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Black americans have a clear vision for reducing racism but little hope it will happen, many say key u.s. institutions should be rebuilt to ensure fair treatment.
Pew Research Center conducted this analysis to understand the nuances among Black people on issues of racial inequality and social change in the United States. This in-depth survey explores differences among Black Americans in their views on the social status of the Black population in the U.S.; their assessments of racial inequality; their visions for institutional and social change; and their outlook on the chances that these improvements will be made. The analysis is the latest in the Center’s series of in-depth surveys of public opinion among Black Americans (read the first, “ Faith Among Black Americans ” and “ Race Is Central to Identity for Black Americans and Affects How They Connect With Each Other ”).
The online survey of 3,912 Black U.S. adults was conducted Oct. 4-17, 2021. Black U.S. adults include those who are single-race, non-Hispanic Black Americans; multiracial non-Hispanic Black Americans; and adults who indicate they are Black and Hispanic. The survey includes 1,025 Black adults on Pew Research Center’s American Trends Panel (ATP) and 2,887 Black adults on Ipsos’ KnowledgePanel. Respondents on both panels are recruited through national, random sampling of residential addresses.
Recruiting panelists by phone or mail ensures that nearly all U.S. Black adults have a chance of selection. This gives us confidence that any sample can represent the whole population (see our Methods 101 explainer on random sampling). Here are the questions used for the survey of Black adults, along with its responses and methodology .
The terms “Black Americans,” “Black people” and “Black adults” are used interchangeably throughout this report to refer to U.S. adults who self-identify as Black, either alone or in combination with other races or Hispanic identity.
Throughout this report, “Black, non-Hispanic” respondents are those who identify as single-race Black and say they have no Hispanic background. “Black Hispanic” respondents are those who identify as Black and say they have Hispanic background. We use the terms “Black Hispanic” and “Hispanic Black” interchangeably. “Multiracial” respondents are those who indicate two or more racial backgrounds (one of which is Black) and say they are not Hispanic.
Respondents were asked a question about how important being Black was to how they think about themselves. In this report, we use the term “being Black” when referencing responses to this question.
In this report, “immigrant” refers to people who were not U.S. citizens at birth – in other words, those born outside the U.S., Puerto Rico or other U.S. territories to parents who were not U.S. citizens. We use the terms “immigrant,” “born abroad” and “foreign-born” interchangeably.
Throughout this report, “Democrats and Democratic leaners” and just “Democrats” both refer to respondents who identify politically with the Democratic Party or who are independent or some other party but lean toward the Democratic Party. “Republicans and Republican leaners” and just “Republicans” both refer to respondents who identify politically with the Republican Party or are independent or some other party but lean toward the Republican Party.
Respondents were asked a question about their voter registration status. In this report, respondents are considered registered to vote if they self-report being absolutely certain they are registered at their current address. Respondents are considered not registered to vote if they report not being registered or express uncertainty about their registration.
To create the upper-, middle- and lower-income tiers, respondents’ 2020 family incomes were adjusted for differences in purchasing power by geographic region and household size. Respondents were then placed into income tiers: “Middle income” is defined as two-thirds to double the median annual income for the entire survey sample. “Lower income” falls below that range, and “upper income” lies above it. For more information about how the income tiers were created, read the methodology .
More than a year after the murder of George Floyd and the national protests, debate and political promises that ensued, 65% of Black Americans say the increased national attention on racial inequality has not led to changes that improved their lives. 1 And 44% say equality for Black people in the United States is not likely to be achieved, according to newly released findings from an October 2021 survey of Black Americans by Pew Research Center.
This is somewhat of a reversal in views from September 2020, when half of Black adults said the increased national focus on issues of race would lead to major policy changes to address racial inequality in the country and 56% expected changes that would make their lives better.
At the same time, many Black Americans are concerned about racial discrimination and its impact. Roughly eight-in-ten say they have personally experienced discrimination because of their race or ethnicity (79%), and most also say discrimination is the main reason many Black people cannot get ahead (68%).
Even so, Black Americans have a clear vision for how to achieve change when it comes to racial inequality. This includes support for significant reforms to or complete overhauls of several U.S. institutions to ensure fair treatment, particularly the criminal justice system; political engagement, primarily in the form of voting; support for Black businesses to advance Black communities; and reparations in the forms of educational, business and homeownership assistance. Yet alongside their assessments of inequality and ideas about progress exists pessimism about whether U.S. society and its institutions will change in ways that would reduce racism.
These findings emerge from an extensive Pew Research Center survey of 3,912 Black Americans conducted online Oct. 4-17, 2021. The survey explores how Black Americans assess their position in U.S. society and their ideas about social change. Overall, Black Americans are clear on what they think the problems are facing the country and how to remedy them. However, they are skeptical that meaningful changes will take place in their lifetime.
Black Americans see racism in our laws as a big problem and discrimination as a roadblock to progress
Black adults were asked in the survey to assess the current nature of racism in the United States and whether structural or individual sources of this racism are a bigger problem for Black people. About half of Black adults (52%) say racism in our laws is a bigger problem than racism by individual people, while four-in-ten (43%) say acts of racism committed by individual people is the bigger problem. Only 3% of Black adults say that Black people do not experience discrimination in the U.S. today.
In assessing the magnitude of problems that they face, the majority of Black Americans say racism (63%), police brutality (60%) and economic inequality (54%) are extremely or very big problems for Black people living in the U.S. Slightly smaller shares say the same about the affordability of health care (47%), limitations on voting (46%), and the quality of K-12 schools (40%).
Aside from their critiques of U.S. institutions, Black adults also feel the impact of racial inequality personally. Most Black adults say they occasionally or frequently experience unfair treatment because of their race or ethnicity (79%), and two-thirds (68%) cite racial discrimination as the main reason many Black people cannot get ahead today.
Black Americans’ views on reducing racial inequality
Black Americans are clear on the challenges they face because of racism. They are also clear on the solutions. These range from overhauls of policing practices and the criminal justice system to civic engagement and reparations to descendants of people enslaved in the United States.
Changing U.S. institutions such as policing, courts and prison systems
About nine-in-ten Black adults say multiple aspects of the criminal justice system need some kind of change (minor, major or a complete overhaul) to ensure fair treatment, with nearly all saying so about policing (95%), the courts and judicial process (95%), and the prison system (94%).
Roughly half of Black adults say policing (49%), the courts and judicial process (48%), and the prison system (54%) need to be completely rebuilt for Black people to be treated fairly. Smaller shares say the same about the political system (42%), the economic system (37%) and the health care system (34%), according to the October survey.
While Black Americans are in favor of significant changes to policing, most want spending on police departments in their communities to stay the same (39%) or increase (35%). A little more than one-in-five (23%) think spending on police departments in their area should be decreased.
Black adults who favor decreases in police spending are most likely to name medical, mental health and social services (40%) as the top priority for those reappropriated funds. Smaller shares say K-12 schools (25%), roads, water systems and other infrastructure (12%), and reducing taxes (13%) should be the top priority.
Voting and ‘buying Black’ viewed as important strategies for Black community advancement
Black Americans also have clear views on the types of political and civic engagement they believe will move Black communities forward. About six-in-ten Black adults say voting (63%) and supporting Black businesses or “buying Black” (58%) are extremely or very effective strategies for moving Black people toward equality in the U.S. Smaller though still significant shares say the same about volunteering with organizations dedicated to Black equality (48%), protesting (42%) and contacting elected officials (40%).
Black adults were also asked about the effectiveness of Black economic and political independence in moving them toward equality. About four-in-ten (39%) say Black ownership of all businesses in Black neighborhoods would be an extremely or very effective strategy for moving toward racial equality, while roughly three-in-ten (31%) say the same about establishing a national Black political party. And about a quarter of Black adults (27%) say having Black neighborhoods governed entirely by Black elected officials would be extremely or very effective in moving Black people toward equality.
Most Black Americans support repayment for slavery
Discussions about atonement for slavery predate the founding of the United States. As early as 1672 , Quaker abolitionists advocated for enslaved people to be paid for their labor once they were free. And in recent years, some U.S. cities and institutions have implemented reparations policies to do just that.
Most Black Americans say the legacy of slavery affects the position of Black people in the U.S. either a great deal (55%) or a fair amount (30%), according to the survey. And roughly three-quarters (77%) say descendants of people enslaved in the U.S. should be repaid in some way.
Black adults who say descendants of the enslaved should be repaid support doing so in different ways. About eight-in-ten say repayment in the forms of educational scholarships (80%), financial assistance for starting or improving a business (77%), and financial assistance for buying or remodeling a home (76%) would be extremely or very helpful. A slightly smaller share (69%) say cash payments would be extremely or very helpful forms of repayment for the descendants of enslaved people.
Where the responsibility for repayment lies is also clear for Black Americans. Among those who say the descendants of enslaved people should be repaid, 81% say the U.S. federal government should have all or most of the responsibility for repayment. About three-quarters (76%) say businesses and banks that profited from slavery should bear all or most of the responsibility for repayment. And roughly six-in-ten say the same about colleges and universities that benefited from slavery (63%) and descendants of families who engaged in the slave trade (60%).
Black Americans are skeptical change will happen
Even though Black Americans’ visions for social change are clear, very few expect them to be implemented. Overall, 44% of Black adults say equality for Black people in the U.S. is a little or not at all likely. A little over a third (38%) say it is somewhat likely and only 13% say it is extremely or very likely.
They also do not think specific institutions will change. Two-thirds of Black adults say changes to the prison system (67%) and the courts and judicial process (65%) that would ensure fair treatment for Black people are a little or not at all likely in their lifetime. About six-in-ten (58%) say the same about policing. Only about one-in-ten say changes to policing (13%), the courts and judicial process (12%), and the prison system (11%) are extremely or very likely.
This pessimism is not only about the criminal justice system. The majority of Black adults say the political (63%), economic (62%) and health care (51%) systems are also unlikely to change in their lifetime.
Black Americans’ vision for social change includes reparations. However, much like their pessimism about institutional change, very few think they will see reparations in their lifetime. Among Black adults who say the descendants of people enslaved in the U.S. should be repaid, 82% say reparations for slavery are unlikely to occur in their lifetime. About one-in-ten (11%) say repayment is somewhat likely, while only 7% say repayment is extremely or very likely to happen in their lifetime.
