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Writing Difficulties of Humanities and Social Sciences Learners in Philippine Politics and Governance

Writing is a very intricate skill to acquire among the four language skills. According to Gomaa (2010), writing is the most challenging language skill. This qualitative study was conducted to determine the writing difficulties committed by Humanities and Social Sciences (HumSS) learners and analyze how they develop a topic in Philippine Politics and Governance (PPG). Participants of the study were the Grade 11 learners of Morong NHS, Morong, Rizal, who took up the said subject for S.Y. 2019-2020 in its First Semester. Twelve (12) learners from the six (6) HumSS classes were considered using the Systematic Sampling Technique. This study employed the Grounded Theory approach to examine written output using codes from the three (3) phases of coding – Open, Axial, and Selective Coding. After the coding process, significant themes emerged and were subjected to analysis. Findings revealed that the most common difficulties committed by the participants when developing a topic are Grammatical Errors, Inappropriate Use of Political Concepts, and Inappropriate Choice of Vocabulary. It is also found out that Unnecessary Shift in Tense (UST), Ambiguous Pronoun Reference (APR), Loose Sentence (L.S.), Sentence Fragment (S.F.), Dangling Modifier (D.M.), and Wordy Sentence (W.S.) are next in line.  Also, participants of this study choose to develop their topics in Exposition, Narration, Analogy, and Examples/Illustrations. More so, participants in this study also found it hard to create an issue when given a Philippine Politics and Governance writing task due to language constraints evident in their writing outputs.

Varieties of Clientelism in Comparative Democracies: Power, State Formation and Citizenship in the Philippines, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Abstract Clientelism in comparative democracies have evolved through time within informal and formal institutions. Using the book by Brkovic, that follows the tradition of challenging the unidimensional view of clientelism in Bosnia and Herzegovina, this essay provides the Philippine case as contrast and comparison. The article examines how both countries’ experience can open new avenues for us to understand the durability of clientelism and its relationship with formal and informal institutions. Brokovic’s agency and personhood within clientelistic relationships accounts for the endurance of this practice in democratic societies that experienced transition. Clientelism persists in part due to the reliability of personal relations over the ability of public institutions to deliver. This review article will probe clientelism, as it manifests in the politics of the Philippines and its democratic institutions. Among the multiple types of clientelistic relationship in the Philippines, some emphasize the role of machine politics, corruption, and coercion. Brković’s book provides a new lens of analysis by looking at clientelism through personhood and agency as power. The contribution of the book on the discourse of clientelism can deepen the understanding of Philippine politics because it encourages an analysis that looks at the exercise of democracy through personhood, agency, and informal institutions. It invites us to view clientelism not just through corruption and violence. By combining the analysis that utilizes formal and informal institutions, personhood and structuralist, this essay explains why some countries that have transitioned into democracies remain ambiguous states and explain the persistence of clientelism.

Beyond Personalistic Politics: A Progressive Congresswoman’s Challenge to a Political Dynasty in Dinagat Islands, Philippines

Abstract Political dynasties remain powerful in Philippine politics to this day. However, in recent years, the Philippines has experienced some significant transformations in the realm of traditional politics. Some politicians have emerged at the local level willing to confront those supported by dynastic politics. Since most literature on Philippine politics have emphasized the durability of elite domination, such changes have not yet been fully studied. This article addresses how progressive politics evolves in contention with a political dynasty based on a qualitative, exploratory case study approach by highlighting the case of Dinagat Islands where a progressive congresswoman who ran for Congress defeated a candidate from an entrenched political dynasty by practicing programmatic governance. It explores how government capacity to respond to demands of the people can be improved. As a result of this, the article clarifies a new, though not common, dynamic of Philippine politics in the 2010s and provides important implications for the possibility of future political development and theorizing in the country.

From the Author: Writing Philippine Politics and the Marcos Technocrats

Philippine politics and the marcos technocrats: the emergence and evolution of a power elite, written by teresa s. encarnacion tadem, politics of the philippines: from rizal to duterte.

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The heartland of former Spanish East Indies and once America’s sole colony in Asia, the Philippines is a land of mind-bending paradoxes, where swift changes have gone hand in hand with obstinate continuities. The Southeast Asian nation witnessed the birth of Asia’s first modern nationalist movement, initially led by the progressive sections of the Creole class and the so-called ilustrado mestizos, but reaching its apogee in the final years of the 19th century under the command of (Tagalog-dominated) provincial gentry and a broad coalition of petty bourgeois nationalists. In contrast, advanced state-formation came relatively late to the island nation, which has a limited history of large-scale polities in the precolonial era compared to neighboring Indonesia (Majapahit Empire) or Cambodia (Khmer Empire). A century since the advent of ‘first Filipinos,’ the country’s nation-building project remains glaringly unfinished, hobbled by persistent ethnolinguistic divides and Islamist and Communist movements that are among the world’s longest-running such insurgencies. For almost five centuries, Catholicism stood as the dominant religion in the country, but recent decades have seen homegrown evangelical groups become major forces in the country’s political landscape with the advent of denominational ‘bloc voting.’ A major entrepot during the trans-pacific Galleon Trade, the country became a regional economic powerhouse from the late 18th century up until the mid-20th century. Building on bouts of liberal reforms during Spanish colonialism and Commonwealth institutions under American tutelage, the Philippines also boasts among the oldest democratic institutions in the postcolonial world. The past half century, however, witnessed the country’s decline to the “Sick man of Asia” following decades of political instability and absence of sustained economic development. Amidst massive inequality and rampant corruption, the country has repeatedly relapsed into various permutations of authoritarian rule, from the Ferdinand Marcos dictatorship to the resurgent populism of Rodrigo Duterte in recent years. In international politics, the Philippines has undergone a similarly turbulent trajectory, repeatedly caught in between rival empires, from Spanish–American Wars in the late-19th century to its strategic flirtation with a rising China despite its formal military alliance with America. What has remained largely constant is the composition of the country’s ruling elite, thanks to its remarkable geopolitical adaptability. The upshot is a weak state enfeebled by powerful interest groups and checked by a vibrant civil society. Accordingly, the study of Philippine politics should cover its troubled nation-state-formation, cacique-dominated political economy and attendant authoritarian temptations, as well as the unique brand of populist and liberal topes in its political discourse.

Key Philippine-US pact should endure through 2021

Significance In February 2020, Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte said he would terminate the pact. With the termination process having been extended twice, the VFA is now due to expire in August 2021. Impacts China will continue to assert its territorial and jurisdictional claims in the Philippines’s exclusive economic zone. Beijing’s pledges to invest in Philippine infrastructure will only be partially implemented. Philippine politics will be increasingly dominated by manoeuvring related to the May 2022 general election.

The Philippines: Civil-Military Relations, from Marcos to Duterte

The Philippines has been beset by several instances of military mutinies since the end of the Marco dictatorship. The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) were also actively involved in pressuring the resignation of President Joseph Estrada and in propping up the presidency of Estrada’s successor, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo. The military’s actions suggested that that the armed forces’ influence in Philippine politics was on the rise. Since that time, with no instances of coups and mutinies under the presidencies of Benigno “Noynoy” Aquino III and Rodrigo Roa Duterte, military adventurism appears to be on the decline. Could it be that civilian supremacy is ascendant in the Philippines and the AFP have abandoned their “interventionist tendency” in civilian affairs? An examination of the patterns in post-Marcos Philippine civil-military relations in five domains—elite recruitment, public policy, internal security, national defense, and military organization—indicates that the AFP remain a highly politicized institution. Although institutional guardrails to preserve civilian supremacy have been instituted, with positive moves to professionalize and reorient the armed forces toward an external security posture, challenges in the areas of elite-dominated and clientelistic governance and the country’s protracted insurgencies remain obstacles to civilian political leaders’ authority over the military.


The focus of this study is the radical politics of President Rodrigo Duterte. The leader has clashed with influential businessmen on critical issues. This investigation examines the president’s battle against the oligarchy in the country. This research will try show that the rise to power of the first president from Mindanao is a reaction to elite rule. It seeks to reveal that the style of leadership of Duterte is reflective of the historical context that the critics of the president fail to account for. In arguing the case for Duterte’s non-conventional approach in overhauling Philippine politics and society, the issues involving some conglomerates in the country are mentioned. In terms of method, the interpretive and analytical approach will be used, citing the available literature and documents to strengthen the article’s arguments. The significance of this study has something to do with the idea of good governance. It argues that in the pursuit of a truly democratic society, the foundations of the basic structure must be strengthened. The pragmatic leadership of Duterte is a reflection of the deeper kind of radical change or substantive transformation that is needed to fight elite rule.

Review of Philippine Politics and the Marcos Technocrats: The Emergence and Evolution of a Power Elite

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Political Science Master's Theses

Theses/dissertations from 2023 2023.

The empowerment of Filipino micro enterprises utilizing local online marketplace groups , John Roy T. Abenaza

Sustainability of Philippine election campaigning: A study on the impacts of using non-biodegradable election campaign & advertisement materials in Quezon City , Judenn L. Mascareñas

Women’s empowerment in rural community development: The case of barangay Buenavista in Tudela, Misamis Occidental , Eunice Tabitha B. Trinidad

Theses/Dissertations from 2022 2022

Rethinking spaces of political agency: A phenomenological study on Philippine perceptions of political agency in video games vis-à-vis the real world , Xavier Dwight M. Gentalian

Assessing the potentials for deliberative practices in Philippine politics: The various mechanisms of the barangay , Nathan Mishael O. Go

International volunteerism and its contributions to capacity development in the Philippine education sector , Ian Kirsten C. Plata

Theses/Dissertations from 2021 2021

An analysis of the role of sugar industry leaders in the formulation of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) excise tax using advocacy coalition framework , Samantha Franchezka S. Ching

Urbanization at Pag-Asa Olongapo, City and the slum dwellers' 'right to the city" , Cecilia C. Garson

Understanding inter-local government collaboration in the Philippines: The case of the Alyansa ng mga Baybaying Bayan ng Bulacan at Pampanga (ABB-BP) , Ian Jayson R. Hecita

Japanese foreign policy and peacebuilding in the Bangsamoro - new engagement for Japanese government and JICA- , Yusuke Kawanishi

The role of social capital in the reintegration of returning Overseas Filipino Workers: The case of the City of Batangas, Philippines , Ilyanna Xeandria D. Zamora

Theses/Dissertations from 2020 2020

Using facebook for public engagement: An analysis of the public facebook pages of the local government units in Metro Manila , Nicole Marie D. Afable

An analysis of the problems on the reporting of accomplishment of infrastructure projects in the DPWH , Paul Justine S. Cunanan

Essential elements for successful integrated watershed management system: The case of the Santa Rosa sub-watershed W Q M A B , Maria Eleunor B. Lucino

Compliance of agrarian reform cooperatives to a policy-based lending program: An organizational approach , Ella Joy A. Ponce

The role of non-state actors in international organizations: A case study of the CSO partnership for development effectiveness , Stephen Mar S. Tan

Theses/Dissertations from 2019 2019

A semiotic analysis of gender constructions in popular video games and its ideological impact on the individual , Jamshyd F. Babago

Assessment of Pantawid pamilyang Pilipino program (4Ps) in District II, Makati City , Antonio D. Fontanilla Jr.

Creating stakeholder-driven indicators for evaluating sustainability of ecotourism destinations in the Philippines , Eylla Laire M. Gutierrez

Migrant workers’ protection in the digital age: Leveraging social media platforms to ensure the safety and welfare of OFWs in distress , Jovito Jose P. Katigbak

Determinants of physical integrity abuses in Southeast Asia: Under the context of anti-narcotics campaign , Jazelle Dyana Lizz G. Zerrudo

Theses/Dissertations from 2018 2018

Politics of ideas and discourses in the prospective Bangsamoro political entity , Kevin Nielsen M. Agojo

The formulation of Republic Act no. 10121 in the Philippines: The role of Hyogo framework for action, 2005-2015 , Mai Akamatsu

Forest governance and collective action problems in the upper Angat watershed forest reserve , Edcelyn Magay Bacila

Understanding local dominance: The case of Naga City , Mary Joyce B. Bulao

Explaining (non) participation: An inquiry on overseas voting of Filipinos in Japan , Georgeline B. Jaca

Environmental governance in Palawan: The implementation of the Wildlife Resources conservation and Protection Act of 2001 , Jazztin Jairum P. Manalo

Imperialism, state-making and Philippine security in the South China Sea , Robert Joseph P. Medillo

The politics of disaster reporting in online news: A multimodal critical discourse anaylsis of news reports on Typhoon Lando , Karl Patrick R. Mendoza

Bayanihang pampaaralan: Contributions of the Philippine Business for Social Progress (PBSP)'s capacity interventions in the implementation of the senior high school program using co-production approach , John Mark H. Villanueva

Theses/Dissertations from 2017 2017

An evaluation study on the use of the collective approach towards overcoming open defecation: A research , Katrina Chye V. Agulan

The resurgence of strongman politics in Southeast Asian democracies , Miguel Enrico G. Ayson

Challenges of governing urban effluents on development activities in the Boulevard Area, Dipolog City , Carlos P. Deloria

The politics of tax reforms in the Philippines , Marvee Anne C. Felipe

Disability-inclusive elections: The experience in the Philippines , Paula Bianca P. Lapuz

The effects of China's imposed economic sanction to the Philippines , Athena T. Padilla

The determinants affecting open government data implementation in public health: The case of Department of Health (DOH)-Philippines , Juan Rufino M. Reyes

Theses/Dissertations from 2016 2016

Women political leadership and basic needs in selected Quezon City barangays , Angelique Allen E. Alinood

From introspection to policy: Articulations of national identity in tracks I and II of Philippine Cultural diplomacy , Frances Pauline C. Brillantes

The online political participation of the Kabataan Partylist Cagayan Valley (KPLCV): A mixed method analysis , Gydabelle M. Olaya

Builidng a disaster resilient community through local capacity development , Leah Marie Tumlos-Castillo

Of digital footprints and transparency: E-government maturity and corruption in the Philippines , Prince Aian G. Villanueva

Theses/Dissertations from 2014 2014

Local knowledge, social memory and public policies: Recovering disaster memory of riverfront dwellers and their implications for disaster risk reduction and management policy in Angat river basin and watershed region, Philippines , Benigno C. Balgos

Operationalizing disaster risk reduction and management: The case of typhoon Yolanda in Tacloban City , Luzelito Q. Betinol

The Chains of blunted discontent The protest inaction of jeepney drivers and a re-conceptualization of political alienation , Anthony Lawrence Arsenal Borja

Access to justice for the poor women and children: A study on the process of institutional change in Oriental Mindoro , Florisa Norina L. Carada

Children and disaster risk reduction and management in the context of the rights-based approach to development: The cases of the municipalities of Catarman and Laoang in the Province of Nothern Samar, Philippines , Juniver P. Delorino

Reaching the vulnerable and the poorest: A case study on the implementation of the conditional cash transfer program in indigenous communities of Esperanza, Agusan Del Sur , Marie Bembie A. Girado

An Assessment of the implementation of R.A. No. 9994 The Expanded Senior Citizens Act of 2010 in Makati City , Lolita Shaila B. Puruganan

Subverting the past: An analysis of Japans construction of state indentity , Carmina Y. Untalan

Theses/Dissertations from 2013 2013

The changing state? Malaysia after the Asian financial crisis , Dennis B. Maldo

Theses/Dissertations from 2012 2012

Indonesia's third party role in the peace process in the Southern Philippines , Mohamad Zakaria Al Anshori

Women in Islam: Influence of religion and development , Merium H. Kazmi

Democracy and Islam: Can they be mixed? , Ibnu Asqori Pohan

A case study on the erosion of the political dominance of an entrenched political clan: The case of the Felix political clan of Cainta, Rizal , Raymund John P. Rosuelo

Theses/Dissertations from 2011 2011

Justice for the poor: An assessment of the efficiency and effectiveness of small claims cases and Enhanced justice on wheels , Glenda E. Feliprada

A comparative study of the framing approaches of the two newspaper columnists in the Philippines , Aaron D.P. Lim

Theses/Dissertations from 2010 2010

Stakeholders’ assessment of the performance of the Department of Trade and Industry’s Business development program for the ICT services sector , Irish G. Caldona

An analysis of minority shareholder rights protection between family controlled and non-family controlled Philippine Stock Exchange listed companies , Geoffrey Rhoel C. Cruz

Theses/Dissertations from 2009 2009

Roman Catholic Church-State relations in the Philippines and its implications on the passage of House Bill 5043: The Reproductive Health and Population Development Act of 2008 , Julien L. Carandang

Evaluating inter-local government cooperation and governance in the Philippines: The case of the MNDC, the MMDA, and the Metro BLIST , Rodmyr F. Datoon

Theses/Dissertations from 2007 2007

Exploring human rights integration in selected general education subjects in three higher educational institutions , Maria Liselle N. Delantar

The nature & modalities of Local Government Unit-Civil Society Organization partnerships: The case of Angeles City , Reynaldo Rodriguez Jr.

