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Where Can I Get Help Writing My Thesis Online?
You’ve spent years preparing for your master’s degree or PhD. You’ve read, studied and spent hours of time and energy writing papers. Now you’ve arrived at the culmination of all this effort: writing your thesis. There are plenty of compelling stories about the time and energy that students have spent drafting their dissertations and theses.
The good news is that you’re not alone. While you certainly don’t want to hire someone to write your thesis for you, which goes against most institution policies and puts your academic integrity at risk, you can get plenty of help with certain aspects of your thesis online. Whether you’re looking for a little guidance or extensive assistance, various services can make writing or editing your thesis go smoothly.
One of the greatest challenges of writing your thesis can be juggling your family or job responsibilities with your studies. The time that writing takes can add another layer of obligation to your already-packed schedule. Dissertation Editor is a company whose founder is a PhD-educated writer and professor, and it promises to help you complete your thesis or dissertation on time and in compliance with your university’s rules and regulations.
Dissertation Editor’s primary function is to guide you along in the writing process and provide a helping hand in understanding everything you need to take care of. It places you with a writer who specializes in your area of study, and this individual can help you organize and analyze your research while making sure that your thesis fits your writing style and personality. This company also specializes in helping with any statistical analysis that you use in your thesis.
If you’re concerned about using a service to help you write your thesis because you think it’ll be obvious that you hired help, don’t worry. Thesis Helpers puts its team of experienced writers to work for you to help you craft a thesis that finishes your degree on a high note. No matter what level of help you need, from narrowing down a topic to advanced editing and proofreading, they’re available to help.
The writers have advanced degrees in their areas of expertise, and one of the best things about Thesis Helpers is that it gives you ultimate say in the final product of your thesis. This company can help you with revisions and additional research, and you can rest assured that your thesis will meet anti-plagiarism standards.
Sometimes when you’re writing a thesis or dissertation, you can get stuck on one section or chapter. You may not need assistance writing the whole thing, but getting some help with the exact portion you’re struggling with can come in handy. That’s one of the strengths of using Best Dissertation . You don’t have to rely on it for help with your entire thesis if it’s not what you need.
Like most of the top thesis-assistance services, Best Dissertation employs writers with advanced degrees who specialize in various fields of study. What truly sets this company apart is the live support that it offers any time of the day or night. It claims to take the stress and strain out of writing your dissertation or thesis.
While some companies place a premium on helping you get your thesis written, others emphasize the editing and proofreading process. If you don’t need help with writing but need a hand with proofreading and editing, Scribbr is a good option for you. Its editors can help you get a grasp on the grammar and tone that are appropriate for academic writing.
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My Assignment Help
Writing a thesis has its own challenges that other academic writing simply doesn’t, which is why the team at My Assignment Help offers its particular brand of expertise. If you need assistance with a dissertation or thesis at the PhD or master’s level, its writers have the level of education and experience to help you write an expertly crafted and edited thesis.
My Assignment Help prides itself on hiring subject matter experts, meaning you can pair up with a helper who already has an advanced degree in your field. They understand the nuances of academic writing that are specific to your area of study, and they can provide advice on everything from making your abstract more unique to crafting a thought-provoking conclusion.
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How to structure a thesis
Starting a thesis can be daunting. There are so many questions in the beginning:
- How do you actually start your thesis?
- How do you structure it?
- What information should the individual chapters contain?
Each educational program has different demands on your thesis structure, which is why asking directly for the requirements of your program should be a first step. However, there is not much flexibility when it comes to structuring your thesis.
Abstract : a brief overview of your entire thesis.
Literature review : an evaluation of previous research on your topic that includes a discussion of gaps in the research and how your work may fill them.
Methods : outlines the methodology that you are using in your research.
Thesis : a large paper, or multi-chapter work, based on a topic relating to your field of study.
- A typical thesis structure
The abstract is the overview of your thesis and generally very short. This section should highlight the main contents of your thesis “at a glance” so that someone who is curious about your work can get the gist quickly. Take a look at our guide on how to write an abstract for more info.
Tip: Consider writing your abstract last, after you’ve written everything else.
The introduction to your thesis gives an overview of its basics or main points. It should answer the following questions:
- Why is the topic being studied?
- How is the topic being studied?
- What is being studied?
In answering the first question, you should know what your personal interest in this topic is and why it is relevant. Why does it matter?
To answer the "how", you should briefly explain how you are going to reach your research goal. Some prefer to answer that question in the methods chapter, but you can give a quick overview here.
And finally, you should explain "what" you are studying. You can also give background information here.
You should rewrite the introduction one last time when the writing is done to make sure it connects with your conclusion. Learn more about how to write a good thesis introduction in our thesis introduction guide .