Black Democrats, Republicans differ on assessments of inequality and visions for social change
Party affiliation is one key point of difference among Black Americans in their assessments of racial inequality and their visions for social change. Black Republicans and Republican leaners are more likely than Black Democrats and Democratic leaners to focus on the acts of individuals. For example, when summarizing the nature of racism against Black people in the U.S., the majority of Black Republicans (59%) say racist acts committed by individual people is a bigger problem for Black people than racism in our laws. Black Democrats (41%) are less likely to hold this view.
Black Republicans (45%) are also more likely than Black Democrats (21%) to say that Black people who cannot get ahead in the U.S. are mostly responsible for their own condition. And while similar shares of Black Republicans (79%) and Democrats (80%) say they experience racial discrimination on a regular basis, Republicans (64%) are more likely than Democrats (36%) to say that most Black people who want to get ahead can make it if they are willing to work hard.
On the other hand, Black Democrats are more likely than Black Republicans to focus on the impact that racial inequality has on Black Americans. Seven-in-ten Black Democrats (73%) say racial discrimination is the main reason many Black people cannot get ahead in the U.S, while about four-in-ten Black Republicans (44%) say the same. And Black Democrats are more likely than Black Republicans to say racism (67% vs. 46%) and police brutality (65% vs. 44%) are extremely big problems for Black people today.
Black Democrats are also more critical of U.S. institutions than Black Republicans are. For example, Black Democrats are more likely than Black Republicans to say the prison system (57% vs. 35%), policing (52% vs. 29%) and the courts and judicial process (50% vs. 35%) should be completely rebuilt for Black people to be treated fairly.
While the share of Black Democrats who want to see large-scale changes to the criminal justice system exceeds that of Black Republicans, they share similar views on police funding. Four-in-ten each of Black Democrats and Black Republicans say funding for police departments in their communities should remain the same, while around a third of each partisan coalition (36% and 37%, respectively) says funding should increase. Only about one-in-four Black Democrats (24%) and one-in-five Black Republicans (21%) say funding for police departments in their communities should decrease.
Among the survey’s other findings:
Black adults differ by age in their views on political strategies. Black adults ages 65 and older (77%) are most likely to say voting is an extremely or very effective strategy for moving Black people toward equality. They are significantly more likely than Black adults ages 18 to 29 (48%) and 30 to 49 (60%) to say this. Black adults 65 and older (48%) are also more likely than those ages 30 to 49 (38%) and 50 to 64 (42%) to say protesting is an extremely or very effective strategy. Roughly four-in-ten Black adults ages 18 to 29 say this (44%).
Gender plays a role in how Black adults view policing. Though majorities of Black women (65%) and men (56%) say police brutality is an extremely big problem for Black people living in the U.S. today, Black women are more likely than Black men to hold this view. When it comes to criminal justice, Black women (56%) and men (51%) are about equally likely to share the view that the prison system should be completely rebuilt to ensure fair treatment of Black people. However, Black women (52%) are slightly more likely than Black men (45%) to say this about policing. On the matter of police funding, Black women (39%) are slightly more likely than Black men (31%) to say police funding in their communities should be increased. On the other hand, Black men are more likely than Black women to prefer that funding stay the same (44% vs. 36%). Smaller shares of both Black men (23%) and women (22%) would like to see police funding decreased.
Income impacts Black adults’ views on reparations. Roughly eight-in-ten Black adults with lower (78%), middle (77%) and upper incomes (79%) say the descendants of people enslaved in the U.S. should receive reparations. Among those who support reparations, Black adults with upper and middle incomes (both 84%) are more likely than those with lower incomes (75%) to say educational scholarships would be an extremely or very helpful form of repayment. However, of those who support reparations, Black adults with lower (72%) and middle incomes (68%) are more likely than those with higher incomes (57%) to say cash payments would be an extremely or very helpful form of repayment for slavery.
- Black adults in the September 2020 survey only include those who say their race is Black alone and are non-Hispanic. The same is true only for the questions of improvements to Black people’s lives and equality in the United States in the October 2021 survey. Throughout the rest of this report, Black adults include those who say their race is Black alone and non-Hispanic; those who say their race is Black and at least one other race and non-Hispanic; or Black and Hispanic, unless otherwise noted. ↩
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Table of contents, race is central to identity for black americans and affects how they connect with each other, black americans’ views of and engagement with science, black catholics in america, facts about the u.s. black population, the growing diversity of black america, most popular.
About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts .
ENG 110: Mapping New York City
Hostos community college fall 2019.
Racial profiling still affects today’s society
“ An analysis of 100 million police traffic stops has revealed that white people are more likely to be found with illegal items. Despite this fact black and Latino drivers are more likely to be stopped and searched by the police than white drivers.” The orange dots represents the percentage of black people who are being stopped by police unjustified.
There are many questions about racial profiling that still do not know the answer, such as, how does racial profiling in the past, affects the present? Are there cases of racial profiling today and what are they? Why colored, different religion, different ethnicity, has a certain impact in U.S. law enforcement? Although the United States Law Enforcement agencies should be compromised to treat everyone equally, racial profiling still affects society every day, specially people of color. Judging someone just because they have a different color of skin happens every day and affects not only the victim, but it has a significant effect on the whole society, indeed, public safety. It is basically assuming some charges based on no real evidence.Racial profiling is the act of suspecting or targeting a person of a certain race for committing an offense. Racial profiling is illegal, however, it still a social controversy, it violates the U.S. Constitution’s core that promises equality under the law for everyone. It occurs especially when an officer accuse people based on their race, ethnicity or religion without any proof of criminal offense.
Racial profiling is ineffective as an strategy from the law enforcement agencies and an offense for the 14th amendment of the constitution which states that “All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside.” This is according to FindLaw for Legal Professionals. This amendment guarantees equal rights and equal protection under the law.
According to the same article “ nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” People of color are more likely to face charges without any evidence than those who are considered actual “Americans”. This is something that affects specifically colored people, different religion, different ethnicity despite that the United States began an “post-racial era”. According to the CNN news “ The headlines pop up with alarming frequency: People of color going about their daily business — shopping , golfing , moving in — only to have the cops called on them.”
Another evidence from CNN news states that “Researchers studied nearly 100 million traffic stops and found black motorists are more likely to be pulled over”. The question becomes, why uncolored people passed by and the representatives of law enforcement do not even care much? This is do to the fact that, according to them, colored people are more likely to commit crime. According to History News Network “ At the age of seven, Mary was profiled and taken to court by Augustine Washington Senior (George Washington’s father). At court, she was judged to be mulatto, sentenced to a thirty-year indenture, and was ordered to serve her indenture with Washington.”. “ Today, because of their appearance and ethnicity, citizens are being stopped, searched, and arrested.”. This demonstrates how racial profiling in the past has affected the present. Despite significant advances in civil rights, the U.S. still deals with a lot of racial profiling. Since the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2003, racial profiling became a turning point for the United States Government. They are committed to stop and interrogate with any evidence of criminal activity. According to ACLU “In fact, the very inclusion of a national security exception in the guidelines is an admission by the Department of Justice that it relies upon racial and ethnic profiling in its domestic counter terrorism efforts” Which means, what they believe is, that the country will be more safe if they take more control of those who are considered more likely to commit crime.
As you can see in the graph, black and Hispanic ethnicity are more likely to be stopped by the police and experience unnecessary use of force against them and it is a topic that still concerning the society today.
There are annual statistics that show how people of color and Hispanic ethnicity are more likely to experience use of force from the police against them. According to the Prison Policy Initiative, black residents in New York City were 8 times more likely to be stopped by the police than white residents and 11 times more likely to be frisked. NBC News also claims that 64% of all Americans say that racism remains a major problem in our society. There exist many cases of racial profiling than were content of controversy in the United States such as the Jogger case and the Starbucks arrest case. This cases involved only black people. Police charged them for crimes that they did not committed for the fact that they were black.
Jogger case: This is the case of five black and Latino teens, Antron McCray, 15, Kevin Richardson, 15, Yusef Salaam, 15, Raymond Santana, 14, and Korey Wise, 16, who were quickly arrested by the police for the brutal assault of 28 years old white woman Trisha Meili without any evidence that they were the attackers. They were forcing them to say they were guilty, indeed, spent 15 years in jail being innocent. They did not get enough evidence to put them to jail just because they were at the crime scene and were black. The case generated a lot of concern in the whole society, some were targeting the five teens as animals, rapists, “wolf pack” and among other nicknames. Donald Trump also took place on this case saying that they deserve to be sentenced for death penalty. A Netflix series was filmed based on this case, according to ABC News “ When They See Us,” which is directed by Ava DuVernay, is a dramatized account based on a 1989 case of injustice and racial discrimination in New York City when five teenagers — four of them black and one Latino — were wrongfully convicted in the attack and rape of a white woman jogging in Central Park .”
Starbucks arrest case: This case involves two African Americans men who were arrested in a Philadelphia Starbucks. Minutes after they arrive at the place the manager called the police when they refused to leave because they were waiting for their acquaintance. CNN says that the nation started complaining about the case claiming that it was racial profiling act.
In conclusion, racial profiling is illegal, is a matter that still exists throughout the United States, it is a real problem as you have seen and it needs to be addressed.
“When they see us’ is a lesson in the Dangers of racial profiling”
- “Fourteenth Amendment – U.S. Constitution.” Findlaw , https://constitution.findlaw.com/amendment14.html.
- “Racial Profiling.” American Civil Liberties Union , https://www.aclu.org/issues/racial-justice/race-and-criminal-justice/racial-profiling.
- Yan, Holly. “This Is Why Everyday Racial Profiling Is so Dangerous.” CNN , Cable News Network, 11 May 2018, https://www.cnn.com/2018/05/11/us/everyday-racial-profiling-consequences-trnd/index.html.
- Willingham, A. J. (2019, March 21). Researchers studied nearly 100 million traffic stops and found black motorists are more likely to be pulled over. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2019/03/21/us/police-stops-race-stanford-study-trnd/index.html .
- Willingham, AJ. “Researchers Studied Nearly 100 Million Traffic Stops and Found Black Motorists Are More Likely to Be Pulled Over.” CNN , Cable News Network, 21 Mar. 2019, https://www.cnn.com/2019/03/21/us/police-stops-race-stanford-study-trnd/index.html.
- “Racial Profiling Since 9/11 Report.” American Civil Liberties Union , https://www.aclu.org/report/racial-profiling-911-report.
- Arenge, Andrew, et al. “Poll: 64 Percent of Americans Say Racism Remains a Major Problem.” NBCNews.com , NBCUniversal News Group, 30 May 2018, https://www.nbcnews.com/politics/politics-news/poll-64-percent-americans-say-racism-remains-major-problem-n877536.
