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10 Best Literature Review Templates for Scholars and Researchers [Free PDF Attached]
Imagine being in a new country and taking a road trip without GPS. You would be so lost. Right? Similarly, think about delving into a topic without having a clue or proper understanding of the reason behind studying it.
That’s when a well-written literature review comes to the rescue. It provides a proper direction to the topic being studied.
The literature review furnishes a descriptive overview of the existing knowledge relevant to the research statement. It is a crucial step in the research process as it enables you to establish the theoretical roots of your field of interest, elucidate your ideas, and develop a suitable methodology. A literature review can include information from various sources, such as journals, books, documents, and other academic materials. This promotes in-depth understanding and analytical thinking, thereby helping in critical evaluation.
Regardless of the type of literature review — evaluative, exploratory, instrumental, systematic, and meta-analysis, a well-written article consists of three basic elements: introduction, body, and conclusion. Also its essence blooms in creating new knowledge through the process of review, critique, and synthesis.
But writing a literature review can be difficult. Right?
Relax, our collection of professionally designed templates will leave no room for mistakes or anxious feelings as they will help you present background information concisely.
10 Designs to Rethink Your Literature Reviews
These designs are fully customizable to help you establish links between your proposition and already existing literature. Our PowerPoint infographics are of the highest quality and contain relevant content. Whether you want to write a short summary or review consisting of several pages, these exclusive layouts will serve the purpose.
Let’s get started.
Template 1: Literature Review PPT Template
This literature review design is a perfect tool for any student looking to present a summary and critique of knowledge on their research statement. Using this layout, you can discuss theoretical and methodological contributions in the related field. You can also talk about past works, books, study materials, etc. The given PPT design is concise, easy to use, and will help develop a strong framework for problem-solving. Download it today.
Download this template
Template 2: Literature Review PowerPoint Slide
Looking to synthesize your latest findings and present them in a persuasive manner? Our literature review theme will help you narrow relevant information and design a framework for rational investigation. The given PPT design will enable you to present your ideas concisely. From summary details to strengths and shortcomings, this template covers it all. Grab it now.
Template 3: Literature Review Template
Craft a literature review that is both informative and persuasive with this amazing PPT slide. This predesigned layout will help you in presenting the summary of information in an engaging manner. Our themes are specifically designed to aid you in demonstrating your critical thinking and objective evaluation. So don't wait any longer – download our literature review template today.
Template 4: Comprehensive Literature Review PPT Slide
Download this tried-and-true literature review template to present a descriptive summary of your research topic statement. The given PPT layout is replete with relevant content to help you strike a balance between supporting and opposing aspects of an argument. This predesigned slide covers components such as strengths, defects, and methodology. It will assist you in cutting the clutter and focus on what's important. Grab it today.
Template 5: Literature Review for Research Project Proposal PPT
Writing a literature review can be overwhelming and time-consuming, but our project proposal PPT slides make the process much easier. This exclusive graphic will help you gather all the information you need by depicting strengths and weaknesses. It will also assist you in identifying and analyzing the most important aspects of your knowledge sources. With our helpful design, writing a literature review is easy and done. Download it now.
Template 6: Literature Review for Research Project Proposal Template
Present a comprehensive and cohesive overview of the information related to your topic with this stunning PPT slide. The given layout will enable you to put forward the facts and logic to develop a new hypothesis for testing. With this high-quality design, you can enumerate different books and study materials taken into consideration. You can also analyze and emphasize the technique opted for inquiry. Get this literature review PowerPoint presentation template now.
Template 7: Literature Review for Research Paper Proposal PowerPoint Slide
Lay a strong foundation for your research topic with this impressive PowerPoint presentation layout. It is easy to use and fully customizable. This design will help you describe the previous research done. Moreover, you can enlist the strengths and weaknesses of the study clearly. Therefore, grab it now.
Template 8: Literature Review for Research Paper Proposal PPT
Download this high-quality PPT template and write a well-formatted literature review. The given layout is professionally designed and easy to follow. It will enable you to emphasize various elements, such as materials referred to, past work, the list of books, approach for analysis, and more. So why wait? Download this PowerPoint design immediately.
Template 9: Literature Review for Academic Student Research Proposal PPT
With this exclusive graphic, you'll have everything you need to create a well-structured and convincing literature review. The given design is well-suited for students and researchers who wish to mention reliable information sources, such as books and journals, and draw inferences from them. You can even focus on the strong points of your study, thereby making an impactful research statement. Therefore, grab this PPT slide today.
Template 10: Literature Review Overview for Research Process PPT
Demonstrate your analytical skills and understanding of the topic with this predesigned PowerPoint graphic. The given research overview PPT theme is perfect for explaining what has been done in the area of your topic of interest. Using this impressive design, you can provide an accurate comparison showcasing the connections between the different works being reviewed. Get it right away.
Creating an effective literature review requires discipline, study, and patience. Our collection of templates will assist you in presenting an extensive and cohesive summary of the relevant works. These PPT layouts are professionally designed, fully editable, and visually appealing. You can modify them and create perfect presentations according to your needs. So download them now!
P.S. Are you looking for a way to communicate your individual story? Save your time with these predesigned book report templates featured in this guide .
Download the free Literature Review Template PDF .
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- How to Write a Literature Review | Guide, Examples, & Templates
How to Write a Literature Review | Guide, Examples, & Templates
Published on January 2, 2023 by Shona McCombes . Revised on September 11, 2023.
What is a literature review? A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources on a specific topic. It provides an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to identify relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research that you can later apply to your paper, thesis, or dissertation topic .
There are five key steps to writing a literature review:
- Search for relevant literature
- Evaluate sources
- Identify themes, debates, and gaps
- Outline the structure
- Write your literature review
A good literature review doesn’t just summarize sources—it analyzes, synthesizes , and critically evaluates to give a clear picture of the state of knowledge on the subject.
Table of contents
What is the purpose of a literature review, examples of literature reviews, step 1 – search for relevant literature, step 2 – evaluate and select sources, step 3 – identify themes, debates, and gaps, step 4 – outline your literature review’s structure, step 5 – write your literature review, free lecture slides, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions, introduction.
- Quick Run-through
- Step 1 & 2
When you write a thesis , dissertation , or research paper , you will likely have to conduct a literature review to situate your research within existing knowledge. The literature review gives you a chance to:
- Demonstrate your familiarity with the topic and its scholarly context
- Develop a theoretical framework and methodology for your research
- Position your work in relation to other researchers and theorists
- Show how your research addresses a gap or contributes to a debate
- Evaluate the current state of research and demonstrate your knowledge of the scholarly debates around your topic.
Writing literature reviews is a particularly important skill if you want to apply for graduate school or pursue a career in research. We’ve written a step-by-step guide that you can follow below.
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Writing literature reviews can be quite challenging! A good starting point could be to look at some examples, depending on what kind of literature review you’d like to write.
- Example literature review #1: “Why Do People Migrate? A Review of the Theoretical Literature” ( Theoretical literature review about the development of economic migration theory from the 1950s to today.)
- Example literature review #2: “Literature review as a research methodology: An overview and guidelines” ( Methodological literature review about interdisciplinary knowledge acquisition and production.)
- Example literature review #3: “The Use of Technology in English Language Learning: A Literature Review” ( Thematic literature review about the effects of technology on language acquisition.)
- Example literature review #4: “Learners’ Listening Comprehension Difficulties in English Language Learning: A Literature Review” ( Chronological literature review about how the concept of listening skills has changed over time.)
You can also check out our templates with literature review examples and sample outlines at the links below.
Download Word doc Download Google doc
Before you begin searching for literature, you need a clearly defined topic .
If you are writing the literature review section of a dissertation or research paper, you will search for literature related to your research problem and questions .
Make a list of keywords
Start by creating a list of keywords related to your research question. Include each of the key concepts or variables you’re interested in, and list any synonyms and related terms. You can add to this list as you discover new keywords in the process of your literature search.
- Social media, Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, Snapchat, TikTok
- Body image, self-perception, self-esteem, mental health
- Generation Z, teenagers, adolescents, youth
Search for relevant sources
Use your keywords to begin searching for sources. Some useful databases to search for journals and articles include:
- Your university’s library catalogue
- Google Scholar
- Project Muse (humanities and social sciences)
- Medline (life sciences and biomedicine)
- EconLit (economics)
- Inspec (physics, engineering and computer science)
You can also use boolean operators to help narrow down your search.
Make sure to read the abstract to find out whether an article is relevant to your question. When you find a useful book or article, you can check the bibliography to find other relevant sources.
You likely won’t be able to read absolutely everything that has been written on your topic, so it will be necessary to evaluate which sources are most relevant to your research question.
For each publication, ask yourself:
- What question or problem is the author addressing?
- What are the key concepts and how are they defined?
- What are the key theories, models, and methods?
- Does the research use established frameworks or take an innovative approach?
- What are the results and conclusions of the study?
- How does the publication relate to other literature in the field? Does it confirm, add to, or challenge established knowledge?
- What are the strengths and weaknesses of the research?
Make sure the sources you use are credible , and make sure you read any landmark studies and major theories in your field of research.
You can use our template to summarize and evaluate sources you’re thinking about using. Click on either button below to download.
Take notes and cite your sources
As you read, you should also begin the writing process. Take notes that you can later incorporate into the text of your literature review.
It is important to keep track of your sources with citations to avoid plagiarism . It can be helpful to make an annotated bibliography , where you compile full citation information and write a paragraph of summary and analysis for each source. This helps you remember what you read and saves time later in the process.
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To begin organizing your literature review’s argument and structure, be sure you understand the connections and relationships between the sources you’ve read. Based on your reading and notes, you can look for:
- Trends and patterns (in theory, method or results): do certain approaches become more or less popular over time?
- Themes: what questions or concepts recur across the literature?
- Debates, conflicts and contradictions: where do sources disagree?
- Pivotal publications: are there any influential theories or studies that changed the direction of the field?
- Gaps: what is missing from the literature? Are there weaknesses that need to be addressed?
This step will help you work out the structure of your literature review and (if applicable) show how your own research will contribute to existing knowledge.
- Most research has focused on young women.
- There is an increasing interest in the visual aspects of social media.
- But there is still a lack of robust research on highly visual platforms like Instagram and Snapchat—this is a gap that you could address in your own research.
There are various approaches to organizing the body of a literature review. Depending on the length of your literature review, you can combine several of these strategies (for example, your overall structure might be thematic, but each theme is discussed chronologically).
The simplest approach is to trace the development of the topic over time. However, if you choose this strategy, be careful to avoid simply listing and summarizing sources in order.
Try to analyze patterns, turning points and key debates that have shaped the direction of the field. Give your interpretation of how and why certain developments occurred.
If you have found some recurring central themes, you can organize your literature review into subsections that address different aspects of the topic.