Government corruption in Japan: Implication for the Philippines , Koichiro Usuki

Community-based resource governance in Barangay Bagong-Silang , Calatagan, Batangas , Jonathan David Q. Van Haute

Theses/Dissertations from 2006 2006

Effects of phase 1 of the Batangas Port Development Project (BPDP) on the multiple resource uses of Batangas Bay , Ma. Jocelyn P. Jaucian

Theses/Dissertations from 2005 2005

An assessment of the compensation process applied by the Northwestern Luzon transmission line project: The case of the affected households/landowners of San Jose del Monte, Bulacan , Christopher Padilla Castillo

Theses/Dissertations from 2004 2004

Microfinance in the Philippine setting: A comparative assessment of the operational and financial efficiency of the People's Credit and Finance Corporation (PCFC) and Tulay sa Pag-Unlad Inc. (TSPI) , Michael G. Antonio

Internet and civil society participation in local governance: The case of Tamil Nadu, India , Joseph Fernando

Theses/Dissertations from 2002 2002

A case study of the community-based peace-building program in the Bual Zone of Peace, Isulan, Sultan Kudarat , Serafin A. Arviola Jr.

Image and organization in senatorial campaign politics , Gerardo V. Eusebio

Theses/Dissertations from 2001 2001

The global march against child labour-Philippines: A case study , John B. Trew

Theses/Dissertations from 1993 1993

Ang pampulitikang ekonomiya ng magbubukid: Popular na partisipasyon, kooperatibismo at panimulang alternatibo , Ronald Everett David Holmes

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Pandemic Politics in the Philippines: An Introduction from the Special Issue Editors

  • 1 Introduction

The Coronavirus Disease 2019 ( COVID -19) pandemic continues to impact people’s health and livelihood systems around the globe. As governments roll out mass vaccination programs in their respective jurisdictions, it is uncertain whether herd immunity can be achieved at the soonest time, given the mutations and emergence of new COVID -19 variants and vaccine hesitancy on the part of citizens. Meanwhile, political leaders have straddled the thin line between imposing mobility restrictions to save lives and reopening the economy to save jobs. This raised fundamental concerns about the political responses at both domestic and international levels toward the crisis.

It is important to examine and compare the political dynamics of the pandemic in various contexts. The articles in this special issue unpack the role of politics in confronting an existential health crisis such as the COVID -19 pandemic. Specifically, it delineates three core dimensions of the state necessary to address such a crisis: authority, capacity, and legitimacy (Gisselquist and Vaccaro 2021).

  • 2 An Outbreak of Autocratic Governance

The strong predisposition towards autocratic governance was spreading across the globe even before the outbreak of COVID -19 in late 2019 (Cooper and Aitchison 2020). However, the pandemic exacerbated this tendency. In many countries, it provided an opportunity for authoritarian leaders to expand their powers. As the pandemic raged, these elected chief executives demanded and received even more authority from the legislature to manage the health crisis.

Various forms of democratic backsliding worldwide have intensified more than a decade ago. This trend involves the erosion of democratic governance features within any regime (Waldner and Lust 2018). It occurs through an incremental process where elected populist leaders draw measures to weaken the countervailing power exercised by institutional checks such as the political opposition, independent media, and civil society that are important in a vibrant democracy (Diamond 2021).

The military takeovers and electoral violence prevalent during the Cold War have waned in the contemporary period. Instead of fomenting regime change, current forms of democratic backsliding tend to produce political systems that are ambivalently democratic or hybrid. According to Bermeo (2016), executive aggrandizement has become the more common type of backsliding. This happens when elected executives dilute the constitutional checks on executive power through concerted actions that erode the power of independent groups to offer alternate options and challenge executive choices.

  • 3 Democratic Backsliding in the Philippines

The Philippines presents an interesting case of democratic backsliding that accelerated with the election of a populist leader, Rodrigo Duterte, as president in 2016. Populism is considered a thin-centered ideology that portrays society as divided into two homogeneous and contending camps: the pure people versus the corrupt elite (Mudde and Kaltwasser 2018). Populism is a recurring feature of Philippine politics (Magno 2021). However, under Duterte’s populist presidency, executive aggrandizement was pushed to the hilt. Pappas (2019) argued that when populism cannot settle on the point of political equilibrium, it often swings at either end of the spectrum, at times toward mending liberalism and at other times veering towards autocracy. Under Duterte’s rule, the autocratic version of populism became dominant, facilitating democratic backsliding in the Philippines.

Democratic backsliding has affected pandemic governance in the Philippines. The rise of autocratic populism weakened democratic institutions and systems of checks and balances within the state and society. The concentration of power in the executive, coupled with the lack of willingness to consult with stakeholders and the limited capacity to integrate various proposals, prevented the government from mounting a coherent policy response to the crisis. Democratic backsliding has contributed to poor pandemic governance, especially in responding to health and economic problems and addressing the second-order issues of ensuring accountability in public expenditure management under emergency conditions. However, the outbreak of COVID -19 initially threatened Duterte’s populist legacy (Teehankee 2021).

4 The Arrival of COVID -19

The COVID -19 pandemic is acknowledged to have begun on November 17, 2019, with the first recorded case of the disease in the city of Wuhan in Hubei Province, China. In the following weeks, cases of people infected with the virus piled up. However, the government kept a tight lid on health data and even reprimanded the local doctors who warned of the new disease. The Chinese government informed the World Health Organization ( WHO ) of the existence of the virus only on December 31, 2019. Such a lack of transparency prevented health authorities globally from taking preventive action and containing the transmission of the COVID -19 virus across cities, nations, and borders (Steingrüber et al. 2020).

The Inter-Agency Task Force Against Emerging Infectious Diseases ( IATF ) was convened in January 2020 to deal with the COVID -19 problem in the Philippines. The policy architecture to address the crisis took shape in response to previous contagious diseases. Executive Order No. 168 that created the IATF was originally issued in 2014 to confront emerging infectious diseases ( EID  s). These include Avian Influenza, Ebola, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome ( SARS ), and the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus ( MERS-COV ), which can easily spread due to heightened mobility of travelers and products brought by globalization. The IATF was designed to facilitate cross-sectoral collaboration and efficiently manage the effects of any potential epidemic or pandemic.

The functions of the IATF included establishing a system to identify, screen, and assist those suspected or confirmed to be infected with EID  s. It is expected to prevent or minimize the entry of suspected patients into the country through rigid screening and identification of EID carriers and institutionalizing a surveillance system in all ports of entry. The IATF is tasked with preventing the local spread of EID through contact tracing and quarantine procedures. It also strives to lessen casualties by strengthening clinical management, healthcare facilities, and public safety measures.

To combat COVID -19, the reconstituted IATF proposed temporary restrictions on travel to and from Hubei Province, China, and the institution of quarantine protocols for returning Filipinos from the area under Resolution No. 1, dated January 28, 2020. The first COVID -19 infections in the Philippines were detected in a tourist couple from Hubei Province who entered the country through Hongkong. They were admitted to the San Lazaro Hospital, a national infectious disease referral hospital in Manila. While the first patient recovered, her companion’s condition deteriorated and was confirmed as the first COVID -19 death outside China on February 1, 2020 (Edrada et al. 2020).

  • 5 Series of Lockdown Policies

On March 8, 2020, President Duterte signed Proclamation No. 922, declaring a state of a public health emergency. At that time, there were only 20 confirmed COVID -19 cases. Classes were suspended in Metro Manila. A few days later, on March 12, Duterte placed the National Capital Region under lockdown. Travels going in and out of Metro Manila were banned. Another executive edict was released on March 16, 2020. Under Proclamation No. 929, the entire country was placed under a state of calamity. This measure enabled local government units ( LGU  s) to tap their local calamity funds for COVID -19-related expenditures. It also extended the strict lockdown policies in Metro Manila to the entire island of Luzon. The most stringent restrictions were applied under this lockdown category, officially known as enhanced community quarantine ( ECQ ).

Under ECQ protocols, the movement of people was severely restricted. Mass public transportation services were suspended, while land, air, and sea travel were restricted. The restrictions included transport network vehicle services. All establishments were closed, except those that provide necessities like supermarkets, convenience stores, hospitals, medical clinics, pharmacies, banks, food preparation and delivery services, and water-refilling stations. Government offices, business process outsourcing companies, and export-oriented industries were allowed to operate with skeletal staff. Work in the private sector went on under work-from-home arrangements (Gregorio 2020).

While the IATF crafted policy recommendations for the President, the National Task Force Against COVID -19, headed by the Secretary of the Department of National Defense, handled the operational command. An Incident Command System also functioned as an on-scene disaster response mechanism to manage hazards and other consequences associated with COVID -19.

The IATF may call upon any department, bureau, office, agency, or instrumentality of the government, including Government-Owned-or-Controlled Corporations ( GOCC  s), government financial institutions ( GFI  s), LGU  s, non-government organizations ( NGO  s), and the private sector for assistance. On the other hand, the Joint Task Force COVID -19 Shield was established to enforce quarantine protocols and manage border checkpoints. It was composed of elements of the Philippine National Police ( PNP ), Armed Forces of the Philippines ( AFP ), Philippine Coast Guard ( PCG ), Bureau of Fire Protection, and barangay officers.

The Duterte administration sought the support of Congress to legitimize emergency powers for the president to deal with the COVID -19 crisis. Republic Act No. 11469, otherwise known as the Bayanihan to Heal as One Act, was enacted on March 25, 2020. It contained policy measures to curb the spread of the virus, strengthen the healthcare system, and provide the affected sectors with social assistance. The law authorized the president to exercise temporary budgetary measures and effectively allowed the executive branch to discontinue government programs to generate savings and realign, reallocate, and reprogram funds to implement COVID -19 measures.

The legislation provided the president with special powers to launch aid programs and punish people disobeying the emergency regulations. In this regard, people faced prison sentences for breaking lockdown regulations. More than 76,000 people were arrested between March and July 2020. Among those apprehended were homeless people and street vendors. Indeed, the capacity to observe quarantine regulations varied across income classes (Holmes and Hutchcroft 2020). The law punished those violating restrictions with up to two months imprisonment or fines up to PHP 1 million ( USD 20,000). These sanctions also applied to individuals or groups found to be creating or spreading false information regarding the COVID -19 pandemic.

  • 6 Lockdown and Economic Downturn

The response of the Filipino government to the pandemic showed the negative effects of the trade-off between health and the economy. The administration of harsh lockdown measures prevented the spike in COVID -19 cases that would overwhelm the capacity of the health care system but came at the expense of plunging the country into a deep economic recession. At the onset of the pandemic, the Philippines registered a gross domestic product ( GDP ) growth rate of −0.7 percent during the first quarter of 2020. The impact of stringent restrictions was dramatically felt when the economy contracted by 16.9 percent in the next quarter. The economy continued to falter in the following quarters, with GDP growth rates of −11.4 percent in the third quarter and −8.3 percent in the fourth quarter of 2020 (See Figure 1).

Figure 1

GDP growth rate (2019–2020)

Citation: Philippine Political Science Journal 43, 2 (2022) ; 10.1163/2165025x-12340047

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The economy slightly improved but was still down by 4.2 percent in the first quarter of 2021. The negative growth for five successive quarters represents the most prolonged recession faced by the country since the 1985 debt crisis. The Philippines posted the worst growth record among peers in the Southeast Asian region in the first quarter of 2021, including Thailand (−2.6 percent), Indonesia (−0.7 percent), Malaysia (−0.5 percent), and Vietnam (4.5 percent). The contraction was pushed by the decline in private domestic demand due to inflation, income losses, and protracted lockdown measures (World Bank 2021, 10).

In 2020, the number of persons in the labor force was estimated at 43.9 million. This number represents the economically active population, either employed or unemployed, accounting for a 59.5 percent labor force participation rate ( LFPR ) of the 73.7 million 15 years old and over. This annual LFPR is the lowest since adopting the new definition of unemployed in April 2005, reflecting the effect of the various community quarantine controls, business closures, and physical distancing measures put in place in the Philippines in response to the pandemic.

The unemployment rate surged to 17.6 percent at the height of the lockdown restrictions in April 2020. It dropped to 10 percent in July 2020. It slid down further to 7.1 percent in March 2021, which is the lowest reported rate covering the period of the COVID -19 pandemic since April 2020 (See Table 1).

Table 1

Unemployment rate (April 2020–March 2021)

The economic fallout from the prolonged lockdown measures was also reflected in the involuntary hunger experienced by Filipino families due to the loss of employment and livelihood opportunities. In a September 2020 survey, the Social Weather Stations ( SWS ) reported a hunger rate of 30.7 percent (7.6 million families). The average hunger rate for 2020 was 21.1 percent, exceeding the previous record of 19.9 percent in 2011 and 2012 and double the average of 9.3 percent for 2019. The survey showed that Metro Manila has the highest incidence of Hunger at 23.3 percent (780,000 families), followed by Mindanao at 16.0 percent (909,000 families), Balance of Luzon at 14.4 percent (1.6 million families), and the Visayas at 14.3 percent (674,000 families).

  • 7 Vaccination Woes

On March 1, 2021, the Philippines became the last country in Southeast Asia to roll out a national vaccination program against COVID -19. The absence of a law providing for an indemnity fund had delayed the shipment of the vaccines. Congress had to rush the approval of a bill creating a PHP 500 million National Vaccine Indemnity Fund to cover compensation for the potentially adverse effects stemming from the doses’ emergency use. President Duterte signed R.A. No. 11525, otherwise known as the COVID -19 Vaccination Program Act, on February 26, 2021.

The indemnity law granted COVID -19 vaccine manufacturers immunity from lawsuits for claims from people experiencing any adverse effects from the COVID -19 vaccines. It was confirmed that pharmaceutical companies, which asked for an indemnification clause from the government, were fearful that what happened to Sanofi in the anti-dengue vaccine case might be repeated in the COVID -19 situation (Valderama 2021).

  • 8 Prelude to Pandemic Politics

The process of democratic backsliding characterized by executive aggrandizement was reflected in a series of actions that undermined the independence of state and societal institutions. The executive encroached on the powers of the co-equal branches of government and stymied the exercise of media freedom. A supermajority coalition of parties supportive of the new president was established in the House of Representatives of the Philippine Congress following the 2016 national elections. The PDP -Laban led the coalition, the party of the new executive, together with the Nacionalista Party, National People’s Coalition, National Unity Party, Lakas- CMD , and various party-list organizations. Ironically, the bulk of the elected representatives from the Liberal Party, the former administration party, opted to join the majority instead of the minority bloc. There was a similar realignment in the upper chamber, with the parties identified with the new administration forming a majority bloc to support the president’s legislative agenda. However, unlike the lower house, a substantial minority bloc was formed in the Senate.

The judiciary did not escape executive aggrandizement. A quo warranto proceeding was initiated in the Supreme Court against Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno. It is a legal procedure for removing a public official on the ground that the individual has no legal right to the office. Prior to her removal, Sereno voiced the need to observe the rule of law in the war on drugs and to respect legal procedure in dealing with judges accused of involvement in the drug trade. In May 2018, the Supreme Court ruled that Sereno’s appointment was invalid by a vote of 8–6 (Deinla et al. 2018).

Aside from whipping the legislature and judiciary into line, the executive also challenged the independence of constitutional bodies. Due to its criticism of the drug war, the Commission on Human Rights ( CHR ) was threatened with abolition. At one time, a proposal was made during the Congressional hearings for the 2018 national budget to render the CHR inutile by allocating an annual budget of only 1,000 pesos to the beleaguered agency. The president also pushed but failed for the impeachment of former Ombudsman Conchita Carpio Morales after her agency said it was investigating the Duterte family’s wealth (Esmaquel II 2021).

Another constitutional body that earned the ire of the chief executive was the Commission on Audit ( COA ) after the agency flagged the deficiencies of the Department of Health ( DOH ) in the administration of PHP 67.3 billion COVID -19 emergency funds. These included purchases deemed to be disadvantageous to the government, as well as defects in the sworn statements in contracts, non-posting of procurement information on government websites, and non-provision of technical specifications in contracts. However, the president dismissed the 2020 COA report as inadequate and merely indicated missing paperwork rather than corruption (Cator et al. 2021). The COA is the supreme audit institution in the country. Under the Constitution, it is mandated to prepare an annual report covering the financial condition and operation of the government, its subdivisions, agencies, and instrumentalities, including government-owned or controlled corporations and non-governmental entities subject to its audit.

Non-state actors like the media play a key role in democratic oversight as suppliers of information fostering reasoned debate in society. This critical function of media was severely tested as lawsuits were filed against independent media practitioners. Congress also denied the franchise renewal of a leading media firm. Media harassment and coordinated bashing from electronic trolls generated a chilling effect that drove media practitioners to exercise self-regulation.