3. Literature review
A literature review is often part of the introduction, but it can be a separate section. It is an evaluation of previous research on the topic showing that there are gaps that your research will attempt to fill. A few tips for your literature review:
- Use a wide array of sources
- Show both sides of the coin
- Make sure to cover the classics in your field
- Present everything in a clear and structured manner
For more insights on lit reviews, take a look at our guide on how to write a literature review .
The methodology chapter outlines which methods you choose to gather data, how the data is analyzed and justifies why you chose that methodology . It shows how your choice of design and research methods is suited to answering your research question.
Make sure to also explain what the pitfalls of your approach are and how you have tried to mitigate them. Discussing where your study might come up short can give you more credibility, since it shows the reader that you are aware of its limitations.
Tip: Use graphs and tables, where appropriate, to visualize your results.
The results chapter outlines what you found out in relation to your research questions or hypotheses. It generally contains the facts of your research and does not include a lot of analysis, because that happens mostly in the discussion chapter.
Clearly visualize your results, using tables and graphs, especially when summarizing, and be consistent in your way of reporting. This means sticking to one format to help the reader evaluate and compare the data.
The discussion chapter includes your own analysis and interpretation of the data you gathered , comments on your results and explains what they mean. This is your opportunity to show that you have understood your findings and their significance.
Point out the limitations of your study, provide explanations for unexpected results, and note any questions that remain unanswered.
This is probably your most important chapter. This is where you highlight that your research objectives have been achieved. You can also reiterate any limitations to your study and make suggestions for future research.
Remember to check if you have really answered all your research questions and hypotheses in this chapter. Your thesis should be tied up nicely in the conclusion and show clearly what you did, what results you got, and what you learned. Discover how to write a good conclusion in our thesis conclusion guide .
🔲 Literature review
- Frequently Asked Questions about structuring a thesis
The basic elements of a thesis are: Abstract, Introduction, Literature Review, Methods, Results, Discussion, and Conclusion.
It's recommended to start a thesis by writing the literature review first. This way you learn more about the sources, before jumping to the discussion or any other element.
It's recommended to write the abstract of a thesis last, once everything else is done. This way you will be able to provide a complete overview of your work.
Usually, the discussion is the longest part of a thesis. In this part you are supposed to point out the limitations of your study, provide explanations for unexpected results, and note any questions that remain unanswered.
The order of the basic elements of a thesis are: 1. Abstract, 2. Introduction, 3. Literature Review, 4. Methods, 5. Results, 6. Discussion, and 7. Conclusion.
- Related Articles
How to Write Your Thesis
I. thesis structure, list of figures, list of tables, introduction.
Be sure to include a hook at the beginning of the introduction. This is a statement of something sufficiently interesting to motivate your reader to read the rest of the paper, it is an important/interesting scientific problem that your paper either solves or addresses. You should draw the reader in and make them want to read the rest of the paper.
Note: Results vs. Discussion Sections
Ii. crosscutting issues, what are we looking for, planning ahead for your thesis, skimming vs. reading, giving credit.
- direct quotes or illustrations without quotation marks, without attribution
- direct quotes without quotation marks, with attribution
- concepts/ideas without attribution
- concepts/ideas with sloppy attribution
- omitting or fabricating data or results
III. Editing Your Thesis
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- GETTING STARTED
Getting to the main article
Choosing your route
Setting research questions/ hypotheses
Building the theoretical case
Setting your research strategy
Deciding what order to write up the chapters.
At the end of the day, it doesn't matter what order you choose to write up the various chapters in your dissertation, but we would recommend one or two approaches: (a) the traditional route and (b) our preferred route.
APPROACH A The traditional route
The traditional route is one that you will see a lot of students follow. It breaks the write up into three parts :
Write up the core chapters first, typically chapter-by-chapter (i.e., Chapter One: Introduction , followed by Chapter Two: Literature Review , Chapter Three: Research Strategy , Chapter Four: Results and Chapter Five: Discussion/Conclusion ), before finishing with the Abstract and Title ;
Complete your References and Appendices ;
Deal with Dissertation Formatting , which includes completing your Table of Contents , List of Tables and Figures and Abbreviations .
If you managed to find time to write up Chapter One: Introduction , Chapter Two: Literature Review and Chapter Three: Research Strategy before you started to analyse your data, the traditional route is often an appropriate route to take. However, we would still suggest working on your References and Dissertation Formatting before moving on to write up any more of the major chapters because this can save you a lot of time latter on (i.e., the reference list and dissertation formatting often takes a lot more time to get right than students think, and can put unnecessary time pressure on the write up process as your dissertation deadline gets closer).
