A dissertation at the Institute of Fine Arts should be no longer than 60,000 words (approx. 250-300 pages). This word limit does not include footnotes, front matter, or appendices.
The Graduate School of Arts and Science has guidelines for the formatting of the dissertation and its text. Students should refer to the GSAS Doctoral Dissertation Checklist and the Formatting Guide for information.
All citation and formatting must be in line with the Graduate School of Arts and Science's Formatting Guide for Successful Completion of the Doctoral Dissertation .
Images or Plates should be included as an appendix to the text, with one or two images on each page. A list of images or plates must be included in the front matter of the dissertation.
Large file sizes can be avoided by resizing all of your images, especially your personal photography, to a size equal to or below 1280 x 1280 pixels. Additionally these images should be saved in JPEG format with an image quality setting of 7 or "medium."
Please remember to embed all fonts before converting your dissertation into a pdf. The ProQuest website provides instructions on how to do this.
Should you have further questions contact [email protected] or call 1-800-889-3358. Proquest can provide technical support and confirm your course of action in uploading a unusually large file, which is often a problem for art history dissertations.
There are two major submission deadlines to which students must adhere in order to receive their degree. A preliminary draft must be submitted approximately 6-8 weeks before the graduation date. The final document will be submitted during the month of graduation. Documentation and accompanying forms are required at each of these stages. Students should refer to the PhD Packet and Cover Memos on the above linked GSAS website for deadlines and required forms.
Submission of the dissertation in ProQuest is required. Students are highly encouraged to include their dissertation in the IFA Dissertation Collection and should contact Digital Media Services after their dissertation is complete. See below for more information regarding the IFA Dissertation Collection.
Defending Your Dissertation
Three core readers and two signatories must approve the defense of the dissertation. Four faculty members must be present at the defense. IFA students may defend their dissertation at any time during the year.
Once the Primary Advisor has nominally approved the text of the dissertation, the student may give copies of the text to their second and third readers. At this time, the student should contact the Academic Office about scheduling a defense. In order for the student to receive a degree during the current term, a defense must occur at least two days prior to the deadline for final submission.
Students should contact the IFA’s Academic Office with questions about the formatting, defense, and submission of their dissertation.
About the NYU Libraries IFA Dissertation Collection
The Dissertation Collection is intended to promote access to and scholarly reuse of NYU dissertations, benefitting dissertation authors, NYU Libraries, and the greater scholarly community.
Benefits for Dissertation Authors
1. A permanent URL for the dissertation that will never change and can be used as a citation or link in the author’s CV, online profiles, etc. 2. Greater discoverability: the IFA Dissertation Collection is intended to be a highly visible repository of NYU digital scholarship and can be picked up by major search engines, such as Google Scholar. 3. The ability to include images or other thirdparty copyrighted materials within the dissertation, in accordance with fair use. 4. A nocost option for making a dissertation publicly available to anyone with internet access, and/or “open access” via a Creative Commons license. Making dissertations available openly can broaden audience, increase citations, and allow potential employers and publishers to more easily find the work.
IFA Dissertation Collection Deposit Process
Beginning in the Spring of 2013, IFA dissertation authors will have the option of depositing their dissertation with the IFA Dissertation Collection.
NYU IFA Dissertation Collection: Q&As
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Formatting the Thesis
All Gallatin theses should abide by certain conventions regarding style and physical production. While the formats will not necessarily be identical, the documents should generally be consistent with the following guidelines.
Every thesis, whether research, performance or project, should include the following items:
- a title page ;
- a one-page, single-spaced abstract;
- a table of contents, with page numbers; if necessary, a table of illustrations, tables or figures;
- the body of the text, with appropriate headings for chapters, sub-sections or other parts;
- appendices or portfolios as appropriate;
- a complete bibliography (not annotated).
The following items may be included if the student wishes, and should be placed on one or more roman-numerated pages following the abstract and before the table of contents:
- a copyright
- a dedication
- Type Size and Style The same typeface is to be used throughout the thesis. Students should choose a standard book font, such as Century, Garamond, Goudy, Palatino, or Times New Roman (this is not an inclusive list). An 11-point or 12-point font is appropriate for a thesis.
- Pagination The paper should be numbered in arabic numerals, starting at 1 for the first page of text; pages before that (abstract, table of contents, preface, etc.) should be numbered in roman numerals, as indicated in the style book. Numbers should be placed consistently on the page: in the top middle, or top right, or bottom middle or bottom right.
- Margins and Spacing Margins should be 1" on the left, right, top and bottom. The thesis should be double-spaced.
- Proofreading The final copy of the thesis must be thoroughly and correctly proofread. The thesis readers will give the student written and/or oral indications of typographical (as well as spelling and grammatical) errors that they find in the document. The student will then make these corrections and submit the final copy of the thesis no more than 30 days after the defense, using the Final Thesis Submission Form.
- Copyright To learn how to obtain a certificate of copyright for the thesis, visit the Web site of the United States Copyright Office.
Each thesis must conform to the style requirements of one of the following manuals: American Psychological Association (APA); Modern Language Association (MLA); Chicago Manual of Style. These books govern such matters as: formats for citations and bibliographies; page layouts and pagination; the use of specialized terms, etc. Whatever form the student chooses should be used consistently.
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A student is in residence at GSAS when the student is matriculated in a GSAS program. Only credits from NYU sponsored graduate courses earned while the student is in residence at GSAS count toward fulfilling program residency requirements.
24 credits must be earned in residence at GSAS.
32 credits must be earned in residence at GSAS.
Courses taken at the NYU Shanghai and NYU Abu Dhabi campuses count as taken in residence. Courses taken at any other NYU away site count as transfer credit unless the student’s program is based in whole or part at that away site, in which case they count fully as in residence.
Graduate courses taken by undergraduates in the College of Arts and Science who have been accepted into an accelerated Bachelor’s – Master’s track will be counted as taken in residence.
GSAS is a participating member in several consortia including, but not limited to the Inter-University Doctoral Consortium (IUDC), NYU-Jewish Theological Seminary Consortium, NYU-Hebrew Union Consortium, and the European Studies Consortium. Credits earned as part of the established GSAS consortia do not satisfy the in-residence requirement.
Graduate School Requirements
- Completion of at least 30 credits of graduate credit (at least 24 in residence at the Graduate School) and a cumulative GPA of B (3.0) or better.
- a comprehensive examination,
- a thesis, and/or
- an appropriate special project.
Programs may have more stringent standards, including a higher grade point average, a foreign language proficiency examination, and additional course work.
The Master of Fine Arts degree requires the completion of 32 graduate credits, a special project, fulfillment of the residency requirement, and a GPA of 3.0 or better.
The Master of Philosophy degree is granted only to students who have been accepted as candidates in a doctoral program and who have fulfilled all requirements for the doctorate except the dissertation and its defense.
- Completion of at least 70 graduate credits (at least 32 in residence at the Graduate School) and a cumulative GPA of B (3.0) or better. Almost all Graduate School programs require 72 graduate credits. Please check individual programs for the exact requirement.
- Successful completion of comprehensive or qualifying examinations or their equivalent.