- History.com Editors. “The Central Park Five.” History.com , A&E Television Networks, 14 May 2019, https://www.history.com/topics/1980s/central-park-five.
- ABC News , ABC News Network, https://abcnews.go.com/Politics/netflix-series-renews-outcry-donald-trumps-role-central/story?id=63607696 .
- “Racial Profiling in Police Stops.” Maps Mania , http://googlemapsmania.blogspot.com/2019/03/racial-profiling-in-police-stops.html.
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The ACLU’s work on racial profiling encompasses major initiatives in litigation, public education, and advocacy, including lobbying for passage of data collection and anti-profiling legislation and litigating on behalf of individuals who have been victims of racial profiling.
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Racial profiling is a longstanding and deeply troubling national problem despite claims that the United States has entered a “post-racial era.” It occurs every day, in cities and towns across the country, when law enforcement and private security target people of color for humiliating and often frightening detentions, interrogations, and searches without evidence of criminal activity and based on perceived race, ethnicity, national origin, or religion. Racial profiling is patently illegal, violating the U.S. Constitution’s core promises of equal protection under the law to all and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. Just as importantly, racial profiling is ineffective. It alienates communities from law enforcement, hinders community policing efforts, and causes law enforcement to lose credibility and trust among the people they are sworn to protect and serve.
“National security” has long been used to justify the unconstitutional profiling of, and discrimination against, Muslim, Black, Brown, and other historically marginalized communities. Since September 11, 2001, Arab, Middle Eastern, Muslim, and South Asian communities have been discriminatorily profiled by federal law enforcement, local police, and border officers. We have also seen federal agencies use race, ethnicity, national origin, and/or religious beliefs to profile and target Asian Americans, particularly Chinese American scientists and academics.
The federal government’s encouragement of unprecedented raids on immigrant communities and workplaces by local law enforcement in cooperation with federal agencies has targeted Latine communities in particular. These policies have unjustly expanded the purview of and undermined basic trust in local law enforcement, alienated immigrant communities, and created an atmosphere of fear. Anti-immigrant rhetoric has led to a dramatic increase in hate crimes against and racial profiling of people of color.
The ACLU’s work on racial profiling encompasses major initiatives in litigation, public education, and advocacy, including lobbying for passage of data collection and anti-profiling legislation and litigating on behalf of individuals who have been victims of racial profiling by airlines, police, and government agencies.
Home — Essay Samples — Social Issues — Discrimination and Prejudice — Racial Profiling
Essays on Racial Profiling
Racial profiling essay topics and outline examples, essay title 1: racial profiling in law enforcement: examining its prevalence and impact.
Thesis Statement: Racial profiling remains a pressing issue in law enforcement, with disproportionate targeting of individuals based on their race or ethnicity, and this essay delves into the prevalence, consequences, and efforts to combat this practice.
- Defining Racial Profiling and Its Historical Context
- Statistics and Data on Racial Disparities in Police Stops and Arrests
- The Impact on Communities of Color and Trust in Law Enforcement
- Policy Reforms, Advocacy, and Ongoing Challenges
Essay Title 2: Unpacking the Psychology of Racial Profiling: Implicit Bias and Stereotyping
Thesis Statement: Racial profiling often stems from implicit bias and stereotyping, and this essay explores the psychological factors that contribute to the practice, as well as strategies for recognizing and addressing these biases.
- Understanding Implicit Bias and Stereotypes
- Psychological Experiments and Studies on Bias in Law Enforcement
- Training and Education to Mitigate Bias and Improve Policing
- Challenges and Progress in Changing Police Culture
Essay Title 3: Beyond Law Enforcement: Racial Profiling in Other Spheres of Society
Thesis Statement: Racial profiling extends beyond law enforcement and infiltrates various aspects of society, including education, healthcare, and employment, and this essay examines the far-reaching consequences and calls for systemic change.
- Racial Profiling in Education: School Discipline and Academic Opportunities
- Healthcare Disparities and Access to Medical Services
- Employment Discrimination and Racial Bias in Hiring
- Community Movements and Policy Initiatives Addressing Profiling
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The Issue of Racial Profiling and The Problem with African Americans Overreacting
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Racial profiling refers to the discriminatory practice of targeting individuals for suspicion, investigation, or enforcement actions based solely on their race, ethnicity, or national origin, rather than on credible evidence or behavior indicative of criminal activity. It involves the use of stereotypes and preconceived notions about certain racial or ethnic groups, leading to biased and unjust treatment by law enforcement officers, security personnel, or other authorities.
Racial profiling remains a prevalent issue in the United States today, despite ongoing efforts to address it. It refers to the practice of targeting individuals or groups based on their race, ethnicity, or perceived characteristics rather than evidence of criminal behavior. In the US, racial profiling is often associated with law enforcement agencies, where racial and ethnic minorities are disproportionately stopped, searched, and subjected to harsher treatment. African Americans, Hispanics, and other marginalized communities frequently experience the negative consequences of racial profiling, leading to feelings of fear, mistrust, and injustice. Racial profiling extends beyond law enforcement and can be seen in various aspects of society, including employment, education, housing, and other public services. Minorities may face barriers and unfair treatment due to prejudiced assumptions or stereotypes. Efforts to address racial profiling include policy reforms, community advocacy, and increased public awareness. Organizations and individuals work to promote accountability, train law enforcement personnel on unbiased practices, and push for legislative changes to ensure equal treatment for all individuals, regardless of their race or ethnicity.
Racial profiling has a long-standing historical context rooted in discriminatory practices and biased attitudes towards certain racial and ethnic groups. Throughout history, individuals have been targeted, surveilled, and treated unfairly solely based on their race or ethnicity. One significant historical context of racial profiling is the era of colonialism and slavery. The transatlantic slave trade and the establishment of racial hierarchies based on skin color laid the foundation for racial profiling. People of African descent were subjected to systematic discrimination and surveillance, reinforcing stereotypes and racial biases. The Jim Crow era in the United States further perpetuated racial profiling. Laws and practices enforced segregation and discriminatory treatment towards African Americans. Racial profiling became institutionalized, particularly through practices like "Black Codes" and discriminatory policing, leading to unjust arrests, harassment, and violence against African Americans. In recent history, events like the Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s brought attention to racial profiling. The profiling of individuals based on their race or ethnicity by law enforcement agencies became a contentious issue, leading to debates and calls for reform.
Trayvon Martin Case: The tragic shooting of Trayvon Martin in 2012 brought national attention to the issue of racial profiling. Martin, an unarmed African American teenager, was fatally shot by George Zimmerman, a neighborhood watch volunteer, who claimed self-defense. The case sparked widespread protests and debates about racial bias and the profiling of young black males. Stop and Frisk Policy: The controversial stop and frisk policy implemented in New York City drew significant attention to racial profiling. Critics argued that the policy disproportionately targeted minority communities, particularly African Americans and Hispanics. The policy faced legal challenges, and its effectiveness in reducing crime while respecting individuals' rights was widely debated. Black Lives Matter Movement: The Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement emerged in 2013 following the acquittal of Trayvon Martin's killer and gained prominence after the deaths of several unarmed African Americans at the hands of law enforcement. The movement seeks to address systemic racism, police violence, and racial profiling. BLM has mobilized protests, raised awareness, and advocated for police reform, bringing national and international attention to the issue of racial profiling.
Traffic Stops: Racial profiling in traffic stops occurs when law enforcement officers disproportionately target individuals from specific racial or ethnic backgrounds for traffic violations or vehicle searches based on their appearance. Airport Security: Racial profiling can be observed in airport security measures where individuals are selected for additional screening or questioning solely based on their race or ethnicity. Retail Settings: Racial profiling can occur in retail environments when store employees or security personnel disproportionately suspect and monitor individuals from specific racial or ethnic backgrounds for theft or suspicious behavior. Immigration Enforcement: Racial profiling can also be prevalent in immigration enforcement, where individuals are subjected to increased scrutiny, questioning, or detention based on their perceived immigration status or ethnic background.
Public opinion on racial profiling varies, reflecting a complex and nuanced range of perspectives. While it is difficult to summarize the entirety of public sentiment, here are some common viewpoints: Many individuals strongly oppose racial profiling, considering it a form of discrimination and a violation of civil rights. They argue that targeting individuals based on race or ethnicity is unjust, perpetuates stereotypes, and undermines social cohesion. Advocates for racial justice and equality actively condemn racial profiling, calling for its eradication through policy reforms and increased awareness. On the other hand, some people argue in favor of racial profiling as a means to enhance public safety and security. They contend that certain demographics may have higher crime rates and that profiling based on relevant characteristics can help law enforcement effectively allocate resources. Supporters assert that profiling, when used correctly and without bias, can be an efficient crime prevention strategy.
Documentaries and Films: Documentaries and films have explored the topic of racial profiling, offering in-depth analysis and personal narratives. For instance, the documentary "The 13th" directed by Ava DuVernay examines racial profiling within the context of the criminal justice system. Television Dramas: Television shows have also addressed racial profiling. Series like "The Wire" and "Law & Order: SVU" have featured episodes exploring the challenges and controversies surrounding racial profiling, provoking discussions among viewers. Social Media and Online Platforms: Online platforms have provided a space for individuals to share their experiences and perspectives on racial profiling. Hashtags such as #DrivingWhileBlack and #WalkingWhileMuslim have gained traction, allowing people to share their encounters and raise awareness about racial profiling incidents.
1. According to a study conducted by the Stanford Open Policing Project, black drivers in the United States are approximately 20% more likely to be pulled over by police officers compared to white drivers. 2. The American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) reported that in 2019, black individuals were more than twice as likely to be searched during a traffic stop compared to white individuals. 3. A study published in the journal "Science" found that black men face a higher probability of being killed by police officers compared to white men. The study revealed that black men are 2.5 times more likely to be killed by law enforcement in their lifetime. 4. According to the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), hate crimes based on race accounted for approximately 48% of all reported hate crimes in 2019. 5. The Bureau of Justice Statistics reported that black Americans are incarcerated at a rate more than five times higher than that of white Americans. 6. A study conducted by the Center for Policing Equity found that black individuals are more likely to be subjected to the use of force by police officers compared to white individuals. 7. The Pew Research Center reported that a majority of black adults in the United States (84%) believe that they are treated less fairly than white individuals by the criminal justice system.