  • 9 Erosion of Institutional Checks and Balances

As democratic backsliding proceeded apace, executive aggrandizement led to the erosion of legislative and judicial independence and weakened the institutional checks exercised by constitutional bodies. The power of appointment was also used to expand the political control of the chief executive. It becomes a matter of public concern whether loyalty or competence are the driving factors for personnel recruitment in key positions in the bureaucracy. Congressional oversight in confirmation of appointees becomes perfunctory with strong executive influence over the legislature. Under presidential systems, the waning clout of traditional actors such as party organizations over personnel selection has given a wide latitude for the chief executive to choose loyalists in the context of accomplishing the administration’s policy and political goals in the bureaucracy (Lewis 2011). It is acknowledged in Philippine development planning documents that the integrity of the civil service has been diminished by an appointment process based on political accommodation rather than merit, which partly stems from the president’s broad powers of appointment and discretion ( NEDA 2011, p. 21).

The appointment of retired generals in key cabinet posts, and other high executive positions, was not new. However, the high ratio of such appointments was evident under the Duterte administration. More than 60 former military officers held ranking positions in the government as of early 2021 (Parrocha 2021). When the pandemic struck the Philippines in 2020, President Duterte tapped former military officials, who were already in the cabinet, to lead the COVID -19 response.

In battling COVID -19, the Philippines imposed one of the longest lockdowns in the world. Entire provinces and cities were put into lockdown under various quarantine classifications. The government relied heavily on the police and the military to maintain order. All health protocols, including mobility restrictions, wearing masks, and social distancing, were followed through punitive action (Hapal 2021). It was only in September 2021 that a more contained, granular lockdown approach was adopted. Various sectors have criticized the militarized approach to the pandemic for not paying enough attention to the health and economic dimensions of the problem.

The poor pandemic performance of the government drove health front-liners to call for a medical time-out at the end of July 2020. During a press conference, Jose Santiago, president of the Philippine Medical Association, said that the medical time-out should be used to refine pandemic control strategies by addressing hospital workforce efficiency, failure of contact tracing and quarantine, transportation safety, workplace safety, public compliance with self-protection, and social amelioration (Hallare 2020).

Since the pandemic, the community of health professionals forwarded many bright ideas on managing the health crisis. For instance, the Healthcare Professionals Against COVID -19, a coalition of over 170 medical groups, proposed the recalibration of the DOH One Hospital Command into a One COVID -19 referral network to integrate other health facilities aside from hospitals, such as barangay health centers, clinics, laboratories, and even pharmacies. This would expand care provision in communities and prevent hospitals from being overwhelmed by patients. An added move to answer the challenge of getting medical attention, especially where social distancing measures are in place, was to improve telemedicine services. The medical group also pushed for strengthening the role of science and experts in making decisions, specifically by tapping the Health Technology and Assessment Council created by the Universal Health Care Act (Tomacruz 2020).

The insidious effects of democratic backsliding on introducing an appropriate pandemic response were felt under conditions where key stakeholders were not consulted, and alternative viewpoints were abandoned as politically motivated. Repeated calls by the Senate for the Department of Health ( DOH ) Secretary to step down due to poor performance in handling the COVID -19 crisis were left unanswered ( CNN Philippines Staff 2021).

  • 10 Corruption in Pandemic Times

The eruption of the COVID -19 pandemic brought to the fore severe corruption vulnerabilities in many countries. However, even before the pandemic, it is estimated that an average of 10–25 percent of a public contract’s value may be lost to corruption ( UNODC 2013). Globally, over USD 7.8 trillion were allocated annually for public health ( WHO 2019). With more public funds being made available to fight the pandemic, better safeguards are needed to prevent corruption.

The potential for corruption in pandemic times was high, especially when pressures for swift government action may lead to shortcuts that damage the integrity of institutional processes. The main risk areas include withholding accurate health data, irregularities in public procurement, the purchase of sub-standard equipment, and misappropriation of health budgets (Steingrüber 2020).

The corruption risks in the health sector surfaced in a big way with the eruption of allegations regarding the misuse of funds by the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth) at the height of the COVID -19 crisis in 2020. The PhilHealth case brought to the fore the weak exercise of institutional control mechanisms in the state-run agency. The resigned anti-fraud officer and head executive assistant of PhilHealth became whistle-blowers in revealing information that led to investigations by the legislature on the malpractices in the government corporation. These came on the heels of COA observations regarding the questionable transactions in PhilHealth. These indicate the importance of legislative and audit oversight agencies as accountability institutions within a system of checks and balances.

It was reported that COA had a hard time auditing PhilHealth due to the difficulty of obtaining documents from its central office. Corruption is perpetrated when there is a deviation from legal and institutional norms. The system of checks and balances to combat corruption can be improved by adopting an integrated approach. This requires promoting a comprehensive strategy that includes the facilitation of basic democratic standards, participation of a strong civil society engaged in transparency and accountability work, and the consistent application of the rule of law.

It is disconcerting that a spate of allegations had been raised about the misuse of public funds amid the uphill battle of the Philippines to control the COVID -19 crisis. The Senate investigated the questionable disbursement of PhilHealth funds drawn from the PHP 30-billion Interim Reimbursement Mechanism ( IRM ). The IRM was an emergency support program for hospitals taking care of COVID -19 patients. The COVID -19 crisis affected people’s health and public finance in a very injurious way. As the crisis deepened, it began to unravel that the use of the IRM was just one of the many alleged corrupt practices that happened in pandemic times.

  • 11 The Articles Ahead

Despite imposing one of the world’s strictest lockdowns, the Duterte administration struggled with the health crisis. In his final year in government, the populist Duterte confronted the deadly surge of the Delta strain of the COVID -19 pandemic (Teehankee 2022). Nevertheless, Duterte’s populism proved resilient, supported by high approval ratings. The irony of Duterte’s populist resilience despite his inadequate pandemic response highlights his skill of political deployment in a weak state.

This special issue compiles four articles that examine the various facets of pandemic politics in the Philippines, including state authority, capacity, and legitimacy. For the lead article, Paul D. Hutchcroft and Weena Geera investigate central-local dynamics in the Philippines during the pandemic, showing that the national government has not maintained the “central steering” needed to combat COVID -19. Instead, President Rodrigo Duterte strong-armed local politicians. This authority may mask the government’s “weak steering” and make the president look in charge, but it didn’t generate the national-subnational cooperation needed for a successful pandemic response. It intensifies Duterte’s 2016–19 methods, but without the local autonomy rhetoric. Through assessing the government’s pandemic response, the authors argue that strong-arming is no replacement for efficient central steering in this or future crises.

Rosalie Arcala Hall assesses President Rodrigo Duterte’s use of emergency powers to lock down Metro Manila and Cebu City. In 2020, deployed soldiers ran quarantine checkpoints at borders and city wards and enforced curfew and liquor bans. The increased visibility of uniformed troops in urban areas and subsequent arrests of quarantine offenders were heavily criticized. The militaristic lockdown failed to stop the virus’ spread and introduced new civil-military dynamics locally. The deployment broadened the military’s civilian reach. Its law enforcement actions with the police threatened civil-military balance and democracy. President Duterte relied on the state’s coercive infrastructure to respond to the outbreak, allowing him to dominate local governments and stifle dissent.

The continued popularity of President Duterte despite his government’s dismal handling of the pandemic continues to be a puzzle among analysts, pundits, and observers of Philippine politics. Ronald Pernia attempts to account for the uptick in political trust in the Philippines. His article theorizes that subjective health and political attitude (democratic or non-democratic) explain political trust in the Philippines. It hypothesizes that healthy authoritarians are more inclined to prefer political institutions because they appreciate order and stability. Strongmen trigger such political beliefs. The 2019 World Values Survey supports this claim. The operationalization of Pernia’s study nuances citizen perceptions of political trust in nascent democracies. Overall, the major results provide credibility to the cultural foundations of political trust and explain why Philippine political institutions remain trusted despite the bungled pandemic response and Filipinos’ support for Duterte.

Lastly, the article by Mathea Melissa Lim and Jesse Hession Grayman focuses on the Philippines’ response to the humanitarian crisis that is the COVID -19 pandemic. They examine the use of face masks and face shields to reduce viral transmission. In the Philippines, where individuals were compelled to wear face masks and face shields for individual and public protection during the pandemic, such objects have become part of everyday life for both healthcare staff and the general population. Their article contends that these artifacts have become symbols of extraordinary meaning that shape social relationships, everyday politics, and ways of life during a global pandemic. Following Karl Marx’s idea of “commodity fetishism,” the article traces the concealment, transformation, and mystification of face masks and face shields as humanitarian objects for COVID -19 in the Filipino context and the implications of this fetishization on the Philippines’ most vulnerable populations.

  • Acknowledgements

The editors would like to acknowledge the funding support from the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung Philippines Office for this special issue.

  • Notes on the Editors

Francisco A. Magno is a Professor of Political Science and Development Studies at De La Salle University where he occupied such positions as Director of the Institute of Governance, Director of the Social Development Research Center, and Chair of the Political Science Department. He has conducted teaching and research in various universities, including Osaka University, Waseda University, Hiroshima University, Florida State University, University of Hawaii, and University of the Philippines. Elected as President of the Philippine Political Science Association from 2015 to 2017, he was selected to head the Commission on Higher Education Technical Panel on Political Science from 2020-2024. In the year 2000, he became the first Political Scientist to receive an Outstanding Young Scientist Award from the National Academy of Science and Technology of the Philippines. He finished his PhD in Political Science from the University of Hawaii at Manoa under an East-West Center Fellowship.

Julio C. Teehankee is a Professor of Political Science and International Studies at De La Salle University, where he served as Chair of the Political Science Department, Chair of the International Studies Department, and Dean of the College of Liberal Arts. He served as President of the Philippine Political Science Association from 2017 to 2019 and the Asian Political and International Studies Association from 2009 to 2011. Since 2019, he has served as the Philippine representative to the Council of the International Political Science Association. He has held several visiting appointments, including Kyoto University, Australian National University, City University of Hong Kong, Osaka University, University of Tokyo, Waseda University, and Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. In 2022, he was invited as a Senior Visiting Fellow at the Saw Swee Hock Southeast Asia Centre, the London School of Economics and Political Science.

Bermeo , Nancy. 2016 . “ On democratic backsliding ,” Journal of Democracy 27 , 1 : 5 – 19 .

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Cator , Currie , Bernadette Tamayo , and Lea Devio . 2021 . “ Duterte to COA : Stop the flagging ,” Manila Times , August 18 ; .

CNN Philippines Staff . 2021 . “ Duterte won’t let Duque resign: You did nothing wrong ,” August   17 ; .

Cooper , Luke , and Guy Aitchison . 2020 . “ The dangers ahead: Covid-19, authoritarianism and democracy ,” Conflict and Civil Society Research Unit , London School of Economics and Political Science, 2020.

Deinla , Imelda , Veronica Taylor , and Steven Rood . 2018 . “ Philippines: justice removed, justice denied ,” The Interpreter, The Lowy Institute , May 17 ; .

Edrada , Edna et al. 2020 . “ First COVID -19 infections in the Philippines: A case report ,” Tropical Medicine and Health 48 , 21 : 1 – 7 .

Esmaquel II , Paterno . 2017 . “ Duterte pushes for impeachment of Ombudsman Morales ,” Rappler , October 4 , 2017; .

Gisselquist , Rachel M. , and Andrea Vaccaro . 2021 . “ COVID -19 and the State .” .

Gregorio , Xave . 2020 . “ Movement of people in Luzon restricted as island placed under ‘enhanced’ community quarantine ,” CNN Philippines , March 16 ; .

Hallare , Katrina . 2020 . “ Medical frontliners to gov’t: ‘Time-out,’ revert Mega Manila back to ECQ ,” , August 1 ; .

Hapal , Karl . 2021 . “ The Philippines’ COVID -19 response: Securitizing the pandemic and disciplining the pasaway .” Journal of Current Southeast Asian Affairs 40 , 2 : 224 – 244 .

Holmes , Ronald and Paul Hutchcroft . 2020 . “ A failure of execution ,” Inside Story , April 4 .

Lewis , David . 2011 . “ Presidential appointments and personnel ,” Annual Review of Political Science 14 : 47 – 66 .

Magno , Francisco . 2021 . “ Contemporary populism and democratic challenges in the Philippines ,” in Sook Jong Lee , Chien-en Wu , and Kaustuv Kanti Bandyopadhyay , eds. Populism in Asian democracies: Features, structures and impacts , Leiden : Brill , pp. 61 – 79 .

Mudde , Cass and Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser . 2018 . “ Studying populism in comparative perspective: Reflections on the contemporary and future research agenda .” Comparative Political Studies 51 , 13 (2018): 1667 – 1693 .

NEDA , 2011 . Philippine Development Plan 2011–2016 , Pasig City : National Economic and Development Authority .

Pappas , Takis . 2019 . Populism and liberal democracy: A comparative and theoretical analysis , Oxford University Press .

Parrocha , Azer . 2021 . “ Ex-generals best people to lead Covid response, Palace insists ,” Philippine News Agency , March 23 , 2021; .

Ramos , Christia Marie . 2020 . “ Senators seek Duque’s ‘immediate resignation’ over ‘failure’ in handling COVID -19 crisis ,” , April 16 ; .

Steingrüber , Sarah , Monica Kirya , David Jackson , and Saul Mullard , 2020 . Corruption in the time of COVID -19: A double-threat for low-income countries , U4 Anti-Corruption Resource Centre .

Teehankee , Julio C. 2021 . “ The Philippines in 2020: COVID -19 Pandemic Threatens Duterte’s Populist Legacy .” Asian Survey 61 ( 1 ): 130 – 137 .

Teehankee , Julio C. 2022 . “ The Philippines in 2021: Twilight of the Duterte Presidency .” Asian Survey 62 ( 1 ): 126 – 126 .

Tomacruz , Sofia . 2020 . “ How the Philippines can recover from the coronavirus pandemic ,” Rappler , August 30 ; .

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Valderama , Tita . 2021 . “ Negligence in COVID -19 vaccine delay ,” Vera Files , March 1 , 2021; .

Waldner , David , and Ellen Lust . 2018 . “ Unwelcome change: Coming to terms with democratic backsliding .” Annual Review of Political Science 21 : 93 – 113 .

World Bank . 2021 . Philippines Economic Update: Navigating a Challenging Recovery , Washington, WD.C.

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Articles on Philippines

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Philippines sides with US amid rising regional tensions between Beijing and Washington

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Cleve V. Arguelles , Australian National University

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The Nobel Peace Prize brings overnight celebrity, but also frequent scrutiny, trolling and persecution

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Nobel Peace Prize for journalists serves as reminder that freedom of the press is under threat from strongmen and social media

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Asian-Pacific Law & Policy Journal, University of Hawaii This website provides online Journal articles about law and policy study in Asia-Pacific regions. Browse the journal or type a related topic in search after connecting to the link.

Journal of Asian Studies This is a website of the Journal of Asian Studies. It covers a range of research topics about Asia, and some articles are free for download.

Journal of Education, Management and Development Studies (JEMDS)

The Journal of Education, Management and Development Studies (JEMDS) publishes original research papers, reviews, and case studies related to broad areas of disciplines, including Education, Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Environment and Natural Resources, Health Sciences, Social and Behavioral Sciences, Public Management, Business Management and Entrepreneurship, Development Management, and Gender and Development. This also covers multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary studies on sustainable development in regional, national and global perspectives.

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The Journal of Health and Caring Sciences (JHCS) is an OPEN-ACCESS, international, peer-reviewed, interdisciplinary, official health and caring science publication of the San Beda University. It welcomes submission in various formats, including but not limited to original completed research studies, systematic reviews, case studies, book reviews, commentaries, letter to the editor and innovative research proposals which explores timely and emerging topics on human health, wellness and caring science.

Kyoto Review of Southeast Asia This website provides reviews of socio-political topics related to the Philippines and Southeast Asia. Type a related topic in search after connecting to the link.

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Center for Southeast Asian Studies, University of Hawaii This website contains a collection of 301 pictures of the Philippines, taken in 2000.

Digital Collection, the United States and Its Territories, the Age of Imperialism (1870-1925), the University of Michigan Library This is the University of Michigan Library’s Southeast Asia Collection of full text monographs and government documents published in the United States, Spain and the Philippines between 1870 and 1925.

Digital Collections, University of Washington Libraries This websites contains old photograph collection of the Philippines in the early 1900s and other countries in Southeast Asia. Type a related topic in search after connecting to the link.

Library of Congress Philippine Elections Web Archive The Philippine Elections web archive documents the Philippine general elections of 2010 and 2019.

Mangyan Bamboo Collection from Mindoro, Philippines, circa 1900-1939, at the Library of Congress The Asian Division's Southeast Asian Rare Book Collection counts among its most unique items a collection of 71 bamboo slats and 6 cylinders from the island of Mindoro in the Philippines. These items are etched with either verses or prose in the Mangyan script.

Philippines Maps, Perry-Castaneda Library, Map Collection, University of Texas Libraries This website holds a collection of old Philippines maps. It provides online version of a scanned-quality map produced by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency.

SEAsite, Southeast Asia Picture Database (Northern Illinois University) This site provides a digital photograph collection of contemporary Philippines and Southeast Asia.

