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How to Create an Effective Thesis Statement in 5 Easy Steps
Creating a thesis statement can be a daunting task. It’s one of the most important sentences in your paper, and it needs to be done right. But don’t worry — with these five easy steps, you’ll be able to create an effective thesis statement in no time.
Step 1: Brainstorm Ideas
The first step is to brainstorm ideas for your paper. Think about what you want to say and write down any ideas that come to mind. This will help you narrow down your focus and make it easier to create your thesis statement.
Step 2: Research Your Topic
Once you have some ideas, it’s time to do some research on your topic. Look for sources that support your ideas and provide evidence for the points you want to make. This will help you refine your argument and make it more convincing.
Step 3: Formulate Your Argument
Now that you have done some research, it’s time to formulate your argument. Take the points you want to make and put them into one or two sentences that clearly state what your paper is about. This will be the basis of your thesis statement.
Step 4: Refine Your Thesis Statement
Once you have formulated your argument, it’s time to refine your thesis statement. Make sure that it is clear, concise, and specific. It should also be arguable so that readers can disagree with it if they choose.
Step 5: Test Your Thesis Statement
The last step is to test your thesis statement. Does it accurately reflect the points you want to make? Is it clear and concise? Does it make an arguable point? If not, go back and refine it until it meets all of these criteria.
Creating an effective thesis statement doesn’t have to be a daunting task. With these five easy steps, you can create a strong thesis statement in no time at all.
This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.
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Are Anti Smoking Ads Effective? Introductory Paragraph Grab the...
Are Anti Smoking Ads Effective?
- Grab the reader's attention by using a "hook."
- Give an overview of the argument.
- Close with a thesis statement that reveals the position to be argued.
- Side A - All the facts and reasoning that supports your paper's argument
- Side B - What is the counterargument, and why is it incorrect or why does it not discredit your argument
- Remember not to "speak" in your paper with personal pronouns (like "I" or "my",) as you want your paper to speak to the reader, not you personally
- Each body paragraph should focus on one piece of evidence.
- Within each paragraph, provide sufficient supporting detail.
- Restate and reinforce the thesis and supporting evidence.
- Include In text citation and paragraphs each
- Raeke, M. (2020, July 7). Examining the impact of the tobacco industry's court-ordered anti-smoking advertisements . MD Anderson Cancer Center. https://www.mdanderson.org/cancerwise/do-the-tobacco-industry-court-ordered-anti-smoking-advertisements-help-people-quit-smoking.h00-159383523.html
- Durkin, S. J., Biener, L., & Wakefield, M. A. (2009, April 8). Effects of Different Types of Antismoking Ads on Reducing Disparities in Smoking Cessation Among Socioeconomic Subgroups . PubMed Central (PMC). https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2009.161638
Answer & Explanation
Anti-smoking ads have been a common feature in various media, including television, radio, print, and digital platforms, for many years. The purpose of these ads is to discourage people from smoking and to encourage current smokers to quit. However, the effectiveness of these ads has been a subject of debate among public health experts. This essay examines the effectiveness of anti-smoking ads in changing smokers' behavior and attitude towards smoking.
The effectiveness of anti-smoking ads has been a subject of debate among public health experts for many years. However, research conducted by Durkin et al. (2009) has shown that different types of anti-smoking ads could be effective in reducing smoking disparities among socio-economic subgroups. The study found that ads that focus on the negative health effects of smoking had a greater impact on low-income smokers than middle and high-income smokers. This is significant because low-income individuals are more likely to be smokers and have a higher risk of developing smoking-related illnesses. Therefore, anti-smoking ads that target low-income individuals could have a substantial impact on public health. Moreover, court-ordered anti-smoking ads required of the tobacco industry by the US government also demonstrate the effectiveness of anti-smoking ads. According to Raeke's (2020) research, these ads have been effective in changing the attitudes of both smokers and non-smokers towards smoking. The ads have raised awareness about the health risks associated with smoking and have increased the number of calls to quit smoking hotlines. This suggests that anti-smoking ads can motivate smokers to take action towards quitting. While some argue that anti-smoking ads may not be effective in changing smokers' behavior, the evidence suggests otherwise. Although some smokers may be resistant to change, the positive impact of anti-smoking ads on many others cannot be ignored. Anti-smoking ads have been shown to raise awareness of the negative health effects of smoking, reduce disparities in smoking cessation among socio-economic subgroups, and motivate smokers to quit. Therefore, efforts should continue to be made to educate the public about the dangers of smoking through various media platforms. The research suggests that anti-smoking ads can be effective in changing smokers' behavior and attitude towards smoking, particularly among low-income individuals. The positive impact of anti-smoking ads on public health is clear, and anti-smoking campaigns should continue to be developed and implemented through various media channels. This is crucial to reduce the prevalence of smoking and its associated negative health effects, especially among vulnerable socio-economic groups.
In conclusion, anti-smoking ads have been proven to be effective in changing the behavior and attitude of smokers towards smoking. Research conducted by Durkin et al. (2009) suggests that different types of anti-smoking ads can reduce smoking disparities among socio-economic subgroups, and those that focus on the negative health effects of smoking have a greater impact on low-income smokers than middle and high-income smokers. Additionally, court-ordered anti-smoking ads required by the US government have been effective in changing the attitudes of smokers and non-smokers towards smoking, raising awareness of the health risks associated with smoking, and increasing the number of calls to quit smoking hotlines (Raeke, 2020). While some argue that anti-smoking ads may not be effective in changing smokers' behavior, the research suggests otherwise. Although some smokers may be resistant to change, the positive impact of anti-smoking ads on many others cannot be ignored. Anti-smoking ads have been shown to raise awareness of the negative health effects of smoking, reduce disparities in smoking cessation among socio-economic subgroups, and motivate smokers to quit. Therefore, it is essential to continue to educate the public about the dangers of smoking through various media platforms to reduce smoking-related illnesses and deaths. It is evident that anti-smoking ads are an effective tool in reducing smoking rates, and they have contributed significantly to public health. As such, there is a need for continuous support and implementation of anti-smoking campaigns to create awareness and encourage more people to quit smoking. The positive impact of anti-smoking ads on public health is significant and should not be overlooked, and more efforts should be made to educate the public about the dangers of smoking through various media platforms.