The topic of racial profiling is of significant importance when it comes to understanding and addressing systemic injustices in our society. Racial profiling refers to the practice of singling out individuals or groups based on their race or ethnicity for suspicion or targeting by law enforcement or other authorities. It is a form of discrimination that can have severe consequences on the lives of those affected. Writing an essay about racial profiling provides an opportunity to shed light on this pervasive issue and its detrimental impact on marginalized communities. It allows for a deeper exploration of the historical, social, and psychological factors that contribute to racial profiling. Additionally, such an essay can raise awareness about the systemic biases that perpetuate these discriminatory practices and prompt discussions on the need for policy reforms and societal change. By examining real-life cases, sharing personal experiences, and presenting compelling evidence and research, an essay on racial profiling can foster empathy, challenge prejudices, and inspire individuals to take action against racial injustice. It is a crucial step in promoting equality, social justice, and a more inclusive society for all.
1. Risse, M., & Zeckhauser, R. (2004). Racial profiling. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 32(2), 131-170. (https://www.jstor.org/stable/3557948) 2. Schwartz, R. S. (2001). Racial profiling in medical research. New England Journal of Medicine, 344(18), 1392-1393. (https://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJM200105033441810) 3. Gross, S. R., & Livingston, D. (2002). Racial profiling under attack. Colum. L. Rev., 102, 1413. (https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/clr102&div=57&id=&page=) 4. Welch, K. (2007). Black criminal stereotypes and racial profiling. Journal of contemporary criminal justice, 23(3), 276-288. (https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/1043986207306870?journalCode=ccja) 5. Meehan, A. J., & Ponder, M. C. (2002). Race and place: The ecology of racial profiling African American motorists. Justice Quarterly, 19(3), 399-430. (https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/07418820200095291) 6. Antonovics, K., & Knight, B. G. (2009). A new look at racial profiling: Evidence from the Boston Police Department. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 91(1), 163-177. (https://direct.mit.edu/rest/article-abstract/91/1/163/57743/A-New-Look-at-Racial-Profiling-Evidence-from-the) 7. Wortley, S., & Tanner, J. (2003). Data, denials, and confusion: The racial profiling debate in Toronto. Canadian Journal of Criminology and Criminal Justice, 45(3), 367-390. (https://www.utpjournals.press/doi/abs/10.3138/cjccj.45.3.367?journalCode=cjccj) 8. Wilkins, V. M., & Williams, B. N. (2008). Black or blue: Racial profiling and representative bureaucracy. Public administration review, 68(4), 654-664. (https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1540-6210.2008.00905.x) 9. Petrocelli, M., Piquero, A. R., & Smith, M. R. (2003). Conflict theory and racial profiling: An empirical analysis of police traffic stop data. Journal of criminal justice, 31(1), 1-11. (https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0047235202001952)
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Racial Profiling - Essay Samples And Topic Ideas For Free
Racial profiling involves the discriminatory practice by law enforcement officials of targeting individuals for suspicion of crime based on the individual’s race, ethnicity, religion, or national origin. Essays could explore the impacts, ethics, and legal implications of racial profiling, or the measures and initiatives aimed at combating racial profiling. We have collected a large number of free essay examples about Racial Profiling you can find in Papersowl database. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.
Racial Profiling Within the Criminal Justice System
Abstract There are many different reasons for people to engage in criminal activities. Unfortunately, there is no way to pin point the source of crime. The purpose of this research paper is to reveal the influences that race has on the Criminal Justice System. More specifically, the researcher (Danielle Clarke) will be discussing the ethical issue of Racial Profiling within the criminal justice system.? Introduction Sampson and Wilson (1995) stated that, “The discussion of Race and Crime is mired in […]
What is Racial Profiling
A few people wonder what is racial profiling. Racial profiling mainly is miss-instruction, bondage, and imprisonment. Since slavery African Americans have endured racism because of their personality. Racial profiling also includes choosing on a man for their protest of an explicit racial gathering. The reason in upholding racial profiling out of sight of criminal investigation can develop the likelihood of capturing offenders. Paul Bou-Habib expressed, If the rate at which individuals from an explicit racial gathering carries out a wrongdoing […]
Police Brutality and Racism
The Declaration of Independence was created to protect the inalienable rights that all Americans receive at birth, yet police brutality continues to threaten the rights of African Americans everywhere. Police everywhere need to be given mandatory psychological tests in order to gain awareness of racial bias in law enforcement and allow citizens to slowly gain trust for the officers in law enforcement. No one wants a child to grow up in a world filled with hate. As Martin Luther King […]
Racial Profiling: a Defense Mechanism or Blunt Racism?
Dating as far back during the Reconstruction time period, Jim Crow Era, up until now, racial profiling has been a highly debated issue. Racial Profiling refers to the discriminatory practice by law enforcement officials of targeting individuals for suspicion of crime based on the individual's race, ethnicity, religion, or national origin. Cases such as Rodney King, Trayvon Martin, Michael Brown, and along with many other African Americans males who were killed, beaten, or harassed by white male police officers sparked […]
What is Racism?
Racism is prejudice, discrimination, or antagonism directed against someone of a different race based on the belief that one's own race is superior and the belief that all members of each race possess characteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or superior to another race or races. the belief that all members of each race possess characteristics or abilities specific to that race, especially so as to distinguish it as inferior or […]
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Dealing with Racial Profiling
Have you ever been in an awkward situation when you feel you’re being racially profiled and you’re not doing anything wrong? People that bully, or treat people a certain way because of their skin color really leaves an impact on a person’s life. In “Just Walk on By: Black Men in Public Spaces” you’ll see examples of racial profiling and different ways Brent Staples himself went through experiences. The story begins just a normal day; A man walking down the […]
New York City History : Abner Louima Case
This agreement established a new standard of compensation for victims of police violence. The agreement resolved an issue that had strained relations between the NYPD and the general public. Civil rights groups continue to accuse the NYPD of racial profiling. Americans and people worldwide have been calling for police reform for years, citing problems such as racial profiling, excessive force, and the murders of several innocent people. Every year, thousands of unarmed people are murdered by police officers via gunfire, […]
Racial Profiling in America
Racial Profiling against Minorities in America Racial Profiling is an arbitrary action initiated by an authority based on race, ethnicity or national origin rather than on a person’s behavior. Discrimination is when you are denied opportunities and equal rights because of prejudice or other arbitrary reasons. (Schaefer, 2013: 233) There is no secret that racial profiling and discrimination still takes place in America today. With Racial profiling also comes stereotypes. Racial Profiling and stereotyping is something that happens very often […]
Police Brutality and Racial Profiling
If you were stopped by police officers and all they saw was your race, imagine how that would have felt. Sadly, this happens in the real world to people of color daily. Racial profiling is a controversial and illegal form of discrimination, where people are targeted for suspicion based on their race or ethnicity rather than on evidence-based suspicious behavior. Racial profiling is a common practice used by law enforcement agencies in the United States. It is based on the […]
What is Racial Inequality?
Racial inequality is systematically different from racial discrimination and racism. Racial discrimination involves the treatment of racial inequality while racial inequality involves the consequences of inequality such as, income, education, health, etc. Racism often involves these two processes, but modern forms of racial inequality and discrimination are not necessarily the direct consequences of modern racism (Pager and Shepherd, 2008). Racist sociology studies that relationships between these three phenomena when, how, why and to what extent? In the post-civil rights era […]
Racial Profiling in Law Enforcement
Unfortunately, Racial discrimination has been an ongoing problem within society in general and also within law enforcement agencies worldwide. The news reports of officer involved shootings involving unarmed young black men, proves to be a universal issue that has not yet been resolved. In an effort to find a resolution to these senseless acts of violence, police officers should attempt to come together and become more involved with communities so that there will be less encounters between law enforcement and […]
Persuasive Speech about Racial Profiling
Introduction The definition for racial profiling is the following; “the use of race or ethnicity as grounds for suspecting someone of having committed an offense.” Believe it or not majority of us have been a part of stereotyping but when it is done through power and authority of each state that is where it crosses the line. Today I am going to be talking about the hard, but the truth of racial profiling done through law enforcement. You be asking […]
Stop and Frisk Theory and Racial Profiling
Abstract Stop and frisk is the detention temporarily of a person and search their clothing based on specific, articulate facts that lead the police officer to have reasonable suspicious that the person is armed and dangerous. However, in the recent years, many people are arguing that stop and frisk are used to target minorities, because the numbers of people who are more stop and frisk by the police are Latinos and African-American. Therefore, stop and frisk are affecting the relationship […]
Racial Profiling in the United States
Racial profiling is a prejudiced act done by law enforcement when an individual is targeted as a suspicious being due to characteristics such as race, skin color, ethnicity, religion, etc. Those characteristics then become the principal factors when a police officer is making decisions. Racial profiling has become a common concern and longstanding problem in many ethnic groups and communities of the U.S. Racial profiling happens because law enforcement officers often develop a style of policing, based off of their […]
The crime I chose was robbery, and those aged 18 to 24 are most likely to commit this crime. I feel this age range is very accurate, especially in today's society, as the crimes being committed are often by offenders within these age groups. Robbery is more likely to be committed by males than females. In my opinion, males aren’t as disciplined as females, which I believe makes them more at risk for committing crimes. Factors stimulating this type of […]
Racial Profiling and Stereotypes of Ethnicity
Racial profiling is stereotyping or judging or discriminating against someone (thinking they will do something or already have done something) based off of their color, race or ethnicity. An example of how law enforcement has been since 9/11 is they have been really on Muslims, Arabs and Asian and detaining them on minor immigration violations. Hoping that they can help give information on the attack of the Pentagon or World Trade Center. Another example of how law enforcement use racial […]
A Closer Look at Racial Profiling
Growing up in a predominantly black neighborhood in California, I had never experienced or witnessed racial profiling. Others around me would discuss this issue, but to my knowledge it was rare, and at the time I was not aware about lives being taken due to this issue. It was not until I moved to a more suburban area that consisted of a multitude of different races, that I experienced racial profiling for myself. I remember vividly what happened that day […]
Racial Profiling at Traffic Stops and Solutions
Traffic stops are incidents that happen to every driver at some point in their life. Whether it is because there is a broken tail light on the car, a traffic violation occurred, or any other factor that can contribute to police conducting a traffic stop. A traffic stop is defined as a justifiable act done by police officers due to a reasonable suspicion that the driver is involved in criminal activities (Sklansky, 2000). In Whren v. United States (1996), the […]
Profiling in Law Enforcement: is it Effective Policing?