Southeast Asia Vision Collection (Cornell University Library) This site provides full download of old texts and rare book collections about Philippines and countries in Southeast Asia. Type a related topic in search after connecting to the link.

Southeast Asian Images and Texts, University of Wisconsin Digital Collection This website contains a digital photograph collection from the Philippines during the American colonial period and Laos in 1957, 1959 and 1969.

The Digital Library of the Commons, Indiana University This site provides full download of articles about the Philippines and countries in Southeast Asia. Type a related topic in search after connecting to the link.

The National Library of Australia This website provides a digital photograph collection of the early and contemporary Philippines and Southeast Asia. Type a related topic in search after connecting to the link.

The Spanish-American War in Motion Pictures Home Page This website contains information in the Philippines during the war.

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politics research topics philippines

Research Agenda

Following its vision and mission statement, The Department of Political Science envisions itself to be the national centre of excellence for advanced studies in politics and public policy, committed to addressing the challenges facing the country and the global community. Aside from its mission to deliver the best instruction in the discipline that captures its theoretical breadth and its methodological complexities and that produces professionals adept at understanding the problems of power, state, governance and society, the Department is intent on fulfilling its mission to be the leading producer of new knowledge in the discipline and to be the principal node for knowledge dissemination in the discipline. To do this while constantly adjusting to the unfolding challenges and shifting institutional terrain, the Department will vigorously build organizational capacity for cutting-edge research in the following areas:

  • Philippine Politics
  • Political Theory
  • Comparative Politics
  • International Relations
  • Research Methods
  • Central-Local Relations and Local Politics
  • Democratization and Political Change
  • Electoral and Party Politics
  • Environment and Energy
  • Foreign Policy and Security
  • Globalization
  • Human Security
  • International and Regional Organizations
  • International Political Economy
  • Political Communication
  • Political Elites
  • Political Institutions
  • Public Policy
  • Religion and Politics
  • Security, Peace and Conflict
  • Teaching of Politics

Extension Agenda

In keeping with its mission to be the principal node for knowledge dissemination in the discipline and to be a leading voice in political discourse, the Department intends its research outputs to help upgrade the nation’s policy architecture to better benefit communities, strengthen the teaching of political science and research capacity of political science professionals all over the country, and establish a telling presence in the multimedia environment. To do these, the Department pursues the following extension agenda:

  • Training for teachers, researchers, bureaucrats, legislative staff, local governments, civil society, and communities;
  • Advising and managing public and private institutions;
  • Policy development, evaluation and advocacy;
  • Public education services through media; and
  • Track 2 diplomacy.    

politics research topics philippines

Research Papers

Big Data for a Climate Disaster-Resilient Country, Philippines Ebinezer R. Florano

A Veto Players Analysis of Subnational Territorial Reform in Indonesia Michael A. Tumanut

The Politics of Municipal Merger in the Philippines Michael A. Tumanut

2018 AGPA Conference papers 

Management of Social Media for Disaster Risk Reduction and Mitigation in Philippine Local Government Units Erwin A. Alamapy, Maricris Delos Santos, and Xavier Venn Asuncion

An Assessment of the Impact of GAD Programs on the Retention Intentions of Female Uniformed Personnel of the Philippine Navy Michelle C. Castillo

Contextualizing Inclusive Business: Amelioration of ASEAN Economic Community Arman V. Cruz

The impact of mobile financial services in low- and lower middle-income countries Erwin A. Alampay, Goodiel Charles Moshi, Ishita Ghosh, Mina Lyn C. Peralta and Juliana Harshanti

How Cities Are Promoting Clean Energy and Dealing with Problems Along the Way Rizalino B. Cruz Impact Assessment Methods: Toward Institutional Impact Assessment Romeo B. Ocampo

Philippine Technocracy and Politico-administrative Realities During the Martial Law Period (1972–1986): Decentralization, Local governance and Autonomy Concerns of Prescient Technocrats Alex B. Brillantes, Jr. and Abigail Modino

Policy Reforms to Improve the Quality of Public Services in the Philippines Maria Fe Villamejor-Mendoza

Compliance with, and Effective Implementation of Multilateral Environmental Agreements: Looking Back at the Transboundary Haze Pollution Problem in the ASEAN Region Ebinezer R. Florano, Ph.D.

ASEAN, Food Security, and Land Rights: Enlarging a Democratic Space for Public Services in the ASEAN Maria Faina L. Diola, DPA

Public Finance in the ASEAN: Trend and Patterns Jocelyn C. Cuaresma, DPA

Private Sector Engagement in Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation: Implications in Regional Governance Maria Fe Villamejor-Mendoza , Ph.D.

Philippine Response to Curb Human Trafficking of Migrant Workers Lizan Perante-Calina

Local Heritage Networking for ASEAN Connectivity Salvacion Manuel-Arlante

Financing Universal Healthcare and the ASEAN: Focus on the Philippine Sin Tax Law Abigail A. Modino

Decentralized Local Governance in Asian Region:Good Practices of Mandaluyong City, Philippines Rose Gay E. Gonzales- Castaneda

Disaster-Resilient Community Index: Measuring the Resiliency of Barangays in Tacloban, Iligan, Dagupan and Marikina Ebinezer R. Florano , Ph.D.

Towards Attaining the Vision “Pasig Green City”: Thinking Strategically, Acting Democratically Ebinezer R. Florano , Ph.D.

Community Governance for Disaster Recovery and Resilience: Four Case Studies in the Philippines  Ebinezer R. Florano , Ph.D.

Mainstreaming Integrated Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction in Local development Plans in the Philippines Ebinezer R. Florano , Ph.D. 

Building Back a Better Nation: Disaster Rehabilitation and Recovery in the Philippines Ebinezer R. Florano , Ph.D.  and Joe-Mar S. Perez

The New Public Management Then and Now: Lessons from the Transition in Central and Eastern Europe Wolfgang Drechsler and Tiina Randma-Liiv

Optimizing ICT Budgets through eGovernment Projects Harmonization Erwin A. Alampay

ICT Sector Performance Review for Philippines Erwin A. Alampay

The Challenges to the Futures of Public Administration Education Maria Fe Villamejor-Mendoza

Enhancing Trust and Performance in the Philippine Public Enterprises: A Revisit of Recent Reforms and Transformations Maria Fe Villamejor-Mendoza

The Legal Framework for the Philippine Third Sector: Progressive or Regressive? Ma. Oliva Z. Domingo

Roles of Community and Communal Law in Disaster Management in the Philippines: The Case of Dagupan City Ebinezer R. Florano

Revisiting Meritocracy in Asian Settings: Dimensions of colonial Influences and Indigenous Traditions Danilo R. Reyes

The openness of the University of the Philippines Open University: Issues and Prospects Maria Fe Villamejor-Mendoza

Equity and Fairness in Public-Private Partnerships: The Case of Airport Infrastructure Development in the Philippines Maria Fe Villamejor- Mendoza

Restoring Trust and Building Integrity in Government: Issues and Concerns in the Philippines and Areas for Reform Alex B. Brillantes, Jr. and Maricel T. Fernandez

Competition in Electricity Markets: The Case of the Philippines  Maria Fe Villamejor-Mendoza

Economic Reforms for Philippine Competitiveness, UP Open University Maria Fe Villamejor-Mendoza and G.H. Ambat (Eds) 

Open Access to Educational Resources: The Wave of the Future? Maria Fe Villamejor-Mendoza

Climate Change Governance in the Philippines and Means of Implementation diagram Ebinezer R. Florano

Mobile 2.0: M-money for the BoP in the Philippines Erwin A. Alampay and Gemma Bala

When Social Networking Websites Meet Mobile Commerce Erwin A. Alampay 

Monitoring Employee Use of the Internet in Philippine Organizations Erwin A. Alampay 

Living the Information Society Erwin A. Alampay

Analysing Socio-Demographic Differences in the Access & Use of ICTs in the Philippines Using the Capability Approach, Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries Erwin A. Alampay

Measuring Capabilities in the Information Society Erwin A. Alampay

Modes of Learning and Performance Among U.P. Open University Graduates, Electronic Journal of Information Systems in Developing Countries Victoria A. Bautista and Ma. Anna T. Quimbo

Copyright © 2023 | NCPAG

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Search interest in top searched political issues Philippines 2022

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  • Most common Google search queries based on index Philippines 2022
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  • Views on the re-election of President Donald Trump Philippines 2020
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  • Premium Statistic Number of total registered overseas voters Philippines 2019
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  • Premium Statistic Voting intention of registered voters in House of Reps election U.S. 2020
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  • Premium Statistic Share of seats held by women in parliament in the Philippines 2013-2022
  • Premium Statistic Most common Google search queries based on index Philippines 2022
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  • Premium Statistic Views on the re-election of President Donald Trump Philippines 2020
  • Premium Statistic Concerns on security challenges facing Southeast Asia among experts Philippines 2019
  • Premium Statistic Social media impact on political views Philippines 2018, by region
  • Premium Statistic Perceptions of living standards for next generation in the Philippines 2016
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  • Basic Statistic Most important issues as perceived by citizens in Sweden 2016
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  • Premium Statistic Opinions on the most worrying topics in Italy August 2021
  • Premium Statistic Share of votes for the mayoral elections in Istanbul in 2019
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Professional essay writing service

List of Best Political Science Research Topics

Updated Aug 2021 ​Everyone is well aware of just how elaborate and expansive the global political world is, so if you’ve picked this as your alma mater, you’ll have a good idea of just how complex things can get.

Whenever people are involved, things tend to get complicated – that’s why good criminal justice research topics are so hard to come by. Most people who study politics don’t wind up as politicians, rather professionals in the field of politics, and that’s a beast of its own.

We salute you for this major undertaking and hope you are prepared for the challenging world of political science studies. As long as you attend all of your classes, take a course here and there, and do your research papers – you’ll be fine.

Political Science Research Topics

However, consider just how time-consuming, hard, and complicated it is to stay on top of things, especially when it comes to writing research papers. Not only is finding the topic a nightmare but writing the content can be overly demanding.

Worry not – StudyClerk is your research paper helper and we have got your back, so we’ve prepared a couple of things to help you along the way – original, crisp, and interesting research paper topics.

How to Write Political Science Research Paper

Writing any kind of research paper is a challenging task, but doing so on the subject matter of political sciences is another beast entirely. Unlike most social sciences, political studies are very dynamic, and the tides can shift from day to day.

It makes a big difference in how you should approach your research paper. A topic is only as good as it is original or fresh. Since the current political dynamic is shifting so often, you can find a piece of news and turn it into a fantastic paper.

A great way to start with writing a research paper is to start seeking inspiration. Luckily, when it comes to politics, your inspiration is all around you. Take a look at your local politics, for starters, and see what you can dig out from there, aside from some interesting psychology topics .

After you’ve got a general idea of where you’re headed, it might not be a bad idea to outline the entire thing, and the first step to that is getting a top-shelf research paper title.

How to Choose Political Science Research Paper Topics

Choosing the right topic is imperative, and you can do so by digging a little deeper into politics. Politics have been going on for almost as long as society itself, in one shape or the other. From the triumvirate to the congress, there is a lot of material to go over and many different things you can tap into.

To help you get a better perspective on what goes into creating a magnum opus of a research paper, here are some top tips.

  • Try to keep your subject matter relatively new;
  • Don’t be afraid to dig a little into controversy;
  • Know your general direction before you start drafting the topic;
  • When creating a research paper topic, try and keep it unique;
  • Don’t be afraid to provide a different perspective on well-covered matters;
  • Don’t go too much into the political theory without backing it up with practice and examples;
  • Always follow university or faculty rules for subject matters and formatting.

Interesting Political Science Research Topics

If you wonder how learning something so gruesome and serious as political science can be interesting, you should, probably, learn more about how researchable and fascinating even an ordinary topic might be. If you lack ideas, you can always get some research paper help and have your paper written for you.

It is always a good decision to get some help with your paper even if you want to write it by yourself. To begin with, make sure that you have found some proper political science research topics. Here comes a list that you can use:

  • Can nationalism be classified as a proper school of leaders in history?
  • 20 th -century politics and Karl Marx.
  • How technologies impact voting processes?
  • Is modern political culture dependent upon technology?
  • Fascism and its faces before and after World War II.
  • Electoral reforms: how effective they are when it comes to establishing free election institutions?
  • How American foreign policies have affected European politics of the 20th century?
  • Modern politics and environmental struggles.
  • Modernization of global politics in the 21st century.
  • Voting process alternation by technology.

Empirical Research Paper Topics

If you want to write a good research paper, you should definitely embark upon writing an empirical research paper, as there is no way to object empirical evidence. If you find it hard to find proper empirical evidence, remember that you can always find a research paper for sale and have it written for you.

  • Why experimental research is important in today’s political science?
  • A realist approach to Russian foreign policy.
  • Analyzing the Geneva Convention in regards to refugee rights.
  • Educational inequalities in China or how governmental policies impact Chinese children?
  • What is civil society?
  • How do civil wars emerge?
  • How the United States Constitution would have looked like if the Founding Fathers had modern technologies?
  • Civil societies and modern politics.
  • Social media as a new public administration instrument.
  • Role of anarchism within the public administration system.

Comparative Politics Research Paper Topics

There is always a lot to compare when it comes to talking about politics. So, here are some topics that you might fancy writing about.

  • Abraham Lincoln’s Lyceum Address in comparison to modern political speeches.
  • How Segregation could have looked like without Supreme Court?
  • American Commercial Films and Political Messages Conveyed.
  • China versus America: New economic battle.
  • Democracy Laboratories of Contemporary Federalism: a comparative approach.
  • Crime TV-shows: their impact upon law misinterpretation.
  • America and Australia: how education policies differ?
  • Nationalism in comparison to other philosophies.
  • Female education in Afghanistan: a comparative review.
  • Authoritarianism and Totalitarianism

Government Research Paper Topics

American Government has always been changing a game-changer international arena. Writing a research paper about it or other leading governments of the world is always a good idea.

  • Public relations of American Government and their role in its success.
  • Bush and Clinton war doctrines.
  • Why France go hard on its immigration policies?
  • American Presidential Election 2008: Biased depiction of female politicians in mass media.
  • Role of old bureaucratic processes in modern America.
  • How American democracy is shaped?
  • American elections: using propaganda to achieve the result needed.
  • How power is balanced between institutions of authority in America.
  • European Crisis: Germany’s role.
  • Is Guatemala reviving after its conflict?

American Politics Research Paper Topics

There is always a lot of interesting things going on in American politics. Hence, there is always a lot to write about.

  • What are the principles of building the neoteric American democracy?
  • What will prevail in liberalism or idealism?
  • American Government and climate change.
  • Institutionalism as an instrument of American public management scientists.
  • The United States and the Middle East: How the future looks like?
  • Marriage equality in America under local political pressure.
  • Democratic ideas that shape America today.
  • American Civil War: its impact on modern governments.
  • Are American parties weak in comparison to their 1960s predecessors?
  • Democrats versus Republicans: a primordial battle or a fight for prevalence of law?

International Relations Research Topics

politics research topics philippines

The things that are happening in the international arena today cannot go unnoticed and will definitely have consequences for international politics in the nearest future. Here are some topics to consider:

  • How Syria ended up between two political fronts?
  • Russian aggression against Ukraine. What causes and lets Russia to disregard and disobeyed the norms of international law?
  • Why is president Putin holding tight to his chair?
  • China as the new overlord of the 21st century.
  • How the 2019 protests in Paris will shape the future of France?
  • Mexico and the problem of illegal immigrants?
  • Brexit is over. What is the next step for Great Britain?
  • How Europe is going to fare without a founding member?
  • Syrian refugees and Donald Trump: who is right?
  • Will Britain manage to retain its unity after Brexit?

Current Research Topics in Political Science

The current state of US politics is rocky, making it much more attractive. If you’d like to have an understanding of the current events, watch the news. If you’d like to have some topics, we’ve got ten fantastic options for you:

  • The United States Versus Russia: the Political Similarities and Differences
  • The Politics of Poverty — Exploring Sub Saharan African Politics
  • The Electoral College and Whether It Should Be Abolished or Given More Power
  • Voters Rights or Voters Citizen Obligations
  • How Falling to Vote Shapes Political Tenures
  • Why Have We Never Seen a Third Party Rule in the Us?
  • Democrats and Republicans — Same Thing or Entirely Different
  • The Internet and Its Role in Shaping Modern Politics
  • How Meme Culture Has Raised Political Awareness
  • Apartheid and Modern Segregation in the US

Easy Political Science Research Topics

We’ve stated more than a few times that political science is one of the most complicated social sciences out there – but that doesn’t have to reflect negatively on the research papers. In fact, covering something relatively simple in nature can be an innovation if you put your unique spin on it. Here are some ways that we’d do it:

  • From Tribes to Nations: The Beginnings of Politics
  • What Makes Politics a Necessity
  • Is Anarchy Ever Going to Become the Norm?
  • Communism and Its Ingrained Instability
  • The Corporate Nether of Late Stage Capitalism
  • The Many Flavors of Communism: China, Russia, Yugoslavia
  • Is Fascism a Reflection of the Roman Empire or a Mockery of It
  • People Skills and Politics. What It Takes to Get Ahead
  • How Do Socialites Became Politicians
  • NGOs and GOs — the Close but Distant Relationship Between the Two Bodies

Political Theorists Research Topics

If you’re looking for some fresh ideas in political theory, here are a couple of topics that you can use:

  • Why Did Rome Fall? An Examination of a Declining Empire
  • Jean Bodin and What He Failed to See About Sovereignty
  • Is the USA Following the Same Trajectory as Ancient Rome?
  • Key Figures That Defined Capitalism
  • Key Figures and Political Events That Lead to Nazism
  • How Greco-Roman Philosophers Shaped Modern Politics
  • Ancient Democracy and the Democracy of Today
  • The Orwellian Perspective on Politics
  • The Bastardization of Neitzsche by the Nazi Propaganda Machine
  • Plato and the Republic

Political Conflicts Topics

Conflicts are a mess. Political conflicts are an even worse mess, as they involve politicians, who have to keep things public at most times. Political conflicts or ideological conflicts can be a great way to stir up patriotism, or they could crumble a country in no time at all. Here are some topics on the matter.