Hook: "Anti-smoking ads have been a common feature in various media, including television, radio, print, and digital platforms, for many years."
Overview of the argument: "The purpose of these ads is to discourage people from smoking and to encourage current smokers to quit. However, the effectiveness of these ads has been a subject of debate among public health experts."
Thesis statement: "This essay examines the effectiveness of anti-smoking ads in changing smokers' behavior and attitude towards smoking."
The supporting details of the thesis that anti-smoking ads are effective are:
1. The research by Durkin, Biener, and Wakefield in 2009 suggests that anti-smoking ads can be effective in changing smokers' behavior, particularly among low-income individuals. Ads that focused on the negative health effects of smoking had a greater impact on low-income smokers than middle and high-income smokers. Low-income smokers who viewed these ads were more likely to make an attempt to quit smoking than those who did not see them.
2. Court-ordered anti-smoking ads required by the US government have been effective in changing the attitudes of both smokers and non-smokers towards smoking, according to research by Raeke (2020). These ads have raised awareness about the health risks associated with smoking and have increased the number of calls to quit smoking hotlines. Smokers who viewed these ads were more likely to attempt to quit smoking than those who did not.
3. Some argue that anti-smoking ads may not be effective in changing smokers' behavior, but the evidence suggests otherwise. While some smokers may be resistant to change, anti-smoking ads have been shown to raise awareness of the negative health effects of smoking, reduce disparities in smoking cessation among socio-economic subgroups, and motivate smokers to quit.
Anti-smoking ads have been proven to be effective in changing the behavior and attitude of smokers towards smoking.
Note: These are just sample answers. Please modify to make it personal.
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Aspects of Anti-Smoking Advertising Essay
Anti-smoking advertising is conventionally divided into several main messages, which are depicted using visual and verbal symbols. Several advertising messages can be attributed to the main message – smoking kills. Usually, such advertisements depict a cigarette and its harm – as a rule, images of weapons, bullets, bodies under sheets, and other symbols are used here. Another group of visual messages talks about the dangers of secondhand smoke – that is when smoke poisons the air and harms others. The third type is about the harm that is done to one’s health. A separate area of anti-smoking advertising even targets the problem of child smoking. However, how truly effective are these advertising campaigns for specific groups of people, such as committed smokers and health or marketing experts?
The first article reports the results of the study on the differences in perception of anti-smoking advertisements smokers and people with medicinal or advertising knowledge display in comparison with non-smokers or non-knowledgeable individuals. The research conducted by Lizama et al. (2019) aims to provide more insight into developing future public health promotion campaigns concerning such particular groups of people as listed above. The authors (2019) state that “although the effectiveness of different advertisement characteristics has been well documented, previous research has typically provided limited information about the individuals who code advertisement characteristics” (p. 529). Using quantitative and qualitative analysis, the authors found out that there are, indeed, significant differences in the perception of anti-smoking advertising campaigns by smokers and health or advertising experts.
Lizama et al. (2019) state in their research that it is a historical feature of all anti-smoking advertising campaigns to have a multitude of approaches and promotion techniques. Mostly, however, negative images and testimonials are used to elicit quitting behavior, and negative health messages are usually conveyed through them. The authors note that, while different advertisements target different ages or socioeconomic groups such as youths, non-smokers, or the general public, there is still limited information on the demographics and habits of the coding groups. Thus, the authors claim that an understanding of the qualities of coding groups could be crucial for future advertising campaigns. The authors aim to estimate whether the commercial features’ coding is constant among diverse groups, smokers specifically. Moreover, Lizama et al. (2019) also try to “assess whether evaluations of anti-smoking advertisement characteristics differ between smokers and ‘experts’ to determine whether these two groups are likely to provide comparable assessments” (p. 529). In the end, the authors emphasize the potential of taking into account these differences when creating anti-smoking advertisements.
The authors chose 49 cigarette smokers and 42 specialists from Western Australia to code the anti-smoking advertisements according to four main characteristics and the usage of eight execution advertisement techniques. The evaluated characteristics were: emotional or perceptive approach, positive or negative commercial tone, communication frame, and chief message. The execution techniques were: inducing fear; real-life testimonials; pictures of the smoker’s household; inducing shame or guilt; graphic imagery; song lines or melody; humor, and counter-arguments. The respondents were asked to evaluate 22 anti-smoking advertisements that aired on Western Australian television in the timespan from 2003 to 2017. Lizama et al.’s (2019) findings show that “compared with experts, smokers more frequently perceived advertisements as positive or neutral in tone and less frequently identified the main message of advertisements to have a negative impact” (p.531). Moreover, the smokers were less likely to see anti-smoking advertisements as inducing fear or laughter or containing the smoker’s family or song lyrics than experts.
The authors state that, overall, experts were significantly more likely to perceive the negative examples of smoking portrayed in the advertising. Lizama et al. (2019) conclude that, in the light of indicated inconsistencies in perception between smokers and experts, “relying solely on either group to code such advertisements could lead to misclassification of advertising elements” (p. 531). Thus, it is safe to say that the authors’ main and intended audience is the creators of anti-smoking public health advertisements. The insights provided by this study could help change the approach to anti-smoking advertisement campaigns to be more effective in the future. Moreover, the authors also add that advertisement messages that contain a negative emotional tone and health messages are more likely to prompt the viewers to quit smoking. Thus, the anti-smoking campaign’s creators could use this research for the development of new advertisements.
This article directly applies to the Strategies of Health Promotion course, as it provides valuable conclusions about the importance of differentiating the advertising strategy for different social, economic, or demographic groups. Recently, advertisers began to set higher importance on the balanced arrangement of advertising communications. It happens due to several reasons, which prove to be of utmost importance when speaking about public health promotion. First, when the advertisement campaign is organized properly, it can help not only to reach the target audience with the messages of the commercial but to develop continuous, evolving relations with it. As a result, the public health sector can establish strong relations with the population, acquiring more influence. Second, this method gives the promoters the possibility to spend the commercial’s budget deliberately and advantageously, leading to positive outcomes and eliminating unnecessary costs. With the help of behavioral and look-alike targeting, the promoters can show advertisements to people who are similar to the target audience of the campaign. This makes it possible to reach as many potential viewers as possible with the lowest search costs.