APPROACH B Our preferred route
We suggest breaking up the write up into seven parts:
Start by focusing on Dissertation Formatting because this allows you to set up your document in such a way that it is easier to update as you go along, saving you time towards the end of the dissertation process;
Write up Chapter One: Introduction next because it helps to remind you what your dissertation is about, what you are trying to achieve, why it is important, and what research questions/hypotheses you will answer later on;
Carry out your Data Analysis (if you haven't already) and write up Chapter Four: Results because it is not only a very challenging chapter, but can have a big influence on your available word count for the remaining chapters;
Write up Chapter Two: Literature Review and Chapter Three: Research Strategy , which can be the most time consuming chapters, but which you should already know all you need to complete because of the work you did in STAGE FIVE: Building the theoretical case and STAGE SIX: Setting the research strategy ;
Complete the majority of your References at this stage to avoid finding yourself with insufficient time to complete these at the end of the dissertation process;
Write up Chapter Five: Discussion/Conclusion , followed by your Abstract and Title , which should flow naturally from the five main chapters you have already written up (i.e., chapters one to five);
Complete your Appendices , finish off any References , before updating the formatting you set up at the start of the write up process (i.e., you should be able to automatically update your Table of Contents , List of Tables and List of Figures with just a couple of clicks of the mouse!).
We prefer this approach to the traditional one we highlighted previously because we find it to (a) be the most time efficient, (b) better take into account available word count, and (c) lead to fewer nasty last minute surprises.
Once you have worked through all 10 STAGES within The Route #1 Process , the Route #1: Chapter-by-Chapter section of Lærd Dissertation helps you helps you through each section of every chapter of the dissertation (i.e., from Formatting to Title , Abstract , Introduction , Literature Review , Research Strategy , Results , Discussion/Conclusions , References and Appendices ).
The guides in this section will help you through the main components of writing up, whether you are following Route A: Duplication , Route B: Generalisation or Route C: Extension . In each section of every chapter, we make suggestions about (a) the structure of the chapter, (b) what components to include, and (c) what you are trying to say in each of the components, whilst (d) providing examples to highlight our suggestions. You can access the Route #1: Chapter-by-Chapter section here .
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- Technische Universität München
Typical Structure of a Bachelor's or Master's Thesis
Most thesis are structured as shown below. Each part may be split into several chapter. For example, the part introduction may have two separate chapters for a the general introduction to the topic and the research question. But the parts commonly appear in the following order:
- Acknowledgement (Optional)
Table of Contents
1. introduction, 2. literature review, 3. data collection, 4. analysis, 5. conclusions, list of references, statement of independent work.
- Appendix (Optional)
TUM provides a template for theses that is recommended to use. You can download this template in Word or LaTeX format (login with your TUM account required to access).
There is no mandatory length of a thesis. Most well-written master's theses have between 50 and 80 pages, Bachelor's theses typically have between 40 and 60 pages. However, depending on your topic and your writing style, more or fewer pages may be appropriate. Be aware that your thesis will only be evaluated based on the written document and the defense. If you did some nice work (that you might have shown to your adviser at some point) and forget to add it to your written document, it cannot be evaluated.
The title page should include the following information:
- Technical University of Munich Logo
- Title of the thesis
- Subtitle of the thesis (optional)
- Full author name
- Name of advisers
It is also nice (but optional) to add a pretty graphic from your research to the title page.
In this part, you acknowledge any support you may have gotten while preparing your thesis. For example, if an agency provided you with data, you definitely should thank them here. It is also not uncommon to offer personal thank to friends and/or family who supported the thesis. You may also mention your adviser if (s)he was helpful, but that is optional of course.
If you received a scholarship that supported you during the time you wrote your thesis, you definitely should acknowledge that support here as well.
The summary is a key part of your thesis and part of what is evaluated by your thesis committee. Make sure to reserve sufficient time at the very end to write a very good summary. The summary should be about one page long and include your research question, describe the data you used, briefly describe the methodology applied and (very important) also summarize the results you found.
The table of contents lists all chapters and subchapters of your thesis and provides the page number where each chapter starts. Word and LaTeX offer automated functions to create a table of contents if you defined headers properly. Make sure to update the table of contents before you print to ensure that all page numbers are correct.
Following the table of contents, you also need to provide a list of figures and a list of tables. Likewise, these lists also provide the page number where the figures and tables can be found. Again, word and LaTeX provide automated functions for creating such lists.
The introduction shall provide the reader with an entryway to your topic. Commonly, the introduction is not too technical and provides the reader with a very general introduction why the topic of the thesis is relevant. Empirical examples are particular popular in introductions (make sure to provide citations), such as:
Thesis Topic: Managing Freight Flows to Reduce Highway Maintenance Costs
The first sentence of introduction could be: Freight flows largely define the costs for maintaining infrastructure, as the rear axles of a typical 13 ton van cause 1,000-times the structural damage of a car (Small, Winston, and Evans 1989: 11).