  • How Wars Shape Countries for Decades to Come
  • The Soviet-Afghan Conflict: a Boiling Point for a Crumbling Empire
  • Israel, Palestine, and the War Crimes on Both Sides
  • The Implosion of Yugoslavia and Its Aftermath
  • The Swedish Immigrant Crisis
  • The Slaying of Gaddafi and Where the Line Is Drawn
  • Dictators and Presidents — the Conflict Between the Two
  • Racism and Its Impact on Modern Politics
  • NATO | Meddling or Resolving
  • The Press or the Politician — Who’s Actually in Charge

Political Science Research Topics on Mediation & Negotiation

Negotiating and bargaining are the pillars of politics. Without the two, there would be no capitalism, and there would be no modern economy to run countries. However, mediation and negotiation go far beyond the economy, and here are ten topics you could explore on the matter.

  • All Is Fair in Love and War. Negotiation During Wartime Conflicts
  • How Are Things Actually Settled During Wars on the Political Front
  • Are Whistleblowers Saviors or Traitors
  • The Danger of Political Asylum and How It Can Hinder Discussions
  • How Snowden & Rodchenkov Soured Relationships
  • Negotiating With the Terrorists: How Terrorism and Narcoterrorism Negotiations Work
  • Bending the Rules for the Greater Good
  • How Some Politicians Seem to Be Above the Law When Negotiating
  • Should Mediation Be Done by Politicians or Trained Professionals
  • Crisis and Risk Management. How Modern Negotiation Actually Works

Public Administration Research Topics

There are copious examples regarding how public administration is an integral component of any political system. So, writing about it might be a good idea to impress your professor.

  • Legal decisions and their effect on public interests.
  • Public administration. Is it founded on statistics?
  • Legal ethics under democratic pressure.
  • Public administration as a diversity management tool.
  • Political science and public administration: a unity or a war?
  • How public administration helps governments remain accountable?
  • Domestic affairs and public administration.
  • Urban budget management principles.
  • Modern technologies in public administration.
  • Public administration and its role in defining people’s needs.

Public Policy Research Paper Topics

Any political decision adopted must serve the public. Thereafter, there is no way one can run away from writing a public policy research paper.

  • How criticism shapes public policies?
  • How federal and state bureaucracies differ?
  • Which role does ethics play in political decisions?
  • Humanity and politics. Is there any relation?
  • The most important roles in fiscal administration.
  • Public analysis and assessment performance strategies.
  • How the process of spending budget establishment looks like.
  • Target culture in American governmental organizations.
  • Public management technologies.
  • The role of local government in the country management.

Every time when someone thinks of politics, people tend to think that this is some rocket science. Sure enough, it is an intricate world of systems, relations, and tensions, but those who understand how it works find it considerably easier to live in this world. Nowadays, there is a need to learn political science because the world is gradually moving towards the state of full submersion into politics. Hence, researching some proper topics might a good cornerstone for your foundation of political wisdom.

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politics research topics philippines

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206 Most Popular Political Science Research Topics

political science research topics

If you major in political science, you already know it’s a profound evaluation of politics and power from the domestic, international, and comparative outlook. It includes interpreting the existing political ideas, processes, institutions, behavior, policies, and how governments examine law, diplomacy, social groups, and many others. Political science is fundamentally a theory and practice of the government as it relates to both public and private lives. It encompasses political theory, comparative politics, international relations, the politics of the American government, and the preexisting political methodology. As students of a high school, college or university, it may be challenging to choose the best and interesting topics in political science. This is because you’re expected to produce high quality content on an advanced topic, and your grade depends on it. We’ve provided over 200 advanced topics to help you with that. But before you dive into these topics, how do you outline your political science research paper?

Outline Of Good Political Science Research Paper

Getting political research topics is easy; there are a lot. You must know how to convert any topic into a high quality paper, even if you order research paper, and this outline can help you. The outline of a good political science research paper must include an introduction, the literature review, the case study, the conclusion, and the reference page.

  • Introduction. This is where you identify the research questions and tell your readers the question’s significance. You must also provide a brief answer and overview of what your paper or essay will be about.
  • Literature Review or Theoretical Framework. Your political science research must discuss existing scholarly work related to your study. This lets your readers know that you conducted your research based on what you know about. This point is also where you provide explanations that justify the questions you asked earlier. Also, you can input your research methodology.
  • Case Study or Main Points. This is where you provide evidence to capture your argument. You must have basic ideas which will run through chapters. Organizing your thoughts in chapters helps you structure them into smaller pieces that make sense in the end.
  • Conclusion. This is the point where you summarize your research findings and restate the basic arguments or answers offered. You can also discuss the prospects of what you’ve discussed.

Now that you have an outline, these are the advanced and custom political science topics for your research or essays:

Political Science Research Questions

You must provide and answer some questions when you embark on research. These are good political science research questions to be answered in any political science research paper. Depending on your research, these questions are legitimate and should convince you about your knowledge on your chosen topic:

  • What authority does a state have in the federal government?
  • What can be identified as a totalitarian government today?
  • Would it be justified if it’s said that Vladimir Putin is a dictator?
  • What is the nature of comparative politics?
  • How does communism affect today’s geopolitical structure?
  • Does monarchy relate to communism too?
  • How do social changes influence the politics of the country under consideration?
  • How did politics influence the social class of the country under consideration?
  • How does a dictator gain legitimacy?
  • What exactly are political disputes?
  • How is political dispute settled amongst countries?
  • How are political disputes settled within a country?
  • How does free speech sound much like hate speech
  • What does controversy in politics imply?
  • How does propaganda help during electioneering periods?

Political Science Topics

As earlier established, political science encompasses the relationship between domestic, national, international, and comparative politics. If you need good political science research topics, you can examine different sections of the States and other countries to develop your argument. You can consider the following comprehensive topics:

  • How does existentialism apply to eastern constitutional law?
  • What is the philosophy of Karl Schmidt and German?
  • Examine civil republicanism and liberalism.
  • Examine the post-socialist transition methods through the western culture lens.
  • Evaluate the concept of Neoplatonism and how it poses a risk to society.
  • What mutual tolerance in politics means.
  • Evaluate the importance of ethics in the modern political culture.
  • Justification of liberal democracy through the neo-Marxist lens.
  • What are the ethics of election?
  • Evaluate the core arguments of the Human Rights Act of 1998.
  • Examine the basics of common morality and criminal law.
  • Role of popular legislators in US history.
  • Role of popular legislators in European history.
  • Examine the role of popular presidents in US history.
  • Outline the fundamental achievement of the first five US presidents.
  • Outline the basics of justice inequality.
  • Examine the importance of socio-economic preferences during political interrogation.
  • Why is a person’s social life and history significant in the US penal system?
  • What do post-conflict justice and inequality mean?
  • Examine the efforts of the government at coordination.
  • Give a thorough overview of the US electoral college.
  • Give a comprehensive overview of the UK electoral college.
  • Examine the importance of privacy law.
  • Examine how privacy law seems to exploit commercial relationships.
  • Evaluate the judicial interpretation of public safety statutes.
  • What is the role of the transport security administrators?
  • How are domestic laws formulated?
  • Examine the role of public opinion on the abolition of slavery centuries ago.
  • What is the role of public opinion in the US public health?
  • What is the role of public opinion in the UK economic policies?

Comparative Politics Research Topics

This part of political science deals with an empirical approach to different political systems. It includes analysis of institutions, conflict resolutions, domestic policy formulation, international issues, and others. All these can be examined through a comparative evaluation, and you can consider:

  • The domestic policies of the US and the UK on public health.
  • The foreign policies of the UK and Russia.
  • The comparison and contrasts between the communist structure of the USSR and China.
  • Examine the Soviet Union ideology.
  • The impacts of the cultural revolution on China.
  • Evaluate the significance of the cultural revolution in the USSR.
  • Examine the essential components of the UK and US foreign policies.
  • Examine the cultural gap between China and Japan.
  • Evaluate the behavioral approach to political parties in the UK and the US.
  • Critically analyze the presidential and parliamentary systems of government.
  • What is the apartheid phenomenon?
  • How do apartheid and the black lives matter movement similar?
  • What would you say is the difference between armed and political conflicts!
  • What are your thoughts about twentieth and twenty-first-century politics?
  • Religion is a social power: discuss.
  • Culture is a formidable social power: discuss.
  • Corruption is a must for any Government: discuss.
  • Politics is business: discuss.
  • Compare and Contrast the American and European federal crimes.
  • Examine the activities of the FBI and KGB for ten years of your choice.

Political Science Research Paper Topics

As students of a college or university, political science borders on a state’s relationship amongst itself and outside it. This means its domestic and international political affairs. These extend to political theories, their practicality and feasibility, how they influence or affect the world, and many others. You can consider political science paper topics like:

  • Vision of John Rohr on constitutions.
  • Examine the significance of Plato’s The Republic.
  • Evaluate the importance of Machiavelli’s The Prince
  • Choose and talk about any three political philosophers of your choice.
  • Give a detailed overview of the politics of Ancient Greece.
  • Examine the politics of the Mongols.
  • Examine the significance of the reign of the Vikings.
  • Evaluate the unequal relationship between the government and the people
  • Justify the lack of public opinion on foreign policies.
  • Examine the effect of media voting on US elections.
  • Evaluate the impact of card readers in protest of election credibility in the US.
  • Evaluate the importance of foreign observers during elections from any country of your choice.
  • Evaluate the basis of election thuggery based on the January invasion of the Capitol.
  • Examine the effect of civilian and military government in the case of American provisional governments in the middle east.
  • Assess the significance of the US on NATO.
  • Give an overview of the influence of western nations on the UN.
  • Examine the consolidation of democracy in any country of your choice.
  • Problems of the American judiciary system.
  • Challenges of the UK judiciary system.
  • Evaluate the prospects of everyday politics in the European Union.
  • Examine the role of Scandinavian countries in the race for gender equality.
  • Examine the challenges and possibilities of gender equality in the UK.
  • Evaluate the challenges and opportunities of equal pay in the US.
  • Appraise the 2020 presidential election of the US.
  • Examine the role of civic education in reducing educating the public.

Interesting Political Topics

Political science paper topics can also be interesting. This is because politics itself is exciting and can be intriguing when studied carefully. As students of politics, you must be knowledgeable on fundamental parts of the international system. You can base your research on these best political research paper topics.

  • Examine the causes of the American Revolution
  • Examine the concept of neoliberalism
  • Evaluate the idea of political correctness
  • Give an in-depth analysis of populism
  • Attempt an evaluation of populism in the African context
  • Evaluate the concept of politics in open Societies
  • What principle is divided government based on
  • What is the Influence of media on politics
  • How does rational choice affect politics
  • Is it okay to consider terrorism an instrument of politics?
  • What does positivism imply?
  • Examine the concepts of societal decadence in Animal Farm by George Orwell
  • What does social movement on politics imply?
  • Evaluate the basis of cultural pluralism
  • Examine the role of the mass media in any UK election of your choice
  • Examine the discussions on LGBTQ in sport
  • Evaluate the domestic laws of Texas
  • Why are some states more important than other states during US elections?
  • What is the crisis of identity politics all about?
  • Select any three states of your choice and discuss their domestic policies
  • Choose any company of your choice and examine how its activities affect the public
  • Make a case for vote-buying in any country’s election
  • Examine the circumstance of political apathy in any country of your choice
  • What are the challenges of marginalization in America?
  • Evaluate the significance of corruption in the US politics

American Politics Research Paper Topics

America is a country that dominates global politics. It leads in technology, the military, even politics, and other fundamental sectors. However, this doesn’t excuse the US from a political crisis both internally and externally. You can discuss the basis of American policies with these current Research topics for political science:

  • Examine the effects of the 2020 election on American democracy
  • Examine the evolution of American politics from the 1960s
  • What does American nationalism mean in the face of globalization
  • What does social constructivism mean in the American context
  • Examine public relations actors in the American politics
  • What are the politics prevalent during the civil war
  • What was the political crisis that led to the American civil war?
  • Examine how the Republican culture evolved in the US
  • Give an evaluation of election fraud on any US election
  • Motivators of African American politicians
  • Motivation for African American politics
  • Examine the place of Hispanic American politics presently
  • Examine the representative level of all minority classes in the US
  • What does American crime law mean
  • Examine the essential traits of the typical American politician
  • How knowledgeable are you on the story of Jimmy Carter
  • Examine the life of Saddam Hussein and his impact on America
  • How did the Vietnam War become the American war?
  • Attempt an analysis of the Barack Obama and Trump administration
  • Discuss the significance of news coverage of US elections
  • Analyze the relationship between the US and North Korea

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Easy Political Science Research Topics

If you’re in high school or pursuing your diploma, you need custom and more superficial political science topics. These may be advanced topics, but they are relatable political science topics for your level:

  • Discuss the Importance of political violence in any country of your choice
  • Examine the election processes and issues in any state of your choice
  • Why does each state have different constitutions?
  • Examine what tax law means in the US
  • How should public bodies in the US act?
  • What are the central laws to both federal and state governments?
  • Examine the significance of public and private law in the US
  • Examine the differences between democracy in the US and France
  • The turbulent political history of France
  • Evaluate the Importance of the US electoral college
  • Examine the presence of godfatherism in any country of your choice
  • Is Afghanistan better than it was before?
  • Evaluate the political activities of the US in any country through its established provisional governments.
  • Evaluate the role of domestic policies in rural areas
  • What does legislation oversight mean?
  • Give a detailed overview of the impeachment process of Trump
  • Examine the structure of revenue allocation in the US
  • Examine the art of political campaigns in the US
  • How does social media bullying affect free speech
  • Examine the line between free speech and hate speech
  • How do elections achieve national peace and security
  • Do you think the French President has too much power than he should?
  • Do you think the US President should share his power with Congress?
  • Examine the Executive power or the US vice president
  • Examine the strengths of the UK Head of State

Current Research Topics For Political Science

These are topics that discuss the present happenings within countries and in the international political space. These could be topics on conflict resolutions or conflict in the international area itself. They also extend to domestic policies and their effects. Examine these good political science research questions:

  • Examine the system of prosecuting top tier government officers
  • Examine the legal clashes of any transnational corporations in recent years
  • What does hostage care in the US penal code mean?
  • Give a critical overview of American whistleblowers
  • Examine the role of women in today’s global politics
  • Is the terrorism war so far against the west or the western activities in the Middle East?
  • What is the current political relationship of western countries with the Taliban government?
  • What does political correctness mean in today’s gender multiplicity?
  • Examine how social media emerges as the court cancel celebrities
  • Examine the challenge of national planning under Joe Biden
  • Evaluate the similarities between the foreign policies of Canada and the US
  • What does the US alliance with Australia imply for its allies
  • Examine the present threat between China and Taiwan
  • Would you say the European Union can achieve standard fiscal policies
  • What is the role of controversies and propaganda in any election, and how does it determine the winner or loser: give a case study

International Politics Research Paper Topics

International politics is the balance of power in the international space. This extends to the balance of threats. Other issues covered include human rights, peaceful resolution of global conflicts, environmental crisis, globalization, global ethics, global poverty, and more. The best political science research topics on international politics are:

  • Examine the case for human rights violation in Malawi
  • Make a case for human rights violation in China
  • Make a car for the human rights violation in communist countries
  • Examine the trends in global poverty and its eradication in the world today
  • Investigate the controversies raised by Amnesty International
  • Would you say international media houses are the watchdog of the society or an accomplice of security threats
  • What are the ethics guiding the activities of NGOs
  • Role of the international monetary fund in world politics
  • Trends and evolution of the Belt and Road Initiative
  • Examine the environmental crisis case against Germany
  • Examine the issues of human rights in Uganda
  • Investigate the political agenda of any three US politicians of your choice
  • What are the present political powers at play in Ukrainian politics
  • Examine the causes of the Central African Republic rebellion
  • Examine the Afghanistan conflict through the lens of a Westerner
  • Trace the origin of the Afghanistan conflict
  • Analyze the immigrant crisis facing Europe
  • Evaluate the immigrant problem facing the US
  • Go in depth on the drug war by the US government
  • Examine the disparity between the white and black justice systems in the US
  • Evaluate the leadership conflict post 9/11
  • Examine the race for economic dominance
  • Examine the significance of capitalism in the expansion of democracy
  • Examine the role of any three media houses of your choice in their propagation of bias in Europe and the US
  • How does the Personal ambition of a leader affect country politics?
  • Examine the post-war legacy of any war of your choice
  • Examine the wartime negotiating strategy
  • Evaluate the social role of volunteerism
  • What is the Influence of the US government on the growth of Coca-cola outside America?
  • How has the UN contributed to education in any country of your choice

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With these political science research topics, you can choose the most interesting topic for your research paper. However, if you say, “I need someone to write my paper for cheap,” we are an online academic writing company. We have reliable writers who are professionals with years of experience in paper writing. They are not just writers; they are research experts who can write fast. This means that you can get high quality content and boost your grades for a cheap price. Our writers get on your project as soon as you hire us, and you can expect the advanced content to make the best submission in your class.