The research conducted by Lizama et al. (2019) also indicates the need to use cross-channel marketing when creating public health advertising campaigns. With this approach, the promoters can use different channels of communication with the audience and keep a complete record of the interactions between them. It is an important aspect of public health promotion, as it allows the maximization of the reach and efficiency of the advertising campaign. The results provided by this study complement the information from the textbook, expanding more on the aspect of the sociodemographic strategy of public health promotion. However, the authors could expand more on the peculiarities in the perception of anti-smoking advertising by experts with health and marketing knowledge separately. There is not enough information about the differences between these two sub-groups. The authors decided to place health and marketing experts into one group while it might be more insightful to differentiate them, too. Still, the research provides a comprehensive study of the differences between smokers’ and experts’ perceptions of anti-smoking advertisements, offering a deeper analysis of their assessment process.
People who suffer incurable diseases in terminal stages, such as stage IV cancer, require special care that combines medical, psychological, and social assistance. Often, after treatment for one reason or another turns out to be ineffectual, a person is left alone with their problems. Relatives of such a patient also often do not know how to improve their quality of life, how to help them cope with fears, and relieve pain. Professional palliative care has a positive impact on various aspects of the life of patients and their loved ones. Unfortunately, people are often afraid of hospices – even those who know about how they work and need their help hesitate to contact them and get the required care. Public health advertising campaigns are crucial for creating a positive image of palliative care and for convincing people to get into it.
The study conducted by Seymour (2018) investigates the impact public health awareness campaigns have on the population’s awareness of palliative care and its quality. The author states that despite the right to get palliative care being basic in society, inequalities still pose a significant barrier for some people to get it. According to Seymour (2018), “raising awareness is a key plank of the public health approach to palliative care but involves consideration of subjects most of us prefer not to address” (p. 1). This means that the effectiveness of public health advertising of palliative care has not been investigated enough. Seymour (2018) states that, while public health advertising campaigns do increase the population’s awareness of palliative care, there is limited evidence on whether it improves the quality of said care. Several key factors need to be considered before developing the campaign, such as targeting, networking, SMART objectives of the campaign, constant evaluation, and adherence to state and international policies. The author also emphasizes that comprehensive public health campaigns about palliative care should have clear and simple terminology, well-piloted materials, and use a wide variety of mass media channels to ensure the best reach.
The main point of the research provided by Seymour (2018) is to provide insight into the factors that determine the efficiency of a public health advertising campaign about palliative care. The author states four main questions that he addresses in his research. First, Seymour (2018) investigates the most effective techniques for informing people and encouraging them to participate in general health questions. Secondly, he determines how to most efficiently improve public knowledge of the issues of palliative therapy and help individuals communicate with their family members. Thirdly, he evaluates the best methods for increasing knowledge of advanced care planning and investigates its effect on care quality. Finally, he provides an analysis of existing successful palliative care advertising campaigns to determine their key features.
The author studies various types of campaigns in his research and draws on the connections between them. Overall, Seymour (2018) states that “an important condition for the success of any campaign is that individuals must feel able to trust the information given” (p. 4). He also underlines that, for example, in Canada, most people found the advertisements “distrustful” if they perceived the ads as provided by the government. Moreover, Seymour (2018) states that nowadays, a mixed approach to advertising is recommended, as it would provide the best reach. Younger people tend to find information online, while the older generation is generally drawn to television. However, working with a wide range of media resources in a cross-platform context presents a significant challenge for advertisers. This requires the right strategy, the right people, and the right tools to connect and track the diverse types of target audiences through their perception and potential application for care. Public health promoters should apply the success of the campaign to the next strategy and planning.
Although palliative care cannot cure the patient, it still has a positive effect on the patient’s general condition. In addition to medical manipulations, competent care for the terminally ill and simply elderly people also plays an important role in alleviating suffering. Relatives, with all their love for the patient, are not always able to provide such care: they are forced to be distracted by work and other daily activities. The way out of this difficult situation is to promote specialized institutions for the care of terminally ill and elderly people. Seymour (2018) adds that “evidence show benefits from public deliberation methods in bringing insights into social values; improving understanding of complex issues (particularly ethical and social dilemmas); and enhancing civic-mindedness” (p. 5). He also notes that social media can increase awareness of public health issues, which includes palliative care. Social media-based interventions, Seymour (2018) reports, are challenged with the need to reach diverse communities with different concerns regarding healthcare issues.
The intended audience of this research is the public healthcare sector that addresses the issues of palliative care. Seymour’s (2018) study provides valuable insight into the mechanisms behind successful health promotion advertisements aimed at raising awareness of palliative care. The systematic review concluded by the author gives a comprehensive overview of different approaches to promoting palliative care and the evaluation of their effectiveness. Public health promoters could find this study quite insightful and useful when developing new advertising campaigns for palliative care. For example, Seymour (2018) advises the creators of advertising campaigns to “start young,” as “involving and educating much younger people would prepare them better to deal with the issues in their families and communities” (p. 6). Moreover, he also adds that the messages should be culturally and socially tailored to avoid creating advertisements that would repel certain population groups. Overall, this research can be considered useful for any public health promotion campaign, as it provides a generalized overview of the most efficient strategies to reach the audience.
This article is a very good addition to the Strategies for the Health Promotion course, as it offers valuable insight specifically into the factors that impact the effectiveness of a health advertisement strategy. Seymour (2018) gives a review of the majority of existing studies on the subject of promoting palliative care, with a comprehensive evaluation of each. The concepts described and assessed in this research support the information from the textbook, giving real-life examples of strategic planning of advertising campaigns. Moreover, Seymour (2018) also provides thoughts on the possible interventions regarding the quality of palliative care. According to the author (2018), “opportunities for community engagement and action to improve palliative care at local, regional, and national levels can be built into complex interventions to improve the quality of palliative care” (p. 10). However, the author did not expand much on every research he reviewed and evaluated, rather only giving short insight into every study. Perhaps, some of the studies could provide more valuable information than the author concluded. Still, this article gives very important knowledge about strategic planning for public health promotion, addressing key features of successful advertisement campaigns.
Lizama, N., Slevin, T., & Pettigrew, S. (2019). Anti‐smoking advertisements are perceived differently by smokers and individuals with health or advertising knowledge . Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health , 43 (6), 529–531.
