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Research Paper on Child Labor in Hotels of Kathamndu

Profile image of Biranchi Poudyal

Child labor persists when national laws and policies to protect children are lacking or are not effectively implemented. So far the child labor in Kathmandu is concerned, poverty is the main cause of worst form of child labor. Rural people are mostly suffered from larger family size and small land holding problems which make them main supplier of child labour. It is also estimated that four children out of five are trooped in the worst form of child labour. The child being a very innocent illiterate and unknown person is exploited very much by the society and this is also one of the vital causes for worst form of child labour. 62 % children enter the work force between the age of 10-14 years.Girls are more exploited then boy that is why they start working earlier than boys. This is reflected in the findings from different reports that 28.9% of girls in the worst forms of child labour are in the age group of 5-9 years compared to 1603% of the boys of the same age. While working only 17.8% of the children mostly boys are allowed to attend school. Among 38.4% of the domestic child workers are paid salary but in 59.3% of the cases parent collect the wages. This practice is more prevalent among girls children where parents collect the wages of 78.6% of the working irls.31.6% of the boy left their workplace for another work due to low remuneration and 52% of the girl children reported that harassment was the most important reason for learning.

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This is a study of a form of children labour, those, who are involved in performing their daily household chores among Khash, Aadhibasi/Janajati and Dalit community of total 177 respondents from 150 households of three wards of Kerabari VDC, Morang. It also provides the findings of involvement period and types of household chores by the social, economic and demographic characteristics. Among 177 Children from 150 household, 51.4 percent are male and rests are female. Most of them are from the age group 7 to 8 years and the average household size is 5.2 members per family. Most of the children have 1 to 2 siblings. The study has found out that Hindu is the major (83%) religious group and literacy rate of children is 89 percent. Out of 159 literate children majority of them (52.2%) are going to pre-primary level. Most of the children involve almost 2 hours in household chores and most of them involve in fetching water and wood as well as kitchen work. Most of the children aim to be a doctor in future. Similarly, majority of the children (86.7%) are from the agricultural family. Almost 26 percent children are from the family of having below 20,000 annual incomes and 45.3% families have less than 10 Kattha land. Among total 16 out-school children almost 10 are Dalit and 60 percent of them work four and more hours. Similarly, 27 percent in-school Dalit children work four and more hours, whereas only 16 and 15 percent children work four and more hours. Thus, Dalit children involve more in performing household chores. Similarly, out-school children also involve more hours. The involvement period is growing up along with the age and level of education of children. On the contrary, annual income among land-holding condition of family and availability of instruments of media exposure with average involvement period of children in household works. Most of the children are found to be involved in various types of household chores even so longer period from their very younger ages. Study has found that some of the children are in the worst form of child labour on the basic of period of involvement, types of hazardous and age of children.

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Journal of Poverty Investment and Development

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— Child labor is regarded as one of the most common problems in Bangladesh where 93% of child laborer are employed in the informal sector such as small factories and workshops, on the street, in home-based business and domestic employment which cannot be ignored. Many families rely on the income generated by their children for survival, so the problem child labor becomes worthy. Rajshahi is the main city of its division and so the opportunity of work is more available here. The study finds out the push factors behind child labor with their families' lifestyle and tries to eradicate this problem. In this study, 90 families have been interviewed from different slum areas of Rajshahi (e.g. Padma Residential Slum, Vodra Railway Slum and Talaimari Slum). To collect primary data, a well-organized questionnaire has been prepared and face to face interview has been taken with that questionnaires. Simple random sampling technique has been used for the study. After completing the survey and collecting data, an analysis has been done and a conclusion of an overview of child laborer's demographic condition has come out. Various socioeconomic and demographic variables have been considered at the time of data collection. In addition, secondary data has been used from various child labor's relevant books, articles, documents and officials through internet browsing. This survey finds out that the major factor behind child labor is poverty and also the family background of these laborers is also another worthy factor of child labor. And finally some suggestion, like providing school amenities and economic help has been designed to eradicate this problem as possible. As this study captured all possible causes behind this curse so, considering the causes the study will be an eyewitness account for policy makers as well as corresponding authority to demolish the name of 'child labor'.

Child labour is a Universal phenomena and it is a by-product of socio-economic structure of the society. Child labour can be classified as hazardous and non-hazardous labour. In India the problems of child labour is alarming. Today the country is having the world‟s largest number of child labour. The empirical research on child labour shows that, the child labour has been increasing in urban areas from the last two decades. Pune is not the exceptional urban area in increasing child labour in organized and unorganized sectors. The pune city is fastest growing city in India, especially in education, industries and hotel establishments. There are large numbers of hotels and restaurants being operated in the city Pune, all these hotel were classified in large size, medium size and small size hotels. „A‟ grade, „B‟ grade „C‟ grade hotels. Child labourers are mostly working in „B‟ grade (Medium size) „C‟ grade (Small size) hotels of Pune city.

IOSR Journals

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There are still some 152 million children in the world who are involved in some form of child labour. Of these, a large number are employed in the informal sector, while 72.5 million children are involved in worst form of child labour. Usually, the number of child labour is higher in economically poor countries. In the context of Nepal, about 47.8 percent of children are still involved in some form of work. Even though the latest data are not available, the figures for 2014 show that 27.4 percent of children are employed as child labour. Of the children involved in work, 45.45 percent did not even go to school. The figures show that the rate of child labour in Nepal is high and alarming. This is even worse in Karnali province lagging behind in all indicators. The number of children working in hazardous areas such as transportation, construction, tourism is also significant. The use of available means and resources for ending child labour, implementation of existing policies have not been effective due to lack of commitment and will power. According to the sectoral data, policies and plans have been formulated to tackle the child labour, but there has been no substantial effort by government agencies against child labour. In fact, the government formulates the plans, but the implementation does not seem to be effective. Particularly child labour resulted from economic poverty, lacking access to quality education, social acceptance, weak implementation of laws, conflict and changing family environment, modern information technology and misuse of social media, lacking attention by stakeholders and political commitment etc. Despite the government's international commitment against child labour and the formulation of various policies, plans and laws, no significant achievement has been realized in this area.

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