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How to Write a Letter of Recommendation (Template + Tips)

Learn how to write a letter of recommendation, including tips on what to include and when to say no.

[Featured image] A professor writes a letter of recommendation on her laptop in an office filled with bookshelves.

A letter of recommendation is a letter written on behalf of an applicant by someone who can vouch for that person’s educational or professional performance. This letter is typically sent to an admissions officer or hiring manager considering a candidate for admission, employment, or a scholarship.

Letters of recommendation help round out an application. They do this by offering insight into an applicant’s personal qualities like integrity, intellectual curiosity, or leadership potential. Writing a strong letter of recommendation as a teacher, counselor, manager, or co-worker can help give an applicant an edge over their competition.

Letter of recommendation template

Use this template to get you started on writing a properly formatted recommendation.

Letter of recommendation sample

Here’s an example of a strong recommendation letter written using the template above.

Image of a letter of recommendation with black text on a white background

How to format a letter of recommendation

Different organizations have different recommendation letter requirements. Be sure to ask the requester about any specific guidelines. In general, a letter or recommendation can be broken down into the following sections:

Recipient Name

Recipient Title

Recipient Address

Greeting: Address the recipient by name if possible (Dear Ms/Mr).

Personal introduction: Begin the body of your letter by introducing who you are and your relationship to the applicant.

Recommendation: What makes the candidate a good fit? Offer specific examples of skills or qualifications that match the role.

Anecdote or example: Include a personal anecdote about what it’s like to work with the candidate. Include any workplace or people skills you’ve observed them to possess.

Closing: Give an overview of why you’d recommend this person.

Contact information: Provide your email address and phone number so the recipient can follow up.

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Tips for writing a strong letter of recommendation

If you’re writing a recommendation letter, you likely want the candidate to have the best chance of getting a positive result. Here are some tips for writing a good letter that may stand out to admissions officers, potential employers, or anyone else reviewing the letter.

Do your research.

Find out what exactly the candidate is applying for. Ask them to provide:

A copy of the job description or academic program requirements 

Their resume

Any particular skills, achievements, or qualifications they’d like you to highlight 

This will help you focus your letter on the skills or qualifications that are specific to the role the candidate is applying for. 

Be specific.

Please feel free to use a template (like the one above) to guide your writing, but remember to make it personal. Use examples and specific details to illustrate why this person is the best candidate. Choose strong, accurate adjectives over general terms or cliches. 

Think about what the person reading the letter might want to know. Include details or insight that wouldn’t necessarily show up on a resume or application. Your letter should help the recipient get to know the person you are recommending. 

Stay positive.

Your recommendation should confirm that this candidate is a strong contender for whatever they’re applying for. Demonstrate honest enthusiasm, and avoid any comments that could be construed in a negative light. If you can make a superlative comparison between this person and others you’ve worked with (e.g. “she’s one of the best student aides I’ve had the pleasure to work with in my career as a professor”), do so.

Keep it formal and concise.

Use a business letter format using a twelve point font size in either Arial or Times New Roman. Write your letter on your business or organization letterhead if possible. The recipient likely reads dozens if not hundreds of letters, so keep yours concise and to the point. Aim for at least one page but no more than two. 

Don’t be afraid to say no.

If you feel like you’re unable to offer a glowing recommendation for a candidate, it’s okay to say no. A mediocre endorsement can often do as much damage as a negative one. While it may feel uncomfortable, it’s perfectly acceptable to respectfully decline a request.

Follow the instructions.

You’re vouching for this person. Be sure to follow any specific submission guidelines carefully, and get your letter in on time (or early). If your letter makes a good impression, that will carry over to the candidate you’re endorsing.

How to ask for a letter of recommendation

Chances are that you’ll be asked to provide letters of recommendation as part of an application you’re submitting sometime during your education or career. This is particularly true when you’re applying for graduate programs. One or more letters of recommendation are almost always part of the application process.

Read more about how to set yourself up for success when asking for a letter of recommendation .

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This content has been made available for informational purposes only. Learners are advised to conduct additional research to ensure that courses and other credentials pursued meet their personal, professional, and financial goals.

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These OWL resources were designed for high school teachers and guidance counselors. They discuss how to write effective letters of recommendation for students who are applying to colleges and universities. They also discuss how to navigate the new Common Application, which is accepted at over 500 colleges and universities across the United States.

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Letter Of Recommendation for PhD – Sample, Format & How to Write

Updated on 07 november, 2023.

Anupriya Mukherjee

Anupriya Mukherjee

Sr. content writer.

Anupriya Mukherjee

A letter of recommendation or LOR for a PhD is an important document required for admission into PhD programs at foreign institutions if you are planning to study abroad . While scores, transcripts, and other vital documents are mostly factual, the LOR is an independent objective analysis of applicants. PhD courses usually require two to three recommendations. These provide committees with an overview of the applicant’s core strengths, skills, and accomplishments.

Table of Contents

Lor for phd : guidelines:.

  • Academic LOR:
  • Professional LOR:


Conclusion:, popular guides to simplify your study abroad journey, sample lor for phd:, important tips to write lor for phd, download country guides (free pdfs).

The vital part of writing a LOR is choosing the right recommender. For a PhD SOP, the recommender should be someone who can endorse your candidature and provide an unbiased application essay. Since all the other documents are self-prepared, they are likely to be biased. LOR provides an external perspective, which entirely depends on your recommender. It is unique because it is your assessment from an external viewpoint. Your recommender for PhD should be someone who can be described as follows:

  • One who has a good rapport.
  • Who understands your personality, achievements, and capabilities.
  • With whom you have shared your academic and professional experiences and journey 
  • Who is aware of your current research ideas
  • Who supports your research ideas.

Types of LOR for PhD

International universities offering PhD require two to three LORs depending on your academic and professional experience. Two academic LORs are needed, and one professional LOR is required if you have work experience. Basically, the LOR for PhD is classified into two categories:

Academic LOR: 

Academic letter of recommendation is provided by the professor of your educational institution. Most commonly, you are asked to provide two academic LORs for PhD in an international university. In such LORs, professors need to highlight the applicant’s capabilities and achievements. It should reflect the recommender’s perspective about you and your research ideas.

Professional LOR: 

The applicant’s professional letter of recommendation is asked if they have any work experience. Only one professional LOR is needed in that case. It is provided by your immediate supervisor or employer. It should reflect the recommender’s perspective on your professional ability to work within a team.

How to write a LOR for PhD?

When your recommender is willing to write your LOR for PhD, you should share your research ideas, achievements, capabilities, objectives, and relevant information. The format of the LOR should consist of the answers to several questions related to your suitability for a PhD. The LOR, whether academic or professional, written by your recommender should sound realistic and authentic. The standard LOR format for PhD should have the following details:

This part of the LOR should include the details regarding the recommender. It is a brief introduction of the recommender with their current designation and professional experience mentioned in the LOR. They also need to mention their relationship and duration of association with the applicant. The details of the recommender’s association and guidance must be mentioned in the LOR.

It includes the details of the applicant’s technical skills, certification, internship work, research ideas, research outcomes, research goals, capabilities, qualities, work experience, presentations, seminars, extracurricular activities, etc. It is quite crucial to add all the relevant information required to consider the applicant’s candidature and future undertakings. 

This last part of the LOR format summarizes the applicant’s desire for the PhD program. The closing part of the LOR essay application includes the recommender’s signature and contact details.

An excellent sample LOR for PhD highlights at least three attributes of the aspirant – a social attribute and two subject-linked or technical attributes. Here are some notable guidelines:

  • The LOR should be 1-2 pages long with 5-6 paragraphs. 
  • Recommenders should start the LOR by introducing themselves and the aspirant.
  • Recommenders should also discuss how and from when they are professionally related to the applicants in the first paragraph. 
  • The following paragraphs should be divided into three segments, each highlighting aspirant’s particular skill or quality.
  • Recommenders should emphasize analytical abilities, subject knowledge, time management skills, dedication, responsibility, research abilities, etc. 
  • The conclusion will sum up the qualities of the aspirant while ending with a solid recommendation to the university for accepting the application.

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The following sample LOR for PhD is one of many ways of writing it.

I am pleased to get the chance to recommend (name of applicant) for the PhD position in (course/study area name) at your institution. I have taught (name of applicant) for the last (tenure in years) in the areas of (subject areas). I will be delighted to witness him/her excelling in this particular field.

The topic (title) proposed by him/her is vital for the modern-day scenario and needs extensive research. It will be beneficial for all the industry stakeholders in the (sector name) and also academicians who can access real-time insights on the subject.

(Name of applicant) has completed a research project over a period of (duration) on (name of project) under my supervision. I have witnessed his/her work efficiency, critical thinking abilities, and inquisitiveness regarding various findings. He/she also has brilliant communication skills and the ability to mentor and guide peers.

(Name) has a down-to-earth nature and respects others while adhering to rules and regulations. His/her independent or group work on research projects and studies has been immensely satisfying. He/she is an analytical thinker and is stimulated by new academic challenges. This trait makes him/her strive for innovative solutions to real-world problems with a strong desire to improve the world around.

Hectic timelines, various constraints, tough work conditions, multitasking, and dealing with multiple people along the way, are things that he/she can tackle with ease while delivering work seamlessly. With these positive abilities, he/she will be an asset to any institution.

(Name) has improved consistently every year and is a deserving candidate for an opportunity to work in the field of (topic name). I would be delighted if my recommendation helps him/her obtain admission in the (course name). 

If you have any queries regarding research, academics, or other areas pertaining to (applicant name’s) candidature, please feel free to reach me at the following phone or email address. I am usually available on the phone between Monday and Friday from (time to time, i.e. 11 am to 4 pm).

(Name of Referee)


Phone Number:

Following important tips should be considered while writing a LOR for PhD:

  • The selection of the right recommender is crucial. Choose your recommender carefully who meets the specifications mentioned in your PhD application.
  • Choosing your recommenders with finer academic and professional qualifications is of utmost importance.
  • Stay in contact with your potential recommenders and maintain good communication with them in advance.
  • Share your research proposal, goals, and achievements with your recommenders.
  • Your LORs for PhD should differ from each other.
  • Your LOR should showcase your qualities, capabilities, and strengths. 
  • Online recommendation forms should be submitted much before the deadline.
  • The letter should be realistic and unbiased.
  • The relationship between the recommender and the applicant should be demonstrated clearly.
  • All the information stated in the LOR should be genuine, authentic, and accurate. Ensure that no information is false or exaggerated.

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Anupriya Mukherjee is a passion-driven professional working as a Content Marketer and earlier worked as a Digital Marketeer. With around 6 years of work experience, she has experience creating high-quality, engaging content for websites, blogs, news articles, video scripts, brochures, and ebooks.