Seymour, J. (2018). The impact of public health awareness campaigns on the awareness and quality of palliative care . Journal of Palliative Medicine , 21 (S1).
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IvyPanda. (2023, February 16). Aspects of Anti-Smoking Advertising. https://ivypanda.com/essays/aspects-of-anti-smoking-advertising/
"Aspects of Anti-Smoking Advertising." IvyPanda , 16 Feb. 2023, ivypanda.com/essays/aspects-of-anti-smoking-advertising/.
IvyPanda . (2023) 'Aspects of Anti-Smoking Advertising'. 16 February.
IvyPanda . 2023. "Aspects of Anti-Smoking Advertising." February 16, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/aspects-of-anti-smoking-advertising/.
1. IvyPanda . "Aspects of Anti-Smoking Advertising." February 16, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/aspects-of-anti-smoking-advertising/.
IvyPanda . "Aspects of Anti-Smoking Advertising." February 16, 2023. https://ivypanda.com/essays/aspects-of-anti-smoking-advertising/.
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Are Anti-smoking Adverts Effective?
Background information, arguments against the use of anti-smoking campaigns, counterarguments: the effectiveness of anti-smoking campaigns, recommendations for future practice, reference list.
Smoking is responsible for over 440,000 deaths annually in the United States. A similar number of casualties occur in different parts of the world. Smoking is also “associated with different health problems such cancer, respiratory complications, and lung infections” (Ji, Xiong, Gilpin, & Biener, 2007, p. 34). Every society should create appropriate anti-smoking adverts because they have the potential to deal with the issue of tobacco use.
The loss of individuals due to tobacco use affects the economy of many societies. Many children in the developed world lose their guardians yearly due to smoking (Sachs, 2010). These statistics encourage every society to use the best anti-smoking ads in order to deal with the vice. This persuasive essay explains why anti-smoking adverts are effective towards dealing with smoking.
Studies have proved that “hard-hitting campaigns and adverts can produce positive results” (Ji et al., 2007, p. 29). Sachs (2010) believes strongly that appropriate anti-tobacco adverts can be useful towards addressing this problem. According to Sachs (2010, p. 59), a good advert “stimulates negative emotions thus encouraging more citizens to quit smoking”.
Many scholars “believe that anti-smoking campaigns are incapable of achieving their goals” (Ji et al., 2007, p. 29). This situation explains why our societies have failed to address the problem of smoking. Many people believe that anti-smoking campaigns are usually ineffective. According to Pampel (2009, p. 28), “different youths will ignore every anti-smoking advert”. Some scholars explain why televisions ads do not encourage people to quit smoking.
It is agreeable that “many smokers take a long time before quitting” (Pampel, 2009, p. 54). People will always be imperfect. Human beings will also embrace negative behaviors such as drinking and smoking. That being the case, the decision to illegalize cigarettes cannot produce the best results. Human beings will always make different mistakes.
Pampel (2009) believes that many anti-smoking adverts are ineffective. This fact explains why many people respond negatively to every anti-smoking advert. Peer pressure also encourages more youths to use different drugs. That being the case, anti-smoking ads do not play a major role towards dealing with this problem. Some scholars explain why the decision to illegalize cigarettes can deal with this problem. The above arguments describe why our societies ignore the use of different anti-smoking adverts. Many opponents embrace the use of legal measures (Pampel, 2009).
I strongly believe that effective anti-smoking campaigns can make a huge difference in every society. Our societies should identify the best messages in order to educate more citizens. The Florida Department of Health (FDOH) initiated a new campaign to educate the youth about the dangers of smoking (Sachs, 2010). The campaign embraced the use of aggressive ads. The approach sensitized more people about the dangers of smoking. This successful campaign encouraged hundreds of citizens to quit smoking (Bajde & Vida, 2009).
Adequate media campaigns can also discourage more youths from using hardcore drugs. The practice also “reduces the rate youth tobacco initiation” (Ji et al., 2007, p. 35). The graph below explains how anti-tobacco adverts have produced positive results in the United States.
Graphic images are useful towards education more people about the health implications of cigarettes. For instance, effective ads should explain how our children lose their parents due to smoking. Such “adverts are essential towards reinforcing a person’s desire to stop using cigarettes” (Bajde & Vida, 2009, p. 85). According to a study by Liu and Tan (2009), effective adverts and campaigns have the potential to touch the lives of many people. Such adverts should also analyze how smoking causes different disabilities. This fact explains why powerful anti-smoking advertisements have the potential to address this problem.
Campaigns and adverts showing the implications of smoking can encourage more adults to quit smoking. Such adverts also discourage young people from embracing the vice. According to Liu and Tan (2009, p. 33), “many smokers can quit smoking after seeing several emotional adverts”. This situation explains why “personal testimonies and highly emotional advertisements can encourage more individuals to quit smoking” (Liu & Tan, 2009, p. 34). Strong efficacy messages have the potential to produce good results.
According to Bajde and Vida (2009, p. 81), “teenagers and youths will always establish their unique subcultures”. Such youths also embrace the use of tobacco and other addictive drugs. Every good advert must focus on the best strategies towards sensitizing these youths. The advert presented below has sensitized many people about the dangers of smoking. We must create similar adverts in order to achieve the best goals.
Although “anti-tobacco campaigns can be effective towards dealing with this problem, the biggest concern is why a large number of citizens are still smoking today” (Liu & Tan, 2009, p. 43). Many adverts fail to address the challenges affecting our young people. For example, many youths do not care about their lives. Some adverts “have portrayed old men with wrinkled skins and rotten teeth” (Bajde & Vida, 2009, p. 86). Such adverts encourage the youth to continue smoking because they might not die soon. A good advert must describe how smoking is capable of causing death. This approach will eventually address the health issues associated with tobacco.
The number of smokers is still increasing in different parts of the world. Most of the existing laws have failed to address this challenge. The important thing is for every society to identify the best messages in an attempt to deal with the problem. Our governments should also support different anti-smoking campaigns (Liu & Tan, 2009). Every advert should also deliver the right message to the targeted audience.
Our societies should produce powerful adverts that can communicate to every citizen. The “best approach towards achieving this goal is by using televisions, newspapers, radios, and billboards” (Bajde & Vida, 2009, p. 85). The other challenge is that many adverts are unsustainable. Many anti-tobacco campaigns are usually short-lived. Such ads are ineffective towards informing more people about the consequences of smoking. The government has failed to support different agencies and organizations. This situation has made it impossible for such agencies to deal with the problem of smoking.