The introduction should also provide at least one research question that you try to answer. Last but not least, the introduction should also introduce the structure of the thesis (i.e., which chapters the reader should expect) in one paragraph.
The literature review is a core element of your thesis and shows that you are capable of working scientifically. As you explain what other researchers have found on your topic, the reader will realize that you know this topic extremely well. This will build trust that you can provide a piece of work yourself that is scientifically relevant.
Equally important, you will need to identify a gap in the literature that you intent to fill. This is how you justify your thesis, and it helps the reader to assess the importance of your work. This gap may be methodological ("I will develop a new method that is able to answer my research question, which previously applied methods cannot as well."), use new data ("Other researchers used database X, but I will use data retrieved by Y."), or a new application ("This method has never been applied to the city of Munich.").
Describe in detail which data you use and how you collect these data. This may include qualitative data ("I analyze these in-depth travel behavior surveys."), or statistics you use, or data you collect yourself. The description should be as detailed that a very good fellow student in your field would be able to more or less reproduce your work.
If you conduct a case study, the study area needs to be introduced here.
Obviously, here you describe in great detail the actual analysis you conducted. The level of detail should be sufficient to allow a very smart fellow student in your field to reproduce more or less your research.
The most important at the beginning: The chapter Conclusions does not contain a summary of your thesis! The summary is provided in the abstract of the beginning of your thesis, but not here.
Instead, the conclusions shall do what the title suggests: Synthesize your findings and conclude what we learn from that. It will be useful to refer to your research question(s) and discuss if those were confirmed or rejected by your research. You may also refer back to you literature review and compare your findings with the findings that others have published.
This is also a good place to talk about limitations of your research. By clearly stating what your research is not able to do well, your thesis becomes stronger. If you show that you understand what your methodology misses, you show the reader that you understand very well what you research has accomplished, and what may need further research.
Which brings us to another topic you should touch on in your conclusions: What are future research needs? If a fellow student of you wanted to build on your research, what would be the next logical step that (s)he should try to address?
Last but not least, you may also assess if your findings have practical implications. Examples: Should waste water engineers use an additional test to assess water quality? Should transportation planners use different data to assess the level of service?
Here you list all references that were cited in your work, and only those references. References you read but did not cite do not appear here. After all, they were not relevant enough for this thesis to be cited, so they do not belong in your list of references.
If you use a reference management system (highly recommended), the list of references is created automatically. LaTeX also nicely integrated with Bibtex to automatically create a list of references. TUM offers Citavi and Endnote for free to students (access here , log in required), and there are a number of other systems that also may work well for you (see this list on wikipedia).
Finally, you need to provide a statement that reads as follows:
In German: Ich versichere hiermit, dass ich die von mir eingereichte Abschlussarbeit selbstständig verfasst und keine anderen als die angegebenen Quellen und Hilfsmittel benutzt habe.
Or in English: I hereby confirm that this thesis was written independently by myself without the use of any sources beyond those cited, and all passages and ideas taken from other sources are cited accordingly.
Appendix (or Appendices)
You may provide additional information in appendices. Some researchers are of the opinion that if something is important it should go into the main body of the thesis; and if it doesn't deserve being in the main body of the thesis, it should not be provided at all. Others say that is may be useful to provide extensive tables, mathematical proofs or series of graphics in the appendix if they are not required to understand the main text but useful for the interested reader.
It is very uncommon to provide a single graphic or a single table in the appendix. Those usually work better in the main body of the text. Commonly, only material that covers several pages would go into the appendix, it it distracts the reader if all those materials were shown in the main body of the thesis.
Extensive appendices may be left out in the printed version and only be provided on a CD or a thumb drive. Note, however, that some advisers refuse to open any files stored on a CD or a thumb drive while evaluating your thesis. As a rule of thumb, your thesis needs to be understandable without reading any appendices.
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8 Essential Parts of a Thesis Paper and What They Are Responsible For
Actually, an assignment to write a thesis paper should not be intimidating. The fact that thesis papers have a formal structure, and one of the key components to writing the paper is understanding the parts of a thesis paper. The flow of a thesis paper goes from general to very specific and then back to general. Each part of the thesis paper plays a crucial element in the flow and provides the writer with a roadmap.
Here are the common components of the thesis paper and their role:
This needs to be very specific and give a clear indication of the topic to be discussed. The title should also contain keywords that can be used in future reviews.
An abstract is a short review of the overall content of the paper. In a very few words, the abstract must provide four elements:
- a synopsis of the paper;
- an introduction to the topic and the specifics being addressed;
- a statement on any research methodology;
- a general statement on the results and findings.
Abstracts are typically written last.