Profiling in law enforcement is a form of racism in America. This practice is used by police officers on the basis of race or ethnic status of individuals. This form of profiling is also known as criminal profiling or offender profiling and is used to identify likely suspects. Profiling is also used to link cases that have been committed by the same individual. This paper will present several arguments against police profiling. First, the negative impact profiling has in policing […]
Racial Profiling in Police Agencies
Racism, discrimination, prejudgment, and hatred are the effects that tarnish police agencies throughout the country. Blacks who are pulled over by cops are scared that the judicial system is on no occasion by their side. Racial profiling places a fault in the confidence, amongst the youngest generation of black people, of law enforcement agencies. Racial profiling is the time a person or set of persons is prejudged against in a specific manner because of the color of their skin. Scholars […]
Racial Profiling: a Struggle for Justice and Equality
Imagine being a parent of a Black or Latino child having to explain to them that not all police officers have their best interest at heart. Or having to worry and pray that the said child makes it to their destinations safely without being pulled over in the fears of them being arrested or worst killed. What about the innocent children who have been profiled just for walking in a crowd or being in the wrong place at the wrong […]
Racial Profiling in Stop-and-Frisk
According to The Attorney General of New Jersey in 1999, "… determined that searches of cars on the Turnpike were even more racially disparate than the initial stops: 77.2% of all ‘consent' searches were of minorities and blacks" (Rudovsky, 2001). It is also important to note that according to the New York Civil Liberties Union, "Nearly nine out of 10 stopped-and-frisked New Yorkers have been completely innocent." With these unfortunate statistics surrounding the stop-and-frisk policy in New York City, it […]
Police Brutality against Black Communities
Throughout the years, the issue of police brutality against black communities has been a major problem affecting many countries in the United States. Unjustified killings have taken place in the black community, which has clearly led to a national outcry for justice and equality. The issue has become particularly notable in recent years thanks to the numerous murders of young black people that have been committed by police officers. Research shows that young black men were nine times more likely […]
Issue of Racial Profiling in Communities
Racial profiling has affected many innocent lives and caused them to deserve harsh punishments for crimes they did not commit. Many individuals are being targeted on or assaulted because of racial discrimination. Racial discrimination is becoming worse as the years pass, it's changing into a controversial topic. That is the reason why African American, Hispanics, and Muslims are being focused on. Racial profiling negatively impacts our society. People have expressed worry because racial profiling isn't right about our core beliefs […]
Is Racial Profiling Unnecessary
Racial profiling has been around for as long as we can remember, the discrimination practice by the law enforcement officials of targeting individuals for suspicion of crime based on the individuals’ race, ethnicity or religion. Racial profiling has been around but is it unnecessary for the world that we live in today. It is illegal, violating the U.S. Constitution’s essential promises of equal protection under the law to all and freedom from unreasonable searches and seizures. Just as importantly, racial […]
Racial Profiling: Racial-Ethnic Stratification
It has always been racial profiling in our history because the ones who are persecuted and separated sooner or later will claim why they are dealt with unequally. There are numerous examples far and wide, yet one just needs to investigate how American culture was designed to understand the extraordinary contrast between people. It was even typical and satisfactory to see these distinctions amid the making of this country on the grounds that the ones who apparently had the power […]
Speech about Racial Profiling
The professional speaker that I went to see was Natalie Stoljar. She is a philosophy professor at McGill University. She gave her speech in Farber Hall. The topic that she was talking about was racial profiling and whether or not it was discriminatory. She did not go into all of the aspects of racial profiling she just went into how it plays into the police system. She looked at racial profiling in the philosophical way. I think that the purpose […]
Police Brutality: Hispanics, Asian, and African American
Almost everyone can be involved in police brutality including Hispanics, Asian, and African American. But, black people are most likely to be shot by police than their white peers. However, according to Vox news says, An analysis of the available FBI data by Dara Lind for Vox found that US police kill black people at disproportionate rates: Black people accounted for 31 percent of police killing victims in 2012. In other words, that black people are accusing as a threat […]
Social Justice System
Most of the complaints have different applications of the death penalty, police brutality, racial profiling, sentencing disparity, and different treatment of minorities by the Criminal justice system. Everything that happens in court is suppose to be lawful and took into consideration, that your life could be on the line and how many years being spent could affect you and the people around you. The color of someone skin shouldn't be a reason to put them in jail but the supreme […]
Segregation in our Society
Even after the speech, “I have a dream” by Martin Luther King Jr., there are still differences between colored people and white people that are being addressed in today’s society. Being naturally introduced to one social classification may give somebody unearned social preferences, while being naturally introduced to another class may give another person unfair advantages. In Allan Johnson’s essay, “What is a System of Privilege?” he gives the readers a brief explanation of what privilege is, and what type […]
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Fitting Race in a Box
We explain what the next census could look like.
By K.K. Rebecca Lai
[This article is also a weekly newsletter. Sign up for Race/Related here .]
In light of the Biden administration’s proposed changes to census forms , we wanted to understand how census categories for race and ethnicity have evolved over the last 230 years and how they have shaped American identities. As we dug into historical documents, we found the census often reflected the country’s changing attitudes.
I’m a graphics reporter who specializes in interactive data stories and I teamed up with Jennifer Medina, a national politics reporter, for this project . We sifted through copies of each decennial census from 1790 through 2020 . Some were handwritten, some were yellowed, and, in later years, printed in color. We found that almost none of them categorized race in the exact same way. Each change indicated an incremental shift in how the nation perceived racial and ethnic identities at that time.
We talked to historians and demographers who explained the implications of these categories. The first census in 1790 separated free “white” people from other free people and enslaved people. In 1890, the census identified African Americans by the fraction of their African heritage: “Black,” “mulatto,” “quadroon” and “octoroon.” These terms stamped in old documents are a stark reminder of U.S. history.
Some of the changes reflected the country’s anxieties over immigration. For example, the government added the category “Chinese” in the 1870 census, after many immigrants from China had come as railroad workers and anxieties over immigration from China rose. “Mexican” was added in 1930 to capture the increase in immigrants after the Mexican Revolution. But many Mexican Americans fought for the category’s removal in the next census because they sought to be counted as white to gain citizenship.
With the year 1970 came a significant shift in the census, when people were allowed to choose their race, rather than having a census taker do so. The census is now a marker of self-identification instead of an outsider’s perception. That same year, a new question was added to assess the size of the Hispanic population.
Historically, some edits to census race boxes reflected changes in policy or public sentiment. As the nation’s laws on slavery shifted, the census began phasing out the counting of enslaved people and instead introduced new terms to define the Black population.
Other changes were borne out of a push and pull between how the government saw individuals and how they wanted to identify. For example, the antiquated term “Negro” was used in nine decennial censuses until 2010.
With 24 decennial censuses so far, race options have changed more than a dozen times, as new groups have been added and others deleted. We noted the historical implication for each change, but we’ve only scratched the surface of what this trove of historical documents show us.
We highlighted dozens of old census forms in our story, but hundreds more can be found on the website Internet Archive , a free digital public library, if you’re a history nerd like Jenny and I am.
The New Proposal
The latest overhaul would allow more race and ethnicity options for people to describe themselves than the 2020 census did. One of the biggest changes would be to combine race and ethnicity into a single question. “Hispanic or Latino” would become one of seven race and/or ethnicity options, rather than in a separate origin question as it is now. Many Hispanic or Latino U.S. residents mark “some other race,” typically because they don’t see themselves as “Black” or “white.” Supporters say the changes reflect that Latinos have long been treated as a distinct racial group in the United States. But Afro-Latino scholars argue that the new method would mask important racial differences among Latinos.
A check box for “Middle Eastern or North African” would also be added. Community leaders have long backed this category, pointing to the need for better data for this growing population, especially around health care, education and political representation. The number of Middle Eastern and North African residents in the U.S. has grown to nearly four million in the last decade. If the proposal is approved, it would be the first time since the 1970s that a completely new racial or ethnic category was added to the census.
In some ways, the government is attempting to catch up with modern views of racial and ethnic identities, but there are complicated politics at work, and the proposed changes have provoked criticism among some scholars and activists.
If approved, the new forms would be adopted across all surveys in the country about health, education and the economy. The Biden administration’s Office of Management and Budget has asked for feedback on this plan, which it could implement and add to all federal forms as early as next summer and then be used for the 2030 census.
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Racial Profiling Essay: Outline, Examples, & Writing Tips
Racial profiling is not uncommon. It’s incredibly offensive and unfair behavior that causes most of the protests in support of people of color. It occurs when people are suspected of committing a crime based on their skin color or ethnicity.
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Unfortunately, most people are unaware that racial profiling is an everyday phenomenon that harms both the victims and society. Therefore, it’s crucial that we highlight this issue in as many ways as possible. One of the options is expressing your opinion through writing. A racial profiling essay can be inspiring and persuasive. All the power is in your hands, so let’s figure out how to use it! Keep reading this guide made by Custom-writing.org experts.
The article contains a writing guide, a collection of racial profiling essay topics, ideas, and examples, as well as the tips on making a racial profiling essay outline. We hope that it will inspire you to make an A+ argumentative racial profiling essay or even a persuasive speech on the topic!
🤔 What Is a Racial Profiling Essay about?
- 📑 Making an Outline
- 👌 Writing Tips
📝 Racial Profiling Essay Examples
There is more than one objective for writing a racial profiling essay. First of all, it can be as simple as expressing your feelings about it. For example, you might consider pointing out how unfair and unjustified those actions are. Moreover, if you’re a law student, you should definitely back up those conclusions with the extractions from the Constitution.
You can then focus on describing the impact it has on society, which makes a fantastic cause and effect essay. There are so many more topic ideas, but if you’re feeling stuck, go ahead to the article’s next sections!
Argumentative Racial Profiling Essay
To write a successful argumentative racial profiling essay, you need to focus on investigating the topic to express your perspective later. Every statement you include in the main body of the writing should be supported by evidence. The essential part of such an essay is a clear thesis statement! And if you struggle to come up with a good one yourself, you can get help from a thesis statement generator online .
Persuasive Racial Profiling Essay
Unlike the type discussed above, a persuasive racial profiling essay should aim to convince your readers that your point of view is the only correct one. Instead of just presenting your point of view, you need to gather the most convincing facts that can influence your audience. It requires expertise in the topic of racial profiling.
Racial Profiling Essay Topics
Looking for a racial profiling essay topic ? Find a short and sweet topic collection below.
- The impact of racial profiling on the US society. For this essay, you would need to study how citizens react to racial profiling. You might also include some statistics from the previous years.
