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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
The implementation of the K-12 curriculum in the Philippines started in 2012 beginning with grade 1 and grade 7 learners and the succeeding levels were introduced as these students get promoted to the next grade levels in the ensuing school year. The features of the K-12 Enhanced Basic Education Program include the strengthened of different subjects, specifically the Science and Math education which follows a spiral progression. The use of spiral progression avoids disjunctions between stages of schooling and allows learners to learn topics and skills appropriate to their developmental and/or cognitive stages. The spiral progression is also believed to strengthen retention and mastery of topics and skills as they are revisited and consolidated with increasing depth and complexity of learning in the succeeding grade levels Working Group on Curriculum, 2012).
IJIET (International Journal of Indonesian Education and Teaching)
This study was conducted to determine the perceptions of the Teachers and Students on the implementation of the K-12 Spiral Progression approach in teaching Secondary Mathematics at Dr. Geronimo B. Zaldivar Memorial School of Fisheries (DGBZMSF). The study utilized the mixed-method design (quantitative-qualitative research design). Interviews, questionnaires, and observation were used to gather data. The data were collected, analyzed, and interpreted using the following statistical tools: frequency, percentage, and medians. The study showed that most teachers and students were in favor of the implementation of the said curriculum. One of the teacher respondents noted that “The K – 12 program will greatly help us develop and upgrade our educational system in the Philippines, so we may be able to compete globally with our students who are fully equipped with the 21st-century skills”, another teacher respondent said, “it provides additional training for the students in preparing for co...
Istanbul University - DergiPark
Psychology and Education: A Multidisciplinary Journal
Psychology and Education
Spiral progression is one of the key components of the K to 12 curriculums. This prevents gaps between educational phases and enables students to pick up knowledge and abilities pertinent to their cognitive developmental stages. The goal of the study was to examine the factors impacting students' learning progress as well as to provide perspective into the teachers' viewpoints regarding the implementation of the science spiral curriculum at San Luis National High School in the Division of Agusan del Sur, Philippines, in the academic year 2021-2022. More so, this research used the quantitative approach as it delved into numerical data relative to the subject of the investigation procedure. The specific research methodology utilized was descriptive research design. The chosen public junior high school science teachers at San Luis National High School in the Division of Agusan del Sur in terms of their perspective when executing the science spiral progression curriculum is 3.55 with a descriptive interpretation of agree. The science teachers largely "agree" on the items offered to them in the questionnaire on the factors that affect students' learning development as to teachers' specialization and teacher training, seminars, and workshops, with an overall weighted mean of 3.96. a faculty mentoring program for the interdisciplinary classes they are instructing. Furthermore, the teachers are now conscious of the significance of obtaining a higher degree, whether it be for professional and personal growth or promotion, after observing the most recent trend in continuing education.
International Journal of Education (IJE)
This review highlights the relevance of the Spiral Progression in the K to 12 Science curriculum in order to address the current issues and concerns of the spiral approach. The advantages and disadvantages of the spiral curriculum was reviewed with some researches among foreign counterparts. The nature of science teaching and the current researches of the K to 12 in both local and international context was also emphasized to highlight the science curriculum framework in the Philippines made up of an intertwined science content and science processes. Science process skills in the basic education of the K to 12 are utilized in context through learning the science content. The curriculum is organized on problems and situations that challenge and arouse the curiosity of students to motivate them in learning as well as appreciating science as useful and relevant. Findings showed the spiral curriculum as learner-centered, smart, and advanced rather than extensive and concentrated.
Darryl Roy Montebon
The study delved into the factors the influence students’ learning progress in the implementation of the science spiral progression curriculum in selected public junior high schools in the Division of Pasig City, Philippines, covering the school year 2017 – 2018. The study used the quantitative approach to research, particularly the descriptive research methodology. The specific descriptive research designs utilized were the correlational and normative surveys. The contextual analysis technique was likewise used. Data were statistically tested with the use of frequency distribution formula, percentage formula, and percentage weighted mean The study concluded that the perspectives of the science teachers in executing the science spiral progression curriculum vary from school to school. The study also found out that several factors influence the students' learning progress and that majority of the Grade 10 students for the School Year 2017 – 2018 of the Division of Pasig City Phil...
Celine Jane Casil
Philippines. The paper presents the fears and loopholes of the K-12 system and its implementation in the context of the Philippines. Drawing on the current discourse, studies and loud views, the author concludes that if the goal is to improve the nation's student achievement then the real solution is improving the quality of teachers because " Students don't fail, teachers do. " Keywords: K-12 education system. Philippines education reform. Curriculum
Tarhata S . Guiamalon
The implementation of the K-12 Senior High School program makes Filipino students competitive globally. On this premise, a study to assess the K-12 Senior High School program of Laboratory High School (LHS) of Cotabato City State Polytechnic College (CCSPC). Also, it explored the resources, teachers' instructional practices, the attainment of the objectives of the program, and the challenges encountered in the implementation. It employed descriptive-evaluative design. It administered survey questionnaires to 202 total number of respondents composed of 169 senior high school students who were chosen randomly and 30 teachers, including three staff, who were selected using Complete Total Enumeration. It was conducted last school year 2019-2020. Results revealed that services and resources evidently provided. The teachers of the LHS have evidently practiced the instructional practices in terms of teaching strategies, classroom management, and assessment of learning. Considering the ...