For example, if you are reviewing literature about inequalities in migrant health outcomes, key themes might include healthcare policy, language barriers, cultural attitudes, legal status, and economic access.
If you draw your sources from different disciplines or fields that use a variety of research methods , you might want to compare the results and conclusions that emerge from different approaches. For example:
- Look at what results have emerged in qualitative versus quantitative research
- Discuss how the topic has been approached by empirical versus theoretical scholarship
- Divide the literature into sociological, historical, and cultural sources
A literature review is often the foundation for a theoretical framework . You can use it to discuss various theories, models, and definitions of key concepts.
You might argue for the relevance of a specific theoretical approach, or combine various theoretical concepts to create a framework for your research.
Like any other academic text , your literature review should have an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion . What you include in each depends on the objective of your literature review.
The introduction should clearly establish the focus and purpose of the literature review.
Depending on the length of your literature review, you might want to divide the body into subsections. You can use a subheading for each theme, time period, or methodological approach.
As you write, you can follow these tips:
- Summarize and synthesize: give an overview of the main points of each source and combine them into a coherent whole
- Analyze and interpret: don’t just paraphrase other researchers — add your own interpretations where possible, discussing the significance of findings in relation to the literature as a whole
- Critically evaluate: mention the strengths and weaknesses of your sources
- Write in well-structured paragraphs: use transition words and topic sentences to draw connections, comparisons and contrasts
In the conclusion, you should summarize the key findings you have taken from the literature and emphasize their significance.
When you’ve finished writing and revising your literature review, don’t forget to proofread thoroughly before submitting. Not a language expert? Check out Scribbr’s professional proofreading services !
This article has been adapted into lecture slides that you can use to teach your students about writing a literature review.
Scribbr slides are free to use, customize, and distribute for educational purposes.
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If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.
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A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources (such as books, journal articles, and theses) related to a specific topic or research question .
It is often written as part of a thesis, dissertation , or research paper , in order to situate your work in relation to existing knowledge.
There are several reasons to conduct a literature review at the beginning of a research project:
- To familiarize yourself with the current state of knowledge on your topic
- To ensure that you’re not just repeating what others have already done
- To identify gaps in knowledge and unresolved problems that your research can address
- To develop your theoretical framework and methodology
- To provide an overview of the key findings and debates on the topic
Writing the literature review shows your reader how your work relates to existing research and what new insights it will contribute.
The literature review usually comes near the beginning of your thesis or dissertation . After the introduction , it grounds your research in a scholarly field and leads directly to your theoretical framework or methodology .
A literature review is a survey of credible sources on a topic, often used in dissertations , theses, and research papers . Literature reviews give an overview of knowledge on a subject, helping you identify relevant theories and methods, as well as gaps in existing research. Literature reviews are set up similarly to other academic texts , with an introduction , a main body, and a conclusion .
An annotated bibliography is a list of source references that has a short description (called an annotation ) for each of the sources. It is often assigned as part of the research process for a paper .
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Wrestling an elephant into a cupboard: how to write a PhD literature review in nine easy steps
Feb 10, 2019
When I was writing my PhD I hated the literature review. I was scared of it. One day, my supervisor took me to one side and told me that I had no choice: ‘It was going to have to be done before you start fieldwork’. I was terrified.
Sound familiar? According to Google, 5,000 people a month search for advice on how to conduct a literature review. And we know from the one-on-one PhD coaching we offer and from the theses we proofread that many students struggle with this part of their thesis.
If you’re feeling lost, keep reading. In this guide, I’ll walk you through the nine steps involved in conducting and writing a PhD literature review.
You’ll realise what I eventually found out: C onducting a literature review is easy. Okay, perhaps that’s a bit much. Let me rephrase: Conducting a PhD literature review isn’t as hard as you think.
What a PhD literature review isn’t
Let us make one thing very clear. A PhD literature review isn’t just a summary of existing literature. That’s an annotated bibliography and that isn’t what a PhD literature review is about. This is the mistake I see most frequently in the PhDs I proofread.
Not only will your examiners send this back for corrections, but it may mean the whole PhD thesis is problematic because it isn’t grounded in a critical review of the literature.
What a PhD literature review is
A PhD literature review is a critical assessment of the literature in your field and related to your specific research topic. When discussing each relevant piece of literature, the review must highlight where the gaps are and what the strengths and weaknesses are of particular studies, papers, books, etc. Also, different pieces of literature are compared and contrasted with one another so that themes and relationships are highlighted.
The job of a literature review is to show five things (if you’re using our PhD Writing Template , you may recognise these):
1. What has been written on your topic 2. Who the key authors are and what the key works are 3. The main theories and hypotheses 4. The main themes that exist in the literature 5. Gaps and weaknesses that your study will then help fill
Who cares what other people have written and said, or what they haven’t said? Well, you should and your examiners definitely will. For your own study to make sense, it has to be situated in the literature. That means you must relate it to what others are talking about.
If you wanted to build a new mobile phone, you would have to research how other mobile phones are built, find out where they can be improved and then design one that makes those improvements.
The literature review is the same.
But where do I start? Here, we list nine steps. Follow each and you’ll be on your way to literature review greatness.
We’ve made the infographic below to help you on your way. Click the image to download it.
Step One: Pick a Broad Topic
You will be reviewing literature on a particular topic, so knowing what your topic is beforehand means you can narrow down your search. At this stage your topic is broad. You won’t be able to know the specifics until you do the review itself.
For my PhD, which looked at the contributions that local government made to climate change policy, my literature review started with a broad topic of ‘climate change policy’. I didn’t focus in on local government until I had read the literature on climate change policy and realized there was a gap.
So, having a clearly defined purpose is really important. Otherwise you are searching blind. If you refer to your PhD Writing Template, take a look at the box titled ‘Aims & Objectives’ – you’ll need to make sure you have established your aims, scope and research questions.
Step Two: Find the Way In
If you search for your broad topic in Google Scholar, you’ll be presented with millions of results. With my own PhD, a search for ‘climate change policy’ bought up over 3 million results.
Obviously it’s unfeasible to read through all these.
So where do you start? Easy: choose the biggest names in your field.
There are three ways to find these:
1. Textbooks 2. Review articles 3. Most-cited articles
Read through these seminal texts and you’ll begin to get an idea of the broad topic.
Step Three: Who’s Saying What & When
Your job at this stage is to find out the key debates in the field.
- Who is making the most significant contribution?
- What are they saying?
- How are they saying it?
- What aren’t they saying?
Step Four: Notes, Notes, Notes.
Whenever you read anything you should be taking notes. Detailed notes. These need to cover the following points:
- What is the author saying?
- How is it relevant to your research?
- What are the gaps/weaknesses?
- What are the key references that you should read?
The more of these kind of standardised notes you have, the easier it will be when you write your literature review.
Step Five: Narrow Down the Field
As you read the key texts, you will begin to see what the key debates are in your field. There might be a number of ’schools’, for example. When you become aware of them, start to focus your literature review around them.
Step Six: Filter Through Your Growing List of References
Don’t just read everything. You need to find a way to filter through the articles or books that are relevant. For example, scan the abstracts, introduction, keywords, titles and references.
Filter the sources you come across into three separate categories:
- Probably won’t read
Step Seven: Use Snowball Sampling
As you read through these articles, look at their reference list. Collect articles that you think will be relevant and use them in your literature review. This is known as snowball sampling.
Step Eight: Think About the Questions that Haven’t Been Asked
You must be reading critically, which means asking what the weaknesses are and where particular articles or book could be improved.
In order to tease out your own specific research topic, you need to think of the questions that haven’t been asked.
Master your lit review & theory framework.
Learn what goes where (and why), and how it all fit together with this free, interactive guide to the PhD literature review and theory framework.
Step Nine: Writing Up Your Literature Review
The review will broadly follow the key debates you have spotted in step five above. As you write, focus on putting in more detail about particular sources (i.e. flesh out steps six and seven). The focus when writing is to elaborate upon the key patterns and themes that have emerged.
However, you need to include your own synthesis of the material. I said earlier that you shouldn’t just summarize the literature. Instead you should write critically. You should clearly and precisely present your argument. The argument will focus around the questions that haven’t been asked – step nine above – and will ground the literature review. We’ve written a guide to being critical in your literature review . You should read it if you’re unsure what’s required.
So, write early and write that first draft quickly. The earlier you start writing your literature review the better. You must accept that your first draft is going to be just that: a draft. When you write the first draft, focus on the broad structure first. This means focus on the broad themes you want to discuss in the review.
Something you need to consider is how to structure the chapter. The simple answer is that you can either structure it chronologically or thematically.
The long answer is that chronological literature reviews are restrictive and over-simplify the field. They are useful for very early drafts of the review and can help you to arrange the literature and trace threads and connections within it. However, your supervisors and examiners are looking for thematic reviews (unless they have told you otherwise), where you discuss the literature with reference to the themes that have emerged.
Equally important is knowing when to stop reviewing the literature.
The sooner you go out and do your fieldwork, the better. The literature review is a cruel mistress; you’ll struggle to fully nail down its various components and fully understand how everything you have read is related. But don’t despair; aspects of the literature review will become clearer when you enter the field and start to collect data.
Don’t fall into the trap of spending too long in the library and too little time doing fieldwork.
It’s natural to be scared of the literature review. To conduct one, you have to read, process and synthesise hundreds of thousands of words. But it’s not impossible. Keep this guide to hand and refer to it when you feel yourself getting lost. Share it with your colleagues so they too can conquer their fear of the literature review.
Now read our guide to being critical in the literature review and, if you haven’t already, download our PhD writing template .
And if you need a little extra support, check out our one-on-one PhD coaching . It’s like having a personal trainer, but for your PhD.
Sounds good, doesn’t it? Be able to call yourself Doctor sooner with our five-star rated How to Write A PhD email-course. Learn everything your supervisor should have taught you about planning and completing a PhD.
Now half price. Join hundreds of other students and become a better thesis writer, or your money back.
Good. Clear guidance
I have read the guidelines and noted numerous tricks of writing a thesis. My understanding of writing literature review has improved a lot. Thanks a lot
You’re welcome 🙂
Another Great piece.
It’s understandable and clearer now. I do appreciate you. Thanks so much
Many thanks for the kind words.
You are just brilliant. Outstanding piece for the literature review.
You’re too kind. Thanks!
Great insights! Thanks indeed.
Thank you very much for your clear advice. I am beginning to see where my early literature review drafts were lacking and my feelings of panic are reducing!
is the process the same a research paper?
Broadly speaking, yes. It’ll follow the same overall structure, but you won’t be going into as much detail.
This is very helpful. Thank you so much for sharing
Great advice. Thank you!
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Literature review chapter template.
If you’re preparing to write your literature review, our free literature review chapter template is the perfect starting point. In it, we cover each section of the literature review chapter step by step, along with plain-language explanations and examples .