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Research Topics & Ideas: Politics

100+ Politics-Related Research Ideas To Fast-Track Your Project

Political science research topics and ideas

Finding and choosing a strong research topic is the critical first step when it comes to crafting a high-quality dissertation or thesis. If you’ve landed on this post, chances are you’re looking for a politics-related research topic , but aren’t sure where to start. Here, we’ll explore a variety of politically-related research ideas across a range of disciplines, including political theory and philosophy, comparative politics, international relations, public administration and policy.

NB – This is just the start…

The topic ideation and evaluation process has multiple steps . In this post, we’ll kickstart the process by sharing some research topic ideas. This is the starting point, but to develop a well-defined research topic, you’ll need to identify a clear and convincing research gap , along with a well-justified plan of action to fill that gap.

If you’re new to the oftentimes perplexing world of research, or if this is your first time undertaking a formal academic research project, be sure to check out our free dissertation mini-course. Also, be sure to sign up for our free webinar that explores how to find a high-quality research topic from scratch.

Overview: Politics-Related Topics

  • Political theory and philosophy
  • Comparative politics
  • International relations
  • Public administration
  • Public policy
  • Examples of politics-related dissertations

Topics & Ideas: Political Theory

  • An analysis of the impact of feminism on political theory and the concept of citizenship in Saudi Arabia in the context of Vision 2030
  • A comparative study of the political philosophies of Marxism and liberalism and their influence on modern politics
  • An examination of how the Covid-19 pandemic affected the relationship between individual freedom and collective responsibility in political philosophy
  • A study of the impact of race and ethnicity on French political philosophy and the concept of justice
  • An exploration of the role of religion in political theory and its impact on secular democracy in the Middle East
  • A Review of Social contract theory, comparative analysis of the political philosophies of Hobbes, Locke, and Rousseau
  • A study of the concept of the common good in political philosophy and its relevance to the ongoing refugee crisis in Europe
  • An examination of the relationship between political power and the rule of law in developing African countries
  • A study of the impact of postmodernism on political theory and the concept of truth, a case study of the US
  • An exploration of the role of virtue in political philosophy and its impact on the assessment of moral character in political leaders

Topics & Ideas: Comparative Politics

  • A comparative study of different models of federalism and their impact on democratic governance: A case Study of South American federalist states
  • The impact of ethnic and religious diversity on political stability and democracy in developing countries, a review of literature from Africa
  • An analysis of the role of civil society in promoting democratic change in autocratic regimes: A case study in Sweden
  • A comparative examination of the impact of globalization on political institutions and processes in South America and Africa.
  • A study of the factors that contribute to successful democratization in authoritarian regimes, a review of the role of Elite-driven democratization
  • A comparison of the political and economic systems of China and India and their impact on social development
  • The impact of corruption on political institutions and democracy in South East Asia, a critical review
  • A comparative examination of the impact of majoritarian representation (winner-take-all) vs proportional representation on political representation and governance
  • An exploration of Multi-party systems in democratic countries and their impact on minority representation and policy-making.
  • A study of the factors that contribute to successful decentralization and regional autonomy, a case study of Spain

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Topics & Ideas: International Relations

  • A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of diplomacy and military force in resolving international conflicts in Central Africa.
  • The impact of globalization on the sovereignty of nation-states and the changing nature of international politics, a review of the role of Multinational Corporations
  • An examination of the role of international aid organizations in promoting peace, security, and development in the Middle East.
  • A study of the impact of economic interdependence on the likelihood of conflict in international relations: A critical review of weaponized interdependence
  • A comparative analysis of the foreign policies of the EU and the US and their impact on international stability in Africa
  • An exploration of the relationship between international human rights and national sovereignty during the Covid 19 pandemic
  • A study of the role of decentralized autonomous organizations (DAO)s in international politics and their impact on state behaviour
  • A comparative analysis of the effectiveness of international regimes in addressing global challenges such as climate change, arms control, and terrorism in Brazil
  • An examination of the impact of the rise of BRICS on the international system and global governance
  • A study of the role of ideology in shaping the foreign policies of states and the dynamics of international relations in the US

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Tops & Ideas: Public Administration

  • An analysis of the impact of digital technology on public administration and the delivery of public services in Estonia
  • A review of models of public-private partnerships and their impact on the delivery of public services in Ghana
  • An examination of the role of civil society organizations in monitoring and accountability of public administration in Papua New Guinea
  • A study of the impact of environmentalism as a political ideology on public administration and policy implementation in Germany
  • An exploration of the relationship between public administration and citizen engagement in the policy-making process, an exploration of gender identity concerns in schools
  • A comparative analysis of the efficiency and effectiveness of public administration, decentralisation and pay and employment reform in developing countries
  • A study of the role of collaborative leadership in public administration and its impact on organizational performance
  • A systematic review of the challenges and opportunities related to diversity and inclusion in police services
  • A study of the impact of corrupt public administration on economic development and regional growth in Eastern Europe
  • An exploration of the relationship between public administration and civil rights and liberties, including issues related to privacy and surveillance, a case study in South Korea

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Topics & Ideas: Public Policy

  • An analysis of the impacts of public policy on income inequality and poverty reduction in South Sudan
  • A comparative study of the effectiveness of legal and regulatory, economic and financial, and social and cultural instruments for addressing climate change in South Korea
  • An examination of the role of interest groups in shaping public policy and the policy-making process regarding land-use claims
  • A study of the impact of globalization on the development of public policies and programs for mitigating climate change in Singapore
  • An exploration of the relationship between public policy and social justice in tertiary education in the UAE
  • A comparative analysis of the impact of health policies for the management of diabetes on access to healthcare and health outcomes in developing countries
  • Exploring the role of evidence-based policymaking in the design and implementation of public policies for the management of invasive invertebrates in Australia
  • An examination of the challenges and opportunities of implementing educational dietary public policies in developing multicultural countries
  • A study of the impact of public policies on urbanization and urban development in rural Indonesia
  • An exploration of the role of media and public opinion in shaping public policy and the policy-making process in the transport industry of Malaysia

Examples: Politics Dissertations & Theses

While the ideas we’ve presented above are a decent starting point for finding a politics-related research topic, they are fairly generic and non-specific. So, it helps to look at actual dissertations and theses to see how this all comes together.

Below, we’ve included a selection of research projects from various politics-related degree programs to help refine your thinking. These are actual dissertations and theses, written as part of Master’s and PhD-level programs, so they can provide some useful insight as to what a research topic looks like in practice.

  • We, the Righteous Few: Immoral Actions of Fellow Partisans are Judged as Less Possible (Varnam, 2020)
  • Civilizing the State: Civil Society and the Politics of Primary Public Health Care Provision in Urban Brazil (Gibson, 2012)
  • Political regimes and minority language policies: evidence from Taiwan and southeast Asia (Wu, 2021)
  • The Feminist Third Wave: Social Reproduction, Feminism as Class Struggle, and Contemporary Women’s Movements (Angulo, 2019)
  • The Politics of Immigration under Authoritarianism (Joo, 2019)
  • The politics of digital platforms: Sour Dictionary, activist subjectivities, and contemporary cultures of resistance (Okten, 2019)
  • Vote choice and support for diverse candidates on the Boston City Council At-Large (Dolcimascolo, 2022)
  • The city agenda: local governance and national influence in the policy agenda, 1900-2020 (Shannon, 2022)
  • Turf wars: who supported measures to criminalize homelessness in Austin, Texas? (Bompiedi, 2021)
  • Do BITs Cause Opposition Between Investor Rights and Environmental Protection? (Xiong, 2022)
  • Revealed corruption and electoral accountability in Brazil: How politicians anticipate voting behavior (Diaz, 2021)
  • Intersectional Solidarity: The Political Consequences of a Consciousness of Race, Gender and Sexuality (Crowder, 2020)
  • The Congressional Hispanic Caucus and the Coalitional Representation of Latinxs in the U.S. House of Representatives (Munoz, 2019)

Looking at these titles, you can probably pick up that the research topics here are quite specific and narrowly-focused , compared to the generic ones presented earlier. In other words, to create a top-notch research topic, you must be precise and target a specific context with specific variables of interest . In other words, you need to identify a clear, well-justified research gap.

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If you’re still feeling a bit unsure about how to find a research topic for your dissertation or research project, check out our Topic Kickstarter service below.

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politics research topics philippines

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Politics In The Philippines

Filed Under: Research papers Tagged With: corruption , Philippines

I. Introduction

The Politics of the Philippines takes place in an organized framework of a presidential, representative, and democratic republic whereby the president is both the head of state and the head of government within a pluriform multi-party system. This system revolves around three separate and sovereign yet interdependent branches: the legislative branch, the executive branch, and the judicial branch. Executive power is exercised by the government under the leadership of the president. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two-chamber Congress: the Senate (the upper chamber) and the House of Representatives (the lower chamber).

Judicial power is vested in the courts with the Supreme Court of the Philippines as the highest judicial body.

Local government is exercised by local government units from the provinces, cities, municipalities and barangays. While the most regions do not have political power, and exist merely for administration purposes, autonomous regions have expanded powers more than the other local government units. While local government units enjoy autonomy, much of their budget is derived from allocations from the national government, putting their true autonomy in doubt. Elections are administered by the Commission on Elections (COMELEC).

The elected officials are the president, vice president, members of Congress, regional governors and assemblymen, provincial governors, vice governors and board members, city and municipal mayors, vice mayors and councilors, and barangay (village) chairmen and councilors. Elections are for fixed terms.

The Essay on United States Government Power Americans

A new age of thought and reason emerged from Europe and America in the 18 th century. This new age would be known as the Enlightenment, where people believed they were entering an age of reason, science, and a respect for humanity. During the Enlightenment, thinkers thought that the Roman Catholic Church had caused the human mind to be closed from reason. Instead of strictly following Christian ...

All elected officials have three-year terms, except for the president, vice president and senators, which are six years. All terms begins and ends on June 30 of the election year. Elections above the barangay level are held every three years since 1992 on the second Monday of May, all positions are disputed except for president and vice president; presidential and vice presidential elections are held every six years since 1992. Single-winner elections are done via the plurality voting system: the candidate with the highest number of votes is elected. Multiple-winner elections, except for representatives elected the party-list system, are done via plurality-at-large voting. Each voter has x votes, with the x candidates with the highest number of votes being elected.

For representatives elected the party-list system, a party that won at least 2% of the national vote wins one seat, with additional seats, but not exceeding three seats, depends on the number of votes it received. If the number of sectoral representatives does not reach 20% of the membership of the House of Representatives, parties with less than 2% of the vote are given a seat each until the 20% membership is filled Importance of the Study

This research paper will talk about how our government runs today. The anomalies and controversies make Philippines on the spot light. We will also been able to point out the powerful politicians that rule the country for almost a decade! With this study it will help us realize the wrong doings of the politicians.

Definition of Terms

Kleptocracy/kleptomaniac – somebody with obsessive desire to steal. A government that ruled by thieves. Impeachment – politician order to remove from the service

Amassed – to bring a large quantity of things together over time Embezzlement – to take for personal use the money or property that has been given on trust by others, without their knowledge or permission Cronyism – special treatment and preference given to relatives, friends or colleagues, especially in politics Derogatory – expressing criticism or a low opinion

Bribery – the offering of money or other incentives to persuade somebody to do something, especially dishonest or illegal Nepotism – favoritism shown by somebody in power to relatives and friends, especially in appointing them to good positions

The Essay on How The Marcos Years Affected Society

The Marcos rule was economically disastrous for the Philippines. The causes of this were greatly made by the abuses of the Marcos es and their cronies. Their crimes brought our country into deep poverty and trouble at the end. And the evidence of their scandalous acts is found in various published materials. Some people have estimated that the Marcos's and their associates took at least 5 billion ...

Graft and Corruption

‘Corruption is the abuse of power by a public official for private gain.’ (Bellow, 2003) There is a long history of graft and corruption within the government of the Philippines. This corruption reached its apex during the height of the Marcos regime. Corruption and thievery was so bad under the rule of Ferdinand Marcos that in the late 1980s, the Guinness Book of Records listed the Philippines as the all-time most corrupt government in the history of the world. The Marcos government was labeled a kleptocracy, literally meaning that it was a government ruled by thieves.

A kleptocracy can be defined as a dishonest form of governmental corruption where the government exists solely to increase the personal wealth and power of its officials and the ruling class without regard for the wider population. From the years 1972 to 1983 the United States provided $2.5 billion in bilateral military and economic aid to the Marcos regime, and about $5.5 billion through multilateral institutions such as the World Bank. Marcos took a large percentage of the United States aid money for himself and his cronies. In 1986, 56 Filipino Assemblymen signed a resolution calling for the impeachment of President Marcos for alleged diversion of U.S. aid for personal use, citing a July 1985 San Jose Mercury News expose of the Marcoses’ multi-million dollar investment and property holdings in the United States.

The properties allegedly amassed by the Marcos family were the Crown Building, Lindenmere Estate, and a number of residential apartments (in New Jersey and New York), a shopping center in New York, mansions (in London, Rome and Honolulu), the Helen Knudsen Estate in Hawaii and condominiums in San Francisco, California. Bribery, embezzlement, vote buying and illegal gambling were rampant under Marcos rule in the Philippines. Marcos looted billions of dollars from the Filipino treasury, and the corruption reached its high-point with the assassination of Marcos’ political opponent Benigno Aquino. Graft has subsided in recent years, and in 2007 the Philippines ranked last place in the 13 Asian economies that were studied. ( (

The Essay on Philipines Graft And Corruption

... Marcos regime which has been describe as a government portrayed by out of control greed and corruption, ... the challenges to national development in the Philippines is the administration of one of ... her in a hospital for corruption charges. The Philippine anti-graft commanded her arrest for supposedly ... the government’s management. Second is the period in office of former President Joseph Estrada. Back ...

There are many types of corruption that can occur in government entities. Some of these are extortion, nepotism, embezzlement, bribery, cronyism, patronage, and graft. Some of the more common types that are found are extortion, embezzlement and bribery. ( The causes and effects of corruption, and how to combat corruption, are issues that are increasingly on the national and international agendas of politicians and other policymakers. For example, the World Bank has relatively recently come around to the view that economic development is closely linked to corruption reduction (World Bank 1997) and there have been numerous anti-corruption initiatives in multiple jurisdictions (Heidenheimer, Johnston, Preston and Sampford 2002).

Moreover, the very recent Global Financial Crisis has revealed financial corruption, and spurred regulators to consider various anti-corruption measures by way of response. By contrast, the concept of corruption has not received much attention. (Abed and Gupta (eds.), 2003) Existing conceptual work on corruption consists in little more than the presentation of brief definitions of corruption as a preliminary to extended accounts of the causes and effects of corruption and the ways to combat it. (Anechiarico and Jacobs, 1998) Moreover, most of these definitions of corruption are unsatisfactory in fairly obvious ways. (Baker, 2005) According to a World Bank study in 2008, corruption in the Philippines is considered to be the worst among East Asia’s leading economies and the country has sunk even lower among those seen to be lagging in governance reforms. (Dumlao, 2008)

The 2009 Corruption Perceptions Index published by global watchdog Transparency International, showed that the situation in the country had improved slightly but still remained serious. (Dizon, 2009) The Philippines ranked 3rd among 180 countries included in the index, up from its previous 141st ranking in 2008. The nation scored 2.4 in the TI index, compared to 2.3 in 2008, which ranked it equal to Pakistan, Bangladesh and the Baltic state of Belarus. (Dizon, 2009) Corruption exists in all levels of the government, especially among high-level civil servants, according to the US Department of State Investment Climate Statement 2013. (Investment Climate Statement 2013 from the US Department of State) Companies generally have little confidence in the Philippine judicial system, and this is due to the allegedly incompetent court personnel, corruption and long delays of court cases. (

The Business plan on  The Philippine Mtual Fund Industry Swot Analysis 

A financial adviser will be hired the investment company to help choose where to place your money. In relation with his you’ll be having an access a boarder range of investment instruments such as equities, fixed income and real estate. Another, thing mutual fund has a low tolerance on risk through diversification. Finally, an investor whose considering to put his money in mutual fund would be ...