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Letter of Recommendation (LOR) for PhD Students (with Sample) - Need, Parts, Qualities

Letter of Recommendation for PhD Students: For PhD students, a letter of recommendation is a crucial component of the application documents. While other admissions materials, like transcripts and test results, are factual, a letter of recommendation for PhD students integrates the plans and facts of a CV and statement of purpose. A résumé is a summary of your accomplishments, transcripts are evidence of your achievements, and an SOP describes the significance of the course and your readiness for it. A reference letter for a PhD is an unbiased opinion on everything mentioned above. TOP EXAMS : IELTS | TOEFL | GRE | GMAT Country Guide : UK | Ireland | Australia | Canada

Why the need for a letter of recommendation for PhD students

Select the right person for the lor, letter of recommendation for phd students: qualities to focus on, parts of a lor for phd students, elements of letter of recommendation for ph.d. students.

Letter of Recommendation (LOR) for PhD Students (with Sample) - Need, Parts, Qualities

A PhD application usually requires at least two letters of recommendation for students from their professors. This gives the admission committee an opportunity to know the applicants as people with skills that would otherwise be difficult to know from their resumes, transcripts and SOP. A letter of recommendation for PhD students should mention at least three qualities of the applicant – a social quality and at least two technical or subject-related qualities. Moreover, as a PhD is an advanced specialised programme, the subject-related quality should be focused on projects carried out and specialised courses that will aid his/her PhD research. Read the complete article to know all the details about PhD letter of recommendation, PhD reference letter samples, and more.

A recommendation letter for PhD student from professor holds much more importance than those applying for undergraduate or master's courses. Grades and GRE scores play a big role in receiving admission from a university. The recommendation letter for PhD admission is usually the deciding factor when choosing between candidates with similar credentials. Go through the key points to be included in the reference letter for PhD students from the professor to gain an understanding of what it is before you ask your professor to write a PhD reference letter for you.

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Before asking someone for a recommendation letter for PhD application, you should know whom to ask. PhD is purely an academic degree and therefore you need to have a recommendation letter for PhD from those who can vouch for your academic inclination and strengths. Referees should be academicians with whom you have worked or someone who has supervised or taught you. If you are aspiring for a PhD programme or want a LOR for post-doctoral research, you should ideally ask your master's project guide or PhD guide to be one of the referees for your letter of recommendation for PhD students. Your faculty must go through a sample recommendation letter for a PhD from a professor before sitting down to write one recommendation letter PhD for you. Other letters of recommendation for PhD. students from teachers and professionals can be taken from persons who are from the same field or specialization in which you intend to do your PhD. You can also take your recommendation letter for doctoral programs from your supervisor who has an understanding of your academic capabilities.

Friends and relatives are not supposed to write your LOR for PhD students for a number of reasons; first, they do not have first-hand information about your academic capabilities. Second, as they have not professionally or academically worked with you, they would not be able to present relevant information about you to the university. Also, the recommender might not have in-depth knowledge of the discipline you intend to do a PhD. Last but not least, relatives cannot be objective about your qualities. That's why it is not a great idea to take your student recommendation letter from them. So a letter of recommendation for PhD students from teachers, professors, supervisors, coaches, etc., is only applicable.

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The person who is writing a letter of recommendation for PhD students would be a professional who has known the applicant academically for no less than one year. The recommender should not only know you as one of the students in the department, but they should also know you as a person, your capabilities as a student, as well as your control over the subject they have been teaching. They should also be aware of your future plans.

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Recommendation letters for Ph.D. students from supervisors, and professors are very subject-specific. Referees should speak of strong subject knowledge as well as analysis traits. Reference letter for PhD student should show the student as possessing positive qualities like intelligence, self-motivation, responsibility, and amiableness. Emphasis should be given to passion and dedication as well. Advanced study like a Ph.D. is often a challenging and demanding program. Therefore, the applicants should also display perseverance, competitiveness and the ability to work independently. Courses and knowledge related to PhD programme-related packages, extra courses, and statistical analysis techniques should be exemplified in the letter of recommendation for the Ph.D. program.

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A student recommendation letter for a PhD will typically be between one to two pages. The document should be well differentiated into 5–6 paragraphs. The LOR should begin with an introductory paragraph about the recommender and his/her association with the applicant. You must read a PDF of the recommendation letter sample before you ask your recommenders to give you one.

The next 3 to 4 paragraphs should outline the different academic and social qualities of the applicant with suitable substantiation. No quality should be mentioned without a suitable example. Finally, the concluding paragraph will sum up the above with a line recommending the applicant for the programme.

Also Read, Best Country to Study Abroad for Indian Students

Sample Recommendation Letter for PhD from Professor

Like there is a letter of recommendation for PhD students from professors, you can also read about PhD reference letter sample pdf, sample LOR for graduate school from coworker pdf, letter of recommendation for PhD in computer science, sample recommendation letter for employee, etc which will give you a fair idea what a recommendation letter is all about.

A recommendation letter for PhD students from a professor or supervisor gives a human touch to the applicant’s profile. A reference letter for PhD student from a professor is the only document that can present the applicant’s social side to the admission committee. Therefore, choose a referee who can not only substantiate your academic strengths but also cite appropriate examples of your social qualities in your recommendation letter for PhD students.

Frequently Asked Question (FAQs)

It is crucial that the person writing your recommendation letter is someone who is familiar with your academic abilities. The most frequent writers of letters of recommendation are academics; professors or supervisors, but, other experts who are familiar with you and have overseen your academic or research work may also be suitable candidates.

The reference letter should be 1-2 pages long with 5-6 paragraphs.

PhD suggestions are highly specialised. Referees should emphasise both analytical skills and in-depth topic understanding. Letters of recommendation for students should highlight their intelligence, initiative, responsibility, and interpersonal skills.

Yes, PhD, postdoc, and scholarship applications typically require two to three letters of recommendation. These letters should come from professors who know your work and can detail your possibilities.

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Data Administrator

Database professionals use software to store and organise data such as financial information, and customer shipping records. Individuals who opt for a career as data administrators ensure that data is available for users and secured from unauthorised sales. DB administrators may work in various types of industries. It may involve computer systems design, service firms, insurance companies, banks and hospitals.

Bio Medical Engineer

The field of biomedical engineering opens up a universe of expert chances. An Individual in the biomedical engineering career path work in the field of engineering as well as medicine, in order to find out solutions to common problems of the two fields. The biomedical engineering job opportunities are to collaborate with doctors and researchers to develop medical systems, equipment, or devices that can solve clinical problems. Here we will be discussing jobs after biomedical engineering, how to get a job in biomedical engineering, biomedical engineering scope, and salary. 

GIS officer work on various GIS software to conduct a study and gather spatial and non-spatial information. GIS experts update the GIS data and maintain it. The databases include aerial or satellite imagery, latitudinal and longitudinal coordinates, and manually digitized images of maps. In a career as GIS expert, one is responsible for creating online and mobile maps.

Ethical Hacker

A career as ethical hacker involves various challenges and provides lucrative opportunities in the digital era where every giant business and startup owns its cyberspace on the world wide web. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path try to find the vulnerabilities in the cyber system to get its authority. If he or she succeeds in it then he or she gets its illegal authority. Individuals in the ethical hacker career path then steal information or delete the file that could affect the business, functioning, or services of the organization.

Data Analyst

The invention of the database has given fresh breath to the people involved in the data analytics career path. Analysis refers to splitting up a whole into its individual components for individual analysis. Data analysis is a method through which raw data are processed and transformed into information that would be beneficial for user strategic thinking.

Data are collected and examined to respond to questions, evaluate hypotheses or contradict theories. It is a tool for analyzing, transforming, modeling, and arranging data with useful knowledge, to assist in decision-making and methods, encompassing various strategies, and is used in different fields of business, research, and social science.

Database Architect

If you are intrigued by the programming world and are interested in developing communications networks then a career as database architect may be a good option for you. Data architect roles and responsibilities include building design models for data communication networks. Wide Area Networks (WANs), local area networks (LANs), and intranets are included in the database networks. It is expected that database architects will have in-depth knowledge of a company's business to develop a network to fulfil the requirements of the organisation. Stay tuned as we look at the larger picture and give you more information on what is db architecture, why you should pursue database architecture, what to expect from such a degree and what your job opportunities will be after graduation. Here, we will be discussing how to become a data architect. Students can visit NIT Trichy , IIT Kharagpur , JMI New Delhi . 

Geothermal Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as geothermal engineers are the professionals involved in the processing of geothermal energy. The responsibilities of geothermal engineers may vary depending on the workplace location. Those who work in fields design facilities to process and distribute geothermal energy. They oversee the functioning of machinery used in the field.

Geotechnical engineer

The role of geotechnical engineer starts with reviewing the projects needed to define the required material properties. The work responsibilities are followed by a site investigation of rock, soil, fault distribution and bedrock properties on and below an area of interest. The investigation is aimed to improve the ground engineering design and determine their engineering properties that include how they will interact with, on or in a proposed construction. 

The role of geotechnical engineer in mining includes designing and determining the type of foundations, earthworks, and or pavement subgrades required for the intended man-made structures to be made. Geotechnical engineering jobs are involved in earthen and concrete dam construction projects, working under a range of normal and extreme loading conditions. 

Bank Probationary Officer (PO)

A career as Bank Probationary Officer (PO) is seen as a promising career opportunity and a white-collar career. Each year aspirants take the Bank PO exam . This career provides plenty of career development and opportunities for a successful banking future. If you have more questions about a career as  Bank Probationary Officer (PO),  what is probationary officer  or how to become a Bank Probationary Officer (PO) then you can read the article and clear all your doubts. 

Finance Executive

A career as a Finance Executive requires one to be responsible for monitoring an organisation's income, investments and expenses to create and evaluate financial reports. His or her role involves performing audits, invoices, and budget preparations. He or she manages accounting activities, bank reconciliations, and payable and receivable accounts.  

Investment Banker

An Investment Banking career involves the invention and generation of capital for other organizations, governments, and other entities. Individuals who opt for a career as Investment Bankers are the head of a team dedicated to raising capital by issuing bonds. Investment bankers are termed as the experts who have their fingers on the pulse of the current financial and investing climate. Students can pursue various Investment Banker courses, such as Banking and Insurance , and  Economics to opt for an Investment Banking career path.

Bank Branch Manager

Bank Branch Managers work in a specific section of banking related to the invention and generation of capital for other organisations, governments, and other entities. Bank Branch Managers work for the organisations and underwrite new debts and equity securities for all type of companies, aid in the sale of securities, as well as help to facilitate mergers and acquisitions, reorganisations, and broker trades for both institutions and private investors.