What’s Included: Literature Review Template
This template is structure is based on the tried and trusted best-practice format for formal academic research projects such as dissertations and theses. The template includes the following sections:
- Before you start – essential groundwork to ensure you’re ready
- The introduction section
- The core/body section
- The conclusion /summary
- Extra free resources
Each section is explained in plain, straightforward language , followed by an overview of the key elements that you need to cover. We’ve also included practical examples to help you understand exactly what’s required in each section.
The cleanly-formatted Word document is fully editable , so you can use it as-is for your dissertation or thesis, copy over the contents to a fresh document, or convert it to LaTeX.
Frequently Asked Questions
What format is the literature review template (DOC, PDF, PPT, etc.)?
The template is provided in a fully editable MS Word document (.DOCX). You’re welcome to convert it to whatever format works best for you, such as LaTeX or PDF.
What types of literature reviews can this template be used for?
The template follows the standard format for academic literature reviews, which means it will be suitable for the vast majority of academic research projects (especially those within the sciences), whether they are qualitative or quantitative in terms of design.
Keep in mind that the exact requirements for the literature review chapter will vary between universities and degree programs. These are typically minor, but it’s always a good idea to double-check your university’s requirements before you finalize your structure.
Is this template for an undergrad, Master or PhD-level thesis?
This template can be used for a literature review at any level of study. Doctoral-level projects typically require the literature review to be more extensive/comprehensive, but the structure will typically remain the same.
What structural style does this literature review template use?
The template assumes a thematic structure (as opposed to a chronological or methodological structure), as this is the most common approach. However, this is only one dimension of the template, so it will still be useful if you are adopting a different structure.
Do you have an example of a populated template?
We provide a walkthrough of the template and review an example of a high-quality literature research chapter here .
Does this template include the Excel literature catalog?
No, that is a separate template, which you can download for free here . This template is for the write-up of the actual literature review chapter, whereas the catalog is for use during the literature sourcing and sorting phase.
How long should the literature review chapter be?
This depends on your university’s specific requirements, so it’s best to check with them. As a general ballpark, literature reviews for Masters-level projects are usually 2,000 – 3,000 words in length, while Doctoral-level projects can reach multiples of this.
Can I share this literature review template with my friends/colleagues?
Yes, you’re welcome to share this template in its original format (no editing allowed). If you want to post about it on your blog or social media, all we ask is that you reference this page as your source.
Can Grad Coach help me with my literature review?
Yes, you’re welcome to get in touch with us to discuss our private coaching services , where we can help you work through the literature review chapter (and any other chapters).
Need a helping hand?
Psst… there’s more (for free)
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Learning how to effectively write a literature review is a critical tool for success for an academic, and perhaps even professional career. Being able to summarize and synthesize prior research pertaining to a certain topic not only demonstrates having a good grasp on available information for a topic, but it also assists in the learning process. Although literature reviews are important for one's academic career, they are often misunderstood and underdeveloped. This article is intended to provide both undergraduate and graduate students in the criminal justice field specifically, and social sciences more generally, skills and perspectives on how to develop and/or strengthen their skills in writing a literature review. Included in this discussion are foci on the structure , process, and art of writing a literature review. What is a Literature Review? In essence, a literature review is a comprehensive overview of prior research regarding a specific topic. The overview both shows the reader what is known about a topic, and what is not yet known, thereby setting up the rationale or need for a new investigation, which is what the actual study to which the literature review is attached seeks to do. Stated a bit differently (Creswell 1994, pp. 20, 21) explains: The literature in a research study accomplishes several purposes: (a) It shares with the reader the results of other studies that are closely related to the study being reported (Fraenkel & Wallen, 1990. (b) It relates a study to the larger, ongoing dialog in the literature about a topic, filling in gaps and extending prior studies (Marshall & Rossman, 1989). (c) It provides a framework for establishing the importance of the study. As an overview, a well done literature review includes all of the main themes and subthemes found within the general topic chosen for the study. These themes and subthemes are usually interwoven with the methods or findings of the prior research. Also, a literature review sets the stage for and JOURNAL
A literature review is a critical consideration of the work by authors and researchers who have written on a particular topic. IT involves synthesising these writings so that a 'picture' of the issue under review forms. Therefore, it requires you to use summarising, analytical and evaluative skills. The effectiveness of these will, to a large extent, depend on your ability to link the work of various authors highlighting similarities, differences, strengths and weaknesses. A Literature Review is not a list describing or summarising one piece of literature after another, so avoid beginning each paragraph with the name of the researcher.
This chapter excerpt describes the process of doing a literature review.
This chapter describes the process of writing a literature review and what the product should look like
In this PowerPoint I provide guidelines for writing a literature review.
A literature review can be an informative, critical, and useful synthesis of a particular topic. It can identify what is known (and unknown) in the subject area, identify areas of controversy or debate, and help formulate questions that need further research. There are several commonly used formats for literature reviews, including systematic reviews conducted as primary research projects; reviews written as an introduction and foundation for a research study, such as a thesis or dissertation; and reviews as secondary data analysis research projects. Regardless of the type, a good review is characterized by the author’s efforts to evaluate and critically analyze the relevant work in the field. Published reviews can be invaluable, because they collect and disseminate evidence from diverse sources and disciplines to inform professional practice on a particular topic. This directed reading will introduce the learner to the process of conducting and writing their own literature review.
Ignacio Illan Conde
Abdullah Ramdhani , Tatam Chiway , Muhammad Ali Ramdhani
A literature review is ‘integral to the success of academic research’ and an indispensable component of a doctoral thesis. Brief versions are particularly important for the Confirmation phase of your candidature. Often this work will form a significant component of the introduction or early chapters of your thesis.
Christopher N Lawrence
2013, PLoS Computational Biology
Reviewing the literature requires the ability to juggle multiple tasks, from finding and evaluating relevant material to synthesising information from various sources, from critical thinking to paraphrasing, evaluating, and citation skills. In this contribution, I share ten simple rules I learned working on about 25 literature reviews as a PhD and postdoctoral student. Ideas and insights also come from discussions with coauthors and colleagues, as well as feedback from reviewers and editors.
KMB Electricals & Plumbing
Nirmal Kumar Raut
International Journal of P R O F E S S I O N A L Business Review
With a view to examining the entire proposed structure for an empirical article, this editorial focuses on the Literature Review, also known as the Theoretical Framework. The literature review may be defined as “a documented review of published or unpublished works (articles, books, etc.) in specific fields of interest to the work of the researcher” (Ferreira, 2015: 36). It is to be found in conceptual articles such as empirical articles, whether qualitative or quantitative. It has a clear link to the article as a whole and provides support for the section on the development of the concept and the hypotheses/propositions that follow it in the structure of an empirical article.
Meriel Louise Anne Villamil
• Learning outcomes • The nature of a literature review • Identifying the main subject and themes • Reviewing previous research • Emphasizing leading research studies • Exploring trends in the literature • Summarizing key ideas in a subject area • Summary A literature review is usually regarded as being an essential part of student projects, research studies and dissertations. This chapter examines the reasons for the importance of the literature review, and the things which it tries to achieve. It also explores the main strategies which you can use to write a good literature review.
2018, Journal of Asian Development
A debatable consensus on and appropriate approaches to literature review function as the theoretical background of the paper. It redefines the literature review substance, synthesis, and procedure to literature matrix, and literature review assessment. In addition, some implications are to interpret the discussion. Finally, finding of the present study is applicable to any study fields at it generally provides matrix for which writing literature review can be easily conducted. Suggestions, identical to the potential of further studies and its application by ongoing researcher and writer, are holistically provided.
A literature review must be coherent, systematic and clear. The review of literature must stick to answering the research question and also there must be a justification of every argument using extracts and illustrations. It is essential that all sources used in the literature review are properly recorded and referenced appropriately to avoid the incidence of plagiarism. Finally the work must be proof-read. It is also worth noting that literature review is not producing a list of items. Also it is essential that the contents of the literature to be reviewed are well read and also spelling mistakes or wrong dates of publication are avoided.
This article offers support and guidance for students undertaking a literature review as part of their dissertation during an undergraduate or Masters course. A literature review is a summary of a subject field that supports the identification of specific research questions. A literature review needs to draw on and evaluate a range of different types of sources including academic and professional journal articles, books, and web-based resources. The literature search helps in the identification and location of relevant documents and other sources. Search engines can be used to search web resources and bibliographic databases. Conceptual frameworks can be a useful tool in developing an understanding of a subject area. Creating the literature review involves the stages of: scanning, making notes, structuring the literature review, writing the literature review, and building a bibliography .
Dr. Qais Faryadi
2018, Scientific Research Publishing: Creative Education
Literature writing is a skill that every PhD candidate must procure to communicate his or her research findings clearly. The main objective of this paper is to facilitate the literature writing process so that PhD candidates under- stand what PhD literature is and are able to write their PhD literature cor- rectly and scientifically. The methodology used in this research is a descrip- tive method as it deliberates and defines the various parts of literature writing process and elucidates the how to do of it in a very unpretentious and under- standing language. As thus, this paper summarizes the various steps of litera- ture writing to pilot the PhD students so that the task of PhD literature writ- ing process becomes adaptable and less discouraging. This research is a useful roadmap especially for students of the social science studies. Additionally, in this paper, literature writing techniques, procedures and important strategies are enlightened in a simple manner. This paper adopts a how-to approach when discussing a variety of relevant topics, such as literature review intro- duction, types of literature review, advantages of literature reviews, objective of literature review, literature review template, and important check lists about literature review are discussed. This paper has 5 parts, such as Intro- duction, Literature Review, Methodology, Results and Conclusion. The lit- erature review chapter is discussed in this paper. I will discuss the rest as a se- ries in the future. Keywords Thesis Writing Process, Literature Review, PhD, Social Science, Research Methodology
Leo Andrew B . Diego
This module will teach you on how to write effective review of related literature.
Cherley C Du Plessis
The ability to conduct an explicit and robust literature review by students, scholars or scientists is critical in producing excellent journal articles, academic theses, academic dissertations or working papers. A literature review is an evaluation of existing research works on a specific academic topic, theme or subject to identify gaps and propose future research agenda. Many postgraduate students in higher education institutions lack the necessary skills and understanding to conduct in-depth literature reviews. This may lead to the presentation of incorrect, false or biased inferences in their theses or dissertations. This study offers scientific knowledge on how literature reviews in different fields of study could be conducted to mitigate against biased inferences such as unscientific analogies and baseless recommendations. The literature review is presented as a process that involves several activities including searching, identifying, reading, summarising, compiling, analysing, interpreting and referencing. We hope this article serves as reference material to improve the academic rigour in the literature review chapters of postgraduate students' theses or dissertations. This article prompts established scholars to explore more innovative ways through which scientific literature reviews can be conducted to identify gaps (empirical, knowledge, theoretical, methodological, application and population gap) and propose a future research agenda.