- Presentation and defense of a dissertation. The dissertation topic must receive formal departmental approval before being undertaken. The dissertation must demonstrate a sound methodology and evidence of exhaustive study of a special field and make an original contribution to that field. When the dissertation is completed and approved by the adviser and two other readers, an oral defense is scheduled before a committee of at least five members. Of the five committee members, a minimum of three must be full-time members of the Faculty of Arts and Science. A successful defense requires that no more than one member of the committee votes to not approve it.
Submitting Your Dissertation
Submission deadlines and checklists.
See Submitting Your Dissertation for current Doctoral dissertation deadlines and checklists.
Note: GSAS submission deadlines are earlier than University Graduation Deadlines .
Please Note: The Office of the Registrar takes up to a month AFTER the graduation date to fully process all degrees. DO NOT count on being able to demonstrate completion of your degree on or soon after the graduation date simply because you turned everything in by the deadline. If you need proof of degree completion, please plan to get all your materials submitted and defend your dissertation well before the final deadline. Please also contact the Office of Academic and Student Affairs at the email address below so we are aware that you may need your degree requirements reviewed in an expedited manner. If you wait to tell us until after the deadline, we will not be able to do much to help speed the process for you.
Dissertation Formatting Requirements and Other Informational Guides
- Doctoral Dissertation Formatting Requirements
- A Formatting Guide for Successful Completion of the Doctoral Dissertation
- Proquest's Author Guide: Preparing Your Manuscript for Submission
- Sample PhD Dissertation Template
- Helpful Information for Doctoral Students
Dissertation Submission In Six Steps
The following guide presents the necessary steps involved in a doctoral candidate's dissertation submission as required by the Graduate School of Arts and Science. All candidates should check with their dissertation adviser and department administrator regarding additional departmental requirements. Some additional helpful information regarding these steps and other graduation related issues that we are frequently asked about may be found in this document .
- The candidate must meet with their dissertation adviser to discuss research goals, timeframes, and scheduling of an oral defense. If an outside reader is being considered as part of the dissertation committee, the candidate's department must complete and sign the Outside Dissertation Reader Approval Form to include in the candidate's graduation file.
- The candidate is required to register for graduation on Albert at least 3 months prior to the expected date of graduation. Application deadlines may be found here . Preliminary Dissertation Filing Steps
- One copy of the Title Page, unsigned. If you will need to have this electronically signed, please also submit to us the name and official University email address of your adviser and we will have this done. If you are gathering a physical signature, then only the unsigned Title Page is needed.
- Survey of Earned Doctorates, submit the completion certificate
- Dissertation Publishing Agreement submitted on the ProQuest site when you submit your preliminary dissertation. We do not need to receive a separate copy.
- Dissertation Abstract submitted on the ProQuest site when you submit your preliminary dissertation. We do not need to receive a separate copy.
- A candidate must upload their dissertation to ProQuest by the preliminary dissertation submission deadline. The preliminary dissertation submission will be reviewed for adherence to the formatting requirements, not content. (The dissertation adviser oversees content review.) Once the preliminary dissertation is reviewed, the candidate will receive an email notification that details formatting changes that need to be made before final submission. However, candidate do not have to wait for the preliminary dissertation review email, and should upload any new revision to their ProQuest account when it's ready. The latest revision on ProQuest will be reviewed. Final Dissertation Filing Steps
- The candidate is advised to take the Doctoral Thesis Oral Defense Form to the oral defense. The dissertation committee Chair and members sign the Doctoral Thesis Oral Defense Form according to the result of the oral defense in the spaces provided and return it to the department administrator, by the final dissertation deadline. You may not handle this form once committee members begin to sign. If gathering some or all physical signatures is not possible, the department administrator will help gather the remaining digital signature(s). The department administrator will then forward the Doctoral Thesis Oral Defense Form to Office of the Registrar. If revisions to the dissertation are required by dissertation committee member(s), the Chair will retain the form until the revisions are made.
- After editing the text to ensure it is consistent with the comments made during the defense and and any comments you may have received from the review of the preliminary dissertation upload, the candidate must upload a final dissertation to ProQuest by the final dissertation deadline, using the link provided after the preliminary dissertation review or by login to your ProQuest account. Occasionally such a large volume of dissertations may be submitted that we are unable to review the formatting for everyone before the final deadline date. The final dissertation filing date is for content only, so whether or not you have received formatting revisions, make sure you have uploaded the final version of your dissertation in regards to content by this date. If you and your committee are satisfied with the content of your initial upload, then there is no need to upload again until you have made any requested formatting corrections. You will have plenty of time to correct any formatting issues after the final deadline should you need it. If you elected to get a physical signature on your Title Page, you must also submit a signed copy at this time. Steps beyond dissertation submission
- The candidate should check with his/her department to ensure all degree requirements have been met, and the department have submitted the signed Doctoral Thesis Oral Defense Form to the Office of the Registrar by the graduation deadline .
- The candidate should contact the Office of the Bursar to confirm that his/her account is not in arrears.
- The candidate should review his/her permanent address on Albert . Diplomas will be mailed to this address, unless the candidate indicated a specific diploma address. You may also elect to have your official or preferred name on your diploma at this time.
Note: Completion of these steps does not guarantee conferral of a candidate's degree. The final conferral decision rests with the Graduate School of Arts and Science and New York University's Office of the Registrar. After completing the final dissertation submission, candidates should contact the Office of the Registrar at [email protected] if there are any questions regarding graduation status or degree conferral.
- Copyright for Authors & Creators
The Office of Academic and Student Affairs is located at 6 Washington Square North, 2nd Floor. Questions regarding the dissertation submission procedure should be directed to Academic Affairs at [email protected] or by phone at 212-998-8060.
Transfer & Articulation Agreements
GSAS programs accept transfer credit from accredited graduate institutions.
A student must apply for transfer credit, for courses taken prior to admission, within the first academic year of attendance as a matriculated student.
Students may transfer credit for courses taken at another institution while matriculated at NYU as long as the DGS has given written approval for the course(s) to be transferred in prior to the student’s enrollment in those courses.
Courses counted towards any degree that has been awarded and is not part of a registered dual degree program may not be applied toward a GSAS master's degree.
Courses counted toward any doctoral level degree, including but not limited to the JD and the EdD, that has been awarded and is not part of a registered dual degree program may not be applied to a GSAS doctoral degree.
For doctoral students, when a prior graduate program is comparable to that of the department’s master’s program requirements, blanket credit equal to the number of credits required for the departmental master’s will be awarded. Otherwise each course will be considered separately for transfer credit up to a maximum of 40 credits.
A grade below B is not eligible for transfer credit.
A pass/fail type grade such as P or S will be accepted for transfer at the discretion of the DGS.
If courses are transferred individually, credits will be transferred credit for credit (e.g., if transfer is requested for a three-credit course at another institution, then only a maximum of three credits will be granted by NYU) up to the maximum amount allowed.
An external credit earned on the quarter system is worth two-thirds of an NYU credit. Individual courses must be rounded down to the nearest half point.
GSAS awards international transfer credit in accordance with current guidelines regarding equivalency as determined annually by Graduate Enrollment Services.
NYU graduate courses taken prior to enrollment in a GSAS program, and not used to earn another degree, are eligible to count toward the degree and will not be counted as transfer credits with regard to the maximum level of transfer credit allowed or the minimum grade requirement. The Director of Graduate Studies will be the final arbiter of which of these courses will count toward the degree.