The first part of the introduction introduces the broad topic along with some basic background information. It narrows the topic to the specific aspect which will be presented in the paper. The introduction states the purpose of the paper. It also focuses on the writer’s preparation of the subsequent material while justifying the need for the research.
4. Literature Review
The literature review describes previously published research and is a brief description of how it specifically relates to the current research problem. The prevailing theories related to the current topic are examined. The literature review should only include current and credible sources, such as peer-reviewed journals and academic books, should be included in the review.
This section shows how the research project was designed and how the study research was conducted. Ideally, the reader should be able to easily replicate the study.
The results section is the main area of the thesis paper. The presentation of the results will vary depending on whether the study was qualitative or quantitative. Make sure the results section is focused only on the results of the research and does not include charts or tables.
It is important to keep the results section factual and avoid discussions of the significance or meaning of the findings.
In this section, the original hypothesis presented in the thesis sentence is validated. The discussion should also show how the conclusion conforms to or differs from previously noted studies and research along with a discussion of how the results differ or conform to the research noted along with any caveats.
The list of academic sources is listed in the alphabetical order. The style used for the bibliography (APA, MLA, etc.) will depend on the institution the paper has to be submitted to.
Mind these parts, and you will be 100% sure that your piece of writing meets all the essential demands and will bring you the highest possible results.
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How to Structure a Thesis: A Complete Guide
Writing a thesis can be an overwhelming task for many college and graduate students. Managing all the elements associated with a thesis while ensuring that the quality is not compromised can be challenging. However, what is even more strenuous is deciding on a thesis's layout. "How to structure a thesis" is a question that several final-year students struggle to answer. And understandably so, as all colleges and universities have their guidelines for drafting a thesis. However, there is an immutable structure that's common for every thesis. In this brief guide, we will take a look at this structure and analyze each of its components.
This guide discusses how to structure a thesis effectively. To give you an opportunity to practice proofreading, we have left a few spelling, punctuation, or grammatical errors in the text. See if you can spot them! If you spot the errors correctly, you will be entitled to a 10% discount.
A thesis or dissertation is a long academic document that a master's or doctoral candidate writes to obtain a relevant academic degree. Hence, writing a quality thesis is crucial for college and university students. A good thesis demonstrates a student's academic prowess in their field of study as well as helps hone their analytical and research skills. Writing a thesis can be an overwhelming task for many college and graduate students. Managing all the elements associated with a thesis while ensuring that the quality is not compromised can be challenging. However, what is even more strenuous is deciding on a thesis's layout.
"How to structure a thesis" is a question that several final-year students struggle to answer. And understandably so, as all colleges and universities have their guidelines for drafting a thesis. However, there is an immutable structure that's common for every thesis. In this brief guide, we will take a look at this structure and analyze each of its components. If you are also struggling to initiate the writing process for your thesis, follow this guide and get over your writer’s block.
How to Structure a Thesis: Examining the Constituents of a Thesis Structure
Here we have a list of all major sections that a thesis structure generally comprises. The entire thesis structure is segregated into 3 sections, with each section comprising its relevant subsections to facilitate greater legibility.
Front/Preliminary Matter of a Thesis Structure
An abstract is a concise summary of an entire thesis and consists of the condensation of your entire thesis. A good abstract is precise, concise (usually not more than 250 words) and emphasizes the importance of the document. When writing an abstract, make sure you explicitly mention the crux of your thesis. Also, avoid reiterating what you have mentioned in the title of your document.
Body of a Thesis Structure
The introduction chapter of your thesis outlines its core arguments, hypotheses, and results. It is longer than the abstract and contains adequate background information on your topic of interest. Furthermore, it establishes the relevance of your thesis by highlighting its contribution to the knowledge base of its topic. Writing a gripping introduction helps the readers understand the context of your thesis. According to USNSW Sydney, the introduction of a thesis should have the following stages:
State the general topic and give some background
Provide a review of the literature related to the thesis subject
Define the terms and scope of the thesis topic
Outline the existing situation
Evaluate the current situation and identify the gap in the literature
Identify the importance of the proposed research
State the main research questions
State the purpose of the study and/or research objectives
State the study hypotheses
Outline the order of information in the thesis
Outline the methodology.
3. Literature review
The literature review chapter sets the premise of your thesis. It examines and evaluates the research works that’s been conducted so far on your thesis topic and passively highlights the contributions of your thesis.
A literature review is a survey of academic sources on a specific subject, providing an overview of current knowledge, allowing you to discuss relevant theories, methods, and gaps in the existing research. Writing a literature review contains finding relevant publications, critically analyzing the sources, and explaining your findings in the literature. A well-written literature review doesn’t only summarize sources, it also aims to analyze, synthesize, and critically evaluate to give a clear picture of the state of knowledge on the topic.