In order to demystify the literature review process, this research had two objectives, the first is to extoll the literature review as the foundation for scientific writing, the second, to present a method that points out a systematical way of make searches in the literature, which can aid in systematic and integrative reviews. To do so, this work was founded on exploratory literature searchers on methods of literature review, resulting in definitions of the literature revision types, as well as in the Systematic Search Flow (SSF) method proposition. This method has been shown to be useful for both systematic reviews and systematic searches. The conceptualization of review types was essential to demystify the process.
Journal of Practical Studies in Education
Jorge Muniz Junior
2021, Research Methodology Assignment
The literature review may be an overview of the research issues that are relevant to an understanding of the field. The literature review might explore the volume and types of available studies on a topic to describe the state of the research in that area. Systematic reviews start with formulating a review question. This is a good idea for all literature reviews because a review question pinpoints the focus of the review (Hempel, 2020). The goals of a literature review are many, but the four major purpose of a literature review are discussed.
How to write literature review
This Study Guide explains why literature reviews are needed, and how they can be conducted and reported. Related Study Guides are: Referencing and bibliographies, Avoiding plagiarism, Writing a dissertation, What is critical reading? What is critical writing? The focus of the Study Guide is the literature review within a dissertation or a thesis, but many of the ideas are transferable to other kinds of writing, such as an extended essay, or a report. After reading your literature review, it should be clear to the reader that you have up-to-date awareness of the relevant work of others, and that the research question you are asking is relevant. However, don't promise too much! Be wary of saying that your research will solve a problem, or that it will change practice. It would be safer and probably more realistic to say that your research will 'address a gap', rather than that it will 'fill a gap'.
the aims of this paper is content analysis of Knowledge management.
Review of literature is an integral part of any research. However, the scope and purpose of review of literature vary with the context. The most common contexts in which review of literature is demanded are - - (1) A course assignment, (2) A short review for a research article, (3) A review for research proposal, (4) A stand alone review article and (5) A chapter-length review for thesis/dissertation. There are seven important steps in the task of review of literature. They are - - (1) How to search for studies? (2) How to select studies? (3) How to analyze studies? (4) Which scheme is appropriate for analysis? (5) How to compose/organize review of literature? (6) Scheme of presentation of review and (7) Conclusion.
Aim/Purpose: Identify the prerequisites, the corequisites, and the iteration processes in organizing and writing the literature review chapter of doctoral dissertations. Background: Writing the literature review chapter of doctoral dissertations presents unique challenges. Students waste a lot of time identifying material to write, and the experience is generally that of frustration and time delay. Methodology: Paper reviews literature to identify levels of information helpful for writing the literature review chapter: prerequisites, corequisites, and iteration process. Contribution: Paper identifies and explains the prerequisites, the corequisites, and iteration steps that go into organizing the reviewed literature and suggests putting them into use when starting the literature review chapter of a doctoral dissertation. Findings: Writing a doctoral dissertation literature review is long and complicated be-cause some delve into the writing without much preparation. By identifying wh...
Dr. Nikolaos Basias
2018, Dr. Nikolaos Basias
There is evidence that making an effective literature review is one of the most important factors for research success and many issues related to this area remain unexplored. Especially in cross-disciplinary research areas such: (a) Business Development, (b) Strategic Management and (c) Technology the absence of a methodological framework that explains step by step the literature review process, remains an important barrier for researchers that requires further study and deeper investigation. The analysis indicates that several practices and techniques related to the literature review process are not similar among researchers and that some approaches are relevant for any research area and others depend on the type and characteristics of the specific areas. As a consequence, the aim of this paper is to identify and analyze key supporting steps in the literature review process in Business Development, Strategic Management and Technology. In doing so, it expends the body of knowledge in this area and adds a new dimension to existing literature review methods and techniques.
Abstract Writing a literature review yields many academic benefits. It is an appropriate route for management students to learn academic skills, such as how to search databases and to search off line, and to improve practical and theoretical knowledge. It enables theory development unimpeded by the practical obstacles of gaining access to people and organisations to collect data. It requires the development of expertise in research methods, numeracy, attention to detail, and in the analysis and interpretation of data.
2019, Global Journal of Artificial Intelligence
Research has over time played a pivotal role in mankind's quest for knowledge and technological advancement. In all spheres of human existence, research and its further application have over time been able to show the obvious, and yet sometimes hidden unity of science and the philosophical and sociological settings in which everything operates. Essentially, research has helped man to explore once thought of as bizarre phenomena and afforded man the opportunity to draw a fine line between opinions and facts towards gaining maximum benefits from the research's orientation (Williams, 2007). Too frequently, research is viewed as a formalized process of applying a rigid sequence of steps to the solution to a problem but in actual fact, research in itself entails flexibility in order to maximize scientific methods. This paper explains the concept of literature review in research and how a literature review is done in other to enhance the quality of the research work produced. ABSTRACT https://escipub.com/global-journal-of-artificial-intelligence/ 1
Ximena Eunice Pérez Manjarrez
Home PhD Dissertation PowerPoint Template Literature Review PowerPoint 4 Sections
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Phd literature review sample
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Many students struggle to conduct an effective Ph.D. literature review. To write an effective PhD literature review writing, it is an essential factor to synthesize and evaluate it according to the guiding concept of your dissertation or research question. <br><br>We can assist with your topic, title, proposal, introduction, methodology, background, evidence, conclusion, recommendations, referencing and appendices. <br>We can even write you a full Ph.D. thesis to your exact specification or we can revise your work and edit it to improve it. <br><br>Our experts will review your dissertation proposal, plans, ideas, introduction - or whatever chapter you completed so far- and create a concise, valuable literature review for you.<br><br>Contact Us<br>India : 91 8754446690<br>UK : 44-1143520021<br>Email: [email protected]<br>Visit Us: http://bit.ly/2I0tlWU
- technical efficiency
- reforms period
- small scale
- small scale industrial
- small scale industrial sector
Globalization and Productivity Analysis of Indian Small Scale Industrial Sector © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 1
Table of Contents CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE Section I 3 Section II 8 Section III 14 Section IV 15 References 25 © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 2
CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE The present chapter is the review of literature pertaining to the study with the purpose of conveying the knowledge and ideas that have been established on the topic previously. The intention of this chapter is to formulate the problem statement precisely and develop the basis for undertaking the research. The review of previous literature is to identify and state the objective in a clear manner and postulate the premise of the study. The present chapter will be a review of the number of studies which elucidate the efficiency and productivity levels in the Indian industrial sector, and in specific the small scale industrial sector of the country. This aids on the formulation of the suitable methodology for the present study. Global economic integration, open market policies, rapid growth of technology, the intense competition between traders and productive companies and the revolution in media created a positive stir in the Indian economy which led to the emergence of a vast number of small scale industrial and productive units in India. In this context, the present study will analyse various empirical studies that have been conducted which are based on the examination of different growth and performance aspects of the Indian industrial sector, especially small scale units. The chapters are categorised into three sections. Section I deals with the review of previous studies pertaining to the measurement of technical efficiency in the Indian manufacturing sector. Section II analyses the empirical studies relating to the performance and productivity of the Indian industrial sector. Section III examines economic reformation in India and sustainability of Indian Small scale industries. Lastly, section IV will focus on reviewing studies that are relating to the challenges and problems faced by the Indian small scale industries. Section I Parameswaran (2002) analysed the performance of the Indian manufacturing sector in the selected industries in terms of assessing the technical efficiency against the industrial and trade liberalisation introduced in the year 1991. Time varying firm specific technical efficiency is measured using the stochastic frontier production function. The results of the study revealed that the selected industries showed high rate of technical progress during the post reforms period which is accompanied with the decline in the level of technical efficiency. However, the effect of economic liberalisation on the technical efficiency of the selected firms varied from one another. In addition, the study discerned that international trade involvement with respect to import and export of industrial raw materials had a positive effect on the technical efficiency. Kumar (2004) evaluated the growth and development of the Indian industrial sector by measuring the Total factor productivity (TFP) for 15 major states in India for the period 1982-83 to 2000-01. Non- parametric linear programming methods were used to calculate the TFP growth © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 3
in Indian states. The growth measured through TFP is disintegrated into efficiency and technological changes and the bias in the technical change is also measured. The results obtained from the use of non- parametric linear programming methods are used to examine whether economic liberalisation had positive impacts on the efficiency and productivity in the Indian economy. Post and pre reforms period analysis was conducted. The findings of the study revealed significant growth in the Indian economy after liberalisation. The growth is attributed to the changes in TFP which is governed by the progress in technical aspects. The progress in technological aspects in the productive sector of the state exhibited a capital bias during the period of study. The differences in the region wise TFP is evident; however, the difference in the variation significantly declined in the post –reforms period. In addition, it is also found that the rate of TFP growth is converging among the different states of the country during the post- reforms period and those states which were efficient technically during the post-reforms period had significant growth. Sivakumar and Patnaik (n.d.) estimated and analysed the efficiencies of the Indian industrial sector in terms of technical productivity within the period 1973-74 to 1997-98. The study covered 144 three-digit industries and calculated their efficiency within the specified time period. The study is aimed to capture the technical efficiency behaviour during the pre and post economic reforms period. Time-varying stochastic frontier production function in the transcendental logarithmic form is employed in the study wherein the analysis using the selected methodology revealed that the efficiency of the selected industries in the period of 1973-74 to 1997-98. The findings of the study revealed that the effects of industry specific inefficiency hinder the growth of production in the selected industries in achieving the maximised output. Other factors such as weather, strikes and luck are neglected in the study. The study further identifies that the technical efficiency of the selected industries is low in post –reforms period when compared with that of the pre-reforms period. Madheswara et al. (2007) applied the Stochastic Production Frontier analysis to examine the Total Factor Productivity (TFP) growth during the period between 1979-80 and 1997-98. Sector level data within the Indian industrial sector was used for the analysis. The study is concentrated on the trends of technical efficiency change (TEC) and technical progress (TP). Stochastic Production Frontier analysis is employed in the study to segregate the two principal components, technical efficiency change (TEC) and technical progress (TP). This process of segregation is also used to recognise the growth in productivity which could be either due to improvement in efficiency or progress in technology. The significance of utilising the frontier approach as an alternative to the traditional index number approach to measure the growth of productivity lies within the identification of unobservable and idealized production possibility frontier with production-unit specific one-sided deviation from the frontier. If a unit of production functions below the production frontier, then the maximal distance is the measure of © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 4