Transfer of credit for individual courses older than ten years for master’s students and fifteen years for doctoral students will not be allowed.
The maximum transfer credit allowed may not exceed the difference between the number of credits required for the degree and the 24-point residency requirement. (e.g., in a 32-credit required program, the maximum the student may transfer is 32 – 24 = 8 credits.). An absolute maximum of 12 credits may be transferred.
The maximum transfer credit allowed is 40 credits.
The following grades may be assigned in GSAS courses:
The cumulative grade point average (GPA) is an essential component of academic good standing and is computed in the following way: for each course receiving a standard letter grade or “F” if taken Pass/Fail and counting toward the degree, the GPA value per point is multiplied by the number of credits for the course. The sum of these products is divided by the sum of the number of hours for each course taken under the standard grading system. Courses that have not been awarded a grade, were awarded a grade of “P”, do not count toward the degree program, or have an incomplete grade are excluded from the GPA calculation.
The completion rate is an essential component of academic good standing and is calculated in the following way: the number of “earned hours” is calculated by summing the credits for all courses that count toward the degree and in which a grade in the standard grade system or the pass/fail system has been awarded. Courses in which an “F” has been awarded are excluded. Next, the number of “attempted hours” is calculated by summing the credits of all courses that count toward the degree and in which a grade in the standard grade system or the pass/fail system has been awarded. For this calculation “F” and “incomplete” grades are included, but courses from the most recent completed semester for which grades are yet to be assigned are excluded. The completion rate is defined as the number of earned hours divided by the number of attempted hours.
Only an incomplete grade, “I” or “NR” may be changed unless the original grade resulted from a departmental clerical error in recording. No change of grade will be awarded to any student:
- For work submitted after graduating, withdrawing from the University, or being terminated;
- For submitting additional coursework;
- Who audits the course, officially or unofficially, after a grade has been submitted
An unresolved grade, “I”, reverts to “F” one year after the beginning of the semester in which the course was taken unless an extension of the incomplete grade has been approved by the Office of Academic and Student Affairs (OASA). An unresolved grade, “NR”, reverts to “F” one year after the beginning of the semester in which the course was taken and no extension will be allowed.
At the request of the departmental Director of Graduate Studies (DGS) and with the approval of the course instructor, OASA will review requests for an extension of an incomplete “I” grade.
A request for an extension of incomplete must be submitted before the end of one year from the beginning of the semester in which the course was taken.
An extension of an incomplete grade may be requested for a period of up to, but not exceeding, one year.
Only one one-year extension of an incomplete may be granted.
Students may not audit the course, officially or unofficially, as a means of completing an incomplete grade.
If a student is approved for a leave of absence any time the student spends on that leave of absence will not count toward the time allowed for completion of the coursework when a grade of “I” has been submitted.
If a student is permanently separating from their program either through withdrawing or graduating, the department may request that the student be withdrawn from any course in which the student has an incomplete grade, “I” or “NR”, at the time of the withdrawal. Such a request may only be filed within one semester of the student’s separation.
GSAS students may opt to take a course set up with standard letter grading under pass/fail grading with the permission of the student’s program. The department must submit the Pass/Fail Form to OASA prior to the end of the ninth week of the semester to have pass/fail grading for a fall or spring term course and prior to the ninth meeting of a summer or special session course. The pass grade “P” counts for credit but does not affect the GPA. The fail grade “F” is identical to an “F” in the standard letter grading system with regard to credit and GPA.
Students matriculated in GSAS apply for the pass/fail option through GSAS regardless of the school offering the course. A student matriculated in another school at NYU must apply through their home school for and abide by the rules of the home school governing the pass/fail option if they wish to take a GSAS course under pass/fail grading.
Once a student has been approved to take a course pass/fail, any request by the student to have the course returned to standard letter grading will be denied.
Students who are found in violation of the GSAS Statement on Academic Integrity with regard to actions in a particular course may not then elect to take that course pass/fail. A previously granted pass/fail approval for such a course may be rescinded at the request of that student’s home department.
Students officially auditing a GSAS course pay full tuition for the course but receive neither a grade nor academic credit. Enrolled students (See 6.1) may sit in on a GSAS course only with the permission of the instructor and the student’s adviser. Individuals who are not officially enrolled at NYU may not attend GSAS courses in any manner.
GPA is final after the degree requirements for coursework have been met. Grades earned beyond those that satisfy the course-work requirements for the degree will not be entered into the computation of the final GPA. The only exceptions to this rule are as follows:
Retaking Courses: With permission of the Department Chair or the DGS, a student may be allowed to retake a course and have only the new grade count toward the GPA. In this case, only the credits for the retaken course will count toward the degree requirement. Permission will be granted for this only when the student can demonstrate that the previously earned grade was the result of factors outside the student’s control. A tuition scholarship will not be awarded for courses that are retaken. A student may retake a specific course only once.
Extra Courses: With the permission of the Department Chair or the DGS and of the Assistant Dean for Academic Affairs, students may take as many as two additional departmental courses in order to meet the degree GPA requirement. Permission should only be granted when the reasons for the low GPA were at least partially beyond the student’s control and when it is considered likely that the degree GPA requirement will be satisfied by taking additional courses. A tuition scholarship will not be awarded for extra courses.
Academic Standing & Progress
GSAS requires students to maintain a GPA of 3.0 or higher and successfully complete at least two thirds of credits attempted at NYU, excluding the current semester. Courses with grades of “I”, “N”, “NR”, “W”, and “F” are not considered successfully completed. Students also must be within time to candidacy and time to degree limits. These GSAS standards are minimal requirements for academic good standing. Departments may impose additional requirements and/or set stricter standards including but not limited to, higher GPA requirements, higher completion rate requirements and degree progress requirements. Any additional requirements for academic good standing particular to a program must be outlined in the department’s student handbook.
GSAS requires that faculty assess progress for each student enrolled in the programs they oversee at least once per year. As part of the assessment process:
- Faculty must meet with each student to discuss the outcomes of the assessment;
- The student’s transcript and any other relevant document detailing academic progress must be reviewed;
- The assessment process and outcomes must be documented each year and included in the student’s academic file;
- Departments must provide written notification to each student regarding the results of the assessment, including any credits in which the student has been found lacking and what the student must do to return to program standards.
GSAS requires continuous enrollment of its students each fall and spring semester until the degree sought is granted. This can be accomplished by (1) registering for at least 1 point (or fraction thereof) each fall and spring until the degree is conferred; (2) taking an approved leave of absence, except in the semester of graduation; or (3) registering for Maintenance of Matriculation (MAINT-GA 4747) during all fall and spring semesters when no course work is being taken until the degree is conferred.
A student who is obliged to withdraw temporarily for national service, serious illness, or compelling personal reasons may request a leave of absence. If granted, the leave maintains the student’s place in the Graduate School and assures continued enrollment at the end of the period of the leave. Students on leave do not have access to University, GSAS, or department facilities. For complete rules governing leaves of absence, refer to the GSAS Policies and Procedures Manual .
M.A., M.S., and M.F.A.
All requirements must be completed no later than five years from the date of initial matriculation.
All requirements for the doctoral degree must be completed no later than ten years from the initial date of matriculation or seven years from the time of matriculation if the student enters the PhD program having been given transfer credit for more than 23 credits. For rules concerning time to degree, refer to the GSAS Policies and Procedures Manual .