The agreeable fact is that anti-smoking ads are effective. Such adverts can produce positive results if our society embraces the best practices. Every advert should target both males and females in order to deal with the issue. Such adverts should also encourage more teenagers to avoid different drugs such as marijuana and heroin (Liu & Tan, 2009). Such addictive drugs encourage the youth to use tobacco and alcohol. In conclusion, different players must come together in order to deal with this problem.
Bajde, D., & Vida, I. (2009). The Impact of Ad Characteristics on Adolescents’ Attitudes towards Antismoking Ads. Managing Global Transitions, 6 (1), 75-93.
Ji, M., Xiong, C., Gilpin, E., & Biener, L. (2007). Assessing the Effectiveness of Anti-smoking Media Campaigns by Recall and Rating Scores: A Pattern-Mixture GEE Model Approach. Journal of Data Science, 5 (1), 23-40.
Liu, H., & Tan, W. (2009). The Effect of Anti-Smoking Media Campaign on Smoking Behavior: The California Experience. Annals of Economics and Finance, 10 (1), 29-47.
Pampel, F. (2009). Tobacco Industry and Smoking . New York, NY: Infobase Publishing.
Sachs, K. (2010). Up in Smoke: How Antismoking Advertisements Have Changed Youth Smoking Habits. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications , 1 (1), 58-69.
Cite this paper
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StudyCorgi. (2020, October 4). Are Anti-smoking Adverts Effective? Retrieved from https://studycorgi.com/are-anti-smoking-adverts-effective/
StudyCorgi. (2020, October 4). Are Anti-smoking Adverts Effective? https://studycorgi.com/are-anti-smoking-adverts-effective/
"Are Anti-smoking Adverts Effective?" StudyCorgi , 4 Oct. 2020, studycorgi.com/are-anti-smoking-adverts-effective/.
1. StudyCorgi . "Are Anti-smoking Adverts Effective?" October 4, 2020. https://studycorgi.com/are-anti-smoking-adverts-effective/.
StudyCorgi . "Are Anti-smoking Adverts Effective?" October 4, 2020. https://studycorgi.com/are-anti-smoking-adverts-effective/.
StudyCorgi . 2020. "Are Anti-smoking Adverts Effective?" October 4, 2020. https://studycorgi.com/are-anti-smoking-adverts-effective/.
StudyCorgi . (2020) 'Are Anti-smoking Adverts Effective'. 4 October.
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Globally, more than 7 million people die each year due to tobacco-related diseases 1 . In all, 86% are the result of direct tobacco use, while about 13% are the result of non-smokers being exposed to second-hand smoke 1 . This epidemic is one of the worst ever for humanity, and ironically entirely preventable. The continent with the highest prevalence of tobacco smoking among adults is Europe, with around 28% of the population smoking regularly in 2015 1 . The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that tobacco use is currently responsible for 16% of adult (over 30 years old) deaths, with many of these occurring prematurely 1 .
Education, communication and public awareness of tobacco-related harms are key objectives of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), the first global public health treaty aiming to tackle the tobacco epidemic 2 . The countries that signed the treaty are committed to develop and implement a series of evidence-based tobacco control measures to reduce the demand for tobacco.
Article 12 of the WHO FCTC requires Parties to promote and strengthen education and public awareness of the harms of tobacco 2 . To assist parties to meet these obligations, WHO developed guidelines and resources to facilitate the implementation of WHO FCTC, such as the MPOWER strategy that covers six evidence-based measures for effective tobacco control 3 . One of the measures proposed by MPOWER is anti-smoking mass media campaigns (ASMMCs). In general, ASMMCs expose large audiences to anti-smoking messaging via outdoor channels, such as billboards and posters, printed media like newspapers and magazines, social media and the internet, but the most commonly used channels for ASMMC are television and radio 4 . ASMMCs, in these platforms, spread their message to large audiences repeatedly during a defined period, for relatively low cost per person reaching large populations more quickly and efficiently than other communication programmes 5 .
In Europe, countries are at different stages in the development and implementation of policies regarding ASMMCs. According to WHO, Romania, Germany and Poland ran anti-smoking campaigns between 2014 and 2016 6 – 8 . While these countries have implemented ASMMCs in recent years, to date these campaigns have not been evaluated in terms of their efficacy on changing smoking behaviours or on promoting social awareness of smoking harms. Therefore, the present study aims to describe the reported exposure to anti-smoking advertising in six different channels across six European countries. Moreover, we explore whether exposure to anti-smoking advertising is related to knowledge of smoking health risks and quit attempts, with consideration of sociodemographic variables.
The cross-sectional data used come from Wave 1 of The International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project (ITC) 6 European Country (6E) Survey within the EUREST-PLUS Project, a Horizon2020-funded project, which aims to evaluate the impact of the European Union (EU) Tobacco Products Directive (TPD) and WHO FCTC implementation in the EU 9 - 11 . The ITC 6E Survey is a longitudinal cohort study conducted in Germany (DE), Greece (GR), Hungary (HU), Poland (PL), Romania (RO), and Spain (ES). The fieldwork was conducted between June and September 2016 11 . The overall survey sample comprised 6011 nationally representative adult cigarette smokers, aged 18 years and older, that had smoked more than 100 cigarettes in their lives (about 1000 participants in each country of the study). Sampling followed the Eurobarometer Survey sampling design 12 and was done using geographical strata determined by Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS) regions crossed with the degree of urbanisation (urban, intermediate, rural). Approximately 100 area clusters were sampled in each country, with the aim of recruiting 10 adult smokers per cluster. Clusters were allocated to strata proportionally with 18-years-and-older population size. Within each cluster, household addresses were sampled using a random walk design. One randomly selected male smoker and one randomly selected female smoker were chosen for interview from a sampled household, where possible. Screening of households continued until the required number of smokers from the cluster had been interviewed. All interviews were conducted face-to-face by interviewers using computer-assisted personal interviewing 11 . Further details on the ITC 6E Survey methodology and response rates are available elsewhere 11 , 13 .
The study protocol was approved by the Office of Research Ethics at the University of Waterloo (Canada), and by the corresponding ethics committees of each participant country. The EUREST-PLUS Project is registered in Clinicaltrials.gov (registration number NCT02773836).