To write an impeccable literature review, consult a plethora of sources and mention the canon related to your thesis topic. Also, put forward your review in a logical, chronological, and structured manner to better outline the knowledge gaps in your field of study and how your thesis will fill them.
The following simple and straightforward tips can act as the exhaustive rubric and offer meaningful insight to prospective authors on how to formulate a flawless literature review:
Step 1. Probe similar works for a well-structured literature review
Step 2. Analyze, not just synthesize: Authors should provide a detailed critique of the subject
Step 3. Organize your literature review systematically
Step 4. Establish the purview: Authors should specify the scope of the literature review
Step 5. Abstain from plagiarism
Step 6 . Be mindful of the language
As the name suggests, the methodology section of a thesis consists of all methods and procedures you have used in your thesis. A well-written methodology accentuates the plausibility of your research methods. In addition, it enables your readers to understand why you chose specific methods and how they are justified for your research.
To garner more credibility, you can include the pitfalls and difficulties associated with your choice of research methods. The methodology section is an unavoidable part of a thesis or a research paper. Considering errors in the methodology section enervates the entire thesis.
Follow the steps below to write a perfect methodology for a thesis:
a. Give an outline of the research design
b. Don’t forget to define the philosophy behind the research
c. Mention the research approach
d. Introduce the research methods
e. Note the following points to highlight in the methodology. No matter what methodology you have chosen, you have to focus on the following points:
Explain sampling strategy.
Clearly state the procedure of the research paper.
Mention how you collect the data. (Data collection)
Explain how data are analyzed for your research. (Data analysis). Suppose you have written in qualitative strategy like thematic analysis, mention the researcher you have followed.
Mention the validity of the data and result.
Discuss all ethical aspects of your research paper.
f. Avail professional proofreading and editing services
g. Most important tips to compose an impactful methodology for a dissertation
Don’t drift from your objective and the purpose of your dissertation.
Explore scholarly research papers and their methodology sections to have a better idea.
Plan a proper writing structure.
Understand your audience and target group.
Don’t make mistakes in citing relevant sources. You may use APA and MLA citation
Refer to all the hurdles you have experienced while writing your dissertation.
Make sure to rectify grammatical and punctuation errors.
Ensure that the section is readable and doesn’t consist of long and complex sentences. Long sentences can hamper the tone of the methodology.
This section comprises the outcomes of your research work. It includes all the observations you made and the answers to all your hypotheses in the thesis. When writing the “results” chapter, include only factual data and format it to be distinguishable. Use tables, graphs, subheadings, and generic comments for the results. The aim is to enable your readers to discern the result of your research.
The discussion chapter of your thesis should begin with a brief summarization of the outcome of your research work. It should explain how your results address your hypotheses and highlight any repetitions in your observations. You can also add comments on how you want the readers to interpret your results and about your agreements and disagreements with the available research work in your field.
Writing a flawless thesis requires much more than only subject matter expertise. It requires expertise, experience, and in-depth thinking, along with sharp intelligence. Though most students add a discussion chapter in their thesis or dissertation, many of them end up messing up the essay or missing out on the central issues.
A discussion chapter in a thesis is a place where you have the chance to delving into the analysis, importance, and relevance of your research. This section focuses on explaining and analyzing what you have researched, presenting how it is associated with the existing literature. It is also a place for argument supporting your entire discussion.
We often find that people seek thesis writing help from experienced editing and proofreading services to prepare a flawless discussion chapter. However, the following helpful tips can help you design a perfect master's or Ph.D.. thesis with an excellent discussion chapter:
Understand the objective of your thesis
Determine a clear structure
Usage of grammar and tense
Refer to hypotheses and literature review
Evaluate your results and compare them with existing studies
Understand the limitation of your research
Don’t be afraid to be unique
Don’t forget to avail a professional thesis editing and proofreading service
Click here to review the details of the aforementioned tips.
The following 5 questions might be helpful to write a sound discussion section:
How well do you understand the objective of your study?
What message is conveyed by your results?
How do your findings compare to findings in literature?
Why should your findings matter?
In what light should your findings be viewed?
The final section of your document consists of a precise answer to your hypothesis. In addition, the “conclusion” chapter of your thesis should stress the achievement of the aims of your thesis. You should also include certain limitations of your research to convey the fact that there is still scope for further research in your field.
The end matter of a thesis structure
The components of this section include an acknowledgment, a bibliography, and (occasionally) an appendix.
The first step to writing a thesis is to chalk out its layout. Doing so not only helps you deal with the writing process one step at a time but also enables you to better attend to each component of a thesis structure.
Also, before you follow this thesis structure, make sure to check with your university for “how to structure a thesis” guidelines. If the guidelines offered by your institution deviate slightly from what’s mentioned in this guide, then make sure to prioritize the former.