The grade “W” represents official withdrawal from a course. It will appear on a student’s transcript any time a student withdraws from a course after the second week of the fall or spring semester or according to the rules of the Office of the Registrar if a special or summer term course. Dropping from a course before the deadline will purge that course from the student’s official record. A student may withdraw from a course up to the end of the ninth week during the fall and spring semesters or according to the rules of the Office of the Registrar if a special or summer term course. Students must get permission from their department and Graduate Enrollment Services to withdraw from a course after the deadline for dropping. Any tuition refund will be in accordance with the published refund schedule for that semester. A grade of “W” will not be removed or changed to any other grade once posted on a student’s transcript.
Students receiving federal student aid who withdraw completely may be billed for remaining balances resulting from the mandatory return of funds to the U.S. government. The amount of federal aid “earned” up to that point is determined by the withdrawal date and a calculation based upon the federally prescribed formula. Generally, federal assistance is earned on a pro-rata basis.
For full details, refer to the Office of the Bursar, nyu.edu/bursar/refunds/withdrawal .
If a student’s academic performance falls below the GSAS standard for “good standing,” the student is accordingly on academic probation and must be informed by the Department with a formal probation letter. A student who has not met stated program progress requirements may also be placed on probation by the Department.
Standards of Conduct
In creating new knowledge, scholars in all fields receive, adapt, and build on the ideas and findings of others. Responsible scholarship demands that we study, discuss, and master the work of our intellectual forbearers; it also demands that we fully acknowledge their contributions in our own scholarship.
As a student in the Graduate School of Arts and Science (GSAS) at New York University, you have become part of a longstanding community of significant research and learning. The university understands and expects that you pursue your studies and research in ways that conform to the standards of scholarly practice both at NYU and in the greater academic community.
Plagiarism – representing the work of others as one’s own – is a very serious violation of the intellectual trust that forms the basis of this scholarship. All members of our academic community are expected to cite fully and appropriately in their own work the ideas, findings, and words of others. We are all expected to report truthfully the results of our research. And we are expected to be honest in the preparation and grading of all papers, assignments, and examinations.
GSAS and the Faculty of Arts and Science (FAS) do not tolerate breaches of these and other widely accepted scholarly standards. Should such a breach occur, a student or faculty member with knowledge of the facts is obligated to file a complaint with the relevant department chair or program director. A meeting with the student will be held in the department or program in which the student is enrolled and, if a violation has occurred, a sanction, ranging from censure to termination, will be issued. Should the student not agree with the determined sanction, the case will then be referred to the FAS Committee on Discipline for consideration. A repeat offense will result in termination from the Graduate School.
The full policy on issues of academic misconduct may be found in Section 9 of the Graduate School of Arts and Science Policies and Procedures Manual, available on the Graduate School’s website . This manual outlines the rules of conduct with regard to matters of academic integrity and should inform your conduct in all academic work, including your interactions with others in academic settings. The manual does not and cannot cover all possible areas of academic integrity. Should it fall short in answering your questions, you should speak to your research adviser and/or to your department faculty and staff to obtain the information that you need to represent yourself and your work in accordance with the highest standards of academic integrity.
All students in GSAS are expected to follow the University’s policies on Academic Integrity for Students at NYU and the Principles and Procedures for Dealing with Allegations of Research Misconduct . Academic integrity violations include, but are not limited to, offenses such as plagiarism, cheating, possession or use of any prohibited notes, reference resources, or data processing or other devices in any class or examination, and misrepresentation of academic credentials. Research integrity violations include, but are not limited to, fabrication, falsification, and plagiarism in proposing, performing, or reporting research results.
Behavioral misconduct includes conduct that impedes, obstructs or threatens the maintenance of the public order, interferes with or disrupts the regular operations and activities of the University, or constitutes a denial of or an unreasonable interference with the complainant’s rights. When activities undertaken by registered student organizations constitute a violation of this provision or violation of University rules or of public laws and regulations, a complaint may also be brought against such organizations as well as against the individual students belonging to such organizations.
Filing of a departmental complaint.
If a student engages in any form of academic misconduct, the individual with knowledge of the facts shall file a complaint with the Department Chair.
Student Notification by Department
The Department Chair shall provide notice of the filing of the complaint to the student in writing within one (1) week of receipt of the complaint.
Meeting in Department
The Department Chair or his/her departmental faculty designee shall meet with the student against whom a complaint has been filed, describe the complaint, and offer the student an opportunity to respond. The student shall be informed of their right to accept or reject a departmental resolution. After considering all relevant information, the Department Chair may inform the student of the terms, including where appropriate the imposition of a sanction upon which the Department is willing to resolve the matter. Where the student agrees in writing to the terms of a departmental resolution, a binding consensual resolution shall exist between GSAS and the student. Where the Chair is unable to resolve the complaint by consensual resolution, the Chair shall forward the complaint to the Assistant Dean for Academic Affairs, in which case the following procedures will apply if the student is a GSAS student or if the student is not a GSAS student.
Referral of the Complaint to the FAS Committee on Student Discipline
Where the Department or Program is unable to resolve the complaint of academic misconduct by consensual resolution, the student is notified that the complaint shall be forwarded to the FAS Committee on Student Discipline no less than one (1) week from the notification date. During the period between the notice to the student and the complaint being forwarded to the FAS Committee on Student Discipline (the “Mediation Period”), the student will have the opportunity to meet with the Assistant Dean of Academic Affairs or their designee. The Assistant Dean or designee shall, upon request, meet with the student, discuss the evidence of misconduct, and provide the student with information about the procedures of the FAS Committee on Student Discipline. No additional information will be gathered or considered during this period. The Assistant Dean or designees may not revise the terms for a resolution, but the Department or Program may offer revised terms and the student may change their decision about a consensual resolution on the terms offered by the Department or Program. If a consensual resolution is not reached during the Mediation Period, the matter will be referred to the FAS Committee on Student Discipline.
Misconduct by non-GSAS Student
Where the Department or Program is unable to resolve the complaint of academic misconduct by consensual resolution with a non-GSAS student, the student is notified that the complaint shall be forwarded to the Dean of Students, or equivalent, of that student’s home school. The student’s home school policies on academic discipline will then be employed. GSAS will abide by the findings of the student’s home school.
Filing of a Complaint
In the case of behavioral misconduct a complaint shall be filed in writing with the Assistant Dean for Students by the Department in which the alleged misconduct occurred or by any member of the GSAS community who claims to have been injured or affected by the alleged misconduct.
Notification by the Assistant Dean for Students
The Assistant Dean for Students shall provide notice of the filing of the complaint to the student in writing within one (1) week of receipt of the complaint. When such a complaint is received, the Assistant Dean will notify the NYU Office of Student Conduct, who will investigate the complaint and, if the student is found guilty, impose whatever sanction deemed appropriate to the offense.
The penalty for a repeat offense to a specific complaint will be termination from the graduate program.
Because of the wide range of seriousness of offenses of any given general type, no specific penalties are suggested for first occurrences. Each case must be judged independently, taking into account the seriousness of the offense, aggravating and mitigating circumstances, and the general desirability of treating similarly situated students similarly. In all cases, it should be determined whether or not notice of the penalty should be placed on the student’s record. As a guide to assessing the penalty to be applied, some possible considerations are outlined in the NYU Student Conduct Procedures for various general offenses.