Treasury analyst career path is often regarded as certified treasury specialist in some business situations, is a finance expert who specifically manages a company or organisation's long-term and short-term financial targets. Treasurer synonym could be a financial officer, which is one of the reputed positions in the corporate world. In a large company, the corporate treasury jobs hold power over the financial decision-making of the total investment and development strategy of the organisation.

Product Manager

A Product Manager is a professional responsible for product planning and marketing. He or she manages the product throughout the Product Life Cycle, gathering and prioritising the product. A product manager job description includes defining the product vision and working closely with team members of other departments to deliver winning products.  


An underwriter is a person who assesses and evaluates the risk of insurance in his or her field like mortgage, loan, health policy, investment, and so on and so forth. The underwriter career path does involve risks as analysing the risks means finding out if there is a way for the insurance underwriter jobs to recover the money from its clients. If the risk turns out to be too much for the company then in the future it is an underwriter who will be held accountable for it. Therefore, one must carry out his or her job with a lot of attention and diligence.

Transportation Planner

A career as Transportation Planner requires technical application of science and technology in engineering, particularly the concepts, equipment and technologies involved in the production of products and services. In fields like land use, infrastructure review, ecological standards and street design, he or she considers issues of health, environment and performance. A Transportation Planner assigns resources for implementing and designing programmes. He or she is responsible for assessing needs, preparing plans and forecasts and compliance with regulations.

Construction Manager

Individuals who opt for a career as construction managers have a senior-level management role offered in construction firms. Responsibilities in the construction management career path are assigning tasks to workers, inspecting their work, and coordinating with other professionals including architects, subcontractors, and building services engineers.

Carpenters are typically construction workers. They stay involved in performing many types of construction activities. It includes cutting, fitting and assembling wood.  Carpenters may help in building constructions, bridges, big ships and boats. Here, in the article, we will discuss carpenter career path, carpenter salary, how to become a carpenter, carpenter job outlook.

An individual who opts for a career as a welder is a professional tradesman who is skilled in creating a fusion between two metal pieces to join it together with the use of a manual or fully automatic welding machine in their welder career path. It is joined by intense heat and gas released between the metal pieces through the welding machine to permanently fix it. 

Environmental Engineer

Individuals who opt for a career as an environmental engineer are construction professionals who utilise the skills and knowledge of biology, soil science, chemistry and the concept of engineering to design and develop projects that serve as solutions to various environmental problems. 

Naval Architect

A Naval Architect is a professional who designs, produces and repairs safe and sea-worthy surfaces or underwater structures. A Naval Architect stays involved in creating and designing ships, ferries, submarines and yachts with implementation of various principles such as gravity, ideal hull form, buoyancy and stability. 

Welding Engineer

Welding Engineer Job Description: A Welding Engineer work involves managing welding projects and supervising welding teams. He or she is responsible for reviewing welding procedures, processes and documentation. A career as Welding Engineer involves conducting failure analyses and causes on welding issues. 

Field Surveyor

Are you searching for a Field Surveyor Job Description? A Field Surveyor is a professional responsible for conducting field surveys for various places or geographical conditions. He or she collects the required data and information as per the instructions given by senior officials. 

Orthotist and Prosthetist

Orthotists and Prosthetists are professionals who provide aid to patients with disabilities. They fix them to artificial limbs (prosthetics) and help them to regain stability. There are times when people lose their limbs in an accident. In some other occasions, they are born without a limb or orthopaedic impairment. Orthotists and prosthetists play a crucial role in their lives with fixing them to assistive devices and provide mobility.

Veterinary Doctor

A veterinary doctor is a medical professional with a degree in veterinary science. The veterinary science qualification is the minimum requirement to become a veterinary doctor. There are numerous veterinary science courses offered by various institutes. He or she is employed at zoos to ensure they are provided with good health facilities and medical care to improve their life expectancy.


A career in pathology in India is filled with several responsibilities as it is a medical branch and affects human lives. The demand for pathologists has been increasing over the past few years as people are getting more aware of different diseases. Not only that, but an increase in population and lifestyle changes have also contributed to the increase in a pathologist’s demand. The pathology careers provide an extremely huge number of opportunities and if you want to be a part of the medical field you can consider being a pathologist. If you want to know more about a career in pathology in India then continue reading this article.


Gynaecology can be defined as the study of the female body. The job outlook for gynaecology is excellent since there is evergreen demand for one because of their responsibility of dealing with not only women’s health but also fertility and pregnancy issues. Although most women prefer to have a women obstetrician gynaecologist as their doctor, men also explore a career as a gynaecologist and there are ample amounts of male doctors in the field who are gynaecologists and aid women during delivery and childbirth. 

Ophthalmic Medical Technician

Ophthalmic technician careers are one of the booming careers option available in the field of healthcare. Being a part of this field as an ophthalmic medical technician can provide several career opportunities for an individual. With advancing technology the job of individuals who opt for a career as ophthalmic medical technicians have become of even more importance as he or she is required to assist the ophthalmologist in using different types of machinery. If you want to know more about the field and what are the several job opportunities, work environment, just about anything continues reading the article and all your questions shall be answered.

Radiation Therapist

People might think that a radiation therapist only spends most of his/her time in a radiation operation unit but that’s not the case. In reality, a radiation therapist’s job is not as easy as it seems. The job of radiation therapist requires him/her to be attentive, hardworking, and dedicated to his/her work hours. A radiation therapist is on his/her feet for a long duration and might be required to lift or turn disabled patients. Because a career as a radiation therapist involves working with radiation and radioactive material, a radiation therapist is required to follow the safety procedures in order to make sure that he/she is not exposed to a potentially harmful amount of radiation.

Recreational Worker

A recreational worker is a professional who designs and leads activities to provide assistance to people to adopt a healthy lifestyle. He or she instructs physical exercises and games to have fun and improve fitness. A recreational worker may work in summer camps, fitness and recreational sports centres, nature parks, nursing care facilities, and other settings. He or she may lead crafts, sports, music, games, drama and other activities.


A career as paediatrician has emerged as one of India's most popular career choices. By choosing a career as paediatrician, not only in India but also overseas, one can find lucrative work profiles as demand for talented and professional paediatricians is increasing day by day. If you are passionate about children and have the patience to evaluate and diagnose their issues, you may have a good career as paediatricians. Paediatricians take care of children's physical, mental and emotional health from infancy to adolescence.

For an individual who opts for a career as an actor, the primary responsibility is to completely speak to the character he or she is playing and to persuade the crowd that the character is genuine by connecting with them and bringing them into the story. This applies to significant roles and littler parts, as all roles join to make an effective creation. Here in this article, we will discuss how to become an actor in India, actor exams, actor salary in India, and actor jobs. 

Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats create and direct original routines for themselves, in addition to developing interpretations of existing routines. The work of circus acrobats can be seen in a variety of performance settings, including circus, reality shows, sports events like the Olympics, movies and commercials. Individuals who opt for a career as acrobats must be prepared to face rejections and intermittent periods of work. The creativity of acrobats may extend to other aspects of the performance. For example, acrobats in the circus may work with gym trainers, celebrities or collaborate with other professionals to enhance such performance elements as costume and or maybe at the teaching end of the career.

Video Game Designer

Career as a video game designer is filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. A video game designer is someone who is involved in the process of creating a game from day one. He or she is responsible for fulfilling duties like designing the character of the game, the several levels involved, plot, art and similar other elements. Individuals who opt for a career as a video game designer may also write the codes for the game using different programming languages. Depending on the video game designer job description and experience they may also have to lead a team and do the early testing of the game in order to suggest changes and find loopholes.

Talent Agent

The career as a Talent Agent is filled with responsibilities. A Talent Agent is someone who is involved in the pre-production process of the film. It is a very busy job for a Talent Agent but as and when an individual gains experience and progresses in the career he or she can have people assisting him or her in work. Depending on one’s responsibilities, number of clients and experience he or she may also have to lead a team and work with juniors under him or her in a talent agency. In order to know more about the job of a talent agent continue reading the article.

If you want to know more about talent agent meaning, how to become a Talent Agent, or Talent Agent job description then continue reading this article.

Radio Jockey

Radio Jockey is an exciting, promising career and a great challenge for music lovers. If you are really interested in a career as radio jockey, then it is very important for an RJ to have an automatic, fun, and friendly personality. If you want to get a job done in this field, a strong command of the language and a good voice are always good things. Apart from this, in order to be a good radio jockey, you will also listen to good radio jockeys so that you can understand their style and later make your own by practicing.

A career as radio jockey has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. If you want to know more about a career as radio jockey, and how to become a radio jockey then continue reading the article.

Talent Director

Individuals who opt for a career as a talent director are professionals who work in the entertainment industry. He or she is responsible for finding out the right talent through auditions for films, theatre productions, or shows. A talented director possesses strong knowledge of computer software used in filmmaking, CGI and animation. A talent acquisition director keeps himself or herself updated on various technical aspects such as lighting, camera angles and shots. 


Careers in videography are art that can be defined as a creative and interpretive process that culminates in the authorship of an original work of art rather than a simple recording of a simple event. It would be wrong to portrait it as a subcategory of photography, rather photography is one of the crafts used in videographer jobs in addition to technical skills like organization, management, interpretation, and image-manipulation techniques. Students pursue Visual Media , Film, Television, Digital Video Production to opt for a videographer career path. The visual impacts of a film are driven by the creative decisions taken in videography jobs. Individuals who opt for a career as a videographer are involved in the entire lifecycle of a film and production. 

Multimedia Specialist

A multimedia specialist is a media professional who creates, audio, videos, graphic image files, computer animations for multimedia applications. He or she is responsible for planning, producing, and maintaining websites and applications. 

Copy Writer

In a career as a copywriter, one has to consult with the client and understand the brief well. A career as a copywriter has a lot to offer to deserving candidates. Several new mediums of advertising are opening therefore making it a lucrative career choice. Students can pursue various copywriter courses such as Journalism , Advertising , Marketing Management . Here, we have discussed how to become a freelance copywriter, copywriter career path, how to become a copywriter in India, and copywriting career outlook. 

Careers in journalism are filled with excitement as well as responsibilities. One cannot afford to miss out on the details. As it is the small details that provide insights into a story. Depending on those insights a journalist goes about writing a news article. A journalism career can be stressful at times but if you are someone who is passionate about it then it is the right choice for you. If you want to know more about the media field and journalist career then continue reading this article.

For publishing books, newspapers, magazines and digital material, editorial and commercial strategies are set by publishers. Individuals in publishing career paths make choices about the markets their businesses will reach and the type of content that their audience will be served. Individuals in book publisher careers collaborate with editorial staff, designers, authors, and freelance contributors who develop and manage the creation of content.