Lourd Crisol , Lheigh Dioneda
The Philippines being the only country in Asia with a 10-year basic education cycle has recently shifted to a 12-year cycle just this June of 2012. This curriculum shift is called the K-12 educational policy. This study was thus conceived to determine the attitudes of the major stakeholders of the two rural public elementary schools from Northern Mindanao, Philippines toward this very novel curriculum. Moreover, this seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What is the attitude of the students of Karaos Elementary School and Rufino Santos Sr. Elementary School towards the implementation of the K to 12 program? 2. What is the attitude of the teachers of the two schools to the implementation of the said program? 3. What is the overall attitude of the respondents to the implementation of the program? To answer the above questions, the researchers used survey method as well as personal interviews. The responses were consolidated, tallied and were analysed. Results obtained revealed that majority of the respondents are positive towards the implementation of the program for they believed that the added years will provide them ample knowledge and skills and enable them to become globally-competitive graduates. Further, it was recommended that: (1) The students should continue to pursue their studies despite the change in the curriculum, (2) orientations about the K-12 program should be given to the students for them to be motivated to continue their education, (3) Teachers should find ways for professional growth, especially with the current trends in education for them to be effective in their fields and (4) Future researchers should consider looking into the other aspects of the K-12 curriculum shift such as cognitive preparedness, environmental conditions and others.
IJASOS-International E-Journal of Advances in Social Sciences
Tarhata S . Guiamalon , Pembain Hariraya
International Journal of Educational Research Review
EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education
MARILYN BALAGTAS , Dexter C. Ngo
Philippine Social Sciences Review
Dr. Rosario I. Alonzo
Kristel Ann Hermosa
KnE Social Sciences
Philippine Social Science Journal
Journal of Education and Society
Journal of Education and Society JES
Journal of Educational Research in Developing Areas
Roy Albert Acosta
Cecilia L . Calub
Journal of Physics: Conference Series
Naci John Trance
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What is the Background of a Study and How Should it be Written?
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Table of Contents
The background of a study is one of the most important components of a research paper. The quality of the background determines whether the reader will be interested in the rest of the study. Thus, to ensure that the audience is invested in reading the entire research paper, it is important to write an appealing and effective background. So, what constitutes the background of a study, and how must it be written?
What is the background of a study?
The background of a study is the first section of the paper and establishes the context underlying the research. It contains the rationale, the key problem statement, and a brief overview of research questions that are addressed in the rest of the paper. The background forms the crux of the study because it introduces an unaware audience to the research and its importance in a clear and logical manner. At times, the background may even explore whether the study builds on or refutes findings from previous studies. Any relevant information that the readers need to know before delving into the paper should be made available to them in the background.
How is a background different from the introduction?
The introduction of your research paper is presented before the background. Let’s find out what factors differentiate the background from the introduction.
- The introduction only contains preliminary data about the research topic and does not state the purpose of the study. On the contrary, the background clarifies the importance of the study in detail.
- The introduction provides an overview of the research topic from a broader perspective, while the background provides a detailed understanding of the topic.
- The introduction should end with the mention of the research questions, aims, and objectives of the study. In contrast, the background follows no such format and only provides essential context to the study.
How should one write the background of a research paper?
The length and detail presented in the background varies for different research papers, depending on the complexity and novelty of the research topic. At times, a simple background suffices, even if the study is complex. Before writing and adding details in the background, take a note of these additional points:
- Start with a strong beginning: Begin the background by defining the research topic and then identify the target audience.
- Cover key components: Explain all theories, concepts, terms, and ideas that may feel unfamiliar to the target audience thoroughly.
- Take note of important prerequisites: Go through the relevant literature in detail. Take notes while reading and cite the sources.
- Maintain a balance: Make sure that the background is focused on important details, but also appeals to a broader audience.
- Include historical data: Current issues largely originate from historical events or findings. If the research borrows information from a historical context, add relevant data in the background.
- Explain novelty: If the research study or methodology is unique or novel, provide an explanation that helps to understand the research better.
- Increase engagement: To make the background engaging, build a story around the central theme of the research
Avoid these mistakes while writing the background:
- Ambiguity: Don’t be ambiguous. While writing, assume that the reader does not understand any intricate detail about your research.
- Unrelated themes: Steer clear from topics that are not related to the key aspects of your research topic.
- Poor organization: Do not place information without a structure. Make sure that the background reads in a chronological manner and organize the sub-sections so that it flows well.
Writing the background for a research paper should not be a daunting task. But directions to go about it can always help. At Elsevier Author Services we provide essential insights on how to write a high quality, appealing, and logically structured paper for publication, beginning with a robust background. For further queries, contact our experts now!
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What is the Background of the Study and How to Write It
What is the Background of the Study in Research?