Notification to the student of a charge of misconduct must be made formally. At a minimum, students should receive an electronic document containing the charge and the resulting process. Simple email notification is not sufficient, but may be used as an initial, quick notification to students as long as it is followed up by a formal notification in a timely manner.
Redress of Grievances
Any student registered in GSAS courses or otherwise formally involved in GSAS programs has the right to file a grievance. Certain types of grievances must be adjudicated within GSAS, while others must be adjudicated at the University level. The following rules are designed to provide GSAS students with a mechanism of redress.
In the following cases, grievances must be adjudicated outside GSAS. Questions about whether or not grievances fall within these guidelines should be addressed to either of the Assistant Deans, for Students or for Academic Affairs, in the Office of Academic and Student Affairs (OASA).
Harassment, Discrimination, Sexual Misconduct
If the matter involves alleged harassment, discrimination, or sexual misconduct in violation of either the University’s Non-Discrimination and Anti-Harassment Policy and Complaint Procedures for Students or the University’s Sexual Misconduct, Relationship Violence, and Stalking Policy , grievances should be filed promptly with the Office of Equal Opportunity.
Grievance Arising in Other School or College
If the student’s grievance concerns a student, faculty or staff member whose primary affiliation is with another school or college, the student shall consult and follow that school or college’s procedures. In addition, the student shall submit copies of the written grievance to either of the OASA Assistant Deans and the comparable office in the other school or college.
In the following cases, grievances can be adjudicated within GSAS:
- The student believes that they have been subject to treatment which is in violation of a GSAS or FAS rule, procedure or policy
- The student believes that they are being affected by an unfair and/or incomplete GSAS or FAS rule, procedure or policy or implementation of same
A student may file a grievance concerning a grade on the basis of inequitable or prejudicial practices or administrative or clerical errors if he or she believes a grade to be incorrect. No other reason can form the basis for a grievance regarding a grade.
Students may not issue a grievance against an academic probation or termination or the terms therein. If a student believes that an academic probation or termination decision, or the terms thereof, is in violation of an NYU or GSAS rule, the appeal process should be employed.
Students who wish to file a grievance against some aspect of an online program or course must first follow the procedure below. However, if they move through the entire GSAS process and are not satisfied with the decision of the Dean students may then reference NYU's state authorization website for further information detailing the applicable complaint process rather than proceeding to the University Judicial Board. Students should contact the Assistant Dean for Academic Affairs with any questions regarding this process.
Complaint proceedings concerning events or conditions within GSAS or FAS may be initiated in two ways:
- If the event or condition occurred within a departmental context, the student shall notify the Department Chair or Program Director within thirty (30) days of the occurrence of the event or occurrence being grieved. The Chair or Director shall investigate the complaint and respond to the student within fifteen (15) days of notification. The student may be offered terms which, if accepted, will constitute a binding consensual agreement in resolution of the issue.
- If the event or condition occurred outside the departmental context but still within GSAS, the student shall contact the Assistant Dean for Academic Affairs within thirty (30) days of the occurrence of the event or occurrence being grieved. The Assistant Dean will arrange meetings within fifteen (15) days of notification as appropriate, attend such meeting(s), and attempt to aid in the resolution of the complaint. The student may be offered terms which, if accepted, will constitute a binding consensual agreement in resolution of the issue.
If the complaint is not resolved to the student’s satisfaction through means outlined above, and the complaint is one defined to be adjudicated by GSAS, the student may bring a formal grievance to either of the OASA Assistant Deans within fifteen (15) days after the conclusion of the initiation of the complaint. In this case, the student must submit a formal written grievance to either of the Assistant Deans. The grievant shall state the grounds for the grievance, specifying departmental, GSAS, or FAS policy, rules, or procedures in question, describe the facts and evidence supporting the grievance, indicate what redress the grievant seeks, provide a brief history of the attempts to resolve the grievance, and identify any individuals who can be contacted for relevant information. Students may request a restriction of the investigation or attempted resolution of a grievance based on concerns about privacy or conflict of interest. The OASA Assistant Deans will determine which Assistant Dean will oversee the grievance and will notify the student of their decision.
Upon receipt of a formal grievance, the Assistant Dean overseeing the grievance will promptly schedule a meeting with the grievant. One person may accompany and advise the grievant, but cannot directly participate in the meeting. The Assistant Dean or the student may request the presence of the other OASA Assistant Dean or the Director of the Master’s College at the meeting. The student or the Assistant Dean may request that the meeting be recorded. The Assistant Dean may contact such other persons as the Assistant Dean deems appropriate, subject to the restrictions of the grievant, for the purpose of ascertaining the facts and evidence in the case. The Assistant Dean shall render a written decision on the grievance to the grievant, the respondent, and, if the matter had previously been addressed in the department, to the department.
Notification of Results of Grievance
The Assistant Dean is required to provide written notification to a student of the results of their grievance within the time limits set above. The notification must address each point of contention raised in the student’s grievance and include the further grievance process available to the student.
The student may appeal in writing the decision of the Assistant Dean to the Dean of GSAS within two weeks of receipt of the Assistant Dean’s decision. The Dean will review only the process resulting in the Assistant Dean’s finding to determine if it was fair and impartial and followed the rules and policies of the Graduate School. No new information beyond what was reported to the Assistant Dean will be considered. The Dean will render a written decision to the student within thirty (30) days of receipt of the appeal. The Dean’s decision shall be final for GSAS and its departments.
The Dean is required to provide written notification to a student of the results of their grievance within the time limits set above. The notification must address each point of contention raised in the student’s grievance and include the further grievance process available to the student.
Students wishing to appeal the Dean’s decision should consult the University’s Student Grievance Procedure . GSAS procedures cover Articles I through III of the University’s procedures, so any appeal would start with Article IV, the University Judicial Board.
The Office of the Dean of GSAS shall retain a copy of any grievance formally submitted to the Assistant Dean for Academic Affairs or to the Dean, any amended grievance, and any decision of the Assistant Dean and/or Dean for five (5) calendar years following the date on which the grievance is resolved.
GSAS students may elect to engage in internships that they arrange on their own with organizations or businesses. GSAS students are encouraged to evaluate internships carefully and to consult the internship guidelines prepared by the Wasserman Center as they consider whether to pursue internship experiences. ( Important Considerations Before Accepting a Job or Internship ) In some cases GSAS departments and programs may identify non‐credit internship experiences and make them known to graduate students. Programs and departments will typically not monitor student participation in non‐credit internship experiences, although some monitoring will take place when such internships are required components of specific GSAS programs. In order to be eligible as a credit‐bearing activity, an internship must comply with the following guidelines. It must be closely related to a student’s academic program. There must be clearly defined learning objectives and goals. There must also be supervision: both onsite supervision by a person with education and training in a relevant field and supervision by a faculty member who agrees to serve as the instructor of record. The on‐site supervisor will provide the department or program with a written evaluation of the student’s effort, and the faculty member will be responsible for submitting a grade. Academic credit for an internship is awarded through enrollment in one of two kinds of courses:
- A department or program may offer an Internship course for enrollment on an individual basis by a student. As with Directed Readings or Directed Research courses, enrollment in an individual Internship course requires signature by a supervising faculty member and approval by the program’s DGS. Directed Readings or Directed Research designations should not be used to enroll students for internships for academic credit.