In a career as a vlogger, one generally works for himself or herself. However, once an individual has gained viewership there are several brands and companies that approach them for paid collaboration. It is one of those fields where an individual can earn well while following his or her passion. Ever since internet cost got reduced the viewership for these types of content has increased on a large scale. Therefore, the career as vlogger has a lot to offer. If you want to know more about the career as vlogger, how to become a vlogger, so on and so forth then continue reading the article. Students can visit Jamia Millia Islamia , Asian College of Journalism , Indian Institute of Mass Communication to pursue journalism degrees.

Individuals in the editor career path is an unsung hero of the news industry who polishes the language of the news stories provided by stringers, reporters, copywriters and content writers and also news agencies. Individuals who opt for a career as an editor make it more persuasive, concise and clear for readers. In this article, we will discuss the details of the editor's career path such as how to become an editor in India, editor salary in India and editor skills and qualities.

Corporate Executive

Are you searching for a Corporate Executive job description? A Corporate Executive role comes with administrative duties. He or she provides support to the leadership of the organisation. A Corporate Executive fulfils the business purpose and ensures its financial stability. In this article, we are going to discuss how to become corporate executive.

Linguistic meaning is related to language or Linguistics which is the study of languages. A career as a linguistic meaning, a profession that is based on the scientific study of language, and it's a very broad field with many specialities. Famous linguists work in academia, researching and teaching different areas of language, such as phonetics (sounds), syntax (word order) and semantics (meaning). 

Other researchers focus on specialities like computational linguistics, which seeks to better match human and computer language capacities, or applied linguistics, which is concerned with improving language education. Still, others work as language experts for the government, advertising companies, dictionary publishers and various other private enterprises. Some might work from home as freelance linguists. Philologist, phonologist, and dialectician are some of Linguist synonym. Linguists can study French , German , Italian . 

Production Manager

Production Manager Job Description: A Production Manager is responsible for ensuring smooth running of manufacturing processes in an efficient manner. He or she plans and organises production schedules. The role of Production Manager involves estimation, negotiation on budget and timescales with the clients and managers. 

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Production Planner

Individuals who opt for a career as a production planner are professionals who are responsible for ensuring goods manufactured by the employing company are cost-effective and meets quality specifications including ensuring the availability of ready to distribute stock in a timely fashion manner. 

Procurement Manager

The procurement Manager is also known as  Purchasing Manager . The role of Procurement Manager is to source products and services for a company. Procurement Managers are involved in developing a purchasing strategy, including the company's budget and the supplies and as well as the vendors who can provide goods and services to the company. His or her ultimate goal is to bring the right products or services at the right time with cost-effectiveness.


You might be googling Metrologist meaning. Well, we have an easily understandable Metrologist definition for you. A metrologist is a professional who stays involved in measurement practices in varying industries including electrical and electronics. A Metrologist is responsible for developing processes and systems for measuring objects and repairing electrical instruments. He or she also involved in writing specifications of experimental electronic units. 

Process Development Engineer

The Process Development Engineers design, implement, manufacture, mine, and other production systems using technical knowledge and expertise in the industry. They use computer modeling software to test technologies and machinery. An individual who is opting career as Process Development Engineer is responsible for developing cost-effective and efficient processes. They also monitor the production process and ensure it functions smoothly and efficiently.

Process Engineer

As the name suggests, a Process Engineer stays involved in designing, overseeing, assessing and implementing processes to make products and provide services efficiently. Process Engineers are responsible for creating systems to enhance productivity and cut costs. 

Structural Engineer

A Structural Engineer designs buildings, bridges, and other related structures. He or she analyzes the structures and makes sure the structures are strong enough to be used by the people. A career as a Structural Engineer requires working in the construction process. It comes under the civil engineering discipline. A Structure Engineer creates structural models with the help of computer-aided design software. 

ITSM Manager

ITSM Manager is a professional responsible for heading the ITSM (Information Technology Service Management) or (Information Technology Infrastructure Library) processes. He or she ensures that operation management provides appropriate resource levels for problem resolutions. The ITSM Manager oversees the level of prioritisation for the problems, critical incidents, planned as well as proactive tasks. 

Information Security Manager

Individuals in the information security manager career path involves in overseeing and controlling all aspects of computer security. The IT security manager job description includes planning and carrying out security measures to protect the business data and information from corruption, theft, unauthorised access, and deliberate attack 

Computer Programmer

Careers in computer programming primarily refer to the systematic act of writing code and moreover include wider computer science areas. The word 'programmer' or 'coder' has entered into practice with the growing number of newly self-taught tech enthusiasts. Computer programming careers involve the use of designs created by software developers and engineers and transforming them into commands that can be implemented by computers. These commands result in regular usage of social media sites, word-processing applications and browsers.

Computer System Analyst

Individuals in the computer systems analyst career path study the hardware and applications that are part of an organization's computer systems, as well as how they are used. They collaborate closely with managers and end-users to identify system specifications and business priorities, as well as to assess the efficiency of computer systems and create techniques to boost IT efficiency. Individuals who opt for a career as a computer system analyst support the implementation, modification, and debugging of new systems after they have been installed.

Test Manager

A Test Manager is a professional responsible for planning, coordinating and controlling test activities. He or she develops test processes and strategies to analyse and determine test methods and tools for test activities. The test manager jobs involve documenting tests that have been carried out, analysing and evaluating software quality to determine further recommended procedures. 

An IS Analyst is responsible for monitoring computer networks for security issues. He or she investigates security breaches and other cybersecurity incidents. The role of IS Analyst involves installing security measures and operating software to protect systems and information infrastructure.

Site Administrator

A site administrator is a person who provides administrative support to other employees in a team. Career as Site Administrator requires help in   implementing office procedures. His or her role involves regularly filing and maintaining documentation. In addition to being able to provide administrative support, a site administrator also has to ensure that the work environment is in compliance with company policies and regulations.

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Guide: How to Write a Letter of Recommendation for Coworker

Disclaimer : We sometimes use affiliate links in our content. For more information, visit our Disclaimer Page . 

Are you struggling to write a  letter of recommendation for a coworker ? You’re not alone. Many of us find it difficult to summarize someone’s skills and qualities in a short document. However, crafting a strong letter of recommendation is critical to help your colleague stand out in a competitive job market or secure a promotion.

In this guide, we’ll walk you through the key steps to create a compelling letter of recommendation for your coworker. From understanding the importance of the letter to assessing their  professional skills  and  personal qualities , we’ve got you covered. You’ll also learn how to illustrate their leadership abilities, highlight their work achievements , and showcase their technical expertise and content creation skills.

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By the end of this guide, you’ll have all the tools you need to write a letter of recommendation that truly shines. So, let’s get started!

Key Takeaways:

  • Writing a letter of recommendation is important for helping your coworker stand out in a competitive job market or secure a promotion.
  • To write an effective letter of recommendation, it’s essential to understand the importance of the letter and the professional relationship you have with your coworker.
  • You’ll need to assess your coworker’s professional skills and personal qualities, as well as their leadership abilities, work achievements, and technical expertise.
  • Don’t forget to highlight their teamwork and collaborative abilities, as well as their communication and content creation skills.
  • Finally, showcasing their commitment to professional development and continuous learning can help set your coworkers apart from the competition.

Sample Letter of Recommendation for a Coworker

Below is a practical example of a recommendation letter, crafted to illustrate how you can effectively vouch for a coworker’s professionalism and suitability for a new role.

[Your Name] [Your Position] [Your Company] [Your Address] [City, State, Zip] [Your Email] [Your Phone Number] [Date]

[Recipient’s Name] [Recipient’s Position] [Company/Organization Name] [Recipient’s Address] [City, State, Zip]

Dear [Recipient’s Name],

I am writing to wholeheartedly recommend [Coworker’s Name] for the position of [Position they are applying for] at [Recipient’s Company/Organization]. As [Your Position] at [Your Company], I have had the pleasure of working alongside [Coworker’s Name] for over [number of years/months] and have seen their exceptional skills and contributions firsthand.

[Coworker’s Name] has consistently demonstrated a high level of professionalism, dedication, and expertise in our field. Their role as [Coworker’s Position] involved [briefly describe their responsibilities], and they have excelled in this capacity. One notable project where [Coworker’s Name] showcased their exceptional abilities was [describe a specific project or achievement]. Their innovative approach and attention to detail led to [describe the positive outcome of the project], significantly benefiting our team and company.

In addition to their professional qualifications, [Coworker’s Name] is a joy to work with. They are a team player, always ready to lend a hand or share their knowledge with colleagues. Their positive attitude and ability to work under pressure have made a significant impact on our workplace environment , fostering both productivity and camaraderie among the team.

[Coworker’s Name]’s blend of skills, experience, and character makes them a perfect fit for the [Position they are applying for] at [Recipient’s Company/Organization]. I am confident that they will bring the same level of excellence and dedication to your team that we have come to value so highly at [Your Company].

Please feel free to contact me at [Your Phone Number] or [Your Email] if you need any further information or clarification. I am happy to discuss [Coworker’s Name]’s qualifications and experience in more detail.

Thank you for considering this recommendation. I am confident that [Coworker’s Name] will prove to be a valuable addition to your team.

[Your Signature (if sending a hard copy)] [Your Printed Name] [Your Position] [Your Company]

Remember to tailor the letter to reflect the specific achievements and qualities of your coworker and the requirements of the position they are applying for.

Understanding the Importance of a Letter of Recommendation

If you have been requested to write a letter of recommendation for a coworker, it’s essential to understand the significance of this document. A letter of recommendation is a formal assessment of the professional experience and abilities of a coworker, and it can have a significant impact on their career growth .

Whether your coworker is applying for a new job or seeking an internal promotion , a well-written letter of recommendation can showcase their strengths, skills, and achievements. It can also demonstrate that they have a reliable and credible work ethic, which can be particularly crucial if your coworker is relatively new to their field.

Often, letters of recommendation are one of the essential documents a hiring manager or executive panel will consider when reviewing applications, and as such, they can play an essential role in your coworker’s career progression.

As a coworker, you are in an excellent position to provide a letter of recommendation that paints a clear and positive picture of your coworker’s professional abilities and characteristics. So, take the time to write a letter that effectively highlights your coworker’s strengths and provides relevant examples of their  work performance  and achievements.

Building a Strong Professional Relationship with Your Coworker

In order to write an effective letter of recommendation for your coworkers, it is essential to first establish a strong  professional relationship  with them. This means taking the time to get to know them both personally and professionally and understanding their work style and strengths.

One effective way to build a strong professional relationship with your coworkers is to communicate clearly and consistently. This can include regular check-ins, sharing updates on projects, and providing constructive feedback .

Another important aspect of building a strong professional relationship is to be supportive of your coworker’s career goals. This means actively listening to their aspirations and offering guidance and resources to help them achieve success.