List of political scandals in the Philippines

Rolex 12, 1972 – controversy involving Pres. Ferdinand Marcos’ favoring certain Generals to propagate his terms of office. Coco Levy Fund Scam 1970s

Bataan Nuclear Power Plant bribery and graft case. 1980s

Imelda Marcos’ shoe collection 1980s

Operation Big Bird, 1986 – the bungled plan of the Philippine Government to retrieve the alleged ill-gotten wealth of the Marcoses in Swiss banks. PEA

Amari Scam 1990s

Subic Bay Leadership Dispute, 1998 – Pres. Joseph Estrada’s Executive Order No. 1 orders the removal of Richard Gordon as Chairman of the Subic Bay Metropolitan Authority (SBMA), and replaces him with Felicito Payumo. Textbook Scam & Nepotism – Pres. Estrada appoints relatives to government positions, and intervenes in their behalf.1990s Hot Cars Scandal – Pres. Estrada assigns seized vehicles by the Bureau of Customs to his Cabinet secretaries and favored political allies.1990s BW Resources scandal – Pres. Estrada and associates profit from an alleged stock manipulation scheme.

2000s Estrada Midnight Cabinet – Chief of Staff Aprodicio Laquian jests in a press conference that he is the only one sober during the President’s “Midnight Cabinet,” drinking and gambling sessions in Malacañan Palace. 2000 Jueteng Gate 2000 – Chavit Singson exposé on President Joseph Estrada receiving jueteng payoffs and bribes. This led to the impeachment of Estrada and eventful downfall Hello Garci scandal, 2004 – scandal involving Pres. Gloria Macapagal Arroyo on committing electoral fraud during the 2004 National Elections. Fertilizer Fund scam, 2004 – controversy involving accusations that Agriculture Undersecretary Jocelyn Bolante diverted Php 728M in fertilizer funds to the 2004 election campaign of President Arroyo. GSIS-Meralco bribery case, 2008

Philippine National Broadband Network controversy, 2008 – (also referred to as the NBN/ZTE deal or NBN/ZTE mess) involved allegations of corruption in the awarding of a US$329 million construction contract to Chinese telecommunications firm ZTE for the proposed government-managed National Broadband Network (NBN).

The Term Paper on City States Democracy Political Greek

Democracy: From Early Athenian To Present Day Politics. When following current events we can't help but witness politicians use terms such as "defending freedom", "liberty", or "democracy", but one is simply left wondering if the general public, or even the politicians themselves, know what those terms really mean or where they come from. The reality is that most don't. The ideals of living in a ...

Euro Generals scandal, 2008 – involves Eliseo de la Paz and several Philippine National Police officials who went to Russia on October 2008 to attend the Interpol conference. De la Paz was detained for carrying a large sum of undeclared money. Pimentel III vs. Zubiri Senate Electoral Protest, 2008

2009 National Artist Controversy, 2009 (

pork barrel Scam

Pork barrel is the appropriation of government spending for localized projects secured solely or primarily to bring money to a representative’s district. The usage originated in American English. (Drudge 2010) In election campaigns, the term is used in derogatory fashion to attack opponents. Scholars, however, use it as a technical term regarding legislative control of local appropriations. (Bickers and Stein 2008) In the Philippines, the term “pork barrel” is used to mean funds allocated to the members of the Philippine House of Representatives and the Philippine Senate to spend as they see fit without going through the normal budgetary process or through the Executive Branch. It can be used for both “hard” projects, such as buildings and roads, and “soft” projects, such as scholarships and medical expenses.

Beginning in 2006, the amount was ₱70.0 M for each Representative and ₱200.0 M for each Senator. This pork barrel system was stopped by President Ferdinand Marcos during his dictatorship but was reintroduced by President Corazon Aquino in 1986. The program has had different names over the years, including the Countryside Development Fund, Congressional Initiative Fund, and currently the Priority Development Assistance Fund. During the presidency of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, the PDAF became the biggest source of corruption among the legislators. Kickbacks were common and became syndicated–using pre-identified project implementers including government agencies, contractors and bogus non-profit corporations as well as the government’s Commission on Audit. In August 2013, outrage over the ₱10 B Priority Development Assistance Fund scam, involving Janet Lim-Napoles and numerous Senators and Representatives, led to widespread calls for abolition of the PDAF system.

The Term Paper on City Of God Power Political Augustine

According to St Augustine, should members of the City of God regard political power as something that was good or bad or with indifference? St Augustine has long held a reputation as one of the most influential and important political thinkers of all time. His ideologies and concepts which were formulated many centuries ago, have continued to hold their weight even in our contemporary world. It is ...

This also included the pork barrel funds of President Aquino that amounted to several billions of pesos.The Million People March which occurred on August 26, 2013, National Heroes’ Day in the Philippines, called for the end of “pork barrel” and was joined by simultaneous protests nationwide and by the Filipino diaspora around the world. (Francisco 2013) Petitioners have challenged the constitutionality of the PDAF before the high court following reports of its widespread and systematic misuse by some members of Congress in cahoots with private individuals. Three incumbent senators and several former members of the House of Representatives have been named respondents in a plunder complaint filed with the Office of the Ombudsman in connection with the alleged P10-billion pork barrel scam.

Public outrage over the anomaly has resulted in the largest protest gathering under the three-year-old Aquino administration. ( In November 19, 2013 The Supreme Court declared the controversial Priority Development Assistance Fund (PDAF), or more commonly known as the pork barrel, as unconstitutional. In a briefing, the high court declared the PDAF Article in 2013 General Approriations Act and all similar provisions on the pork barrel system as illegal because it “allowed legislators to wield, in varying gradiations, non-oversight, post-enactment authority in vital areas of budget executions (thus violating) the principle of separation of powers. (

Political Dynasties in the Philippines

Politics in the Philippines has been under the control of a few notable families. It is normal for a politician’s son, wife, brother, or other kinsman, to run for the same or other government office. The term coined by Filipinos to describe this practice is “Political dynasty”, the equivalent of anoligarchy in political science. One can trace its roots from the Spanish colonial times where favored families of the mestizo stock, or the Illustrados were given responsibilities of Gobernadorcillo, or Alcalde. As such, these men have wielded some influence in their communities, and patronage politics was a common undertaking. During the early years of American rule of the Philippine Islands, these Illustrados joined the democratic process introduced by the Philippine Bill of 1902.

During this period, family names such as Cojuangcos, Lopezes, Marcoses, Osmeñas, Aquinos started to emerge, later on becoming household names. The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines states in Article II Section 26, “The State shall guarantee equal access to opportunities for public service, and prohibit political dynasties as may be defined by law.” Many have called for the Congress to pass the Anti-Dynasty Law, but this bill has been passed over by each Congress since 1987. Some have pointed that oligarchy is the root problem of all the corruption in the Philippine government. Despite the entry of the Party List System in the 11th Congress, the proportion of lawmakers with relatives in elective positions have remained the same in the post-Marcos political scene.

Political scientist Dante Simbulan, in a study of the elites of Philippine politics from 1946 to 1963 lists 169 prominent families. These families have produced 584 public officials, including seven Presidents, two Vice Presidents, 42 Senators, and 147 Representatives. The tables below outline the demographics of families in politics. (Coronel, Chua, Rimban, & Cruz 2007)

In the 14th Congress of the Philippines (from July 23, 2007 to June 4, 2010), it was surveyed that more than 75% of the lawmakers are members of the old political families. (Ubalde 2007)

List of political families in the Philippines

1 Abad Family (Batanes)

2 Abalos Family (Mandaluyong City)

3 Abaya Family (Cavite)

4 Acosta Family (Bukidnon)

5 Aguilar(-Villar) Family (Las Piñas City & Muntinlupa City)

6 Albano Family (Isabela)

7 Alcala Family (Quezon)

8 Alfaro-Alfelor Family (Camarines Sur & Bulacan)

9 Almario Family (Davao Oriental)

10 Alonto Family (Lanao del Sur and Lanao del Norte)

11 Ampatuan Family (Maguindanao)

12 Andal-Contreras Family (Oriental Mindoro)

13 Angara Family (Aurora)

14 Antonino Family (Nueva Ecija, La Union & General Santos City)

15 Aquino Family (Sorsogon, Agusan del Sur & CARAGA)

16 Arroyo Family (Camarines Sur, Negros Occidental and Pampanga)

17 Asistio Family (Caloocan City)

18 Atienza Family (Manila)

19 Bagatsing Family (Manila and Muntinlupa City)

20 Barzaga Family (Cavite)

21 Belmonte Family (Quezon City)

22 Bernabe Family (Parañaque City)

23 Binay Family (Makati City)

24 Caorong Family (Lanao del Norte;Kauswagan, Iligan City)

25 Calalay Family (Quezon City)

26 Calixto Family (Pasay City)

27 Castelo Family (Quezon City)

28 Cayetano Family (Muntinlupa City, Pateros and Taguig City)

29 Cerilles Family (Zamboanga del Sur)

30 Climaco Family (Zamboanga City)

31 Cortes Family (Mandaue)

32 Cojuangco(-Aquino) Family (Tarlac)

33 Crisologo Family (Ilocos Sur)

34 Cua Family (Quirino)

35 Cuenco Family (Cebu)

36 Datumulok Family (Lanao del Sur)

37 Defensor Family (Iloilo and Quezon City)

38 De Venecia (Pangasinan)

39 Del Mar Family (Cebu)

40 Dimaporo Family (Lanao del Norte, Lanao del Sur)

41 Dominguez Family

42 Dumlao Family (Nueva Vizcaya)

43 Duterte Family (Davao City)

44 Dy Family (Isabela)

45 Echiverri Family (Caloocan City)

46 Ecleo Family (Dinagat Islands)

47 Ejercito Family (Estrada/Estregan Family) (Laguna, Manila, Quezon, and San Juan City)

48 Escudero Family (Sorsogon)

49 Espinosa/Martinez Family (Cebu/Masbate/Iloilo City)

50 Eusebio Family (Pasig)

51 Fajardo Family (Nueva Ecija )

52 Fua Family (Siquijor)

53 Fuentebella Family (Camarines Sur, Negros)

54 Gaje/Locsin Family (Negros Occidental, Iloilo)

55 Galicia Family (Davao Region)

56 Garcia Family (Bataan)

57 Garcia Family (Cebu)

58 Garcia Family (Davao City)

59 Garin Family (Iloilo)

60 Gatchalian Family (Valenzuela City)

61 Gomez Family (Laguna)

62 Gordon Family (Zambales)

63 Guingona Family (Agusan, Bukidnon, Negros Oriental and Misamis Oriental)

64 Imperial Family (Albay)

65 Jaen Family (Leganes, Iloilo)

66 Jagunap Family (Leganes, Iloilo)

67 Jalandoni Jover Family (Iloilo City)

68 Jalosjos Family (Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga Sibugay)

69 Javier Family (Navotas)

70 Noriel-Joson Family (Nueva Ecija)

71 Lacson Family (Antique, Cavite, Negros Occidental and Manila)

72 Lapid Family (Pampanga)

73 Lapus Family (Tarlac)

74 Laurel Family (Batangas)

75 Lecaroz Family (Marinduque and Batangas)

76 Lim Family (Southern Leyte)

77 Lobregat Family (Zamboanga City)

78 Lim Family (Palawan)

79 Maliksi Family (Cavite)

80 Manrique Family (Boac, Marinduque)

81 Mangudadatu Family (Sultan Kudarat, Maguindanao )

82 Macapagal Family (Pampanga)

83 Madrigal Family

84 Magsaysay Family (Zambales)

85 Masigan Family (Isabela)

86 Mastura Family (Maguindanao)

87 Mendiola/Siojo/Mercado Family (Bulacan, Pampanga, Mindoro, Samar)

88 Mitra Family (Palawan)

89 Nepomuceno Family (Pampanga)

90 Olivarez Family (Parañaque City)

91 Ortega Family (La Union, Negros Oriental)

92 Osmeña Family (Cebu)

93 Pacquiao Family (Sarangani)

94 Pimentel Family (Cagayan de Oro)

95 Plaza Family (Agusan del Sur, Agusan del Norte, Cagayan)

96 Ponce Enrile Family (Cagayan)

97 Rama Family (Cebu)

98 Ramos Family (Pangasinan)

99 Recto Family (Batangas)

100 Remulla Family (Cavite)

101 Revilla Family (Cavite)

102 Reyes Family (Marinduque)

103 Reyes Family (Palawan)

104 Robredo Family (Camarines Sur)

105 Roco Family (Camarines Sur)

106 Roman Family (Bataan)

107 Romualdez/ Lopez Family (Leyte)

108 Romulo Family (Pasig) and (Valenzuela)

109 Roxas Family (Capiz)

110 Santillan Family (Batangas, Cavite, Manila, Antique, Albay, Pampanga)

111 Sarmiento Family (Buenavista, Marinduque)

112 Singson/ Gacula (Ilocos Sur)

113 Sinsuat Family (Maguindanao)

114 Sotto Family (Cebu, Quezon City & Paranaque)

115 Suarez Family (Quezon)

116 Teves Family (Negros Oriental and Muntinlupa)

117 Tiangco Family (Navotas)

118 Tañada Family (Quezon)

119 Tolentino Family (Cavite)

120 Ty Family (Surigao del Sur)

121 Umali Family (Nueva Ecija)

122 Uy Family (Isabela)

123 Uy Family (Zamboanga del Norte)

124 Violago Family (Nueva Ecija)

125 Villafuerte Family (Camarines Sur)

126 Villarreal Family

127 Ynares Family (Rizal)

128 Zubiri Family (Bukidnon)

(Ederic and Vallarta 2007)

Political Killings

The political killings in the Philippines are a series of extrajudicial killings and enforced disappearances of Left-wing politicians and activists, journalists, human rights advocates, the political opposition, and outspoken clergy that have increased dramatically since 2001. Numerous actors are said to be responsible for these killings which include the New People’s Army and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front. Left-wing political groups, such as the Bagong Alyansang Makabayan, meanwhile blame the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the Philippine National Police, the Citizen Armed Force Geographical Unit, and government-backed militias. They state that it is part of the official government policy of eradicating the threat from the insurgency of the Communist Party of the Philippines and was officially sanctioned by the government of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo with the codename of Oplan Bantay Laya (Operation Plan Bantay Laya).

These series of events have placed the Philippines on the human rights watch lists of the United Nations and the United States Congress. Philip Alston, the United Nations Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial killings has criticized the Philippine government for not doing enough to stop the killings, many of which had been linked to government anti-insurgency operations. The political killings in the Philippines, with an estimated death toll of over 1,200 in 2010, began during the administration of Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo in 2001. These include extrajudicial harassment, torture, disappearances and murder of civilian non-combatants by the military and police.

The events are thought to be linked to the “War on Terrorism” in 2001 and includes more than 850 mainstream journalists and other public figures and the harassment, detention, or torture of untold more. (Balgos 2013) Many commentators have criticized the killings, such as James Petras and Robin Eastman-Abaya, who have said that “Human rights groups provide evidence that death squads operate under the protective umbrella of regional military commands, especially the U.S.-trained Special Forces”. (Shepsle and Weingast 1981) The historian, E. San Juan, Jr., meanwhile, writes that the estimates of killings vary on the precise number, with the government estimating only 114. It has failed to gain any convictions, and as of February 2007 had only arrested 3 suspects in the over 100 cases of assassination. (San Juan, Jr. 2006)

He also alleges that the Arroyo government initially made no response to the dramatic increase in violence and killings writing that the “Arroyo has been tellingly silent over the killing and abduction of countless members of opposition parties and popular organizations”. (E. San Juan, Jr. 2006) He later writes in February 2007, that the United Nations Special Rapporteur Philip Alston implicated the Philippine police and military as responsible for the crimes, and in his report, Alston charged Arroyo’s propaganda and counter-insurgency strategy with the act that “encourage or facilitate the extra-judicial killings of activists and other enemies” of the state.( San Juan Jr. 2006) and that “the AFP remains in a state of almost total denial… of its need to respond effectively and authentically to the significant number of killings which have been convincingly attributed to them” (Batario 2003)

Most of those killed or “disappeared” were peasant or worker activists belonging to progressive groups such as Bayan Muna, Anakpawis, GABRIELA, Anakbayan, Karapatan, KMU, and others (Petras and Abaya 2006).