- A department or program may propose and sponsor a course for credit that involves a significant internship component. Depending on the number of credits associated with the course, students may be required to attend class in addition to their internship experiences and engage in classroom and other academic exercises in addition to their internship experiences.
GSAS procedures for the awarding of academic credit for an internship include the following:
- An internship experience must be listed in Albert in one of the two ways described above and with the department or program’s numbering designation.
- An internship course may not be done in excess of a program’s required credit.
- A maximum of two internship courses may be taken for credit if an internship experience is not required in the academic program.
- A maximum of six credits in internship courses may be taken for academic credit toward a GSAS degree.
- An internship course may be graded with letter grades or as Pass/Fail. The grading scale must be specified and agreed upon at the time of the student’s registration in an internship course.
- Each internship experience connected with a course must include a learning agreement that outlines the mutually agreed‐upon description of the student’s activities in the internship, the duration and hours of the internship, and the site supervisor’s commitment to provide at least one written evaluation of the student’s effort to his/her program or department.
- Internship duties cannot exceed 20 hours per week during the Fall and Spring academic semesters. Full‐time internships are permitted during the summer semester.
The Graduate School of Arts & Science does not offer placement exams.
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Welcome to the nyu libraries citation style guide..
When you are writing a paper or doing research on a topic, you must cite your sources. Academic or scholarly work requires a bibliography, which may also be referred to as a works cited page, a citations list, or a reference list. There are many reasons why citing your sources is important, and you must cite them in order to avoid plagiarism . There are various styles for citing sources; you will most likely find that you will need to use one style if you are writing a paper for a literature course and a different style if you are working in the sciences or social sciences.
How to use this guide:
Using the pages of this guide, you should select the citation style appropriate for your field of study. On each page, there are some basic examples of items you might be citing. For further examples or more detailed assistance, you may need to refer to a complete writing and style guide. Go to the More Style and Writing Guides page for more information.
Citation management systems, like RefWorks or Endnote, are extremely useful for keeping track of, organizing, formatting, and sharing your reference lists. Go to the Citation Management and Formatting Tools page for more information.
If you have questions about how to cite your sources or what style you should use, remember that you can ask your professor, teaching assistant, advisor, or a librarian. Good luck!
What Is Plagiarism?
Why should you cite your sources, when should you cite your sources.
Plagiarism (pronounced: play -juh-riz-um) is the act of taking someone else’s words, ideas, or information and passing them off as your own. If you don’t give credit to the author of these ideas in footnotes or endnotes and a bibliography, you are committing plagiarism, which is a serious academic offense.
Everything you find that is written, whether in print in books and journals, or on the web, should be considered copyrighted . That means that you should think of it as belonging to someone else. Information that you find on the web is not free to take or use – it is someone else’s intellectual property . Any material lifted from an original source, including web resources, without proper acknowledgement or credit is considered plagiarized. Inadvertent or accidental plagiarism is still plagiarism. Plagiarism can inadvertently happen if you are not careful about taking notes while you research; it is sometimes difficult to remember exactly where your ideas came from when you are doing research, so remember to cite your sources while you work.
It is your responsibility to know what constitutes plagiarism. Not knowing citation standards is not an excuse. When in doubt, err on the side of over-documentation and cite the source. You can also ask your professor, teaching assistant, or a librarian for help in determining what is and is not plagiarism.
All scholarly or academic work requires that you cite your sources, whether you are writing a long paper or a quick report. Why is citing your research so important?
Researching and writing a paper ideally involves a process of exploring and learning. By citing your sources, you are showing your reader how you came to your conclusions and acknowledging the other people's work that brought you to your conclusions.
Citing your sources...
- Documents your research and scholarship
- Acknowledges the work of others whose scholarship contributed to your work
- Helps your reader understand the context of your argument
- Provides information for your reader to use to locate additional information on your topic
- Establishes the credibility of your scholarship
- Provides you with an opportunity to demonstrate your own integrity and understanding of academic ethics
Partially adapted from "When and Why to Cite Sources." SUNY Albany. 2008. Retrieved 29 Aug 2020. https://library.albany.edu/infolit/resource/cite-sources
Sometimes your professor or your discipline will have specific requirements about when and how to cite your sources. However, these are some guidelines that generally apply.
Always cite your sources when:
- You quote verbatim from someone else's work.
- You summarize or paraphrase someone else's work.
- You are conveying information which may be unfamiliar to your reader (e.g. statistics or factual data).
- You are not sure whether or not you need to cite. As mentioned above, when in doubt, err on the side of caution. It is better to give your reader more information rather than less .
Remember, if you have a question about whether or not you need to cite your source, you can ask your professor, teaching assistant, or a librarian for help. Sometimes citing your sources takes a little bit of time and effort, but it is worth it to avoid plagiarism.
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Taffe, S. (2017). The Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders: The politics of inter-racial coalition in Australia, 1958–1973. [Doctoral thesis, Monash University]. Bridges. https://doi.org/10.4225/03/59d4482289ea4
Bozeman, A. Jr. (2007). Age of onset as predictor of cognitive performance in children with seizure disorders (Publication No. 3259752) [Doctoral dissertation, The Chicago School of Professional Psychology]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis or dissertation [Unpublished Doctoral dissertation or Master's thesis]. Name of Institution.
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For further guidance, see the APA Style website- Published Dissertation or Thesis , Unpublished Dissertation or Theses .
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Title : Active carbons as nanoporous materials for solving of environmental problems
However, up to now, the main carriers of catalytic additives have been mineral sorbents: silica gels, alumogels. This is obviously due to the fact that they consist of pure homogeneous components SiO2 and Al2O3, respectively. It is generally known that impurities, especially the ash elements, are catalytic poisons that reduce the effectiveness of the catalyst. Therefore, carbon sorbents with 5-15% by weight of ash elements in their composition are not used in the above mentioned technologies. However, in such an important field as a gas-mask technique, carbon sorbents (active carbons) are carriers of catalytic additives, providing effective protection of a person against any types of potent poisonous substances (PPS). In ESPE “JSC "Neorganika" there has been developed the technology of unique ashless spherical carbon carrier-catalysts by the method of liquid forming of furfural copolymers with subsequent gas-vapor activation, brand PAC. Active carbons PAC have 100% qualitative characteristics of the three main properties of carbon sorbents: strength - 100%, the proportion of sorbing pores in the pore space – 100%, purity - 100% (ash content is close to zero). A particularly outstanding feature of active PAC carbons is their uniquely high mechanical compressive strength of 740 ± 40 MPa, which is 3-7 times larger than that of such materials as granite, quartzite, electric coal, and is comparable to the value for cast iron - 400-1000 MPa. This allows the PAC to operate under severe conditions in moving and fluidized beds. Obviously, it is time to actively develop catalysts based on PAC sorbents for oil refining, petrochemicals, gas processing and various technologies of organic synthesis.
Victor M. Mukhin was born in 1946 in the town of Orsk, Russia. In 1970 he graduated the Technological Institute in Leningrad. Victor M. Mukhin was directed to work to the scientific-industrial organization "Neorganika" (Elektrostal, Moscow region) where he is working during 47 years, at present as the head of the laboratory of carbon sorbents. Victor M. Mukhin defended a Ph. D. thesis and a doctoral thesis at the Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (in 1979 and 1997 accordingly). Professor of Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia. Scientific interests: production, investigation and application of active carbons, technological and ecological carbon-adsorptive processes, environmental protection, production of ecologically clean food.