Demographics and smoking status
Sociodemographic characteristics studied were: country, sex, age (18–24, 25–39, 40–54, and 55 years and older), education (low, medium, high), household income (low, medium, high), level of urbanisation (urban, intermediate, rural), and smoking status (daily, weekly, monthly smoker).
Noticing anti-smoking advertising
Participants were asked: ‘Now I would like you to think about advertising or information that talks about the danger of smoking, or encourages quitting. In the last 6 months, how often have you noticed such advertising or information?’. Response options were ‘never’, ‘rarely’, ‘sometimes’, ‘often’, ‘very often’, ‘refused’ and ‘don’t know’. Those participants who answered ‘rarely’, ‘sometimes’, ‘often’ or ‘very often’, were asked: ‘In the last 6 months, have you noticed advertising or information that talks about the dangers of smoking, or encourages quitting, in any of the following 6 places: On television? On the radio? In newspapers or magazines? On posters or billboards? On the internet? On social media?’. Response options were ‘yes’, ‘no’, ‘don’t know’, and ‘refused’ to each place. ‘Refused’ answers were excluded from the analyses, and the remaining answers were dichotomised as ‘yes’ versus ‘otherwise’.
The answers for each of the 6 questions were summed to produce a composite index score (range: 0–6) of exposure to anti-smoking advertising, referred to as the Anti-Smoking Advertising Index (AAI). Those who answered ‘never’ or ‘don’t know’ to the filter question were also included in the AAI composite and assigned a score of zero, i.e. did not notice any anti-smoking advertising in any of the 6 channels.
Knowledge of smoking health risks
Respondents were also asked: ‘Based on what you know or believe, does smoking cause: Impotence? Lung cancer? Blindness? Mouth cancer? Throat cancer? Stroke? Emphysema? Bronchitis? Tuberculosis? Heart attack on smokers? Lung cancer on second-hand smokers? Heart attack on second-hand smokers? Asthma in children from second-hand smoke?’. Response options were ‘yes’, ‘no’, ‘don’t know’, and ‘refused’. Those who refused to answer were excluded from the analyses. The remaining responses were dichotomised as ‘yes’ versus ‘otherwise’. The Risk Knowledge Index (RKI) was created by summing the number of ‘yes’ responses across the 13 diseases/health effects (range: 0–13) 14 . Thus, the higher the RKI score, the greater the respondents’ awareness of the diseases caused by smoking and second-hand smoke.
The distribution of the RKI score was highly right-skewed; therefore, the scale was recoded into a dichotomous item by median split (median=10), as no/low (score <10) and high (score ≥ 10), for use as a dichotomous outcome variable, as previously done 15 .
Respondents were asked: ‘Have you made an attempt to quit smoking in the last 12 months?’. Response options were ‘yes’, ‘no’, ‘don’t know’, and ‘refused’. ‘Refused’ answers were excluded from the analyses. The other responses were dichotomised as ‘yes’ versus ‘otherwise’.
Data from all six countries were combined into one dataset. Initially, data were collected from 6011 respondents; however, a total of 206 participants were sequentially excluded from the analyses of the study as a consequence of incomplete data for the following: education (37 respondents), noticing anti-smoking advertising (17 respondents), questions used in construction of the RKI (145 respondents), and attempts to quit (7 respondents).
Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between: a) each of the six countries and noticing anti-smoking advertising in the six channels, b) the RKI and the AAI, and c) quit attempts in the last 12 months and the AAI. All regression models were adjusted for sociodemographics and smoking status. All analyses incorporated weights derived from the complex sampling design.
In total, 35.2% of the respondents reported noticing anti-smoking advertising in the previous six months in at least one channel, while only 2.4% reported being exposed to all six channels. Table 1 presents the percentage and the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) of self-reported exposure to anti-smoking advertising across the six channels by sociodemographics and smoking status. Television was the channel where most smokers noticed anti-smoking advertising (25.7%), with participants in RO (46.8%; AOR=4.22, 95% CI: 2.75–6.48) and PL (28.6%; AOR=2.15, 95% CI: 1.38–3.36) being significantly more likely to report exposure to anti-smoking advertising on television than those in HU (15.8%). Radio had the second lowest overall percentage of participants noticing anti-smoking advertising (10.5%), with significant differences in exposure to the radio between participants in RO (19.8%; AOR=2.90, 95% CI: 1.71–4.94) and HU (6.3%). Regarding anti-smoking advertising on posters and billboards (13.1% of the sample exposed), participants in RO (20.7%; AOR=2.62, 95% CI: 1.61–4.26) and in DE (20.0%; AOR=2.51, 95% CI :1.50–4.20) were significantly more likely to notice them than those in HU (7.7%). Participants in DE (21.7%; AOR=2.67, 95% CI: 1.59-4.48) and RO (18.3%; AOR=2.25, 95% CI: 1.36–3.74) were significantly more likely to notice anti-smoking advertising in newspapers and magazines than those in HU (8.5%).
Percentages and odds ratios of self-reported exposure to anti-smoking advertising among smokers from 6 European Countries in 2016, N=5805
[i] Percentages are unadjusted. Multi-level logistic regression adjusted for country, sex, age, education, income, urbanisation, and smoking status; AOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio; CI: Confidence Interval.
The percentage of exposure of the overall sample on the internet was of 13.0%. Participants in RO (21.4%; AOR=2.77, 95% CI: 1.66–4.61) were significantly more likely to notice anti-smoking advertising on the internet than those in HU (8.2%). Social media had the lowest percentage of participants reporting noticing the anti-smoking advertising (9.5%); in this channel, participants in RO had the highest percentage of exposure (17.2%; AOR=2.58, 95% CI: 1.52–4.39) and participants in HU the lowest (6.7%). No significant differences were found in exposure to anti-smoking advertising between participants in HU and ES across any of the 6 channels ( Table 1 ).