It is also important to recognize the value that your coworker brings to the team and the company as a whole. This can involve acknowledging their contributions, publicly praising their achievements, and advocating for their professional growth.

Examples of Building a Strong Professional Relationship

Assessing professional skills and qualities.

When writing a letter of recommendation for a coworker, it’s crucial that you assess their professional skills and personal qualities accurately. This will demonstrate your knowledge of their abilities and show the recipient that the coworker is a strong candidate for the position they are applying for.

Professional Skills : Consider the professional skills required for the position and assess whether the coworker has demonstrated them in their work. Use specific examples to showcase their skills and provide evidence to support your claims. You may also want to mention any relevant education or training the coworker has completed.

Personal Qualities : It’s important to assess the coworker’s personal qualities that demonstrate their ability to work well with others, manage tasks effectively, and contribute positively to the workplace. Consider qualities such as reliability, attention to detail, work ethic, and communication skills . Again, use specific examples of how the coworker has demonstrated these qualities in their work.

Example Table: Professional Skills and Personal Qualities

When assessing the coworker’s professional skills and personal qualities, be honest and objective. Don’t exaggerate their abilities or overlook areas where they may need improvement. Instead, focus on highlighting their strengths while providing constructive feedback on areas they can develop.

Illustrating Leadership Qualities in a Letter of Recommendation for Coworker

When writing a letter of recommendation for a coworker, it’s important to showcase their leadership qualities. Highlighting their ability to lead, motivate, and inspire others in the workplace can make a significant impact on their job application or promotion potential.

One effective way to illustrate  leadership qualities  is by providing specific examples of how your coworker has demonstrated these skills in the workplace. For instance, you could mention a project they led successfully or an instance where they mentored a junior colleague.

It’s also important to highlight the soft skills that make a strong leader, such as communication, problem-solving, and decision-making abilities. Providing examples of how your coworker has used these skills to achieve positive outcomes can make a compelling case for their leadership potential.

Highlighting Work Performance and Achievements

When writing a letter of recommendation for a coworker, it is important to highlight their work performance and professional achievements. This section will guide you on how to effectively showcase their skills and contributions.

  • Provide specific examples : When describing your coworker’s work performance, be sure to provide specific examples of their accomplishments. This will help to demonstrate their skills and abilities in action. For example, you may describe how they exceeded sales targets or successfully managed a complex project.
  • Quantify achievements : Whenever possible, quantify your coworker’s achievements to provide a sense of scale. For example, you might describe how they increased website traffic by 50% or saved the company $100,000 through cost-saving measures.
  • Use a table : Consider using a table to showcase your coworker’s professional achievements. This can be an effective way to present a lot of information in a visually engaging way. Be sure to include headings that clearly describe the achievements being highlighted.
  • Highlight relevant skills : When discussing your coworker’s professional achievements, be sure to highlight the relevant skills they used to achieve them. This will help to demonstrate their suitability for the position they are applying for.
  • Showcase growth : If your coworker has demonstrated growth and improvement over time, be sure to highlight this in your letter of recommendation. This can be particularly important if they are applying for a promotion or a new job.

Describing Teamwork and Collaborative Abilities

Working in a team is an essential component of most jobs, and highlighting your coworker’s ability to work well with others and collaborate effectively can make a significant impact on their application. When writing a letter of recommendation, focus on specific examples that demonstrate your coworker’s  team player  mentality and  collaborative work  style.

For instance, if your coworker successfully led a project with multiple team members, describe their role in the project and how they contributed to the team’s success. Also, highlight their ability to communicate effectively with others, manage conflict, and contribute to a positive work environment.

By highlighting your coworker’s teamwork and collaboration skills, you are demonstrating their ability to work well with others, which is an essential quality for most job positions and internal promotions .

Showcasing Technical Expertise and Knowledge

Your coworker’s technical expertise,  work experience , and  IT certifications  can be a crucial factor in their job performance and ability to excel in their career. When writing a letter of recommendation, it’s essential to highlight these skills and qualifications to provide a comprehensive picture of their professional capabilities.

You can showcase your coworker’s technical expertise by providing specific examples of their work, such as:

By providing concrete examples of your coworker’s technical expertise and experience, you can help the letter’s recipient to better understand their capabilities and qualifications for the position they are applying for.

Also, make sure to describe how your coworker’s technical abilities have contributed to the company’s success and how they have solved technical issues in the past. This will help to further display your coworker’s skills and abilities to the recipient of the letter.

Emphasizing Communication and Content Creation Skills

In today’s digital age, the ability to create  engaging content  and effectively communicate with others is a highly valued skill in the workforce. As a coworker, you have likely witnessed your colleague’s exceptional  content creation  and  marketing skills .

One way to showcase their abilities is to highlight any successful content creation projects they have completed, such as a social media campaign or blog post series. The content should have a clear message, be visually appealing, and engage the audience.

Moreover, you should highlight their communication skills in both written and oral forms. This includes their ability to create presentations, write effective emails , and lead meetings. For example, you could mention any successful presentations they have given, highlighting their ability to engage the audience and clearly convey their message.

“During our quarterly meeting, [coworker name] presented on the company’s new product launch with enthusiasm and clarity. Their presentation engaged the entire team and clearly conveyed the benefits and features of the product.”

Overall, showcasing your coworker’s content creation and marketing skills, along with their exceptional communication abilities, can greatly strengthen their letter of recommendation and increase their chances of success in their career.

Demonstrating Professional Development and Continuous Learning

When writing a letter of recommendation for a coworker, it’s important to showcase their commitment to  professional development  and continuous learning. By highlighting their participation in  workshops ,  webinars , and staying up-to-date with  technological trends , you can demonstrate their dedication to improving their skills and staying current in their field.

You can use a table to showcase the workshops and webinars that your coworker has attended, along with the skills and knowledge they have acquired. This table can be structured with three columns, including the name of the workshop or webinar, the date it was held, and a brief summary of what they learned.

In addition to workshops and webinars, you can also mention any relevant  IT certifications  or educational training that your coworker has completed. This will show that they are committed to expanding their knowledge and skills, and are always looking for ways to improve their work performance.

  • Successfully completed a course on Advanced Excel Techniques, which improved their ability to analyze and interpret data.
  • Received a certification in Digital Marketing , demonstrating their knowledge of inbound marketing, social media campaigns, and SEO tactics.

By showcasing your coworkers’ commitment to  professional development  and continuous learning, you can demonstrate their potential for growth and success in their field, making them ideal candidates for job applications or internal promotions.

Conclusion: Writing a Successful Letter of Recommendation for a Coworker

Writing a letter of recommendation for a coworker can be an excellent opportunity to help them achieve their professional goals. By following this guide, you will be able to build a strong professional relationship, assess their professional skills and personal qualities, and showcase their leadership abilities, work performance, teamwork skills, technical expertise, and communication skills. Additionally, you can stress your coworker’s ongoing commitment to professional development and continuous learning.

Remember that a letter of recommendation is an essential tool to support your coworker’s career growth and opportunities . With a positive, thoughtful, and clear letter of recommendation, you can help them stand out from the competition and highlight their unique value for their target job or promotion.

So, take your time to read this guide carefully and use it to craft a persuasive, coherent, and engaging letter of recommendation for your coworker. With your support, they can achieve their career aspirations and strengthen their reputation in the workforce.

How to write a professional letter of recommendation for a coworker?

What is an example of a colleague recommendation, how do you write a good letter of recommendation for an employee, how can i write a recommendation letter for someone, what are some outstanding recommendation letter samples, related posts:.

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Checklist: Writing a Thesis or Dissertation

Published on August 30, 2022 by Shona McCombes . Revised on July 18, 2023.

Your thesis or dissertation is probably the longest academic text you’ve ever had to write, and there are a lot of different elements to keep in mind.

Use this simple checklist to make sure you’ve included all the essentials and submit your dissertation with confidence.

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My title page includes all information required by my university.

I have included acknowledgements thanking those who helped me.

My abstract provides a concise summary of the dissertation, giving the reader a clear idea of my key results or arguments.

I have created a table of contents to help the reader navigate my dissertation. It includes all chapter titles, but excludes the title page, acknowledgements, and abstract.

My introduction leads into my topic in an engaging way and shows the relevance of my research.

My introduction clearly defines the focus of my research, stating my research questions and research objectives .

My introduction includes an overview of the dissertation’s structure (reading guide).

I have conducted a literature review in which I (1) critically engage with sources, evaluating the strengths and weaknesses of existing research, (2) discuss patterns, themes, and debates in the literature, and (3) address a gap or show how my research contributes to existing research.

I have clearly outlined the theoretical framework of my research, explaining the theories and models that support my approach.

I have thoroughly described my methodology , explaining how I collected data and analyzed data.

I have concisely and objectively reported all relevant results .

I have (1) evaluated and interpreted the meaning of the results and (2) acknowledged any important limitations of the results in my discussion .

I have clearly stated the answer to my main research question in the conclusion .

I have clearly explained the implications of my conclusion, emphasizing what new insight my research has contributed.

I have provided relevant recommendations for further research or practice.

If relevant, I have included appendices with supplemental information.

I have included an in-text citation every time I use words, ideas, or information from a source.

I have listed every source in a reference list at the end of my dissertation.

I have consistently followed the rules of my chosen citation style .

I have followed all formatting guidelines provided by my university.


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McCombes, S. (2023, July 18). Checklist: Writing a Thesis or Dissertation. Scribbr. Retrieved November 13, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/dissertation/dissertation-checklist/

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How do I format a thesis or dissertation in MLA style?

Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook . For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook .

The MLA Handbook does not provide guidelines for formatting a thesis or dissertation—or for preparing the parts of such a project, like a preface, dedication, or acknowledgments page—because most schools maintain their own formatting requirements. Although the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing , out of print since 2016, summarized some of these requirements, it did so only in a very general way. 

Writers of theses and dissertations should follow any guidelines their schools provide. If a school does not provide such guidelines, a successfully defended dissertation in the writer’s department might provide an example to follow.

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  • How to Write Recommendations in Research | Examples & Tips

How to Write Recommendations in Research | Examples & Tips

Published on 15 September 2022 by Tegan George .

Recommendations in research are a crucial component of your discussion section and the conclusion of your thesis , dissertation , or research paper .

As you conduct your research and analyse the data you collected , perhaps there are ideas or results that don’t quite fit the scope of your research topic . Or, maybe your results suggest that there are further implications of your results or the causal relationships between previously-studied variables than covered in extant research.

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What should recommendations look like, building your research recommendation, how should your recommendations be written, recommendation in research example, frequently asked questions about recommendations.

Recommendations for future research should be:

  • Concrete and specific
  • Supported with a clear rationale
  • Directly connected to your research

Overall, strive to highlight ways other researchers can reproduce or replicate your results to draw further conclusions, and suggest different directions that future research can take, if applicable.