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Hugo Dewar 1957
The Moscow Trials ‘Revised’
Source : Problems of Communism , Volume 6, no 1, January-February 1957. Scanned and prepared for the Marxist Internet Archive by Paul Flewers.
For many years Soviet propagandists and pro-Soviet Western observers presented ‘Soviet justice’ as a forward step in the advancement of legal science. Thus, the British jurist DN Pritt wrote, in a contemporary eulogy of the Moscow purge trials of the 1930s, that ‘the judicature and the prosecuting attorney of the USSR [Andrei Vyshinsky] have established their reputation among the legal systems of the world’.  Pritt was not at all disconcerted by the singular fact, unparalleled in Western jurisprudence, that the accused in the Soviet trials did not raise a finger to defend themselves, but instead confessed with seeming eagerness to the most heinous crimes. The Soviet government, he blandly stated, ‘would have preferred that all or most of the accused should have pleaded not guilty and contested the case’. 
The naïveté, or wilful blindness, of such statements has long been apparent. As early as 1937, an independent commission of inquiry conducted an exhaustive investigation into the Moscow trials of 1936 and 1937 and found them to be clear-cut travesties of justice.  The commission’s findings were bolstered by an ever-mounting accumulation of evidence regarding the methods employed to produce the victims’ obviously abnormal eagerness to sign their own death warrants.
Today not even the most naïve apologist can continue his self-deception. At the Twentieth Congress of the CPSU the myth was broken for all time when Nikita Khrushchev, in a secret report to a closed session of the congress, revealed the depths to which Soviet ‘justice’ had sunk:
Stalin originated the concept ‘enemy of the people’. This term automatically rendered unnecessary that the ideological errors of a man or men engaged in a controversy be proven... The formula was specifically introduced for the purpose of physically annihilating such individuals... 
It is significant, however, that, in denouncing ‘violations of socialist law’, Khrushchev made no direct mention either of the show trial as such, or of its exportation to the satellites. His remarks about Zinoviev and Kamenev and about the ‘annihilation’ of Lenin’s closest colleagues as ‘enemies of the party’ were furthermore clear attempts to restrict the discussion to ‘violations of socialist law’ in the period following Kirov’s assassination in December 1934 – to the great trials and purges of the 1930s. 
This effort is a transparent indication that the present collective leadership cannot make a decisive, radical break with their Stalinist past. It is to Stalin that the present Soviet leaders owe their positions, and it was during his reign that their methods of ‘governing’ and dispensing ‘justice’ were decisively moulded. That is why Khrushchev and his colleagues will not admit that the genesis of the Stalin-type inquisitorial trial goes much farther back than 1934, indeed, as far back as 1922.
The idea of exploiting the judicial trial of political opponents for the purpose of ‘educating’ the masses was first given concrete expression in 1922, when a trial of 22 prominent members of the Social Revolutionary Party was staged. At that time the technique of the show trial had not been perfected, and only ten police stooges consented to play the role of cringing penitents and government propagandists. At first, the state was content with this number and even permitted the rest to defend themselves stoutly. They openly proclaimed their political convictions and even refused to recognise the court. Just prior to the trial, the Bolsheviks entered into an agreement in Berlin with representatives of the international socialist movement by which several prominent socialists were invited to participate in the defence; and in the early stages of the trial they were very active on behalf of the accused. As the trial progressed, however, the intolerable contradictions between accepted conceptions of justice and a Soviet-sponsored political trial were revealed. Bit by bit the essential elements of the show trial, with which the world later became familiar, emerged.
The presiding judge struck the keynote for the proceedings by declaring that the court would be guided not by objective considerations but by the interests of the government. During the course of the trial Bukharin declared the Berlin agreement null and void, and this, coupled with the prosecution’s obstructive tactics, caused the foreign socialists to withdraw. Perhaps most important in the development of the show trial, however, was the first utilisation of the technique of agitating against the accused outside of court. Yuri Pyatakov, the president of the tribunal, spoke at one of the mass demonstrations, as did Bukharin, who applauded the role played in the trial by the ten who had ‘confessed’. 
In the course of the next few years the show trial was gradually brought to a high stage of perfection. ‘Evidence’ was manufactured and, by means of inhuman tortures, the accused were brought into court ‘prepared’ to cooperate in arranging their own destruction. During the course of the so-called Shakhty trial (1928), for example, a group of engineers, personifying the ‘bourgeois specialists’, took the blame for the country’s chronic economic ills and accused foreign ‘interventionist circles’ of directing their sabotage.  By 1930 the technique had been further perfected, and during the Industrial Party trial every single one of the accused confessed to ‘planned’ sabotage in drafting or implementing the First Five-Year Plan. One of the witnesses, brought in under heavy GPU guard, was Professor Osadchy, formerly a member of the CEC (Central Economic Council) of the Supreme Soviet, and assistant chairman of the State Planning Commission. Incredible as it may seem, Osadchy, who was one of the prosecutors at the Shakhty trial, confessed to having plotted with the very men whom he had sentenced to death in 1928! 
Stalin’s speech at the Sixteenth Congress (June-July 1930) gave at least the outward rationale for all the great Moscow trials.  His thesis was that whenever the contradictions inherent within the capitalist system grow acute, the bourgeoisie tries to solve them by turning on the Soviet Union. By the bourgeoisie Stalin meant primarily foreign nations, but his main purpose was to justify the purge of internal opposition to his rule. The vast international ‘plots’ which were uncovered regularly involved certain native Communists; often these were among the most celebrated of the revolutionary heroes, their ‘crimes’ consisting in their opposition to Stalin’s dictatorship. Without respect to their previous service, these men were condemned as saboteurs working in collaboration with the outside enemy to wreck the economy of the Soviet Union.
Thus, the Great Purge, as well as the thousands of unpublicised local purges, served the double purpose of removing those who opposed Stalin and of providing for the population an ‘explanation’ of the continuing low standard of living. Vyshinsky made the point in the following manner:
It is now clear why there are interruptions of supplies here and there, why with our riches and abundance of products, there is a shortage first of one thing and then of another. It is these traitors who are responsible. 
Vyshinsky also underlined the connection between the various trials. Stalin’s thesis had been proved, he said: all the trials had uncovered ‘systematically conducted espionage... the devilish work of foreign intelligence...’. 
Characteristically, although it was ostensibly against Stalin’s thesis and its implications that Khrushchev railed at the Twentieth Congress, his anger was aroused most of all by the fact that Stalin’s wrath had been turned against the party itself:
Using Stalin’s formulation... the provocateurs who had infiltrated the state security organs together with conscienceless careerists... [launched] mass terror against party cadres... It should suffice to say that the number of arrests based on charges of counter-revolutionary crimes had grown ten times between 1936 and 1937. 
Khrushchev summed up the Stalin era in anguished tones:
In the main, and in actuality, the only proof of guilt used, against all norms of current legal science, was the ‘confession’ of the accused himself; and, as subsequent probing proved, ‘confessions’ were acquired through physical pressures against the accused. 