its technical efficiency. Henceforth, the Stochastic Production Frontier analysis method captures the change in efficiency and the change in technologies as the constituting parts of the change in productivity which is an additional dimension for analysis of policy perspectives. The results of the study suggest that during the period 1997-98, the total factor productivity growth in a majority of companies improved when compared with the same during the pre-reforms period, and in specific 1980-81. In addition, the study findings also revealed that the TFP growth is steered by progress in technology and technological change adaptation in the companies rather than change in technical efficiency. Bhaumik and Kumbhakar (2008) employed the use of plant-level data for the years between 1989-90 and 2000-2001 in order to assess if the growth that occurred after 1991 resulted in the use of resources more efficiently. This is inclusive of the assessment for factor inputs inclusive of capital. The findings of this study are indicative of the fact that the increase in productivity during the 1990’s was largely attributed to the increase in factor inputs. Other findings of the study included the alteration of the technical efficiency. This was evidenced with the decline in the median technical efficiency across all industries except one in the set timeline as above, however, this change in the technical efficiency offers a partial explanation as to the change in the added gross value. The analysis of the research points to the aspects of the increase in return for the factor inputs in these two years which explains the change in gross value increase across these industries more adequately. Another study by Mazumdar et al. (2009) evaluated the technical efficiency in order to measure the competitiveness of pharmaceutical firms in India from 1991-2005. The study employs a non-parametric approached of Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). The analysis reveals that even though the efficiency outputs were found to be declining, the evidence also depicted that resources were being made use of adequately in this period. An aspect of the study that attempted to identify the factors contributory to technical efficiency revealed that the export expenditure, research and development (R&D) or the use of imported and expensive equipment did not improve the technical efficiency of the firm. Mitra et al. (2011) in this regard explores the role of factors such as infrastructure, information technology, communicative technology and R&D as predictors for technical efficiency and total factor productivity growth. The study was carried out from 1994-2008 in the Indian manufacturing industry. In this study advanced estimation techniques are used in order to counteract the existing limitations such as non-stationary omitted variables, reverse causality and endogeneity. This was carried out by the application of a fully modified OLS, panel co- integration and also system GMM. The findings of the study reveal that infrastructure and the IT with communicative technology are strongly associated with the technical efficiency. Another interesting finding is that the companies that are more globally acquainted were more likely to © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 5
have deficiencies in the infrastructure (like transport or chemical companies). The implications of the findings are that the improvement in the infrastructure and the IT components of the firm can aid to the enhancement of these sectors further improving the competitive edge for India. The findings also shed light on the current scenario of infrastructure in India. Lastly, as with the study above this study too finds for R&D being a weak predictor for technical efficiency, to the extent that it does not impact the manufacturing industry, but however that it may play a more vital role in industries that depend on research. Bhandari et al. (2010) too explored the economic realms of the manufacturing sector in India and employed the DEA in order to study the economic reforms. This was done to measure the technical and scale efficiency changes that occurred before and after 1991 as per the reform initiatives. It was found that the efficiency of the industries declined in the post reform period as compared to the pre reform period. These implied that the findings are rather significant for the manufacturing industries but also implies that the changes are varied across different industries. Another study conducted by Kathuria et al. (2013) in the manufacturing industry in India post the economic reforms in 1991. This study too employed the use of advanced estimation techniques such as non-parametric accounting, semi-parametric product function accounting for endogeneity and parametric stochastic production frontier to measure the total factor productivity (TFP). The study assessed the same for the periods of 1994-95 and 2005-06. The study findings reveal that the TFP for both the formal and informal sectors differed vastly over the timeframe. There was a decline in the TFP in the formal sector between 1994 and 2001. In the case of the informal sector, all the three methods showed a decline in TFP for 2001-2006. This evidences that the inconsistencies in the measure for TFP exist, especially between the formal and informal sectors of the manufacturing industry. Baliyan et al. (2015) analysed the changes in efficiency and productivity in the 17 major Indian states known for its considerable growth in the manufacturing sector during the period 1971-82 to 2009-10. State-wise productivity change and efficiency are measured using the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach which is calculated over the period of 1973-1974 to 2009-2010. The period is divided into pre-liberalisation (1980-1981 to 1989-1990), first phase of post-liberalisation (1990-1991 to 1999- 2000) and second phase of post-liberalisation (2000- 2001 to 2009-2010). Total Factor Productivity (TFP) change is calculated using the non- parametric Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach. In addition, the paper evaluates the performance metrics of the major inputs used in the Indian industrial sector and reveals the reasons for inefficiency across the different segments. The findings of the study revealed that the productivity growth and efficiency vary across the different states in the country. © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 6
Chaudhuri (2016) examined the impacts of economic reformation (liberalisation) on the technical efficiency and technical progress of the electronics and hardware manufacturing units in India. Translog stochastic frontier production function is used in the present study to assess the technical progress and technical efficiency of the industries in the era of economic reformation. The findings of the study revealed that the electronic manufacturing units in India experience improvements in the technical progress during the period of 2001-2002 to 2009-2010. However, the mean level of technical efficiency of the firms had a declining rate during the same period. The study thereby discerns that a majority of companies failed in spite of the Information Technology Agreement (ITA) of World Trade Organization (WTO) implementation and such implementation does not impact the technical efficiency of the electronic manufacturing firms. Section II Unel (2003) analysed the trends of productivity in the manufacturing sector of India during the period of 1980-81 to 1998-1999. The findings of the study revealed that the labour and total factor productivity (TFP) growth in the Indian industrial sector were significantly higher till the 1980s; however, the accelerated growth of the TFP is attributed to factor elasticities and the production function structure. The productivity growth of the manufacturing as well as the subsectors improved after the liberalisation. In the same context, Banga and Goldar (2004) assessed the contribution of services to the productivity and output growth of the Indian industrial sector during the pre and post reforms period. The KLEMS (capital-labor-energy-materials-services) production function framework is used to analyse the contribution of the services to the productivity and growth of the Indian manufacturing sector. The utilised production framework considers services as inputs to the process of production. The study used panel data of 148 three-digit level industries during the time frame of 1980-81 to 1997-98 (18 years) and the data is used to estimate the production function. The results of the analysis revealed that the increasing use of services brought favourable effects on the productivity and output growth of the Indian manufacturing sector in the 1990s. It is also to be noted that such favourable could even be due to the economic liberalisation that was carried out. It is revealed in the study that the percentage of contribution of services that are input to the growth of the manufacturing sector is just one per cent in the 1980s; however, the rate increased to 25 per cent in the 1990s. A multilateral total factor productivity index is used to study the effect of services on the productivity of the manufacturing units. The index is constructed for a majority of 41 industry groups for the period of 1980-81 to 1999-00 and the index is constructed for both with and without services. It is revealed that the estimate for productivity growth during the period of post-reforms is found to be over-stated when the services are not considered. The findings of the study indicated that the economic reforms are responsible for the growth of manufacturing units in the country post liberalisation. © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 7
Kaur and Kiran (2008) the trends in the partial productivity and the total productivity factor in the all Indian manufacturing units for 22 industrial groups at the aggregative and disaggregative levels. Other trends in the output and inputs are also analysed in the study. The period selected for the study is 1980-81 to 2002- 03 wherein for the purpose of evaluating the growth of the indian industrial sector, the period for study is divided into two: 1980-81 to 1990- 91 as the pre-reforms period and 1991-92 to 2002-03 as the post reforms period. The study assesses the changes in the growth of inputs and output and productivity during the pre and post reforms period. The comparison of results based on the pre and post reforms growth in productivity in the Indian industrial sector revealed that the post reform era had a slower growth rate than the pre-reforms period for both aggregative and disaggregative levels. In the same context, Das and Kalita (2009) computes the productivity growth of the industrial sector in aggregate levels. The Domar aggregation technique is used to compute the productivity growth in the Indian manufacturing sector which is the steering factor for the overall growth of the industrial sector. However, the study states the measurement of the productivity growth is still an issue due to two reasons. Firstly, a firm’s productivity should be reflected in the productivity of the lower levels which form the aggregate. Secondly, the aggregate productivity should highlight the importance of the inter-industry transactions in the analysis of the productivity growth. Domar weights were used to compute the total factor productivity (TFP) growth for the ten two-digit industries that are selected for the study during the period of 1980- 2000. A comparison of the estimates on the basis of Domar aggregation technique and traditional aggregate value added approach revealed that the estimates are half the same obtained using the traditional aggregate value added method. This further marks significance for the productivity numbers. Senapati and Paltasingh (2010) attempted to identify the effects of liberalisation on the industrial sector of three selected states (Orissa) in India. The period for study is from 1980-81 to 2004-05 and the study period is divided into pre liberalisation (1980-81 to 1989-90) and post liberalisation period (1991-92 to 2004-05). The study analyses the growth trends in the growth performance of the Indian industrial units using variables such as gross value added (GVA), capital stock, labor force, investment level in both pre and post reforms period. Though the objectives of liberalisation are to transform Indian industrial sector into more efficient and competitive sector in the global market, the end findings of the study revealed that liberalisation does not regulate growth in the industrial sector. In addition, the improvements in the productivity in the industrial units of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh are significant whereas the same is reverse in the state of Orissa. Das et al. (2010) analyses the different sources of growth of Indian sectors for the period of 1980-2004. The INDIA KLEMS project database is selected for the study and the data is © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 8
acquired for 31 sectors. The study specifically examines the contributions of productivity growth and the factor accumulation in the selected sectors of the Indian economy. The study revealed that there has been notable growth in the nation’s economy during the past decades which is evident from the increasing service sector GDP share. A growth accounting framework is used to analyse and document the different sources for the economic growth of India. The study assessed the productivity performance of all the selected sectors during the period 1980-2004 and four sub-sectors were also selected. The findings of the study revealed that the growth in the TFP is attributed to the of labour-quantity, quality and capital-ICT and non ICT assets. In addition the study documents the evidence that the service sector led to the growth of productivity in the Indian economy. Evidences were also found based on the factor accumulation as the sources of growth for the Indian economy and its various sectors as well as industries. Raj (2011) analyses the productivity performance and growth of the Indian manufacturing sector during the period 1978-79 – 2000-01. The study reveals the evidence of the increase in the size of the sector with a slowdown during the reformation period. The findings of the study revealed that the rate of growth in the two-digit industries varies predominantly but the growth rate variation in the 90s is low. During the reforms period, it is revealed that machinery manufacturing and textiles industries were rapidly growing industries. The study further discerned that the total factor productivity and the partial factor productivity factors reflected that the production in the sector has improved in the period for study. Furthermore, decomposing the productivity growth into efficiency change and technical change revealed that efficiency change contributes more to the total factor productivity growth during the period considered for the study. In addition, the study revealed that wage rate and capital intensity are vital factors for the augmentation of labour productivity in the sector. Aggarwal and Sato (2011) examine the impacts of industry dynamics on the productivity growth of the Indian industrial sector during the period 2000-01 to 2005. Plant level panel data of 22 manufacturing industries was selected for the study and the empirical analysis of the industries’ data is performed by decomposition techniques of aggregate productivity growth. The scope of the analysis is restricted to the data from large sector plants. The results of the analysis revealed that the in most industries, the emergence of new plants contributed significantly to the aggregate productivity growth. Though the effect of newly established plants is small, the growth of these plants is deemed to have substantial impacts on the productivity growth of the industrial sector. The entry effects of industries embracing low technologies are supported by the productivity growth of the continuing firms. The entry effects of medium tech industries are moderate and the productivity growth of continuing firms is assisted by the relocation effects. Ray (2012) estimated the economic performance of the Indian automobile industry with respect to capacity utilisation in the industry during the period 1991-92 to 2005-06. In addition, © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 9