Relatedly, when making these recommendations, avoid:

  • Undermining your own work, but rather offer suggestions on how future studies can build upon it
  • Suggesting recommendations actually needed to complete your argument, but rather ensure that your research stands alone on its own merits
  • Using recommendations as a place for self-criticism, but rather as a natural extension point for your work

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

There are many different ways to frame recommendations, but the easiest is perhaps to follow the formula of research question   conclusion  recommendation. Here’s an example.

Conclusion An important condition for controlling many social skills is mastering language. If children have a better command of language, they can express themselves better and are better able to understand their peers. Opportunities to practice social skills are thus dependent on the development of language skills.

As a rule of thumb, try to limit yourself to only the most relevant future recommendations: ones that stem directly from your work. While you can have multiple recommendations for each research conclusion, it is also acceptable to have one recommendation that is connected to more than one conclusion.

These recommendations should be targeted at your audience, specifically toward peers or colleagues in your field that work on similar topics to yours. They can flow directly from any limitations you found while conducting your work, offering concrete and actionable possibilities for how future research can build on anything that your own work was unable to address at the time of your writing.

See below for a full research recommendation example that you can use as a template to write your own.

The current study can be interpreted as a first step in the research on COPD speech characteristics. However, the results of this study should be treated with caution due to the small sample size and the lack of details regarding the participants’ characteristics.

Future research could further examine the differences in speech characteristics between exacerbated COPD patients, stable COPD patients, and healthy controls. It could also contribute to a deeper understanding of the acoustic measurements suitable for e-health measurements.

While it may be tempting to present new arguments or evidence in your thesis or disseration conclusion , especially if you have a particularly striking argument you’d like to finish your analysis with, you shouldn’t. Theses and dissertations follow a more formal structure than this.

All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the discussion section and results section .) The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.

The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation should include the following:

  • A restatement of your research question
  • A summary of your key arguments and/or results
  • A short discussion of the implications of your research

For a stronger dissertation conclusion , avoid including:

  • Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion…”)
  • Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g. “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)

Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.

In a thesis or dissertation, the discussion is an in-depth exploration of the results, going into detail about the meaning of your findings and citing relevant sources to put them in context.

The conclusion is more shorter and more general: it concisely answers your main research question and makes recommendations based on your overall findings.

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Best Thesis Award Recommendation letter Template

Letter Template: 1

Job position:

Institution name:

Addressee name:

Subject: Recommendation for best thesis award

Dear Sir/ Madam 

It is with utmost pleasure and enthusiasm that I highly recommend (name) for the best thesis award. Few people have the opportunity to report to this brilliant student. 

(He/she) shows great creativity skills throughout this thesis. For doing this thesis, (he/she) went through lots of research papers, review articles,s, and magazines. (His/her) the thesis is unique, which enhances me very much.  

The title of the thesis tells us the topic and attracts us to know more about this. All the paragraphs are explained clearly, and readers will be able to read the thesis without any difficulty.

The introduction part will easily catch a reader’s eyes and will attract them to read the whole. I am particularly impressed with developing his own original ideas and applying sound research and practical design in (his/her) thesis.

(His/her) the thesis is logical and rational, accurate, neither too large nor too short, and the presentation is perfect in my view.

 (He/she) has maintained all the criteria of a perfect thesis. So, I am very glad to say that this best thesis award goes to (name). 

Thank you very much.


Name and signature

Download Template : ( pdf, docs, ODT, RTF, txt, HTML, Epub, Etc )

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5 Outstanding Recommendation Letter Samples (+ How to Write Your Own)

  • by Rebecca Safier

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Writing a recommendation letter for an employee or a coworker is a big responsibility, as your letter could make or break their job application. So how can you write an effective letter of recommendation that will impress a hiring manager?

This article will explain how to write a recommendation letter for a job, as well as provide five recommendation letter samples to guide you through the process.

Use the table of contents to jump straight to the samples, or keep reading for tips on how to write an excellent letter of recommendation.

  • Recommendation letter sample 1
  • Recommendation letter sample 2
  • Recommendation letter sample 3
  • Recommendation letter sample 4
  • Recommendation letter sample 5

Why are recommendation letters important?

Before diving into the recommendation letter samples, let’s consider what role recommendation letters play in the job application process. Why do hiring managers ask for letters of recommendation? What purpose do reference letters serve?

Powerfully advocate for the job seeker

Well for one, you can powerfully advocate for a candidate in your letter. By throwing your support behind them, the hiring manager will see that this person has successfully worked with a boss or colleague in the past.

Add personality to a job application

Your letter can also help personalize someone’s application. A hiring manager might read through lots of resumes, but your letter will help the candidate come to life by shedding light on their personality and work style.

Point out past achievements

By discussing specific achievements a candidate has made, you can also help prove the job seeker will make similar accomplishments in the future. They say past behavior points to future behavior, so sharing anecdotes in your letter will help the hiring manager see what the job seeker would be like if they got hired.

Help the job seeker get hired

If you write a generic, vague letter, it might not do much to sway a hiring manager’s opinion. Or it could easily be outshined by someone else’s letter of recommendation, where the writer took the time to get personal and specific.

But if you take the time to craft a strong, thoughtful letter, it could help push the job seeker’s candidacy over the edge and land them the job — or at least a job interview !

6 ways to make your letter of recommendation effective

Assuming you want to help the job seeker as much as you can, how can you craft a letter that will help their application stand out? Here are a few ways to make your letter of recommendation powerful.

1. Customize your letter to the job at hand

Just as a job seeker should customize their cover letter to each job they apply to, so too should you customize your letter of recommendation to the job at hand. If you send off a general letter without mentioning what job the candidate is applying for, it will look weak compared to one that was written specifically for the role.

Let’s say you’re recommending an employee who worked in marketing and is now going after a director role. If you simply describe what it was like to work with that employee, your letter will fall flat.

Instead, you should talk about why you’re recommending them to become a director; discuss what makes them ready to move into a managerial role.

In your letter, name the new job and company to show that you understand what job the candidate is applying for and wholeheartedly recommend them for the specific position. Remember, the hiring manager is looking for someone who would be a good fit; your letter can go a long way toward persuading them this is the person they’ve been looking for.

2. Use 2-3 specific examples

While calling the candidate motivated, accountable, or creative is all well and good, you want to back up these descriptors with actual examples. Let’s say you’re talking about how the candidate is great at creative problem-solving.

Choose a specific time when a problem came along and talk about how the candidate solved it. By providing two to three specific anecdotes, you can prove the candidate really has the qualities you say they do.

Plus, your letter will come to life, rather than simply being a repeat of what’s already on the candidate’s resume . If it’s just a list of titles and certifications, it doesn’t add anything extra to the application.

Since you worked with the candidate in the past, you can shed light on their past achievements. By identifying a few specific accomplishments, your recommendation letter will become even more valuable and convincing.

Bonus points in the accomplishments you highlight match up to a core competency of the job description. For instance, if the new role wants someone who takes initiative, choose a story where the candidate took initiative in the past.

3. Speak to the candidate before you write

Writing a letter of recommendation is a tall order, and you don’t have to do it all on your own. Before you sit down to write, speak with the job seeker about their plans.

Let them tell you what the new role is and why they’re excited about it. They might even share their cover letter and application materials, so you can make sure your letter complements the story they’re presenting in their application.

You might even ask the candidate to provide two to three specific anecdotes they’d like you to include in your letter. If you worked closely with this person, you can probably come up with these on your own.

But sitting down to chat will help you get insight into their goals and craft an effective letter.

4. Explain why your opinion matters

Let’s face it, a recommendation letter from someone’s mom isn’t going to hold as much weight as one from their manager. A hiring manager wants to see the letter comes from a reputable source who has worked closely with the candidate in the past.

So somewhere in the beginning of your letter, explain who you are and what makes you qualified to recommend this person. That way, your reader will understand where you’re coming from and know to take your opinion seriously.

5. Start with enthusiasm

Another good way to grab your reader’s attention is to start your letter with a strong statement of support. Some strong openers include,

  • As Juan’s former manager at XYZ Company, it’s my great honor to recommend him for the role of…
  • It’s my great pleasure to recommend Laura for the position of…

Although it’s easy to start with “I’m writing to recommend…,” that opener will look lukewarm next to something more powerful. So try to hook your reader with enthusiasm right away.

6. Format your letter correctly

Although some companies are more formal than others, it’s still important to format your letter in an official manner. Use official letterhead if possible, making sure to include your name, position, workplace, and contact information.

At the top, include the contact information for the hiring manager (see samples below). Address your letter to a specific person, if possible.

Your letter will probably be three to five short paragraphs with spaces in between, and it doesn’t have to be longer than a page.

At the end, invite the reader to follow up with you via email or phone for any further information.

5 recommendation letter samples

Now that you have a sense of what makes a strong recommendation, check out these practices in action in these five recommendation letter samples. While your letter should be unique, these examples can act as recommendation letter templates and guide you as you write your own.

Recommendation letter sample #1: Teaching job

Ms. Lila Sullivan Principal Alpine High School 1 Swiss Road Townton, Anywhere USA

Dear Ms. Sullivan,

It’s my great pleasure to recommend Stacy Nichols for the position of English teacher with Alpine High School. As the principal of Mountain High School, where Stacy has taught for the past five years, I’ve been extremely impressed with Stacy’s skills as an educator, commitment to her students, and creativity in the classroom. I have no doubt she will bring the same enthusiasm, rigor, and dedication to her new role in your school.

Along with her enthusiasm, positive energy, and attentiveness to students’ needs, Stacy brings a special talent to curriculum design. She led a committee last year to revamp the 11th and 12th grade curriculum, adding new books that better fulfilled our mission of inclusivity and diversity. She also helped revise our senior thesis project to bring in multimedia and make it more relevant to current events.

As a Google-certified educator, Stacy leads the way when it comes to bringing technology into the classroom. She’s also taken the time to train other teachers on how to incorporate technology as an effective vehicle for learning. This year, for instance, she led three trainings for the English department on how to incorporate the Google suite of tools into classroom lessons. 

Finally, Stacy is special for her ability to connect with students and be sensitive to their needs. At the end of last year, I had several parents contact me directly about what a positive impact Stacy and her class had on their sons and daughters. This positive impact was obvious by the surprise party her students threw her on the last day of the semester!

While the team and I would love to keep Stacy here forever, we have to bid her farewell when she moves across the country next month. Although we’ll miss having her as part of the team, we’re 100% confident she’ll make an incredible addition to your English department at Alpine High School.

Please don’t hesitate to contact me for any more information at 617-716-7566 or by email at [email protected] .