- Present your point of view on the issue of racial profiling . If you ever faced it yourself, your reflective essay would be even more powerful! Include as much evidence as you can.
- Racial profiling: are African Americans overreacting? Someone feels like people might be taking this issue too personally. Therefore, you should provide strong arguments to point out how discriminating those actions are.
- Accepting racial profiling as a common practice. Express your opinion on this topic. Do you think police should be legally allowed to practice racial profiling? Why would it be a violation of rights?
- Racial profiling from a psychological perspective. Try to analyze this occurrence as if you were a professional psychologist. What do you think makes law enforcement act this way?
- Does racism impact the US immigration?
- Discuss the definition and origins of racial profiling .
- Analyze the aim and values of the Black Life Matter movement.
- Racial stereotypes in Disney films.
- Examine the problem of workplace racism .
- How can racism in medicine be eliminated?
- What is the colorblind racism ?
- Describe your personal experience of racism .
- Compare the ways South Africa and the US are handling racism .
- The goals of the Black Lives Matter movement.
- Explain why racism is a persistent problem in modern society.
- Explore the concept of racial profiling in the “war on drugs.”
- Childhood under the racist laws of apartheid in Trevor Noah’s Born a Crime .
- Discuss the effect of racism on child development .
- Is there a racial disparity gap in healthcare?
- Describe the problems racism causes in American schools .
- How does racism affect modern society?
- Racial stereotypes in music video .
- The pros and cons of racial profiling in the airports.
- Describe the specifics of colorblind racism .
- Discuss the possible solutions of racial profiling problem.
- Terrorist attacs in 9/11, hate crimes, and racial profiling .
- Is institutionalized racism a real problem or a myth?
- Racial and ethnical prejudices in breast cancer treatment .
- Examine the cases of racism against healthcare workers and their consequences.
- Analyze the impact of racism on globalization .
- Describe and characterize the main types of modern racism .
- Racial profiling of minority groups in the US .
- Is racial discrimination issue completely eliminated from American society?
- Evaluate the racial inequalities in the US judicial system .
- Describe how race relations are represented in Men We Reaped by Jesmyn Ward .
- Analyze the difference between individual and institutional racism .
- Investigation of the history of racism in The Case for Reparations by Coates .
- Is racial profiling a discrimination or a necessary evil?
- Ways of dealing with racism in American education .
- Examine the history of racial stereotypes in the US.
- Explain why racial profiling is a violation of human rights.
- Catastrophic consequences of discrimination and racial prejudice in the film A Soldier’s Story .
- Racism as a global issue.
- Discuss the causes and ehhects of racism in America .
- What can be done to resolve the problem of racism at interactional level ?
- Analyze the issue of racial profiling of drivers.
- Describe the problem of racism and discrimination from the perspective of social psychology.
- Discuss the methods of solving the problem of policing racism .
- Examine the cases of racism in social work environment.
📑 Racial Profiling Essay Outline
Whichever type of racial profiling essay you choose to work on, the basic writing strategy remains the same. After you pick up the suitable title and finish your research, it’s time to reorganize the main ideas. The best way to do it is to create a racial profiling essay outline that serves as a foundation for your future essay.
There are three elements that any essay must have:
The main body should have at least three paragraphs in which you present your arguments supported by evidence.
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Racial Profiling Essay Introduction
It is a good idea to start your essay with a hook – a statement that aims to grab your reader’s attention. In your racial profiling essay introduction, you could use some impressive statistics that illustrate the problem of racial discrimination or describe a real-life situation.
At this stage, it’s also essential that you think about composing a racial profiling thesis statement . It goes as the last sentence of the introduction and becomes the focal point of your whole writing. The thesis statement includes your opinion and a short description of your arguments.
Racial Profiling Essay Conclusion
In conclusion, you should summarize your arguments and paraphrase your racial profiling thesis statement. It is also a good idea to add some information about the most important findings. This way, your essay would be both informative and persuasive.
👌 Racial Profiling Essay: Writing Tips
Let us remind you of some basic rules you should stick to while writing:
- Introduce your position on the problem and, at least, three major points in the thesis statement of your racial profiling essay.
- Gather enough facts and pieces of evidence to support your points.
- Do not forget to study the arguments of the opposing side.
Before you get down to writing your essay on racial profiling, try to answer the following questions:
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- When did racial profiling start?
- Why does it happen?
- What consequences does it lead to?
Try to find some statistical data to include in your essay on racial profiling. Be careful with sources and information. The point is that racial profiling is unconstitutional, which is why you will not find official data, something like police reports, etc. Thus, use only credible online and printed sources when writing your papers on racial profiling.
There is also a way to show your creativity in the essay on racial profiling. You may play the devil advocate’s role and support it in the paper on racial profiling. We are sure this unusual approach will impress your teacher!
Below you’ll find links to 3 racial profiling essay examples. We hope that they will inspire you to write an A+ paper on racism and discrimination.
The modern globalized society provides numerous opportunities for improved communication and increased mutual understanding. However, there are still such problems as discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, mentality, sex, or gender, biased attitudes to some minorities, and widespread stereotypical thinking.
Read the full text
The system of racism entails degrading and harmful actions and beliefs that are implemented and expressed by both groups of people. Racism over the years has been one of the reasons behind poverty and lack of access to social mobility in the United States.
Racial identity and racial socialization are proposed to promote the improvement of African American adolescents in the aspect of race-related difficulties. Current studies pointed out that discrimination is a condition that has harmful effects on the mental health of African Americans.
So, good luck with your papers on racial profiling! Do not hesitate to visit our blog if you have trouble with terrorism essays or any other written assignment.
- Racial Profiling: Definition | American Civil Liberties Union
- This is why everyday racial profiling is so dangerous – CNN
- Racial profiling – AP News
- Racial profiling: Germany debating police methods – DW
- Psychology responds to racial profiling
- Racial Profiling – Equal Justice Initiative
- Racial Profiling: Past, Present, and Future?
- Racial profiling | Independent
- Racial Profiling – University of Michigan Law School
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The Sound of Racial Profiling
When language leads to discrimination.
Posted June 11, 2020 | Reviewed by Matt Huston
Given the recent protests and riots stemming from the killing of George Floyd, many have been left wondering how racism might be infused into less obvious facets of our lives. While his death certainly throws stark light on the continuing danger of being Black in America, it also makes us face the inequities that pervade our society. But bias is not only based on how we look. It's often also related to how we speak, and this raises the question of how the way we react to what people say is influenced by the color of their skin.
As a sociolinguist who specializes in how social identity and language are connected, this is a question that has very much been on my mind lately. The credibility, employability, or criminality we assign to voices can have a very real impact on those who happen to speak (or even just look like they speak) non-standard dialects.
If you happen to be one of the roughly 25% of Americans who identifies as an ethnic minority , there is a good chance that you have been the victim of linguistic bias, even if you speak standard English. Linguistic research on the impact of stereotypes shows we can hallucinate an accent just by seeing an ethnic looking face.
A number of studies have looked at how simply telling someone they are listening to an ethnic speaker or showing them a photo of an ethnic face (while playing a standard speech recording) influences the perception of accentedness or non-standardness and lowers scores on intelligibility and competence scales. This, further research suggests, can influence the scores non-native instructors receive on teaching evaluations and lower the expectations teachers have for the educational achievement of African-American children.
What exactly do we mean by linguistic profiling?
More broadly, research both in linguistics and social psychology has looked at how subtle and often unconscious linguistic practices predispose us to react to and think about people differently depending on their race. Current Washington University and former Stanford professor John Baugh coined the term ‘linguistic profiling’ several years ago in response to the discrimination he himself experienced when looking for a house in majority-White Palo Alto.
In a study he designed with colleagues, Baugh, using either African-American, Chicano or Standard accented English (called linguistic guises), made calls inquiring about property for rent. When using non-standard accents, the property listed was somehow no longer available, in contrast to when he was using his standard English guise. His work was the basis for a widely seen public service campaign to advocate for fair housing practices.
But what exactly are we tuning into when we ‘hear’ ethnicity in voices? We might think people sound Black or Latino, but, since we clearly sometimes imagine accents where there isn’t one, are we even very good at recognizing race on the basis of speech alone? In short, yes.
When we hear certain linguistic clues, things like pronouncing ‘th’ sounds as a ‘v’ or deleting ‘r’ sounds (i.e. "brovah" for brother) or third-person singular deletion ("he go"), we do often identify those features as part of ethnic varieties. But, even less salient aspects of our speech seem to signal ethnic identity and, potentially, trigger activation of stereotyped associations.
In a follow-up to the study described above, linguists Purnell, Isardi and Baugh found that listeners were able to determine speakers’ ethnicity as quickly as the first word said in the phone conversation at around 70% accuracy. In other words, listeners had them at "hello." The researchers discovered, even without the use of widely recognizable linguistic features like those just mentioned, listeners were sensitive to very subtle phonetic cues such as how the ‘e’ vowel in "hello" was pronounced.
Of course, recognizing that some language features might indicate someone’s gender , age or race itself is not problematic, and, in fact, something we all do. But associating them with generalized negative traits or discriminating against them on the basis of these presumed traits is where the inherent danger lies. Often these negative associations are not overt, and we might not even be aware of doing it, but instead are implicit in how we make decisions about how we are going to interact with or evaluate those we hear.
Such consequences are magnified in the criminal justice system
Research by linguists John Rickford and Sharese King illustrated how linguistic bias might have affected the outcome in the trial of George Zimmerman for the shooting of Trayvon Martin in 2012. Zimmerman, who claimed the shooting was in self-defense, was found not guilty of second-degree murder. A potential contributor to this outcome was the prosecution’s key witness Rachel Jeantel’s use of African-American English. She was ridiculed as inarticulate, not credible and incomprehensible, and, due to unfamiliarity with the dialect, court transcripts of her testimony were highly inaccurate.
As Rickford and King’s work highlights, the lack of credibility and unintelligibility associated with disfavored linguistic varieties could affect judicial rulings. Driving that point home, subsequent research on juror appraisals found an increase in negative evaluations and guilty verdicts when witnesses spoke African-American English.
This problem, of course, is not limited to contexts where African-American English varieties are involved, as non-native speakers are also unfairly disadvantaged in court and other institutional settings as a result of linguistic barriers. And even for those who never see the inside of a courtroom, speaking a disfavored variety has been shown to lead to increased discrimination in housing practices, in the educational system and in hiring contexts.