In all media, males noticed anti-smoking advertising more frequently, but the differences according to sex were not statistically significant. Those who reported smoking weekly were significantly more likely to report being exposed to anti-smoking advertising on television (33.8%; AOR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.17–2.44), radio (16.4%; AOR=1.87, 95% CI: 1.08–3.24), posters and billboards (24.4%; AOR=1.53, 95% CI: 1.02–2.29), and newspapers and magazines (27.6%; AOR=2.05, 95% CI: 1.40–3.00) than those who smoked daily (25.4%, 10.2%, 12.6% and 13.2%, respectively). Smokers aged 55 years and over were significantly less likely than those younger than 25 years to have noticed anti-smoking advertising on posters and billboards ( Table 1 ). Besides, the older the age group of a participant, the smaller the likelihood of reporting being exposed to advertising via the internet and social media. A similar gradient with education and exposure on social media was observed, with those with more years of education being more exposed. No association was found between any of the 6 channels by sex, income, and urbanisation.
Knowledge of health risks and the association between Anti-Smoking Advertising Index and Risk Knowledge Index
The mean score of smokers on the RKI was 8.9 (out of 13). Table 2 shows the results of the multivariate association between RKI (low <10 versus high ≥10) and AAI. No significant association was found between the AAI, as a continuous construct, and the RKI. However, those with a score of 6 on the AAI (the highest exposure to anti-smoking advertising), were significantly more likely to have a higher RKI score than those scoring zero on AAI (AOR=2.49, 95% CI: 1.50–4.15).
Association of Anti-Smoking Advertising Index and Risk Knowledge Index, among smokers from 6 European countries in 2016, N=5805
[i] Multi-level logistic regression adjusted for country, sex, age, education, income, urbanisation, and smoking status; AOR: Adjusted Odds Ratio; CI: Confidence Interval; AAI: Anti-Smoking Advertising Index; Ref.: Reference category.
Association between the Anti-Smoking Advertising Index and quit attempts
In all, 18% of the sample reported to have made a quit attempt within the previous 12 months. Table 3 presents the association between exposure to anti-smoking advertising and quit attempts in the last 12 months. There was an overall significant positive effect (AOR=1.10, 95% CI: 1.03–1.17) in the association of these variables — the more channels a participant was exposed to, the more likely she/he would have made a quit attempt; for each additional channel a smoker was exposed to, the likelihood of making a quit attempt increased by 10%.
Association of Anti-Smoking Advertising and quit attempts in the last 12 months, among smokers in six European Countries in 2016, N=5805
The overall findings from this study indicate a significant association between a high AAI score and having made a quit attempt in the last 12 months. This suggests that anti-smoking advertising may have had a positive impact on smokers, with the result of increasing quit attempts, consistent with previous findings 16 . Additionally, the association of exposure to anti-smoking advertising with quit attempts may be partly explained by the fact that the AAI score was also positively associated with higher smoking risk knowledge (RKI score), but only among respondents who were exposed to all six channels. Furthermore, participants from RO, one of the countries that invested in at least one medium quality ASMMC according to WHO standards 17 between 2014 and 2016 7 , had significantly higher odds of reporting exposure to anti-smoking advertising (AAI score) than participants in countries where no national anti-smoking campaign took place.
While knowledge of smoking risks was expected to be a mediator between exposure to anti-smoking advertising and quit attempts, our data show that only participants exposed to all the six channels had a higher knowledge of smoking risks. This could point to other possible mediators of the association between exposure to anti-smoking messaging and quit attempts. For example, possibly these campaigns denormalise smoking and make people more likely to make a quit attempt, or they could generate emotional reactions resulting in smokers being more inclined to make quit attempts 18 . We used the whole sample as a denominator and not only those using the channels, thus our measure of exposure captured two effects: the true exposure and the media channel use, i.e. the exposure conditional to use. This might produce an underestimation of the true effect, and should be considered when developing public health interventions.
Television (watched on a TV set or via the Internet) is the preferred channel among those residing in Europe, with 84% viewing it every day or almost every day 19 . This is a possible reason why television is the channel that a higher proportion of participants reported being exposed to anti-smoking advertising. This finding corroborates evidence that anti-smoking advertisements on television are twice as likely to be remembered than those on radio 20 – 22 .
The Internet and social media have a lower reach to the European population than television: 59% of the Europeans use the Internet, and 35% of them use online social networks every day or almost every day 19 . These relatively new media channels, to date, have attracted little research attention regarding their use as tools to improve awareness of tobacco harms, being used mostly for tobacco cessation initiatives 23 .
Young adults and those completing higher levels of education had significantly higher odds of being exposed to anti-smoking advertising on the Internet and social media than older participants and those with lower education level. This population group is also the one that uses the internet and social media the most 19 , while having the lowest knowledge of smoking risks. Therefore, future anti-smoking campaigns, in these channels, should focus on the young and highly educated adults regarding the outcomes and impacts intended to be achieved.
Even though DE, PL and RO ran medium quality ASMMCs between 2014 and 2016, according to WHO 6 – 8 , 24 – 26 , there were significant differences in all outcome measures evaluated between participants in these countries; with participants in RO reporting significantly higher odds of noticing anti-smoking advertising, of quit attempts, and of smoking risk knowledge, than participants in DE and PL.
DE was an exception among the countries that ran a campaign in recent years. Although WHO reported that there was a national ASMMC between 2014 and 2016, participants in DE had the lowest odds ratio of being exposed to anti-smoking advertising on television and radio, among all six countries. A possible explanation for these findings is that the ASMMC reported by WHO in DE was not a population-wide campaign but rather a specific campaign. Although most countries that execute ASMMC do not repeat the effort frequently (most gaps are longer than 2 years) 17 , research has shown that the withdrawal of an ASMMC is associated with a decline in beneficial effects, pointing to the need for a more persistent effort in this area 4 , 27 – 29 . Another possible explanation for these findings is that the ASMMC reported by WHO in DE happened in 2014 and did not extend to 2016, the time frame of the question related to exposure to anti-smoking advertising in this study.
Cross-country differences may be related to the content of the messages from these campaigns. Evidence shows that anti-smoking advertisements that generate high levels of negative emotion are associated with greater recall rates and impact on smoking attitudes and intentions 15 , 18 . Another hypothesis for these discrepancies is related to differences in campaign characteristics, such as duration and intensity, which may influence the effectiveness in changing smoking behaviours 5 , 30 .