the study also assesses the different factors impacting the capacity utilisation of the Indian automobile industry. An econometric model is used to determint eh optimal capacity output which is the minimum point on the short turn total cost curve of the firm. The results of the study revealed that after the economic liberalisation, the capacity utilisation improved at the rate of 5 per cent per annum. In addition, the results showed that capacity utilisation in firms with high import penetration and export intensity is low and is indicated by the negative coefficient of export-intensity variable and import penetration. Furthermore, size and capacity utilisation has a positive relation which is similar to capital utilisation and market share. Singh (2012) aspires to analyse the trends of TFP growth in the Indian manufacturing industries. Both inter –state aggregate and disaggregated levels were considered in the study and the Malmquist productivity index is used to calculate the annum growth of Total Factor Productivity (TFP) using the panel dataset of 16 selected major industrial states of the country. Data is collected for the period of 1979-80 to 2007-08 (29 years). The results of the Malmquist productivity index revealed that the Indian manufacturing sector is improving with an annual growth of 9.1 per cent. In addition, the study further revealed that among the 16 states selected for the study Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Orissa and Gujarat witnessed a double digit TFP growth. Uttar Pradesh is identified to be growing at the highest rate of 12.8 per cent growth rate annually which is followed by Madhya Pradesh wherein the growth rate of the state is 11.8 per cent per annum. The analysis of the different sources of the TFP growth revealed that both technical progress and technical change contribute to the TFP growth in the Indian manufacturing sector. In addition, the study also revealed that the efficiency change contributes more to the TFP growth than technical progress. Arnold et al. (2016) demonstrated the contribution of the India’s economic policy reforms in the services. The study utilised the panel data of 4,000 Indian firms for the period 1993-2005. The finding of the study revealed that the reforms in the different sectors such as telecommunications, banking, insurance and transport had all significantly regulated the productivity of the Indian manufacturing firms. Reforms in services had positively affected both local and foreign owned manufacturing units: however, foreign owned firms tend to be strongly regulated. Services liberalisation impacted in the form of increase in productivity of 11.7 per cent for the local firms and 13.2 per cent for foreign owned firms. The study further suggests that in addition to the hindrances affecting the development of the services sector, they also affect the manufacturing sector adversely. Mitra and Sharma (2012) in depth analyses the changes in the policies due to economic liberalisation and the effects of the same in the productivity and efficiency of the Indian manufacturing firms. The study in specific tested the effects of policy changes on import, export, R&D and technology over the period of 1994-2008. The results of the analysis revealed that © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 10
infrastructure is an important factor determining the performance of manufacturing units in India. In addition, infrastructure is also a determinant for other variables such as communication technology, transport and energy sectors. Furthermore the results also suggest that the knowledge transfer through exports is more significant than the same through imports. Since Indian firms rely on the utilisation of foreign technologies, the study further discerned that the rate of contribution by the R&D is very little. Thomas and Narayanan (2012) endeavours to understand the nature of heterogeneity in productivity and firm level export market participation in the Indian industrial sector. The study includes the testing of two hypotheses: one is the self-selection of the most productive companies into the export market and the other is the learning by exporting where manufacturing units become more productive once they enter the export market. The study utilises firm level data from the Centre for Monitoring Indian Economy (CMIE) for the period of 1990-2009. Levinsohn and Petrin method is used to estimate the value of Total factor productivity in firm level. The findings of the study revealed that the productivity rate of exporting companies is higher than the non-exporting firms in the Indian manufacturing industries. Compared with the magnitude of productivity of other countries, the study revealed that the magnitude of productivity is not large. The study further revealed that productivity growth contributes to the sustained participation of Indian industrial and manufacturing firms in the export market. Babu and Natarajan (2013) assess the performance of regional manufacturing units in India with the aid of analysing factors such as total factor productivity and labour. The study is limited to the scope of considering 15 major Indian states and Malmquist total factor productivity index is computed using Data Envelopment Analysis approach. The results of the analysis revealed that labour productivity improved during the reforms period and its TFP growth follows the same pattern. The study also identifies that the growth in productivity varies across the selected states and this variation is attributed to the differences in the regional infrastructural developments. Furthermore, the study recommends that other than improving factors of power generation, uninterrupted power supply should be available to increase the total factor productivity. Other factors such as better telecommunication facilities and improved road connectivity are also recommended to improve the performance of industrially strengthened states through improved productivity. Deshmukh and Pyne (2013) examined the productivity of Indian industrial firms and analysed their capabilities to enter the export market. The study analysed the determinants of labour productivity at the firm level during the period 1991-2009 and examined whether the intensity of exports differs between foreign owned and domestic owned companies. Similarly the intensity of exports is analysed between private and public owned firms. The findings of the study revealed that local firms/domestic controlled firms are more export-intensive than foreign- © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 11
owned firms. Similarly private firms are found to be more export intensive than public firms. Considering the labour productivity determinants at the firm level, raw material intensity and the size of firm play major role as determinants whereas the status of ownership is not considered elsewhere. Bhat (2014) explains categorically that, of late, structural changes have been witnessed in the Indian manufacturing sector. Nevertheless, the speed of change is not quick enough to modify the path of development. Manufacturing drives export higher and generates opportunities for employment and increases business opportunities, but it has occurred sufficiently in the context of the Indian economy. The contribution towards GDP is around 14 to 16 by the manufacturing sector, which is not only low bit close to stagnation. Technology utilisation in manufacturing has not progressed from the basic or intermediate level. R&D expenses are too low to be able to stimulate industries. Development of manufacturing sector has been one the decline from early 2007 due to poor investments from the private as well as public sectors. Poor demand and sluggish growth of GDP seriously affects new investment in consumer and capital goods industries. Higher interest rates, have added to the aggravating factors of investment climate. The reduction in demand for manufacture and employment is due to the increased capital intensity on all manufacturing firms. The route to restore and give and impetus to manufacturing sector growth calls for an allround development of infrastructure, greater access to land and acquisition, and the application of advanced technology, education, development of skills and promoting innovation in cutting edge technologies. Section III Subrahmanya, (2005) examined whether sustained growth of Indian small sector relies post-reformation relies on innovation and technology. The previous research stated that small scale industries of India are positioned with great importance in the economic structure of the nation which is evident from their share in the nation’s output, employment and exports. The cumulative effects of investment regime liberalisation and open market for Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) in 1991 and formation of World trade Organisation (WTO) in 1995 are evident from the transformation of the small scale sector. However, fluctuations in the development of the small scale industrial sector pose a serious threat to the nation’s development as well as the welfare of the Indian small scale industrial units. The previous study recommends policy makers to keep the sector competitive and eliminating the factors which reduce the size of the industry. Furthermore, the Indian SSI sector needs to be technologically competitive so as to acquire sustainable contribution. Raju, (2008) examined the past, present and future scenarios of Indian small and medium scale industries and provided a sustainability framework for development of the sector. The © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 12
previous research discerned the fact that Indian Small and medium scale industries constitute the major share of the nation’s economy and have been steering the growth of the nation in terms of economic developments. The previous research crucially explored the development and growth in the Indian small scale sector beginning with the economic liberalisation in the year 1991. The previous study further revealed that technological advancements and innovations in in-house environment of Indian small scale sector can boost productivity and tends to improve sustainable development of the sector. Furthermore, technology could be the only solution to proceed consistently and consciously. The previous study further revealed that a proper financial infrastructure needs to be established wherein for Indian small scale sector, adequate credit inflows should be facilitated. Mishra, (2012) examined the contribution of Indian small and medium scale industries and assessed the need for sustained development in the sector. The paper titled “Small Scale Industries: Striving and Thriving in the Era of Globalization” claims that the Indian Small and medium scale industrial sector contributes a significant part to the Indian economy in terms of output, employment and the nation’s export rate. The previous study revealed that more than 45 per cent of the entire manufacturing output of the nation is accounted by the Small and medium scale industries and 40 per cent of the total exports of the nation is contributed by this sector. Furthermore, the study revealed that the sector is predicted to employ more than 65 million persons in the year 2012. However, the sustainable growth of Indian small and medium scale industries is questioned wherein the previous researcher recommends the government to take active roles in improving the sector through creation of awareness, support through government programs and funds. Such an approach would aid Indian small and medium scale industries to sustain in the era of economic liberalisation. Rakesh, (2014) conducted a PEST analysis to examine the different factors affecting sustainability of Indian SSIs. The previous study discerned that Indian small and medium scale enterprises require changes in their technologies, practices wherein there is a dire need to identify the factors that could drive towards sustainment. It is further claimed that for Indian small and medium scale industries, sustainability is complicated unless there is cost reduction and control. The previous study identified two different dimensions- external and internal. Internal factors such as technological changes could be established so as to improve sustainability. However, external factors could not be changed and hence require adaptation. Section IV Garg (1996) carried out in depth studies on the performance of large industries, modern Small scale industries and traditional industries. The assessment and review in the study relies on the data disseminated by the ASI; Development Commissioner. It was observed that smaller SSIs © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 13