Sincerely yours,

Rachel Smith Principal Mountain High School

Recommendation letter sample #2: Remote content writer job

Roberta Moor Director of Marketing Facegramchat 55 Market St. Anywhere, USA

Dear Ms. Moor,

I’m writing to wholeheartedly recommend David Sanchez for the role of content writer with Facegramchat. As the director of marketing for Instabooksnap, I hired David when he was fresh out of college with his degree in English and communications.

David has grown tremendously over the years and has become one of the most valuable and prolific writers on our team. Although we’ll all be sad to see him go, I understand his to desire to work in a remote role, an arrangement our company unfortunately cannot offer him at this time.

David is a talented wordsmith, researcher, and editor who has a way with words. He’s extremely skilled at naturally incorporating keywords throughout his articles and has an intuitive sense of how to write SEO-optimized articles that rank well in organic search.

In fact, his article on XYZ is consistently the highest driver of traffic to our site with more than 5,000 unique visitors per day. Along with SEO-optimized articles, David is skilled at pitching original ideas, reporting on news, and interviewing sources to add original commentary to his pieces.

He’s also been a tremendous contributor to our team internally, crafting process documents to help our team run more smoothly and leading trainings in our weekly meetings. In the past month, David created a training document on best practices for competitor analysis for new writers, as well as led a training on the subject. These training documents will be an excellent addition to our onboarding guide for new team members.

David is extremely accountable to deadlines and skilled at working independently, while at the same time is proactive about contributing to the team and collaborating with his colleagues. Because he’s so accountable and communicative, I have no doubt that David will excel in a remote role with a distributed team.

As I’m sure you can tell from David’s portfolio, the quality of his writing speaks for itself. As his manager for four years, I can attest that David is an impressive, reliable, consistent, and creative employee who supports his colleagues, takes initiative, and is an absolute pleasure to work with.

Please feel free to contact me at 555-525-5252 or [email protected] for any more information.

Best regards,

Bob McIntire Director of Marketing Instabooksnap

Recommendation letter sample #3: Remote sales job

Victor Snow We Sell Stuff Co. 5 Seller’s Lane Townplace, USA

Dear Mr. Snow,

It’s my pleasure and honor to recommend Brian Danson for the account manager position with We Sell Stuff Co. Brian and I worked together for the past five years, where I was his manager at Sellers Gotta Sell, Inc.

Throughout his time with our sales team, Brian proved himself to be a hard-working, motivated, ambitious, charismatic, and reliable employee. His honesty, dependability, confidence, and excellent communication skills helped him become the top salesperson two years running, surpassing his quarterly goals by an incredibly impressive 22%.

Positive testimonials about working with Brian have poured in from our clients. Our team also holds Brian in the highest regard, not just because he’s a great person but also because he’s taken a proactive role in organizing office parties and celebrations.

While Brian’s next sales role will be remote, I have no doubt he’ll continue to make a positive impact on his teammates, wherever they’re located. He’s a talented salesperson and overall great person to be around. While we’ll miss having him on the team, I have no doubt he’ll exceed all expectations as a member of We Sell Stuff Co.

Please don’t hesitate to contact me with any questions at 677-776-6767 or [email protected] .

Kim Commercio Director of Sales Sellers Gotta Sell, Inc. 5 London Lane Los Angeles, CA

Recommendation letter sample #4: Customer service job

Kathy Rosenstein Director of Customer Support Glossy Glasses Co. 1 Clients Way Anywhere, USA

Dear Ms. Rosenstein,

It’s my great pleasure to recommend Jill Harrison for the position of customer support representative with Glossy Glasses Co. Jill has worked as a customer support representative for our company for the past two years. As her direct supervisor, I’ve been incredibly impressed with her warmth, personability, and commitment to our customers.

Jill is a true people person who loves speaking with customers and resolving their questions and concerns. She truly embodies our mission to put the customer first and help solve issues in any way we can.

Positive reviews have flooded in from customers that have spoken with Jill about the customer service they received, with most recommending her for our top monthly incentive prize of an Amazon gift card (satisfied customers can also choose a free coffee or lunch).

Along with providing excellent support to our customers and helping build long-term relationships with our client base, Jill has been proactive about improving our team processes. She volunteered to outline our procedures and answers to common questions, creating documents that are a great help to our current team members and will be extremely useful when onboarding new hires.

Jill stands out for her kindness, commitment, and initiative, and I’m completely confident she will surpass all expectations when joining your customer service team.

Thanks for your time, and please feel free to contact me at 888-888-8888 or [email protected] .

Elizabeth Ward Director of Customer Service Moda Moda

Recommendation letter sample #5: Remote web designer job

Melanie Davos Director of Engineering Coding XX 9 Computer Way Austin, TX

Dear Ms. Davos,

It’s my absolute pleasure to recommend Julie Brown for the role of web designer with Coding XX. Julie has worked with our company Outdoor Gear Inc. on a freelance basis for the past three years. From her work with us, as well as our Slack chats and video meetings, I’ve gotten to know her as a highly skilled and passionate web designer with a knack for visual design.

In her work with us, Julie redesigned our web page to our specifications while contributing great ideas herself on how to make our website user-friendly and beautiful for our users. Since her redesign, we’ve seen our time on page and conversion metrics increase by five times what they were with our old site.

Julie also ensured her new, elegant designs are consistent across all our branding platforms, including email newsletters, social media, and our outreach efforts with other sites. Her contributions have been absolutely invaluable, and it seems there’s no challenge too big for Julie to tackle.

Julie is especially passionate about your company’s mission to teach girls and young women to code, so I’m excited for her to have the opportunity to join your team. I’m completely confident her skills and experience as a web designer, combined with her commitment to your important cause, will make her an invaluable employee who will drive your organization forward.

Please feel free to contact me with any questions at 454-321-1234 or [email protected] .

Steven Programmer Engineering Manager Outdoor Gear Inc.

Writing the best letter of recommendation you can

Now that you’ve read through the sample recommendation letters, you have a general recommendation letter template to guide your writing.

  • Start with the name, job title, and company address of the hiring manager, and address your letter to a specific person.
  • In your intro, explain why you’re writing and what your relationship to the job candidate is.
  • In two to three short paragraphs, describe what’s so special about the candidate, and do your best to provide specific anecdotes to back up your assertions.
  • Finally, conclude with a final message of support, and invite the hiring manager to contact you via phone or email with any questions.

Make your recommendation letter positive but accurate, and think of ways to make it stand out from others that might be in the pile.

And don’t forget to customize your letter to the specific job. Maybe the new company has a mission that the job seeker is especially passionate about, for instance, or perhaps you know the job seeker would excel in a remote role where they can have a flexible schedule.

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How to Write Recommendation Letter

How to write effective recommendation letters..

A letter of recommendation is a widely used instrument during a selection process, which serves to have more references on the experience and characteristics of an applicant.

To put it in its proper measure, what matters most is not what a letter of recommendation says, but rather who signs it.

However, writing it can be very difficult. That is why it is not uncommon for whoever recommends you to request a draft of the letter.

Parts of Letter of recommendation

A good letter of recommendation has four parts: identification, context, recommendation, and closure.

In one or two pages, it must contain:

  • The name of the person who recommends and the applicant.
  • A description of where they met.
  • Something positive about the work they developed together.
  • Something positive about the recommended person.
  • The phone number or contact information of who recommends.

It may help to think before writing the letter in one or two characteristics that are what you want to highlight, and without being too insistent, keep them in mind throughout the letter.

For example:

  • Responsibility
  • Be careful of the details
  • Global vision
  • Ability to perform well under pressure
  • Technical skills
  • Intelligence
  • Ability to lead and leadership
  • Enthusiasm and commitment
  • Teamwork skills

These two characteristics must have the applicant (being honest is the best policy) and should be things that the position to which they apply requires.

A letter of recommendation can be addressed to the president of the selection or search committee (being very careful to write the name and position well) or to the full committee:

Gentlemen Committee / Commission of XXX Department of XXX

The safest way is to simply take the address to which the background must be sent, and use that as the contact address.

The following paragraph should contain the identification of the person making the recommendation, taking care to make clear the credentials of the person who recommends, but without sounding pedantic:

My name is XXX, currently, I work as XXX (position) in XXX (department, organization). I am writing to support XXX’s nomination …

I’m XXX, currently XXX in XXX. The reason for this is to support the postulation of XX …

The best recommendations come from people who have worked or collaborated in a close relationship with the organization to which they are applying, or who are known in the area of ​​work in which they work.

The following paragraphs indicate the work by which the recommended one is known:

I worked with XXX in the year 2000, developing the “XXX” project (project name or short description) under XXX (context), for company XXX (recipients).

Now is the time to elaborate on something positive about the work developed, here many adjectives can be used with some certainty because they are talking about a job, not a person.

The important thing is to be truthful and above all specific, avoid generalities. Ideas can be combined:

The resulting project allowed 400 people to benefit from … (talk about the immediate impact).

The work done was delivered 1 month earlier than projected … (talk about work conditions).

What is built is currently used in XXX for XXX … (talk about the future impact).

The program received an award of XXX for XXX … (talk about the awards).

Hopefully, it will be a project with some visibility that has been known by who receives the letter, or some activity similar to the one that the applicant should develop in the organization that will receive it.


Here we speak directly of the applicant in positive terms, without exaggerating the note and being specific.

Ideally, the features that stand out are verifiable, in line with the work done and with the characteristics of the position to which it is postulated.

Mr./Sra./Srta./Ing./Dr./etc. XXX stood out on the team for … XXX

These characteristics allowed to achieve XXX …

Working with XXX was very positive because XXX

On more than one occasion, XXX (if it is something interesting and repeated more than once)

We must clarify these personal characteristics with the characteristics of the applicant to work as a team, which is very important when hiring someone new, because an important fear of who opens the application may be that the applicant is very good but does not integrate well with the rest.

Therefore, the recommendation should include some of:

It was a pleasure working with XXX because XXX …

XXX joined our team very well because XXX …

The work team still maintains a cordial relationship with XXX …

The first of the closing is the most obvious, a call to action, directly recommending the applicant:

For the above, I strongly recommend XXX for XXX

Therefore, it is my opinion that XXX meets the necessary characteristics for XXX

In my opinion and as stated, XXX meets/gathers and exceeds the qualifications and experience required for XXX

Finally, the letter indicates the phone number of who recommends. This gives more credibility and a more personal tone to the letter:

If you need more details about XXX, you can call me at XXX …

I remain at your disposal, for more details, you can call me at XXX …

Sample Letter of Recommendation

California DF. ; A ____ From _______Del _____

To whom it May concern:

The undersigned hereby allow me to introduce Mr. ________________, which I would very well recommend as an integral, hardworking and honest person.

Same that I have ____ years of knowing her, during which time she has shown herself in the manner mentioned above.

This is extended at the request of the interested party for the purposes that are agreed upon.