The background of the study is the first section of a research paper and gives context surrounding the research topic. The background explains to the reader where your research journey started, why you got interested in the topic, and how you developed the research question that you will later specify. That means that you first establish the context of the research you did with a general overview of the field or topic and then present the key issues that drove your decision to study the specific problem you chose.
Once the reader understands where you are coming from and why there was indeed a need for the research you are going to present in the following—because there was a gap in the current research, or because there is an obvious problem with a currently used process or technology—you can proceed with the formulation of your research question and summarize how you are going to address it in the rest of your manuscript.
Why is the Background of the Study Important?
No matter how surprising and important the findings of your study are, if you do not provide the reader with the necessary background information and context, they will not be able to understand your reasons for studying the specific problem you chose and why you think your study is relevant. And more importantly, an editor who does not share your enthusiasm for your work (because you did not fill them in on all the important details) will very probably not even consider your manuscript worthy of their and the reviewers’ time and will immediately send it back to you.
To avoid such desk rejections , you need to make sure you pique the reader’s interest and help them understand the contribution of your work to the specific field you study, the more general research community, or the public. Introducing the study background is crucial to setting the scene for your readers.
Table of Contents:
- What is “Background Information” in a Research Paper?
- What Should the Background of a Research Paper Include?
- Where Does the Background Section Go in Your Paper?
Background of the Study Structure
Before writing your study background, it is essential to understand what to include. The following elements should all be included in the background and are presented in greater detail in the next section:
- A general overview of the topic and why it is important (overlaps with establishing the “importance of the topic” in the Introduction)
- The current state of the research on the topic or on related topics in the field
- Controversies about current knowledge or specific past studies that undergird your research methodology
- Any claims or assumptions that have been made by researchers, institutions, or politicians that might need to be clarified
- Methods and techniques used in the study or from which your study deviated in some way
Presenting the Study Background
As you begin introducing your background, you first need to provide a general overview and include the main issues concerning the topic. Depending on whether you do “basic” (with the aim of providing further knowledge) or “applied” research (to establish new techniques, processes, or products), this is either a literature review that summarizes all relevant earlier studies in the field or a description of the process (e.g., vote counting) or practice (e.g., diagnosis of a specific disease) that you think is problematic or lacking and needs a solution.
Example s of a general overview
If you study the function of a Drosophila gene, for example, you can explain to the reader why and for whom the study of fly genetics is relevant, what is already known and established, and where you see gaps in the existing literature. If you investigated how the way universities have transitioned into online teaching since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic has affected students’ learning progress, then you need to present a summary of what changes have happened around the world, what the effects of those changes have been so far, and where you see problems that need to be addressed. Note that you need to provide sources for every statement and every claim you make here, to establish a solid foundation of knowledge for your own study.
Describing the current state of knowledge
When the reader understands the main issue(s), you need to fill them in more specifically on the current state of the field (in basic research) or the process/practice/product use you describe (in practical/applied research). Cite all relevant studies that have already reported on the Drosophila gene you are interested in, have failed to reveal certain functions of it, or have suggested that it might be involved in more processes than we know so far. Or list the reports from the education ministries of the countries you are interested in and highlight the data that shows the need for research into the effects of the Corona-19 pandemic on teaching and learning.
Discussing controversies, claims, and assumptions
Are there controversies regarding your topic of interest that need to be mentioned and/or addressed? For example, if your research topic involves an issue that is politically hot, you can acknowledge this here. Have any earlier claims or assumptions been made, by other researchers, institutions, or politicians, that you think need to be clarified?
Mentioning methodologies and approaches
While putting together these details, you also need to mention methodologies : What methods/techniques have been used so far to study what you studied and why are you going to either use the same or a different approach? Are any of the methods included in the literature review flawed in such a way that your study takes specific measures to correct or update? While you shouldn’t spend too much time here justifying your methods (this can be summarized briefly in the rationale of the study at the end of the Introduction and later in the Discussion section), you can engage with the crucial methods applied in previous studies here first.
When you have established the background of the study of your research paper in such a logical way, then the reader should have had no problem following you from the more general information you introduced first to the specific details you added later. You can now easily lead over to the relevance of your research, explain how your work fits into the bigger picture, and specify the aims and objectives of your study. This latter part is usually considered the “ statement of the problem ” of your study. Without a solid research paper background, this statement will come out of nowhere for the reader and very probably raise more questions than you were planning to answer.
Where does the study background section go in a paper?
Unless you write a research proposal or some kind of report that has a specific “Background” chapter, the background of your study is the first part of your introduction section . This is where you put your work in context and provide all the relevant information the reader needs to follow your rationale. Make sure your background has a logical structure and naturally leads into the statement of the problem at the very end of the introduction so that you bring everything together for the reader to judge the relevance of your work and the validity of your approach before they dig deeper into the details of your study in the methods section .
Consider Receiving Professional Editing Services
Now that you know how to write a background section for a research paper, you might be interested in our automated text editor at wordvice.ai. And be sure to receive professional editing services , including academic editing and proofreading , before submitting your manuscript to journals. On the Wordvice academic resources website, you can also find many more articles and other resources that can help you with writing the other parts of your research paper , with making a research paper outline before you put everything together, or with writing an effective cover letter once you are ready to submit.