined as those featuring natural ventilation capabilities, i.e. low-energy or free-running buildings, are now at the forefront of building research and climate change mitigation scenarios. This paper follows the results of recent post-occupancy evaluation (POE) surveys within two academic office buildings located in sub-tropical Sydney, Australia. Supplemented with an environmental attitudes questionnaire, based upon the New Ecological Paradigm ), it was found that occupant satisfaction levels on the POE were positively associated with environmental beliefs. Occupants with higher levels of environmental concern were more forgiving of their building, particularly those featuring aspects of green design, such as natural ventilation through operable windows. Despite their criticisms of the building’s indoor environmental quality, the ‘green’ occupants were prepared to overlook and forgive less-than-ideal conditions more so than their ‘brown’ (non-green) counterparts. These results support the hypothesis that pro-environmental attitudes are closely associated with the stronger ‘forgiveness factor’ often observed in green buildings, but the question of causality remains moot.
CBE Summary Report, April.). http://www. …
Abstract Before India's building sector can fulfil its CO2 abatement potential, it is imperative for new build projects, especially those which provide for commercial and public functions, to eschew the energy-intensive designs that characterized western commercial buildings of the 20th century. In the absence of an adaptive thermal comfort standard specifically for India's climatic and cultural context, the current trend is simply to design airconditioned buildings to meet the stringent ASHRAE and ISO “Class A” comfort specifications.
Architectural Science Review
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Yoon Soo (Yoonsu) Lee
Alexi Marmot , Marcella Ucci
Intelligent Buildings International, 6(2): 112-134
Energy and Buildings
International Journal of Biometeorology
Proceedings of 8th Windsor Conference: Counting the Cost of Comfort in a changing worldCumberland Lodge, Windsor, UK, 10-13 April 2014. London: Network for Comfort and Energy Use in Buildings, http://nceub.org.uk
Ola Uduku , Meshack Efeoma
Smart and Sustainable Built Environment
Solvår Wågø , Karine Denizou
Angela Lm Alessi
Roberto Lamberts , Renata De Vecchi
Building Research & Information
Olivia Guerra Santin
Intelligent Buildings International
Frontiers of Architectural Research
Françoise Thellier , Alexandre Perles
Advances in Building Energy Research
Iftikhar A Raja
John Robinson , Raymond Cole
Arezou Tncpi , Mohd Warid Hussin , Muhd Zaimi Abd Majid
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This paper hypothesises that occupants valuing their building highly possess greater pro-environmental attitudes compared to those valuing their building poorly, and thus provides evidence supporting the link between environmental attitudes and occupant satisfaction within green buildings.
This thesis reports on the evaluation of the impact of green human resource management (Green HRM) on performance outcomes in green buildings in the contexts of Australia and India. There are three research objectives of this study (1) To review the existing evidence on the role of management in green building design;