Khrushchev’s speech is a masterpiece of hypocrisy. To be sure, of the 1966 delegates to the Seventeenth Party Congress (1934), 1108 were arrested on charges of counter-revolutionary activity. But Khrushchev well knows that it was not a question of ‘subsequent probing’: every leading Communist in the Soviet Union knew at the time what was going on. They were aware that the ‘confessions’ were shot through with contradictions and obvious absurdities; they knew that the trials were frame-ups.
As a matter of fact, Khrushchev’s speech itself corroborates our previous evidence that the Politburo was well aware of what was going on:
At the February-March Central Committee Plenum in 1937 many members actually questioned the rightness of the established course regarding mass repressions under the pretext of combating ‘two-facedness’. 
Khrushchev thus confirms that opposition to Stalin’s iron-heel policy was expressed even within the Politburo. People who had employed the most despicable methods against both non-party and party opponents began to voice ‘doubts’ when the police terror menaced them. Among those who ventured to speak up in 1937 was Pavel Postyshev, candidate member of the Politburo. Indeed, Khrushchev said that Postyshev expressed his doubts ‘most ably’, as did Stanislav Kossior, a member of the Politburo – both were liquidated. Other prominent Stalinist victims of the monster they themselves helped create were Vlas Chubar, Yan Rudzutak, Grigory Petrovsky and Robert Eikhe: all men of the Lenin era who had thrown in their lot with Stalin in his struggle for power.
How was it, then, that Molotov, Mikoyan, Voroshilov, Khrushchev and others survived? They saved themselves either by keeping their mouths shut or, where their closeness to Stalin made this impossible, by sedulously fostering the cult of the ‘brilliant leader’. Certainly Khrushchev was not unaware of what was going on. Kossior, for example, was purged in the Ukraine while he was closely associated with Khrushchev.
Without speculating about the possible splits and rivalries within the top leadership of the CPSU revealed by the varying degrees of vehemence with which individual Soviet leaders condemned Stalin’s ‘cult of personality’, the central goal of the leadership as a whole is perfectly obvious. Khrushchev and his supporters are vitally concerned with ‘rehabilitating’ the party and strengthening its authority vis-à-vis the police apparatus. The terrors of the Stalinist era left party cadres either demoralised and spiritless or, much worse, cynically and brutally opportunistic. In any event, the leadership felt that the support of the new generation of Communists – the managerial caste and the intellectuals – required assurances that the days of arbitrary terror were over. In Khrushchev’s words:
Arbitrary behaviour by one person encouraged and permitted arbitrariness in others. Mass arrests and deportations of many thousands of people, execution without trial and without normal investigation created conditions of insecurity, fear and even desperation. 
The exportation of the macabre and revolting confessional trial to Eastern Europe was never much of a success. The process that had transformed the CPSU into a terrorised and docile instrument of the leader took 14 years; in Poland, Bulgaria and Hungary it was telescoped into less than four years – somewhat longer in Czechoslovakia and Rumania. During this time the weak satellite Communist parties (only in Czechoslovakia could the Communists claim any sizeable following) were deprived of their ablest leaders. It was clear from the trials, moreover, that these leaders were imprisoned and executed because they attempted to stand up to the Soviet Union and that the leaders who remained were mere Soviet satraps. The confession trials of ‘national Communists’ therefore destroyed what little basis the Communist parties had for claiming to represent national interests, or even the interests of the industrial workers. At the same time, they failed dismally to destroy either national sentiment among the people or Titoist tendencies within the rank-and-file of the Communist parties.
Quite on the contrary, there can be no doubt that the confession trials in Eastern Europe played a great role in enhancing anti-Soviet feeling and in undermining the Communist parties’ faith in themselves. The enormous crowds that attended the reinternment of Rajk in Hungary after his posthumous rehabilitation were symptomatic of the anti-Soviet mood that had been generated by the ‘educational’ methods of Soviet-inspired ‘justice’. The bloodless revolt in Poland and the heroic uprising of the Hungarian workers, peasants and intellectuals were due in large part to the exposure of Soviet methods and aims which resulted from the export of the ‘modern inquisition’. The people of the satellite nations share with the Russian people a deep and bitter hatred of the secret police, and a deathless desire to end the insufferable horrors which the confession trial represented.
That the Soviet leaders were, and remain, keenly aware of this was implicit in their repudiation at the Twentieth Congress of the Stalinist inquisition and in the gradual steps that have been instituted to correct some of the more objectionable features of the police and judicial apparatus. They obviously are attempting to restore public confidence in a party and system that had become thoroughly and openly compromised. In so doing, however, they paradoxically underlined still further the bankruptcy of the system that claimed to have produced that ‘glorious workers’ paradise’, the ‘most advanced country in the world’, and they reveal nakedly their inability to cast off the imprint of this system of terror and ‘educational justice’.
1. DN Pritt, The Moscow Trial Was Fair (Russia Today, London, nd).
2. DN Pritt, The Zinoviev Trial (Gollancz, London, 1936).
3. This Commission was headed by the noted American philosopher, John Dewey. Its findings were published in two books: The Case of Leon Trotsky (Secker and Warburg, London, 1937); and Not Guilty (Secker and Warburg, London, 1938).
4. The Anti-Stalin Campaign and International Communism: A Selection Of Documents (Columbia University Press, New York, 1956), p. 13.
5. For a full discussion of these trials see this author’s The Modern Inquisition (Allan Wingate, London, 1953).
6. The most complete record of this trial is in VS Voitinski, The Twelve Who Are About To Die (Delegation of the Party of Socialists-Revolutionists, Berlin, 1922). The death sentences passed against the accused were never carried out.
7. No official records of this trial have been published. Of secondary sources, the best are HH Tiltman, The Terror in Europe (Frederick A Stokes, New York, 1932); and Eugene Lyons, Assignment in Utopia (Harcourt, Brace, New York, 1937), especially pp. 114-33.
8. Andrew Rothstein (ed), Wreckers on Trial (Modern Books, London, 1931).
9. Some of the sources on the most important Moscow trials are the following: on the 1931 Menshevik trial – The Menshevik Trial (Modern Books, London, 1931); on the 1933 Metropolitan-Vickers Industrial Company Trial – The Case of NP Vitvitsky... [and others] Charged With Wrecking Activities at Power Stations in the Soviet Union (three volumes, State Law Publishing House, Moscow, 1933); on the 1936 trial – The Case of the Trotskyite – Zinovievite Terrorist Centre (People’s Commissariat of Justice of the USSR, Moscow, 1936); on the 1937 trial – Report of Court Proceedings in the Case of the Anti-Soviet Trotskyite Centre (People’s Commissariat of Justice of the USSR, Moscow, 1937); on the 1938 trial – Report of Court Proceedings in the Case of the Anti-Soviet ‘Bloc of Rights and Trotskyites ’ (People’s Commissariat of Justice of the USSR, Moscow, 1938).
10. Report of Court Proceedings in the Case of the Anti-Soviet ‘Bloc of Rights and Trotskyites ’, pp. 636-37.
11. Report of Court Proceedings in the Case of the Anti-Soviet ‘Bloc of Rights and Trotskyites ’, pp. 636-37.
12. The Anti-Stalin Campaign , p. 30.
13. The Anti-Stalin Campaign , p. 12.
14. The Anti-Stalin Campaign , p. 29.
15. The Anti-Stalin Campaign , p. 14.
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