Some might suggest this is simply a reason for speakers to adopt standard dialects, but, as discussed above, just looking like you might speak something other than Standard English can predispose listeners to hear an accent even if it doesn’t exist. So, the problem is not really with the speech itself, but with the attitudes we hold about the speakers of these dialects.
The real solution is, of course, to work to reduce and, eventually, eradicate linguistic prejudice by taking the time to understand the socio-historical and linguistic underpinnings of non-standard varieties. After all, recalling the keen observation of linguist Max Weinreich, “A language is a dialect with an army and a navy.” Thus, for a non-standard dialect speaker, the fight is far from fair.
Kurinec, Courtney and Charles Weaver III. 2019. Dialect on trial: use of African American Vernacular English influences juror appraisals. Psychology, Crime & Law, 25:8, 803-828
Purnell, T., Idsardi, W., & Baugh, J. 1999. Perceptual and phonetic experiments on American English dialect identification. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 18, 10-31.
Rickford, John R., & King, Sharese. 2016. Language and linguistics on trial: Hearing Rachel Jeantel (and other vernacular speakers) in the courtroom and beyond. Language 92:4,948–88
Rubin, D. L. 1992. Nonlanguage factors affecting undergraduates’ judgments of nonnative English-speaking teaching assistants. Research in Higher Education, 33:4, 511–531.
Voigt, Rob, N. Camp, V. Prabhakaran, W. Hamilton, R. Hetey, C. Griffiths, D. Jurgens, D. Jurafsky, and J. Eberhardt. 2017. Racial disparities in police language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 114:25, 6521-6526
Wolfram, Walt, and Erik R. Thomas. 2002. The development of African American English. Malden, MA, and Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Valerie Fridland, Ph.D., is a professor of linguistics at the University of Nevada, Reno, and the author of Like, Literally, Dude: Arguing for the Good and Bad English.
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109 Racial Profiling Essay Topic Ideas & Examples
🏆 best racial profiling topic ideas & essay examples, 📌 most interesting racial profiling topics to write about, 👍 good research topics about racial profiling, ❓ research questions about racial profiling, 💯 free racial profiling essay topic generator.
- Contemporary Cultural Diversity Issue: Racial Profiling The greatest weakness of this prejudicial consideration is the fact that even when there is no evidence to justify the case, the police treat an individual as a convict. Some of the states in America […]
- Debate on the Racial Profiling in the USA The extent of racial profiling has been studied in some states, for example, in the Arizona Sentinel Investigation of all the vehicles which were stopped in the interstate highway in Florida, “While nearly 705 of […]
- Racial Profiling: Discrimination the People of Color The way in which the justice system handled the circumstances behind the death of the black teenager represents a society that is less concerned with the plight of the black minority in the nation.
- Critique: “Everything Isn’t Racial Profiling” by Linda Chavez One of the topics on the agenda of the world peace and security, the issue of racial profiling is well worth taking a closer look at.
- Racial Profiling Towards Arabs in America Although the 9/11 attacks presented lawmakers and enforcers with the problem of ensuring the security of Americans, the practice of racial profiling and racially motivated attacks within the United States quickly emerged and provided a […]
- Practice and Concept of Racial Profiling Both of these definitions, of course, were meant to expose the policy of racial profiling as being inheritably wicked and above all – scientifically unsubstantiated, as definitions’ very sounding implies that there is no link […]
- Racial Profiling in America The government, as well as society, used to believe that the use of drugs is a culturally-based phenomenon that served as an excuse to target representatives of color minorities and was considered as the effective […]
- Racial Profiling: Looking Middle Eastern It is important to note that the 19 highjackers of the planes that bombed the Twin Towers were between the age of 18 and 23 years, and were from the Middle East.
- Racial Profiling and the Killing of Michael Brown The truth is, according to professor Kelley, that the racial homicide and violence committed in these areas is caused by the police and not the black community living in the areas.
- Racial Profiling in the United States Shelby reveals that the effects of such events have been seen in the reduced number of crimes that have improved the quality of life in the US.
- Terrorism, Hate Crimes and Racial Profiling The Patriotic Act defines domestic terrorism as an act dangerous to human life, which violates criminal laws of the USA and is aimed to intimidate the civilian population and influence the government policies through coercion […]
- Criminal Law: Racial Profiling by Police As a rule, when detecting the primary factors affecting the changes in the racial profiling rates among the representatives of the law enforcement, one brings up the concepts of race and social class, stating that […]
- Teenage and Racial Profiling in the United States This paper takes the position that there is an effective solution to reduce or eliminate the prevalence of teenage and racial profiling in a certain place in the US by using the experience of other […]
- Racial Profiling of Italian-Americans in Society Italian Americans are defined as Italian immigrants living in the United States of America or someone born in the United States with an Italian heritage.
- Conflict Theory: Racial Profiling The paper is claimed to overview the policy of racial profiling in a particular city, and provide the research, based on the sociological conflict theory, including the information gathered by the means of survey and […]
- Sociological Issues: Racial Profiling Another argument advanced against racial profiling is that it is an inefficient method of ensuring that members of the public are safe.this is because when law enforcement is conducted based on general characteristics such as […]
- “Everything Isn’t Racial Profiling” by Linda Chavez This thesis is exemplified by such statements as, “But there are times when it makes sense to include race or national origin in a larger, criminal profile, particularly if you are dealing with a crime […]
- Policy: Overcoming Racial Profiling The provisions and procedures of the policy are concerned with following the practices and principles of positive change within law enforcement.
- Racial Profiling Goes Beyond Black and White or Red and Blue As a result of this instant impression, relations between the natives and the Europeans were never given a chance to truly flourish, eventually leading to the near genocide of the native race.
- Racial Profiling: Personal Investigation According to Jim, the reason why there is racial profiling is that a lot of black people and Hispanics are involved in crime than white people.
- Racial Profiling by Police: Effects and Possible Remedies When the police engage in racial profiling mistrust between the public and the police arises. The causes of such mistrust may be due to poor communication between law enforcement individuals and community members due to […]
- Racial Profiling by Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office The ACLU iterates that MCSO deputies are in the habit of “sacrificing the rights and well-being of workers in the name of immigration enforcement”.
- Racial Profiling: Term Definition A study of history can easily reveal the folly of classifying people, in ancient times there used to be a derogatory term that a rich and powerful civilization used to describe others.
- Benefits of Racial Profiling The objective of the essay is to explore the pros of racial profiling and offer argumentative support on the same. From a proponent perspective and as a strong supporter of racial profiling, I am of […]
- George Zimmerman Case and Racial Profiling He attested that most of the witnesses in the case had made calls to 991 immediately after the Martin was shot.
- The Practice of Racial Profiling The main example is the White drivers who were stopped at a significantly lower rate, as well as the members of the Asian population of the county.
- Racial Profiling in Cultural Psychology The idea that some cultures are superior to others is compatible with the issue of racial identity non-apparently existing in society.
- The Issue of Racial Profiling The fact that few stereotypes created by law enforcement agencies can contribute to the more significant levels of racism and discrimination in this sphere. Legal structures that ban race prejudice and may apply to the […]
- Ethics of Racial Profiling in the United States Racial profiling can be referred to as the process of law enforcement personnel identifying someone as a suspect of criminal activity due to the race, nationality, or faith of the individual in question.
- We Need More Racial Profiling At Airports
- Racial Profiling the War on Drugs and Urban Poverty
- An Analysis of the Problems of Stereotyping, Discrimination and Racial Profiling
- Racial Profiling: Individual Prejudice or Organizational Protocol
- The Problem of Racial Profiling in the American Criminal Justice System
- Retail Racial Profiling and False Accusation and Arrest for Shoplifting
- The Issue of Racial Profiling and the Problem with African Americans Overreacting
- The Link Between Racial Profiling and Social Diversity
- An Analysis of the Issue of Racial Profiling in the United States of America
- Windy City Racial Profiling Is An Act Of Discrimination
- The Issues of Police Brutality and Racial Profiling in the United States
- An Argument Against Racial Profiling By Police
- African Americans and Police Racial Profiling
- America Needs Racial Profiling Based Upon Ethnicity and National Origin
- Racial Profiling in of Mice and Men by Steinbeck
- The Dangers Of Racial Profiling And Police Brutality
- The Positive and Negative Effects of Racial Profiling
- Racial Profiling In The Criminal Justice System Stevenson University
- An Analysis of Racial Profiling by Ordinary Citizens on Everyday Basis in the United States
- Racism, Racial Profiling, And Discrimination On Behalf Of The Los Angeles
- The American Federal Government Should Take Steps against Racial Profiling
- The Controversial Issue of Racial Profiling: Does It Really Exist
- Stereotypes And Racial Profiling On Society ‘s Perception
- Unrecognized Ignorance in the Story of Racial Profiling in School
- Shoplifting, Racial Profiling, and False Accusation in Retail
- The Truth About Racial Profiling
- Black Criminal Stereotypes and Racial Profiling
- The Problem of Racial Profiling in the United States
- Racial Profiling Is Unnecessary in Law Enforcement
- An Argument Supporting the Use of Racial Profiling in America for the Security of the People
- Racial Profiling: The Discrimination in America Due to Race and Skin Tone
- Racial Profiling Is The Root Of Dysfunction
- Common Assessment: The Iron Triangle And Racial Profiling
- Racial Profiling in the War on Drugs: Common Sense or Institutional Racism
- Racial Profiling Violates the Constitution
- Victims of Terrorism, Hate Crimes & Racial Profiling
- Racial Profiling : The Great Unfinished Business Of America
- The Issues of Racial Profiling of Minority Motorists in America
- Racial Profiling Of Asians In America
- Racial Profiling is Institutionalized Racism
- Strategies on How the Government Can End Racial Profiling
- The Law Enforcement Strategy Called Racial Profiling and the Debates Related to It
- The Federal Government Should Put an End to Racial Profiling
- The Issue of Racial Profiling in Law Enforcement in the United States
- Should Racial Profiling Be Allowed As A Tool Of The Police
- American History: Racial Profiling and Bias in The Media
- The Elimination of Racial Profiling in the Context of Street Level Crime
- Racial Profiling Versus Criminal Profiling: Is There a Difference
- The History of Racism, Racial Profiling, and Unfair Laws in the United States
- Racial Profiling : The Civil Rights Leader And Former
- Does Contact Racial Profiling Lead to Aggressive Police Conduct?
- Does Racial Profiling Exist?
- How Is Racial Profiling Damaging Our Schools?
- How Does Racial Profiling Violate Civil Rights?
- Is Racial Profiling a Crime?