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Best Edit & Proof expert editors and proofreaders focus on offering papers with proper tone, content, and style of academic writing, and also provide an upscale editing and proofreading service for you. If you consider our pieces of advice, you will witness a notable increase in the chance for your research manuscript to be accepted by the publishers. We work together as an academic writing style guide by bestowing subject-area editing and proofreading around several categorized writing styles. With the group of our expert editors, you will always find us all set to help you identify the tone and style that your manuscript needs to get a nod from the publishers.
English formatting service for theses and dissertations
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Proofreading improves your writing, and it is a highly crucial step for a perfectly written academic paper. It necessitates a broad-ranging comprehension to fix a paper excellently and requires English proficiency to identify and correct errors. When you want to ensure that your paper is error-free in terms of grammar, punctuation, spelling, and formatting, you need a proofreading service.
For every academic scholar, whether a high school student or a doctoral candidate, understanding the different types of academic writing and knowing when and how to implement them is crucial. Academic writing is broadly classified into 4 distinct categories: analytical, descriptive, persuasive, and critical writing. Each of these categories has certain defining features and different purposes; however, an academic document can feature the usage of more than one of these types in conjunction.
After writing your manuscript, you may likely decide on an editor to perform the final checks on your document. Mostly, authors make the mistake of sending their manuscripts to their editors, without providing adequate information about specifications on the service they seek. With such limited information, your editor may produce an unsatisfactory job with limited information at his/her disposal. Thus, to ensure that your editors provide the best possible service, which will prevent journals from rejecting your manuscripts on the grounds of noncompliance to journal requirements, the following information should be provided beforehand.
Writing a research paper involves scrutinizing a plethora of research material to bring forth plausible conclusions. However, no matter the degree of impeccability and thoroughness of the research, successfully transmuting it into words takes a grave amount of practice and endurance. Thus, it is not uncommon to see amateur and even veteran scholarly writers commit research writing mistakes in their papers now and then. Following the narrative, this article will describe 5 research writing mistakes that frequently blemish the works of academic writers. It will also shed some much-needed light on the tips to amend and avoid these mistakes.
At the end of most undergraduate or postgraduate degrees, you are required to submit a thesis or a dissertation based on original research. The way of writing and the structure of a dissertation depends on your field of study and sometimes your program. However, it is largely divided into at least four or five chapters, including the introduction and conclusion. A dissertation is an extended usually written treatment of a subject, specifically one submitted for a doctorate. This article provides a step-by-step guide on writing and structuring a dissertation
After successfully specifying your project’s research problem, penning a problem statement pursues. Two crucial properties of an efficient problem statement are its conciseness and tangibility.
Research methods are specific procedures for collecting and analyzing data. Therefore, your research methods form the most critical part of your research design. You must make two crucial decisions during your method planning.
Is It Necessary To Write The Thesis Chapters In The Order They Are Framed?
- Is It Necessary To Write
By admin Category : Writing and Speaking
There is always a starting point, whether it is to write a thesis chapter or to plan the thesis framework. Usually, planning comes first in order to set priorities.
We can consider the thesis writing process as a process of drawing. Just like the initial outline, there has to be a clarity of what you need to do like setting your research objectives and hypothesis so that you can set the research area and do the literature review.
In addition to that, just like coloring an image, let’s say an apply, one can either color the leaf first and then the apple because in any way the result will be the same. Like the table of content can either be made beforehand and then the content chapters can be written or it can be done vice-versa.
However, to give shades to the upper most layer, different layers of color can be used without which the color pigmentation can go wrong. Same is the case with thesis chapter writing. In order to derive the result, you have to go through the process of questionnaire development, data collection, data analysis, and data interpretation. It cannot be done in any different order.
The General Format of A PhD Thesis
Moving on from our drawing example, it is time to talk about PhD Thesis writing in a clear and straightforward way.
A PhD Thesis needs to be presented in a general order which might differ from one another depending on the subject, research type, and content requirement. Like some research work has the research methodology chapter and others don’t. Below is the PhD Thesis structure and chapters which need to be arranged in the given order.
- Table of Contents
- List of Figures (Depending on the Subject and Research)
- List of Tables (Depending on the Subject and Research)
- Literature Review
- Research Methodology
- Recommendations & Acknowledgements
This is a general framework or say structure in which PhD Thesis is presented. Some universities come up with guidelines where two chapters are combined into one like results and discussions as one chapter; whereas, other universities follow the separated framework. However it does not change the fact and the order in which these chapters or sections are written.
Simple Approach Of Writing
To keep it simple for the beginners and young researchers, let us state i w]very clearly that the order of writing chapters in a thesis may or may not be the same as the order in which they are written .
Here is a simplified approach that one needs to follow in order to write their PhD research thesis.