They were protesting Arroyo’s repressive taxation, collusion with foreign capital tied to oil and mining companies that destroy people’s livelihood and environment, fraudulent use of public funds, and other anti-people measures. Such groups and individuals have been tagged as “communist fronts” by Arroyo’s National Security Advisers, the military, and police; the latter agencies have been implicated in perpetrating or tolerating those ruthless atrocities. —San Juan, Jr. 2006

The online publication Bulatlat states that “According to a recent international fact-finding mission of Dutch and Belgian judges and lawyers, [the government-created body] Task Force Usig ‘has not proven to be an independent body…the PNP has a poor record as far as the effective investigation of the killings is concerned and is mistrusted by the Philippine people”. ( Task Force Usig dismissed nearly half of the 114 cases of assassination as “cold” (“DILG should urge Task Force Usig to really investigate all political killings – KMU”) and, of the 58 cases where charges were brought, has secured only convictions only twice. (San Juan, Jr. 2006)

As a result of the state of emergency in 2006, Presidential Proclamation 1017 was signed by Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, which according to Cher S. Jimenez writing in Asia Times Online, “grants exceptional unchecked powers to the executive branch, placing the country in a state of emergency and permitting the police and security forces to conduct warrantless arrests against enemies of the state, including…members of the political opposition and journalists from critical media outlets. With 185 dead, 2006 is so far (2007) the highest annual mark for extrajudicial government murders.

Of the 2006 killings, the dead were “mostly left-leaning activists, murdered without trial or punishment for the perpetrators”, the issuance of the proclamation conspicuously coincided with a dramatic increase in political violence and extrajudicial killings. (Sison 2014) Current Secretary of Justice and former Human Rights Commissioner Leila de Lima has stated that she seeks a resolution to the problem. The New York Times reported in 2010 that an estimated 1,200 civilians have died due to the campaign. (Conde 2010) On August 2010, the Armed Forces of the Philippines announced that the counter-insurgency program would end by December 31, 2010. ( Bantay-Laya)

Maguindanao Massacre

The Maguindanao massacre, also known as the Ampatuan massacre after the town where the mass graves were found, (Perez 2009) occurred on the morning of November 23, 2009, in the town of Ampatuan in Maguindanao province, on the island of Mindanao in the Philippines. While the 58 victims were on their way to file a certificate of candidacy for Esmael Mangudadatu, vice mayor of Buluan town, they were kidnapped and brutally killed. Mangudadatu was challenging Datu Unsay mayor Andal Ampatuan, Jr., son of the incumbent Maguindanao governor Andal Ampatuan, Sr. and member of one of Mindanao’s leading Muslim political clans, in the forthcoming Maguindanao gubernatorial election, (Jimenez-David 2009) part of the national elections in 2010.

The people killed included Mangudadatu’s wife, his two sisters, journalists, lawyers, aides, and motorists who were witnesses or were mistakenly identified as part of the convoy. The Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ) has called the Maguindanao massacre the single deadliest event for journalists in history. (Alcuim 2009) At least 34 journalists are known to have died in the massacre. (Zonio, Aquilies (2009) In a statement, CPJ executive director Joel Simon noted that the killings, “appears to be single deadliest event for the press since 1992, when CPJ began keeping detailed records on journalist deaths.” The CPJ further noted that, “Even as we tally the dead in this horrific massacre, our initial research indicates that this is the deadliest single attack on the press ever documented by CPJ.” Even before the Maguindanao massacre, the CPJ had labeled the Philippines the second most dangerous country for journalists, second only to Iraq. (Alcuin 2009) III. Conclusion

Our government is a mess. There’s this saying that, even though you’re not yet born, you had automatically a debt. Philippines is a rich county but due to the crocodile system in the government, our economy is slowly going down. Rich people continue to get rich while the poor people becoming worst. Scarcity and food shortage is rampant especially those who live in Manila. Street children, malnourished kids, squatter’s area – what a sight. Politicians have many promises during the election campaigns, where did it go after they had won? Are they made from steel or ice? They tend to ignore the problems and live just for themselves thinking how much they will get from the money of the people. But who must blame? It is still our fault. Why? Who was the one that make those politicians on their position?

IV. References

Abed, George T. and Sanjeev Gupta (eds.) (2003) Governance, Corruption, and Economic Performance, Washington DC: International Monetary Fund. Denmark; HarperCollins Publisher

Anechiarico, Frank and Jacobs, James B. (1998) The Pursuit of Absolute Integrity: How Corruption Control Makes Government Ineffective, Chicago: University of Chicago Press

Bellow, Adam (2003) In Praise of Nepotism, New York: Doubleday

Baker, Raymond, (2005) Capitalism’s Achilles Heel: Dirty Money and How to Renew the Free-Market System, Indianapolis: Wiley

Coronel, Chua, Rimban, & Cruz (2007) The Rule makers Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism p.47

Coronel, Chua, Rimban, & Cruz (2007) The Rule makers Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism p.49

Heidenheimer, Johnston, Preston and Sampford (2002) Investigating Local Governments p.89


Alcuin (November 26, 2009).

“Maguindanao massacre worst-ever for journalists”. Philippine Daily Inquirer

Balgos, Cecile (2013) “Deadly dirty work in the Philippines (page 1)”. Asia Times

Batario, Red (2003) A Human Rights Watch Submission to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights regarding the Universal Periodic Review of the Republic of the Philippines Human Rights Watch; Investigating Local Governments. Manila Bulletin

Bickers, Kenneth N.; Stein, Robert M. (2008).

“The Congressional Pork Barrel in a Republican Era”. The Journal of Politics 62 (4)

Conde, Carlos (July 5, 2010) Leftist Activist Is Slain in Philippines. The New York Times

Drudge, Michael V. (2010) Special Correspondent. “Pork Barrel” Spending Emerging as Presidential Campaign Issue”. Manila Bulletin

Dumlao, Doris (June 25, 2008).

“WB: Corruption in RP worst in East Asia”. Philippine Daily Inquirer

Francisco, Rosemarie (26 August 2013).

“Tens of thousands of Filipinos

protest “pork barrel” funds”, Manila Bulletin

Jimenez-David, Rina (November 24, 2009).

“Understanding the unbelievable”. Philippine Daily Inquirer

San Juan, Jr. (September 18, 2006).

PHILIPPINES: Class Struggle and Socialist Revolution in the Philippines: Understanding the Crisis of U.S. Hegemony, Arroyo State Terrorism, and Neoliberal Globalization. Philippine Daily Inquirer

San Juan, Jr (March 28, 2007).

“Philippines: Filpina Militants Indict Bush-Arroyo For Crimes Against Humanity”. Republished by Asian Human Rights Commission in News

Shepsle, Kenneth A. and Weingast, Barry R. (1981).

“Political Preferences for the Pork Barrel: A Generalization”. American Journal of Political Science 25 (1): 96–111

Zonio, Aquilies (November 24, 2009).

“Inquirer man recounts harrowing tales of survival”. Manila Bulletin


Dizon, David (November 18, 2009).

“RP corruption ranking improves slightly: TI”. ABS-CBN News

Ederic Eder; Allan Vallarta (20 April 2007).

“GMA News Research: Political families reign in almost all of RP”. GMA News and Public Affairs

Perez, Analyn (November 25, 2009).

“The Ampatuan Massacre: a map and timeline”. GMA News

Ubalde, Mark J. (June 29, 2007) 9:21pm 75% sa bagong Kongreso mula sa political dynasty GMA News

WEB SOURCES,8599,1943191,00.html

“What Drives Macapagal-Arroyo’s “Silent War”?”.

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Political violence threatens health of U.S. democracy, scholars say in new report

Experts from around the globe express concern for the future of u.s. electoral processes in report compiled by johns hopkins university's snf agora institute and protect democracy.

By Hannah L. Robbins

Political violence is eroding the overall health of democracy in the United States, according to more than 100 global scholars surveyed for a new report .

The report, released today by Johns Hopkins University's SNF Agora Institute and Protect Democracy , identifies how and to what extent experts believe violence is interfering with American democracy. Those surveyed were most concerned about elections, with more than half suggesting that U.S. electoral processes have a high potential of breaking down in the future.

Image caption: Lilliana Mason

"Political violence is occurring, and it comes in waves," said co-author Lilliana Mason , an associate professor of political science at Johns Hopkins. "Hopefully this report and future data collection can put it in context. Where do experts think we are right now? Where is the threat to American democracy currently? Without knowing the full landscape, it's difficult to know which concerns to prioritize."

The report is based on a July survey of more than 100 experts in political violence from around the world.

Respondents were asked to rate the impact of political violence on freedom of expression, freedom of association, voting access, election processes, equality before the law, protection of individual liberties, the independence of the judiciary to act without political interference, and the ability of the legislature to provide oversight of the executive branch of the U.S. government. They were also asked to rate the overall threat to democracy and to identify the aspect of political violence that most threatens democratic stability.

In most categories, those surveyed reported political violence to be "moderately threatening," meaning they believed violence was interfering with how those areas functioned, but not so severely that the systems were completely ineffective. The threat to electoral processes was rated the highest, followed by the overall threat to democracy.

A healthy democracy is supported by voting access, equality before the law, protection of individual liberties, and freedom of expression. When violence in the form of threats, intimidation, or physical harm is aimed at these rights and freedoms, it can undermine the ability of democracy to function properly. Escalating threats against poll workers, for example, undermine elections. When members of one party intimidate election officials into quitting, their actions raise the potential to create an imbalance of power.

"Once the parties take sides on this particular issue, if they are actually fighting each other in an organized way, every election becomes an opportunity to use violence to achieve what you need to get," said Mason, who studies American social polarization and partisan extremism.

Passing legislation to protect election workers could help maintain the democratic integrity of elections. The report also recommends that law enforcement coordinate more closely with election administrators to understand and protect against threats.

"The data emphasize the need to protect our electoral process in its entirety, from planning to administration to the transfer of power. Federal and state authorities, local law enforcement across the country, and civil society will need to expand and align their work to protect free and fair elections," said co-author Jennifer Dresden , a Protect Democracy policy advocate who previously studied democracy and armed conflict.

The team will survey experts quarterly. Ongoing findings will be available on the team's Violence and Democracy Impact Tracker .

"The experts are telling us that we have violence affecting our politics and that aspects of democracy are at risk," Mason said. "With this project, we're trying to get a better picture of which parts of our complex political system are bearing the brunt of its effects."

This work was supported in part by funding received from Protect Democracy and completed as part of a joint effort between Protect Democracy and the SNF Agora Institute at Johns Hopkins University.

Posted in Politics+Society

Tagged politics , snf agora institute , democracy

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Philippines to Continue South China Sea Supply Missions Despite Chinese Boats


FILE PHOTO: A Philippine supply boat sails near a Chinese Coast Guard ship during a resupply mission for Filipino troops stationed at a grounded warship in the South China Sea, October 4, 2023. REUTERS/Adrian Portugal/File Photo Reuters

MANILA (Reuters) - The Philippines' coast guard said on Saturday it would maintain its regular supply missions to troops stationed on a disputed atoll in the South China Sea even though it expects more Chinese vessels to be sent to the area.

The Philippines regularly sends supplies to a handful of troops living aboard an aging warship that was deliberately run aground on the Second Thomas Shoal in 1999 to assert Manila's sovereignty claims over the atoll.

China claims almost the entire South China Sea, including the Second Thomas Shoal, and has deployed hundreds of vessels to patrol there.

"We are still going to carry out these dangerous missions despite our limited number of vessels and despite the increasing number of Chinese vessels they are going to deploy," Philippine coast guard spokesperson Jay Tarriela told a press conference.

"We have to make sure the supplies will still reach our troops," Tarriela said, adding that China's coast guard is deploying smaller vessels to try to outmanoeuvre its Philippine counterpart.

He spoke a day after the Philippines condemned the Chinese coast guard for "unprovoked acts of coercion and dangerous manoeuvres," including using a water cannon against one of its boats in an attempt to disrupt a resupply mission.

China's Embassy in Manila said on Saturday its coast guard had taken necessary enforcement measures against Philippine ships after the vessels infringed on Beijing's sovereignty.

The U.S. State Department said on Saturday it stands with the Philippines, with which it has signed a defence treaty.

"We urge the PRC (People's Republic of China) to respect the high seas freedoms of navigation guaranteed to all states under international law," it said in a statement, reaffirming its commitment to the defence treaty.

Philippine President Ferdinand Marcos has pursued warmer ties with Washington, reversing the pro-China stance of his predecessor and leading to a rise in tension in the South China Sea.

(Reporting by Neil Jerome Morales; Editing by Helen Popper)

Copyright 2023 Thomson Reuters .

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Women have gained ground in the nation’s highest-paying occupations, but still lag behind men.

Three members of the staff looking for a medicine in a drawer of a pharmacy store

Women now make up 35% of workers in the United States’ 10 highest-paying occupations – up from 13% in 1980. They have increased their presence in almost all of these occupations, which include physicians, lawyers and pharmacists.

Pew Research Center conducted this analysis to learn more about women’s representation in high-paying U.S. occupations as part of our ongoing research into gender and the workplace . This analysis focuses specifically on the 10 highest-paying occupations. Combined, only about 3% of all U.S. workers are employed in these occupations.

The employment analysis uses data from the decennial census and the American Community Survey (ACS). The ACS is the largest household survey in the United States, with a sample of more than 3 million addresses. Collected by the U.S. Census Bureau since 2001, it covers the topics previously included in the long form of the decennial census. The ACS is designed to provide estimates of the size and characteristics of the nation’s resident population.

The microdata files used for this analysis are from the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series (IPUMS) from the University of Minnesota. IPUMS standardizes variable names and coding across years as much as possible, making it easier to analyze data over time.

Consistent data on the employment of chief executives and public administrators is not available before 2000. The 10 highest paid occupations were identified on the basis of median earnings in the 2021 ACS. The earnings of employed Americans ages 16 and older in the civilian non-institutionalized population were analyzed. The occupational classification used the IPUMS variable OCC1990 .

The Bureau of Labor Statistics’ Occupational Outlook Handbook specifies the typical entry-level education required for employment in an occupation.

The shares of women receiving degrees in various fields each academic year are based on the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) from the National Center for Education Statistics. Most of the data on degrees conferred is available in published tables in the Digest of Education Statistics . The shares of women obtaining Doctor of Pharmacy degrees for academic years 1980 to 2009 can be found in the American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education . Women’s share among Doctor of Pharmacy recipients only includes those who earned Pharm.D. 1 degrees – Doctor of Pharmacy degrees awarded as the first professional degree. The share does not include those who earned Ph.D.s or Pharm.D. 2 degrees.

A bar chart showing that, since 1980, women have increased their presence in most of the 10 highest-paying occupations in the U.S.

Still, women remain the minority in nine of the 10 highest-paying occupations. The exception is pharmacists, 61% of whom are women. More broadly, the share of women across all 10 of these occupations (35%) remains well below their share of the overall U.S. workforce (47%).

Workers in the 10 highest-paying occupations typically earn more than $100,000 a year, over twice the national average of $41,000.

Where women have made the most – and least – progress

Women’s presence has changed more noticeably in some of these occupations than in others. Since 1980, the share of women dentists has more than quadrupled (from 7% to 33%), while the share of women physicians has roughly tripled (from 13% to 38%). The share of lawyers who are women has risen from 14% to 40%.

The shares of women working in high-paying engineering fields have increased by smaller margins since 1980: Women make up less than 10% of sales engineers and petroleum, mining and geological engineers.

Additionally, only 7% of airplane pilots and navigators are women, against 2% in 1980.

Women have gained ground in completion of advanced degrees

A table showing that many high-paying occupations in U.S. require specialized degrees.

Some of these high-paying occupations – including physicians, lawyers, dentists and pharmacists – require specialized graduate degrees. One way that women have increased their presence in high-paying occupations is by increasingly earning degrees that are required for these jobs.

Women now make up about half of those receiving the following advanced degrees:

  • Juris Doctor (J.D.): 52% of recipients today are women, versus 30% in 1980
  • Doctor of Dental Surgery or Doctor of Dental Medicine (D.D.S. or D.M.D.): 51% of recipients are women, versus 13% in 1980
  • Doctor of Medicine (M.D.): 50% of recipients are women, versus 23% in 1980 

Women now also earn 63% of Doctor of Pharmacy (Pharm.D.) degrees – similar to their share of workers in the pharmacist occupation (61%). Pharmacists are also the only occupation in the top 10 where women make up the majority. This could be because the field offers flexible work hours, a collaborative environment and family-friendly policies, according to economic research .  

A line chart showing that the share of U.S. women receiving a dentistry degree has quadrupled since 1980.

However, women remain in the minority among those receiving certain bachelor’s degrees required for some high-paying occupations:

A bar chart showing that women remain the minority among those receiving certain STEM degrees.

  • Mathematics or statistics: 42% of recipients today are women, unchanged from 1980
  • Physics: 25% of recipients are women, versus 13% in 1980
  • Engineering: 23% of recipients are women, versus 9% in 1980

Outside of undergraduate major selection, there are other reasons women may experience barriers to entering high-paying occupations, even as they achieve parity in many advanced degree programs. Gender differences in household and parenting responsibilities may play a role, as could gender discrimination . 

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The enduring grip of the gender pay gap, gender pay gap in u.s. hasn’t changed much in two decades, more than twice as many americans support than oppose the #metoo movement, most popular.

About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts .


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