were expanding in terms of numbers as well as number of employees, the scale of investment and the quantum of total output. SSIs functioning in the factory segment (at par with larger SSIs) have however, not projected any growth in the total units of factories and number of employees; though there has been fast paced accumulation of capital. There is a widespread opinion that some of the Government policies are making capital available cheaper with respect to labour and there has been an inclination to replace capital for manpower in the large scale units and SSIs in the factory sector. When it comes to size, the larger units among the SSIs are growing bigger whereas the smaller units are shrinking and becoming smaller. With regard to the efficiency of the units, while there is higher labour productivity in larger SSIs, smaller SSIs units utilise their reduced capital better and are also observed to be more labour intensive. The traditional industries have performed well in terms of absorption of labour and their capability to earn forex. This study analyses if the current policies of the Government to establish new units be encouraged, or whether the policies of the Government need to be focused towards promoting the growth of the existing SSIs. It is also necessary to review the growth of Small Scale Industries in the context of a liberal economy and understand what types of technology - flexible specialisation or mass production-needs to be taken up to spur growth and to drive up generation of employment. Sonia and Kansal (2009) studied and evaluated the performance of SSIs, both prior and post liberalization and compared them with the average annual rates of growth, to gauge the impact of Globalization on the actual performance of SSIs. The study is for the period between 1973- 2007 and based on secondary information. In this study, efforts have been made to assess the effect of globalization on the growth of SSIs. The comparison of growth patterns of the key parameters between the Pre- and Post – Globalization periods reveals that “globalization” actually had a negative effect on the development of SSIs that were considered in terms of numbers of units, the volume of production, the number of employees and export data. A steep drop in the rate of growth of number of units and in employment generation in the post liberalisation period is a matter of serious concern for the policy-makers and planners of policy reforms. To sum up, we can establish conclusively that the recent pattern of growth of the SSI sector was a display of the reliance of the Indian economy on globalization and liberalisation, which had on earlier occassions failed to positively impact the growth of SSIs in India. Subrahmanya (2005) carried out extensive studies on the performance, potential and prospects of SSIs in India in the era of globalisation. SSIs have strategic importance in the Indian economy mainly due to its significant contribution to generation of employment, production and increased exports. But, from the year 1991, SSIs in India have been in a highly competitive environment mainly due to globalisation, domestic liberalisation of the economy and dilution of specific protective measures for the sector. This study investigates the consequences of globalisation and domesticv economic liberalisation for SSIs and examines its growth © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 14
performance by quantifying them in terms of units, number of employees, the volume of output and exports. The study attempted to present solutions to these questions. In this study, the official definition of small enterprise and their role as laid down from time to time by the Government of India under the Industries Development and Regulation (IDR) Act, 1951 are followed. Presently, small-scale enterprises are categorised as those that have original investment in plant and machinery, and if they are held on ownership terms or on lease,’ hire purchase basis, below Rs. One Crore. The study concludes with recommendations on policies to maintain the sustenance and to spur competitive growth of SSIs in India. Garg (2013) reviewed the Performance & Challenges of Small Scale Industries in India. This study analysed the existing microeconomic evidence to check if SMEs promoted growth and reduced poverty. During the present economic meltdown the SME sector had been affected very badly primarily due to the hike in interest rates and the financial crunch. The small size and capacity of the SMEs combined with their lack of knowledge have created many obstacles to their growth and development such as under-utilization of capacity, insufficient and un-timely credit flows, inability to adapt technology upgradation, inadequate raw-material procurement, inability to market finished goods, and ineffective monitoring and feedback mechanism. The problem which continues to be obstacles for the development of the sector is the inability to raise funds in time. The importance of SMEs in the nation is significant and irreplaceable. This is entirely because of the number of burgeoning units in the country. This sector, contributes greatly to the development and employment sector. This sector discharges the task of providing employment to minorities, the backward classes and to women. This sector faces problems on a daily basis, such as shortage of electricity, and lack of basic infrastructure along with the market related problems. To effectively solve these problems and promote and develop the SME sector, major concerted efforts have been undertaken in the eleventh plan. However the efforts are insufficient. For the all round development of rural and farming group, separate departments need to be formed. Likewise, in the development of industrial ministry for urban Micro and Small and Medium Industries separate and targeted efforts need to be initiated. SMEs have always been a represention of the model of socio-economic policies of the Government of India which has stressed on the responsible use of foreign exchange for importing capital goods and inputs; manpower intensive mode of production; for employment generation; no focus or diffusion of economic power in the hands of a few (similar to large houses); frowning and rejecting practices of production and marketing that can be called monopolistic; and lastly, effective and significant contribution to the foreign exchange earnings and reserves of the nation through operations that rely on low import operations. SMEs are the de facto growth engine of the economy and help to maintain and support sustain other sectors such as allied services. Kanagarathinam and Sukumar (2013) carried out in-depth studies of the challenges in the marketing Strategies in Small Scale Industries. This empirical study encompasses the socio- © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 15
economic conditions, marketing strategies of SSIs and highlights the marketing problems faced by SSIs. The primary aim of this study is to share knowhow with the SSIs regarding the blind spots and grey areas in the marketing of their products. Data was collected collated from both primary and secondary sources. The sample size was around 50 small industrial units selected from among 1900 registered Industrial Units to train the spotlight on the performance of the entrepreneurs. Of the selected sample size, a two stage stratified simple random sampling technique was adopted to conduct the test. In the first step the industries were classified under 9 segments based on the nature of the products viz, Agro based, Textiles, Chemicals, rubber and plastics, Engineering, food and food processing, metallic, paper and wood building material, industrial units etc. In the second part 50 per cent of the selected units that were in existence for three years were selected for focused and intensive study. The sample units that were selected were from all the strata, clubbed together and equally allocated for each strata. The analysis observed that more than 50 per cent of the sample units did not have any dedicated marketing personnel, and the marketing activity was being taken care of personally by the entrepreneur himself. But, the statistics reveal that less than 50 per cent of the sample units had some kind of a marketing setup with a small marketing section, around 60 per cent of them have reported to the personal selling method, 28 per cent of sample units have accorded second and third place priority in terms of importance towards marketing function. Around 42 per cent of the sample units did devise an annual marketing plan, while 10 per cent opted for plans for one full year to sell their products. Around 54 % of the sample units had sufficient marketing opportunities for their products and 80 per cent of them have not made any efforts to update regarding the cost effectiveness of their marketing strategy. 62 per cent of the sample size of the SSIs faces stiff competition and a similar percentage of sample units sell their products to customers from industrial sector, whereas 56 per cent of small units offload their products in the national market. Around 74 per cent of the sampled units do not conduct any kind of market survey. Similarly, an equal number of the sample units have attained the goal of customer satisfaction. 71.05 per cent of the sample units have encountered serious issues regarding quality of their products. 60.53 per cent of the units have had to contend with moderate problems of pricing their products. 42.11 per cent of the sample units have had to bear the brunt of customers’ for not sticking to the time schedules and introduction of their products into the markets. 50 per cent of the sample units have faced moderate problems of incorrect segregation. 55.26 per cent of sample units have faced serious issues of unreasonably high cost of marketing personnel. 73.68 per cent of the sample units have undergone unpleasant experiences during distribution of their products. 60.53 per cent of the sample units have had to face issues during sales promotion. 89.47 per cent of the sample units have had to contend with their competitors. 65.79 per cent of the sample units in the district have experienced similar problems to a moderate extent. A significantly high percentage (89.47) of the sample units faced serious issues created by the competition. Other minor issues such lack of sufficient knowledge regarding product design, packaging, branding, Indian © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 16
Standard Institution (ISI) mark, and shortage of packaging materials etc., were encountered by 65.79 per cent of the small units to a moderate extent. Pandey (2013) examined the trends, opportunities & challenges in small scale and cottage INDUSTRIES in India with special focus on the state of Uttar Pradesh. The study postulates the issues and prospects of SSIs and cottage industries in the state of Uttar Pradesh, where there are no existing large and medium scale industries and whose development is directly related to the various initiatives, programmes and policies designed to alleviate poverty, unemployment and backwardness of the rural people. Data, both primary and secondary were used in the study. The information thus collected and collated from the primary and the secondary sources has been edited, classified and sorted in a logical order. During this process, errors and omissions were detected and the same were corrected after due validation. Tabular analysis was done in two manners - manually as well as digitally with the “Statistical Package for Social Scientists” (SPSS) and SYSTAT software. The findings proved that after recognizing the important role that SSIs play in the national economy, the central as well as the state governments have taken initiatives to develop, promote and nurture their growth. Many of these programs have been effective: whereas most of the problems of SSI still continue to affect the smooth functioning and growth of the sector. Small scale and cottage industries are witnessing an upheaval from a host of problems; some are similar to the whole gamut of industries whereas others are particularly relevant only to a specific group or category of industries located in certain rural and backward area. A reorientation or realignment of the attitude of the citizens of the particular state in general, and the educated aspiring youth, and the capitalist class in particular is an urgent requirement that needs to be undertaken to pave the way for reforms and industrialization in the state. Vaijayanti (2013) delved further and studied extensively the problems faced by the small scale sector in India. The study revealed that in terms of value, the SSI sector contributed around 40 per cent market share of the value added in the manufacturing sector and around one third of the total national export share. In order to infuse vitality and growth in the small scale sector, a separate policy statement has been released for the benefit of small, tiny & village enterprises on 6th August 1991. Numerous problems have been tagged with marketing in Small Scale Sector. For this purpose the researcher has categorised the problems into six different sets viz; 1. Market Structure Problems 2. Logistic Problems 3. Managerial Problems 4. Economic Problems 5. Communication Problems 6. Socio-psychological Problems. A majority of these problems arose because of traditional mind set or shortfall in infrastructural requirements. The major problem is the socio-economic conditions and the socio-psychological setups. Various issues faced by the individual unit owners of Small Scale industries have been ascribed different weightage as per different points of view. Concerted efforts need be made to be able to come out with a solution that's acceptable to all. © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 17