- How Does Racial Profiling Affect Society?
- Should Patients Undergo Racial Profiling?
- What Is a Good Research Question for Racial Profiling?
- What Is Meant by Racial Profiling?
- What Is an Example of Racial Profiling?
- Which United States Supreme Court Held That, in General, Racial Profiling Is Unconstitutional?
- Does the Maricopa County Sheriff’s Office Engage in Racial Profiling?
- What Is Racial Profiling in a Sentence?
- Is a Racial Profiling a Recent Problem?
- What Is the Racial Profiling Quizlet?
- How Racial Profiling Led to the Death of Trayvon Martin?
- Racial Profiling: Who Gets It Worse When the Gavel Comes Down?
- What Is Racial Profiling Simple?
- Does Racial Profiling Serve Well?
- How Do You Determine Racial Profiling?
- What Is the Opposite of Racial Profiling?
- Are Racial Profiling and Police Discrimination an Issue?
- What Is the Legal Definition of Racial Profiling?
- Is Racial Profiling Ethical?
- Does Racial Profiling Occur?
- What Does the Constitution Say About Racial Profiling?
- Why Is Ending Racial Profiling Important?
- What Is the Difference Between Behavior Profiling and Racial Profiling?
- Racial Profiling: Individual Prejudice or Organizational Protocol?
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Racial Profiling in Today’s Society
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Racial Profiling is the tactic of stopping someone because of the color of his or her skin and a fleeting suspicion that the person is engaging in criminal behavior (Meeks, p. 4-5).
This practice can be conducted with routine traffic stops, or can be completely random based on the car that is driven, the number of people in the car and the race of the driver and passengers. The practice of racial profiling may seem more prevalent in today’s society, but in reality has been a part of American culture since the days of slavery.
According to Tracey Maclin, a professor at the Boston University School of Law, racial profiling is an old concept. The historical roots “can be traced to a time in early American society when court officials permitted constables and ordinary citizens the right to ‘take up’ all black persons seen ‘gadding abroad’ without their master’s permission” (Meeks, p. 5). Although slavery is long since gone, the frequency in which racial profiling takes place remains the same.
However, because of our advanced electronic media, this issue has been brought to the American public’s attention. Some consider racial profiling a viable tool to reduce crime. The New Century Foundation, a non-profit organization based in the Washington, D. C. suburb of Oakton, VA, published a report on the American Renaissance website, stating that African-Americans commit 90% of the approximately 1,700,000 interracial crimes of violence that occurs every year in the United States. They are more than fifty times more likely to commit violent crimes against whites than vice versa.
According to this same report, African-Americans are much more likely to commit violent crimes than whites and when they commit these crimes, target whites slightly more than half the time. The foundation believes that these crime statistics warrant racial profiling as a crime deterrent and believe that it may even reduce crime. A recent article published on the website, Jewish World Review, states that racial profiling is frequently used, not only in law enforcement, but also in everyday existence. The author, Walter Williams, states that, “we face a world of costly and incomplete education, and that means we have to do a lot of guessing and playing hunches.
” Because of this uncertainty, specific indications are required that can provide the public with more information and allow educated decision-making. The article presents examples of the types of racial profiling in existence. For example, simply for their own safety reasons, taxi drivers will avoid driving into a particular area of the city because of the reputation of it’s propensity to crime. They will also drive past a person of color and stop to pick up a white passenger for that same reason, valid or not.
Williams cites his own personal experience with his physician, who uses a typical black man’s health statistics collected from years of study to aggressively monitor his high blood pressure. It is because these medical statistics illustrate that high blood pressure is more prevalent in black men than in any other demographic group. In a n article published in the Wall Street Journal, entitled “Racial Profiling Doesn’t Prove Cops are Racist”, Jackson Toby states that “a little perspective is in order here. ” Being a professor of sociology, he believes that racial profiling is an extremely important idea in modern criminology. He continues that within two years of the policy’s adoption by the New York City Transit Police, the number of felonies in the subway declined by more than 30%.
Basically, he believes that by paying attention to subtle behavior, criminal behavior can be prevented, and certain ethnic and age groups exhibit certain subtle behaviors. He goes on to say that although blacks are only 12% of the American population, they comprised 56% of the arrests for murder, 42% of the arrests for rape, 61% of the arrests for robbery, 39% of the arrests for aggravated assault, 31% of the arrests for burglary, 33% of the arrests for larceny, and 40-% of the arrests for motor vehicle theft. Because of these statistics, police are more prone to look for the type of person more apt to commit these crimes, and in these cases, based on the data, African-Americans are brought to the forefront.
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Free Sample Essays on Racial Profiling for Open-Minded Writing
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Like arguably any issue involving race, sex, or religion, racial profiling belongs to one of the most controversial subjects out there. For that reason, writing an essay about racial profiling is quite a challenge for any student in America.
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Jessica Dagoglou RACE AND POLICE Specific Purpose: To make my audience aware of the close relationship between racism against African Americans and the police today. Thesis Statement: It is my wish to share what I have found out about racism in the police department, and the different policies and standards found to be used when interacting with African American citizens in comparison with other races.
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Good example of essay on racial profiling-portfolio outline.
Introduction Racial profiling a way of targeting a specific race for a particular crime. It is worth noting that racial profiling was a rampant practice during the civil war. African-Americans are the main people who went through racial profiling. Also, the punishment of criminals differed based on racial segregation. The trend was still experienced during the crack cocaine. After the 9/11 terror attacks, racial profiling issues began to affect the Muslim and Arab communities. In the general perspective, racial profiling is rampant among law enforcement agencies.
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Racial profiling is an act of targeting certain individuals for security or police detention by simply taking into account the ethnicity or race in the belief that minority groups have the most potential of being involved in unlawful acts.
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Dear Professor [insert name],
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Racial profiling essay, events occurring due to the trayvon martin, michael brown in ferguson, and eric research paper examples.
This paper will look at the killings in the united states that have been linked to racial differences. The article will provide detailed information on the events of the cases of Trayvon Martin, Michael Brown in Ferguson, and Eric Garner. The paper will also explore the people’s reactions to these killings, and finally the reforms that the government intends to implement to prevent further killings.
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275 words = 1 page double-spaced
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Israel and Palestine: a complete guide to the crisis
A compendium of answers about the roots of the conflict, what is happening now and some of the parties involved
- Israel-Hamas war – live updates
Occupied territories, two-state solution, apartheid, peace process, proscribed terrorist organisations, the Nakba, proxy militias, disproportionate force. The decades-long crisis in Israel and Palestine has gripped the world but it has a tangled history that can feel overwhelming – and terminology that many find confusing.
Below are Guardian explainer articles that aim to answer the deeper questions and give historical context, as well as provide some simple definitions.
What are the roots of the Israel-Palestine conflict?
Newcomers should start here: a short history of the dispute in the Holy Land that the world has repeatedly failed to address. Read the full article
Gaza: who lives there and why it has been blockaded for so long
A narrow slice of land on the Mediterranean Sea, Gaza is inhabited by approximately 2.3 million Palestinians. They have lived under occupation for decades. Human Rights Watch describes Gaza as an “open-air prison”.
Read the full article
What has happened and what led to the current war?
Leaving history behind, this explainer was written the day after the 7 October Hamas attack on Israeli communities just outside the Gaza frontier.
Information was still emerging but it was clear that militants were deliberately killing civilians as well as Israeli soldiers during the onslaught. The assault left 1,400 people dead, the majority of them civilians, according to officials in Israel. In one attack on a music festival , 260 people were killed. Read the full article
Who are the hostages taken by Hamas from southern Israel?
More than 240 hostages were taken to Gaza by militants. The vast majority of those remain captive, although several have been freed under secret deals and at least one Israeli soldier was rescued in an “operation”. The breakdown of civilians and military hostages is not clear.
For a full explanation of what happened in the first week of the war, read this piece: Seven days of terror that shook the world and changed the Middle East Read the full article
Crisis in Gaza: why food, water and power are running out
In retaliation, Israel has launched a war in Gaza, imposing a “complete siege” on the territory of 2.3 million people.
In its war, intended to “destroy” Hamas, Israel’s military has conducted hundreds of strikes on residential areas, killing whole families, while also working alongside Egypt to block people from leaving. Israeli strikes have killed more than 10,000 Palestinians, nearly half of them children, according to the health ministry in Gaza. Read the full article
What is the Rafah crossing and who can now use it?
Israel’s siege of Gaza includes closing all crossings but Egypt also shares a border with the territory. Egypt has a number of reasons for tightly controlling its border with Gaza, not least because it has a peace treaty with Israel, and it also does not want Palestinians to enter in large numbers. However, some injured Palestinians and international aid workers have been allowed to leave Gaza. Read the full article
What are Israel’s aims in launching Gaza ground invasion?
After two weeks of bombing, Israel launched its ground invasion. The urban warfare operation is likely to be lengthy and fraught with danger for its military and for Palestinian civilians. The operation’s specific goals remain uncertain. Read the full article
What is Hamas, the militant group that rules Gaza?
Several militant groups operate in Gaza, chief among them Hamas, an armed Islamist group that has ruled inside the blockaded territory since 2007. Read the full article
What is Palestinian Islamic Jihad and what is its relationship with Hamas?
The second largest armed group in Gaza, which sometimes works with Hamas, is the Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine. It is considered one of the most extreme and uncompromising Palestinian armed factions. Read the full article
How Iran uses proxy forces across the region to strike Israel and US
Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad are considered to be Iranian proxies – groups that receive support from and are influenced by Iran, the arch-enemy of Israel. Read the full article
What is Hezbollah and how will it influence the Israel-Hamas war ?
Hezbollah, the Lebanese political and militant group, is Iran’s most prominent proxy movement. The group grew in influence during the Israeli occupation of Lebanon and is now a major political force. Many fear the hatred born out of the Gaza war will push Hezbollah and Israel to enter a new war. Read the full article
‘From the river to the sea’: where does the slogan come from and what does it mean?
The slogan is used by Palestinians and Israelis and is open to an array of interpretations, from the genocidal to the democratic. Read the full article
Have war crimes been committed in Israel and Gaza and what international laws apply?
A United Nations independent commission of inquiry has said “there is already clear evidence” that war crimes may have been committed by Hamas and the Israeli military. Read the full article
Is the two-state solution the answer to the crisis?
The bloodiest fighting for decades has revived an option once thought dead as the last hope for peace. But how it would look and whether the will to achieve it exists remain unclear.
- Israel-Hamas war
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