Participants in GR, HU and ES reported being exposed to anti-smoking information and advertising even though there was no public investment in national ASMMCs in these countries between 2014 and 2016. This may be due to private initiatives, regional or international anti-smoking campaigns and/or media news coverage related to tobacco control policy implemented and tobacco control research publicised in these countries. Such private initiatives could also explain that even though the national campaign in PL did not include television and radio advertising, many participants were exposed to anti-smoking advertising on these channels. For example, in PL a significant amount of money was used by pharmaceuticals to advertise smoking cessation drugs on prime-time TV and on radio channels, which might mimic anti-smoking advertising 31 . This additional information related to tobacco control policies may increase the effectiveness of messages from ASMMC, as reported in a review 30 .
This study has some limitations. First, self-reported measures are susceptible to recall bias, especially over periods of 6 months 32 . Advertising needs to be remembered to be reported faithfully; those that are salient and more recent are more likely to be remembered and reported correctly 32 . Anti-smoking advertising made within the past 3 months is related to a higher likelihood of making a quit attempt during that time 16 . Second, our exposure measurement was also not very specific to ASMMCs, as the question comprised anti-tobacco advertising and information, which for instance included anti-smoking news coverage. Moreover, the measure of exposure to anti-smoking advertising did not assess the intensity and frequency of these events, only whether they occurred, and this may have contributed to the lack of effect on smoking risk knowledge. Third, the questions used to construct the RKI had simple yes/no answer options and regarded exclusively diseases associated with smoking. Fourth, the question used to assess quit attempts did not specify what the interviewee should consider as a quit attempt, which might bias the results, as reported in the literature 33 . Additionally, evidence points to the association between quit attempts and motivation to quit 34 , however, this variable was not included in our model. Fifth, cross-sectional survey data were used in this study. This methodology precludes any inference to be made about the direction of causality. Thus, it is possible that adult smokers who are more inclined to make a quit attempt may be more likely to notice, recall and report being exposed to anti-smoking advertising. Sixth, participants were asked about the occurrence of quit attempts in the last 12 months, while they were asked about being exposed to anti-smoking advertising in the last 6 months. Therefore, these questions covered different periods. This might represent a limitation, as smokers may have tried to quit smoking before being exposed to any anti-smoking advertising. Finally, those who decided not to disclose their income were a group that had a significantly lower association with exposure to anti-smoking advertising, in our analysis. Although controlling for education, urbanisation, and sex, may diminish the influence of these missing data, this might bias the results.
On the other hand, this study has strengths. First, this is the first study to investigate the reach of anti-smoking campaigns and messages across these 6 European countries. Additionally, it provides updated data on the level of smoking risk knowledge across a large and representative sample of smokers in these 6 countries. Also, some implications for policymakers can be derived. Television seems to be the channel that most smokers are exposed to and recall seeing anti-smoking advertising the most; therefore, future anti-smoking mass media campaigns should focus on this channel. In addition, it may be necessary that these campaigns occur more frequently, and over a more extended period, to ensure that the benefits generated by them do not decline over time. Future longitudinal research should explore changes in anti-smoking advertising campaigns in these countries and analyse the nuances that result in differences in noticing anti-smoking advertising. Further investigation of the use of the internet and social media as tools to reach the young is needed.
Exposure to anti-smoking advertising is associated with smoking quit attempts. Such exposure was also correlated with smokers’ knowledge of smoking risks. Those exposed to anti-smoking advertising in the six channels studied were approximately 2.5 times more likely to have a higher knowledge of smoking risks than those not exposed. This indicates that future anti-smoking mass media campaigns should consider advertising in all dissemination channels to increase the awareness of the dangers of smoking.
Writing help, paraphrasing tool, advertisements as anti-smoking tool.
- Addiction , Advertising , Smoking , Tobacco
How it works
Did you know that in the United States that almost 20 percent of adults smokes cigarettes? Smoking cigarettes are one of the most preventable leading cause of death. The anti-smoking advertisement by The Real Cost Commercial “Stay in Control” often pops up on across our televisions and our social media, frequently broadcasting the deadly effects of tobacco use through shocking images, and vivid videos. The advertisement I picked is a dull colored picture, portraying a high school girl signing a paper that’s says “I relinquish part of my freedom to you” and the paper rolls up and ends up being a cigarette she begins to smoke. This advertisement makes use of poignancy and logic through the images used and of insinuated meanings. With these appeals, the advertisement is able to convey a evocative sense of danger and to educate viewers on the lethalness of smoking.
The author then tries to persuade the viewers in the advertisement. The crucial premise is that smoking is not good for your health. In many contemporary countries, this is a widespread knowledge everyone knows, almost everybody will say the same thing. This is very true especially in the United States culture, because smoking is seen as a harmful and pessimistic. Unlike back in the old days where, smoking was allowed throughout society. The minor premise is that smoking a cigarette is equal to signing your freedom away. This is shown cigarette turning into a contact. From the common knowledge of the damage cigarettes do and the viewers can predict that the picture the author is trying to create is that smoking takes away your freedom. This claim enhanced the words “I relinquish my freedom to you”and she was signing what was written on the cigarette,which inspire people to stop smoking. This is insinuating that that if smokers keep smoking, they are basically signing an invisible contact and their life no longer belongs to them.
This advertisement was created to spark a response from the smoker and non-smoker audiences without being direct. For the non-smoking audience, the advertisement will either help them increase there aversion towards smoking and it’s horrible help effects, or they would be uninterested because it has no effect on them or their lives. This advertisement will most likely appeal to the people who smoke. The advertisement will help remind them of the harm that they are going to their bodies, but they probably won’t care about the advertisement because they already know that smoking is bad for them. They will most likely continue to smoke because they are probably already addicted to the nicotine or just unconcerned about the condition. Smokers might find the advertisement very unpleasant and cliche, because they feel like there being personally attacked for their views and habits. In our society smoking is viewed as such a horrible thing in the United States, so therefore smokers might separate themselves for advertisements that gainsay what they believe in.
This advertisement of a young lady with the cigarette contract utilizes the use of a poignant, and logical appeal through its controversial message. Though debilitated by their prejudice and inadequate arrangement of words, the straightforward message that smoking is dangerous to one’s health still proves it’s point in The Real Cost Commercial “Stay in Control”. Smoking is very wide spread throughout the whole world, but so are anti- smoking ads. This long lasting dispute of different ideologies, fuel to the battle that will never end between cigarette smokers and anti-smoking advertisements.
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