Chandraiah and Vani (2014) closely examined the Prospects and Problems of MSMEs sector in India. This study carried out an in-depth analysis of the definition of MSMEs, their role and the performance of MSMEs in the context of the Indian economy, Government policies towards MSMEs and issues of MSMEs. The relevant secondary data was compiled from the official publication of “Ministry of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises, journals, Government of India” published by the Reserve Bank of India and the Handbook of Statistics on Indian Economy. The general performance and contribution of SSIs to the Indian economy is explained in terms of the total growth in terms of such units, the number of employees, the output production and quantum of exports. The MSMEs Development Act of 2006 is the most important of the changes in policy effected recently. The formulation and implementation of policies and initiatives or projects or schemes or programmes in the MSME sector is executed by the Ministry with the inputs and assistance of organisations that are both associated and autonomous. The development of SSIs can be assessed, based on the growth rates of units, the number of employees, the quantum of output and exports of SSIs in 2013 vis a vis that of 1990s. At the same time the MSMEs sector encountered Key Challenges such as Lack of sufficient and timely credit, steep or High rate of credit, difficult collateral requirements, Limited access to equity capital, inability to Procure raw materials at a competitive cost, storage Problems, designing, packaging and display of the product, Lack of access to global markets, poor and insufficient infrastructure facilities such as power, water, roads, abysmally Low technology levels, Lack of skilled manpower for manufacturing, services, marketing, etc. Though the numerous challenges that had to be contended with, the MSME sector has shown remarkable innovation, versatility, and Resilience to be able to survive and come out unscathed from the recent economic downturn and recession. The small scale sector has developed and grown admirably and rapidly over the years. The era of liberalization and the growth of the MSMEs sector comprise an important segment of Indian economy. MSMEs are a very crucial segment in the Indian industrial sector and would be an ongoing process in the Indian Economy in the near future. A beneficial aspect of economic growth in India is due to the remarkable development of modern MSMEs. Modi (2014) analysed the issues and prospects of SSIs in India. Small Scale Industries exist in all nations. A developing nation like India provides a special place for the small scale sector in the industrial structure. Hence, the Government of India has provided this sector an important position in the framework of Indian economic planning for reasons that are both ideological as well as economic. Due to this, small sectors have clocked an impressive growth rate in the total numbers of units and the volume of production during the last sixty year since independence. Despite possessing huge potentialities, the Indian SSIs could not progress as satisfactorily as desired, since these industries have many drawbacks. Hence, this research study is an attempt to identify the problems faced by the Indian SSIs and to understand the prospects of these SSIs. © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 18
Patil and Chaudhar (2014) studied the issues of Small Scale Industries in India by collecting and collating secondary data from the website of the Ministry of Small and Medium Enterprises, from the Government of India and from other published material. The review of prospects and issues of MSMEs have shown that the total number of SSIs have increased from 105.21 lakhs in 2001- 02 to a staggering 298.08 lakhs in 2009-10. They have grown by three times within a span of one decade. But, the growth was consistent till 2005-06 and in 2006-07 the growth rate shot very high (i.e. 111.18 per cent) but subsequently, the growth rate has been only around 4.5 per cent till the year 2009-10 when compared to the same period in the respective previous years. Though the SSIs have made commendable contribution to the nation's economy, the SSI sector does not receive the necessary support from the concerned Government Departments, Banking Institutions, Financial Institutions and Corporates, which has become a handicap while competing in National and International Markets. Varied issues such as acute shortage of skilled manpower, poor and insufficient credit assistance, poor and irregular supply of raw materials and lack of proper infrastructure have attributed to the decline in progress of SSIs. To empower the SSIs to regain their rightful place as the growth engine of the economy of India, it is necessary that support is extended to the MSMEs that they are educated and empowered to be able to optimise utilization of resources, both human and economic, to achieve the elusive success. The SSIs need to be informed, educated and updated of the latest developments occurring globally and helped in acquiring the necessary skills to be abreast of the global developments. Ziniya (2014) studied the complex nature of SSIs in India. Small scale industries perform an important role in a developing nation's economy. If the population of India is considered then it can be inferred that this sector has great potential in India. Globally, the unorganized industrialized sector has been recognized as Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) whereas in India it has been identified as SSI. The SSIs in India have become an engine of development for the financial system, making significant contributions towards increase in the GDP, employees and volume of exports. This sector has constantly contributed to India’s economic progress but SSIs cannot make contributions exactly in comparison to other industries because of the nature of specific difficulties. There are some issues which are a reason for the prevention of growth of SSIs in India. The primary focus of this research study is to identify the major issues and problems faced by SSIs. Aruna (2015) analysed the problems faced by MSMEs – A Special Reference to Small Entrepreneurs in Visakhapatnam. Small business establishment often face numerous problems that are actually related to their size of operations. A regular reason for cash and liquidity crunch is undercapitalization. This is more often than not, due to poor planning rather than fiduciary reasons. It is an accepted rule of thumb that the entrepreneur should be able to raise some amount of money that is at least equal to the projected revenue expected during the very first year of © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 19
business apart from the approximate expected expenses or overheads. MSMEs in India face a plethora of problems - lack of sufficient and on-time finance from banks or financial institutions, lack of suitable advanced technology, poor marketing due to inadequate resources and non- availability of adequately trained and skilled manpower. These business houses are generally confronted with issues that are different from that of the larger companies and multi-national corporations. The problems include, but are not limited to the following: lack of it support, lack of it literacy, lack of formal procedure and discipline, uneven it awareness and management skills, lack of financial resources, lack of human resources, raw material problems, production problems, etc. Proven statistics have shown that obstacles like financial constraints and issues that are related to electricity, power; raw material procurement needs to be even more effectively handled by the government. Additionally, the data that is collected and collated has revealed statistics that the general globalised business environment of India has always been favourable on an average level towards the growth of micro and small scale industries. Nagaraju (2015) studied the growing opportunities and challenges for SSIs in the emerging Indian market. SSIs occupy an important position in the Indian economy, contributing to more than half of the total industrial production in terms of value addition. The sector accounts for around 33% of the total export revenues earned and have on its payrolls the largest manpower next to the agriculture sector. In India's present liberalized scenario, the growth and survival of small-scale industry (SSI) depends to great extent on its ability to improvise, innovate, improve its operational efficiency and increase the productivity. The role played by small-scale industries in the financial growth of India in the recent past is analysed in depth in this study. Various parameters influencing the growth and development of SSIs and the problems encountered by important sector of Indian economy is thoroughly examined. The contribution of SSIs in terms of increased employment, higher production, higher volumes of export promotion and numerous other economic indicators are discussed. Conclusions that have been arrived at, based on the examination of the data indicate that the numerous policy initiatives implemented by the Government of India from independence have contributed to the growth of this sector. A few of the policies of the Government of India may, unfortunately, not be very useful in contributing to the efficiency of units in this sector because many non-viable units have been added to earlier unsuccessful entities. Siddiqui (2015) examined the problems encountered in the operation of Micro Small and Medium Enterprises in India. MSMEs perform a crucial role in the Indian economy by way of contributing around 60 per cent of the total number of people employed in export sector, around 40 per cent of GDP and more than half of total exports. Though there has been a significant increase in the number of MSMEs many challenges were faced by MSMEs during their growth. This research study looks at the specific challenges that were encountered by the MSME sector. To carry out this study, stratified random sampling was utilised, the number of participating © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 20
respondent MSMEs were 112, and the data was collated through structured questionnaires. The data was later analysed through ANOVA and data represented by tables. It was observed that the major problems faced by the MSMEs are: marketing their products and acute shortage of working capital. References Aggarwal, A. & Sato, T. (2011). Firm Dynamics and Productivity Growth in Indian Manufacturing: Evidence from Plant Level Panel Dataset. [Online]. Nada, Kobe. Available from: http://www.rieb.kobe-u.ac.jp/academic/ra/dp/English/DP2011-07.pdf. Arnold, J.M., Javorcik, B., Lipscomb, M. & Mattoo, A. (2016). Services Reform and Manufacturing Performance: Evidence from http://users.ox.ac.uk/~econ0247/India.pdf. India. [Online]. Available from: Aruna, N. (2015). Problems Faced By Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises – A Special Reference to Small Entrepreneurs in Visakhapatnam. IOSR Journal of Business and Management. [Online]. 17 (4). pp. 43–49. Available from: http://iosrjournals.org/iosr-jbm/papers/Vol17-issue4/Version- 5/F017454349.pdf. Babu, S.M. & Natarajan, R.R. (2013). Growth and spread of manufacturing productivity across regions in India. SpringerPlus. [Online]. http://springerplus.springeropen.com/articles/10.1186/2193-1801-2-53. 2 (1). pp. 53. Available from: Baliyan, S.K., Baliyan, K. & Ghosh, P. (2015). Technical Efficiency and Productivity Change in The Indian Manufacturing Industries: A State wise Analysis. Journal of Regional Development and Planning. 4 (2). pp. 45–60. Banga, R. & Goldar, B. (2004). Contribution of Services to Output Growth and Productivity in Indian Manufacturing: Pre and Post Reforms. ICRIER Working Paper. [Online]. New Delhi. Available from: http://www.icrier.org/pdf/wp139.pdf. Bhandari, A.K., Bhattacharya, M., Chen, J.-R., Pradeep, V. & Yang, C.-H. (2010). Productivity, Technical Progress And Scale Efficiency In Indian Manufacturing: New Evidence Using Non- Parametric Approach. Discussion http://www.buseco.monash.edu.au/units/dru/papers/working-papers- 10/1004productivitybhandaribhattacharya.pdf. Paper. [Online]. Available from: Bhat, T.P. (2014). Structural Changes in the Manufacturing Sector and Growth Prospect. ISID. [Online]. New Delhi. Available from: http://isid.org.in/pdf/WP173.pdf. © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 21
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Subrahmanya, B. (2005a). SMALL SCALE INDUSTRY IN INDIA UNDER GLOBALISATION: DOES SOLACE LIE IN TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION? International Journal of Management and Enterprise Development. 2 (1). pp. 122–139. Subrahmanya, M.H.B. (2005b). Small-scale industries in India in the globalisation era: performance and prospects. International Journal of Management and Enterprise Development. [Online]. 2 (1). pp. 122. Available from: http://www.inderscience.com/link.php?id=6034. Thomas, R. & Narayanan, K. (2012). Productivity heterogeneity and firm level exports: case of Indian manufacturing industry. In: The 11th Annual GEP Postgraduate Conference 2012. [Online]. 2012, United Kingdom. https://www.nottingham.ac.uk/gep/documents/conferences/2012/postgraduate-conference/ronny- thomas.pdf. Available from: Unel, B. (2003). Productivity trends in India’s manufacturing sectors in the last two decades. IMF Working Papers. No. 03/22. Vaijayanti, R. (2013). Problems Faced By the Small Scale Sector– An Analysis. National Monthly Refereed Journal of Research In Commerce & Management. [Online]. 2 (1). pp. 87–105. Available http://www.abhinavjournal.com/images/Commerce_&_Management/Jan13/13.pdf. from: Ziniya, S.N. (2014). Complexity Of Small Scale Industry In India. RESEARCH HUB – International Multidisciplinary Research Journal. [Online]. 1 (1). pp. 1–5. Available from: http://www.rhimrj.com/admin/upload/-upload-AUG14010109.pdf. © 2017-2018 All Rights Reserved, No part of this document should be modified/used without prior consent PhD Assistance ™ - Your trusted mentor since 2001 www.phdassistance.com India: Nungambakkam,Chennai-600034 # +91 8754446690 [email protected] 25
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Literature Review. Problems in the shelters. According to firsthand accounts from the homeless, many of these workers are largely motivated by their paychecks and not the people they are serving.
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Literature Review. By: NIK ALOESNITA BT NIK MOHD ALWI (PhD.) Center for Modern Languages & Human Sciences Universiti Malaysia Pahang. Presentation Outline: What “Literature Review” is and its importance. Selecting resources and materials. Reading for literature review.
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Literature Review. For Today:. Discussion: What is a literature review? Work shop of your rough draft Prep Assignment for Next Class Peer Critique. Tell me, class: What is a Literature Review ?. What is a Literature Review?:. Takes a position on the RESEARCH, not the topic.
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LITERATURE REVIEW. What is LR?. A literature review discusses published information in a particular subject area, and sometimes information in a particular subject area within a certain time period.
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Literature Review. Research Title:. Contrastive Rhetoric, Lexico-Grammatical Knowledge , Writing Expertise, and Metacognitive Knowledge: An Integrated Account of the Development of English Writing by Taiwanese Students. Chapter Two: Literature Review. 2.1 Language competence and performance
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Literature Review. Xingwei Wang. What is a literature review. What is a literature review. summary of the sources a recap of the important information of the source. What is a literature review. synthesis a re-organization , or a reshuffling, of that information.
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Literature Review. A Nondestructive Self-Reference Scheme for Spin-Transfer Torque Random Access Memory (STT-RAM) —— Yiran Chen, et al. Fengbo Ren. 09/03/2010. Background. STT-RAM: Spin Transfer Torque Random Access Memory Key memory device: magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJ)
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