Ing. John Mathew

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How to Write a Thesis Conclusion and Recommendation Chapter?



A student is asked to write many papers during their time in college. However, a thesis is the ultimate and most important paper they are supposed to write. A lot depends on their thesis. It is accounted for as their final paper before getting their degrees. There are many professionals who stress the importance of writing a good thesis. They tend to focus a lot on the literature and the overall format. The thesis conclusion and recommendation chapter are the most underrated chapters. There’s hardly any discussion about them. However, they are equally important. The thesis conclusion and recommendation are of great importance. They are very important and leave a lasting impact on the minds of the readers. Which is why it is extremely important that the thesis conclusion and recommendation chapter are very well written.

Let us get a better understanding of how to write the thesis conclusion and recommendation chapter. But before we get to that, we should have better knowledge of thesis conclusion chapter.

What Is a Thesis Conclusion and Recommendation Chapter?

A thesis conclusion chapter is not like the conclusions of the rest of the academic papers you write. Unlike most conclusions, a thesis conclusion chapter consists of the overall summary of your literature . Whatever you write in your literature, it is written in a concise format in the conclusion. A good thesis conclusion is a blend of all the facts you have written in your main body. It gives you a brief summary of whatever you have written in your main body. A good conclusion is able to explain the entire gist of your thesis without omitting any major facts or figures.

On the other hand, the recommendations consist of all the recommendations you make. These recommendations can mainly be for future researches, government offices, or even corporate offices.

How to Write a Good Thesis Conclusion?

Here are a few points you should keep in mind while writing a thesis conclusion and recommendation chapters.

Stick to the Question

Keep in mind to provide answers to your research problems in your conclusion chapter. Explain all the problems you have highlighted in the course of your research. Make sure you provide the readers with answers to these questions with reference to your research. This will satisfy the readers and will leave them with a sense of completeness.

You must keep in mind to address your hypothesis in your thesis conclusion chapter. There is always a hypothesis a student begins with while writing the dissertation . Make sure you either confirm that hypothesis or reject it in your conclusion chapter. You must give out a verdict in your conclusion. That is the whole point behind writing it. If you don’t give out a verdict, then your entire research is pointless.


You must keep in mind that your conclusion is the summary of your literature. You must not introduce any new information in your thesis conclusion. This will completely confuse all your readers since they will be expecting a verdict on your hypothesis, not a new theory. Not only that, it will also leave a bad impression on their mind.

Say No to Examples

Like we’ve mentioned in the last step, you should not introduce any new facts and information in your conclusion. Introducing new facts in your conclusion will only confuse your readers.

No First Person’s

Because your conclusions are all about summarizing all the previously mentioned facts; you must make sure not to use the first person while writing. You are simply drawing a conclusion and giving a verdict considering all the facts you have mentioned in your main body. There is no room whatsoever for personal opinions. Which is why you shouldn’t use the first person.

Know the Difference Between Conclusion and Result

It is important that you understand the difference between a conclusion and a result. There’s a lot of difference between the two. Do not copy your result into the conclusion. In the result section, you write about what you have found while conducting your research. On the other hand, in the conclusion, you discuss your result and deliver a verdict.

Validate Your Sources

While recommending, you must make sure that your sources are credible and valid. Only recommend genuine sources and literature. Otherwise, it might leave a bad impression on the readers.

Now that you have understood all the points, you are capable of writing a good conclusion and recommendation chapter. In case you still need professional help or guidance, you can always opt for Uniresearchers . We have a highly trained and equipped team which is ready to help you with all your academic writings.

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thesis guide letter of recommendation

Find the best tips and advice to improve your writing. Or, have a top expert write your paper.

How To Write Literature Review For Thesis? Read On To Find Out!

thesis literature review

Table of Contents

  • 1. What is a literature review?
  • 2. Thesis literature review example
  • 3. Importance of the thesis literature review
  • 4. Literature review structure
  • 4.1. Step 1: Look for the Relevant Scholarly Resources
  • 4.2. Step 2: Evaluate the Resources
  • 4.3. Step 3: Identify Gaps in Current Resources
  • 4.4. Step 4: Develop the Outline of the Master Thesis Literature Review

Types Of Literature Review

  • 4.5. Write Your Literature Review
  • 4.6. Step 7: Write Your Bibliography

What Is A Literature Review

A thesis literature review is a complete analysis of scholarly sources on a selected topic of study. It is crafted to give an overview of the current knowledge, to help the researcher know the methods, theories, and gaps that exist in research.

Thesis Literature Review Example

thesis literature review

Why is Literature Review for Thesis Important?

When you are working on your graduate thesis, one of the core components needed to make it complete is a literature review. Here is a demonstration of the main benefits of carrying a literature review for your thesis.

  • Allows you to show how familiar you are with the topic of study.
  • Offers you an opportunity to develop a comprehensive methodology.
  • Demonstrate how your research will address the existing gap in your topic of study.
  • Make your contribution to your area of the study felt.

Doing a literature review requires you to collect and analyze scholarly resources that are related to your topic. When conducting a literature review, the process can be broken down into five key stages.

Literature Review Structure

  • Look for relevant scholarly resources . This is checking for different resources, such as journals and books, which are related to your study.
  • Evaluate the resources. This is careful sorting of the different resources to identify the most relevant ones.
  • Identify debates and gaps in these resources . This is further analysis of the scholarly resources to establish the main arguments and possible gaps in research.
  • Develop your outline. This is the format of the literature review that tells you what you are supposed to discuss at different points.
  • Write the literature review . This is the final step that involves putting down the findings that you found after analyzing different resources.

To help you craft a good literature review for thesis, here are the main steps that you should follow.

Step 1: Look for the Relevant Scholarly Resources

By the time you get to writing the thesis for your literature, you will have worked on chapter one (introduction) that clearly defines the topic. But you can still relook at it before setting off to look for the relevant resources. By defining the problem, you will be able to look at the resources that are closely related to the study questions and problems.

Another method of looking for relevant studies is searching using the keyword. Consider using the main databases for the latest journals, books and articles. Some of these databases include:

  • Project Muse .
  • Google Scholar .
  • Your university library.

After pulling out different resources, check whether it is relevant by going through the abstract. If the resource is relevant, peruse to the last section, the bibliography, for additional resources. When you find a specific resource recurring in the resources, it means it is very relevant.

Step 2: Evaluate the Resources

Once you have gathered an assortment of resources, the chances are that not all of them will be used during the study. So you will need to evaluate them further to determine which ones to use in the study. So here is how to evaluate every resource:

  • What problem is addressed in the resource?
  • How has the author defined the main concepts?
  • What theories and methods are used in the resource?
  • What is the conclusion of the resource?
  • What is the relationship between the resource and other resources?
  • How does the resource contribute to knowledge about the topic?

You should only pick the most relevant resources. Also, it is important to appreciate that if you are in the sciences, the review has to be focused on the latest resources. But if your thesis is in humanities, it might be necessary to check older resources to bring out the historical perspectives. As you read through, keep track of the resources by taking notes, capturing the pages, and citing them properly.

Step 3: Identify Gaps in Current Resources

Before you can organize the arguments in the literature, it is prudent to comprehend how the resources are related. So what should you look for?

  • Patterns and trends, especially in theories, methods, and results.
  • Debates, major conflicts, and contradictions.
  • Gaps on what is missing in the literature.
  • Pivotal publications.

Step 4: Develop the Outline of the Master Thesis Literature Review

The outline of your literature provides you with a breakdown of what you should discuss at what different stages. There are a number of strategies that you can use to prepare your literature review.

  • Chronological . This approach involves tracing the development based on the topic occurrence over time. It is the simplest strategy.
  • Thematic . This strategy involves presenting the review based on different themes.
  • Methodological . If the resources you use for the review have varying methods, a methodological presentation can helps you to compare the results as well as conclusions.
  • Theoretical . This approach involves exploring the theories, definitions, concepts, and models used in the resources. You might also want to focus on particular theories depending on the topic of study.

Note that you can opt to use one or combine several of them to make your literature review more articulate.

Step 5: Write Your Literature Review

Like other forms of academic writing, your literature review should take this format: introduction, body, and conclusion. Here is what to include in every section:

  • Introduction: This should be used to give the focus of the literature review.
  • Body: In the body of the literature review, you get into the finer details of the review. Here you should do the following:
  • Summarize, analyze, and interpret.
  • Evaluate comprehensively.
  • Write carefully in properly structured and easy to read paragraphs.

Literature Review Example

To help you craft a great literature review thesis, it is important to also have the entire project in mind. This means that although you are reviewing literature, the methods you will use should be clear the back of your mind. Here is a thesis literature review example paragraph. The paragraph is borrowed from literature review of a thesis on the effects of cyberbullying.

“ Cyberbullying gives the bully a much larger spectrum to choose from when it comes to how exactly they want to intimidate their victims, which may be why it is often easier for them to carry out the act. Of all the different ways to cyberbully Faucher et al. (2014) found the most common platforms for cyberbullying to be social media, text messaging, and email, which were used to bully students about half of the time followed up by blogs forums and chat rooms which were 25 percent. This is no surprise that social media is the most common platform for cyberbullying because it can allow for the bully to remain completely anonymous to your average victim. This allows people who may not fit the mold of your average bully to create a fake account and build their own persona in order to bully others.”
  • Conclusion.

Once you have written the body of the literature review, you still need to conclude it. This is a summary of the literature review that captures the main points that you have discussed.

Step 6: Write Your Bibliography

This guide on how to write literature review for thesis cannot be complete without including a bibliography. This is a complete list of all the resources that you have used during the review. It is important to ensure that you follow the method that your supervisor recommends for formatting and referencing. See two reference examples presented below.

Abeele, M., & Cock, R. (2013). Cyberbullying by mobile phone among adolescents: The role of gender and peer group status. Communications: The European Journal of Communication Research, 38(1), 107-118. Doi:10.1515/commun-2013-0006

Arntfield, M. (2015). Toward a Cybervictimology: Cyberbullying, Routine Activities Theory, and the Anti-Sociality of Social Media. Canadian Journal Of Communication, 40(3), 371-388

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  22. How to Write a Thesis Conclusion and Recommendation Chapter?

    Hypothesis. You must keep in mind to address your hypothesis in your thesis conclusion chapter. There is always a hypothesis a student begins with while writing the dissertation. Make sure you either confirm that hypothesis or reject it in your conclusion chapter. You must give out a verdict in your conclusion.

  23. Thesis Literature Review: Your Complete Guide

    Step 6: Write Your Bibliography. This guide on how to write literature review for thesis cannot be complete without including a bibliography. This is a complete list of all the resources that you have used during the review. It is important to ensure that you follow the method that your supervisor recommends for formatting and referencing.