- The structure needs to be planned in a logical order to support the research argument before actually writing it down.
- Based on the arguments, the graphics, tables, and illustrations need o be finalised (where and when necessary).
- Then content for the main sections need to be decided; background (includes the introduction part), description of argument made in the research (literature review), pointing out the reasoning (research objectives and scope), finding out the ways to analyse those arguments (research methodology), and finally coming to the answers (results, discussions and conclusions).
- After the content has been sorted, it becomes important to plan the chapters in which that content needs to be divided and under which section or subsection.
- Lastly, the planning part needs to move to the writing part and it should be decided in terms of paragraphs, sentences and words rather than going the other way.
BONUS : Tips To Write Down Your PhD Thesis
Writing a PhD does not depend on the framework, it depends on the priority. The priority in which you need the content and information to keep writing and progressing without getting stuck or missing an important step.
After working with expert researchers and seeing how a research work proceeds, we have brought some tips which can help you in planning, writing, and presenting your PhD Thesis.
- Make preliminary notes on the background of your research topic which will help in setting objectives as well as will be used in writing the introduction chapter.
- While researching find a research gap, do literature study, come across reliable research methodology, and accordingly plan your data collection techniques.
- After getting the data, decide on the research hypothesis and objectives which will help you in finalising how you need to present the data based on which you can choose the research methodology.
- Evaluate the data and findings (based on your research type), and derive the results and one or two sentence interpretation.
- Now, all the major areas have been covered and these points can now be used to start writing the final PhD thesis. Put the information in the selected chapters, sections, and subsections in a way they make the research understandable and sorted.
- Work on the table of contents, lists, conclusions, references, recommendations, and abstract.
- Take a short break and after that, go through your PhD thesis to edit it. See the areas which need to be improved and work on those. Reduce or increase the content wherever necessary to set a consistency in the reading flow.
- Once assured, submit your work.
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Dedication, acknowledgements, preface (optional), table of contents.
- List of Tables, Figures, and Illustrations
List of Abbreviations
List of symbols.
- Non-Traditional Formats
- Font Type and Size
- Spacing and Indentation
- Tables, Figures, and Illustrations
- Formatting Previously Published Work
- Internet Distribution
- Open Access
- Registering Copyright
- Using Copyrighted Materials
- Use of Your Own Previously Published Materials
- Submission Steps
- Submission Checklist
- Sample Pages
I. Order and Components
Please see the sample thesis or dissertation pages throughout and at the end of this document for illustrations. The following order is required for components of your thesis or dissertation:
- Dedication, Acknowledgements, and Preface (each optional)
- Table of Contents, with page numbers
- List of Tables, List of Figures, or List of Illustrations, with titles and page numbers (if applicable)
- List of Abbreviations (if applicable)
- List of Symbols (if applicable)
- Introduction, if any
- Main body, with consistent subheadings as appropriate
- Appendices (if applicable)
- Endnotes (if applicable)
- References (see section on References for options)
Many of the components following the title and copyright pages have required headings and formatting guidelines, which are described in the following sections.
Please consult the Sample Pages to compare your document to the requirements. A Checklist is provided to assist you in ensuring your thesis or dissertation meets all formatting guidelines.
The title page of a thesis or dissertation must include the following information:
- The title of the thesis or dissertation in all capital letters and centered 2″ below the top of the page.
- Your name, centered 1″ below the title. Do not include titles, degrees, or identifiers. The name you use here does not need to exactly match the name on your university records, but we recommend considering how you will want your name to appear in professional publications in the future.
Notes on this statement:
- When indicating your degree in the second bracketed space, use the full degree name (i.e., Doctor of Philosophy, not Ph.D. or PHD; Master of Public Health, not M.P.H. or MPH; Master of Social Work, not M.S.W. or MSW).
- List your department, school, or curriculum rather than your subject area or specialty discipline in the third bracketed space. You may include your subject area or specialty discipline in parentheses (i.e., Department of Romance Languages (French); School of Pharmacy (Molecular Pharmaceutics); School of Education (School Psychology); or similar official area).
- If you wish to include both your department and school names, list the school at the end of the statement (i.e., Department of Pharmacology in the School of Medicine).
- A dissertation submitted to the faculty at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of Public Policy.
- A thesis submitted to the faculty at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in the School of Dentistry (Endodontics).
- A thesis submitted to the faculty at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in the Department of Nutrition in the Gillings School of Global Public Health.
- A dissertation submitted to the faculty at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the School of Education (Cultural Studies and Literacies).
- The words “Chapel Hill” must be centered 1″ below the statement.
- One single-spaced line below that, center the year in which your committee approves the completed thesis or dissertation. This need not be the year you graduate.
- Approximately 2/3 of the way across the page on the right-hand side of the page, 1″ below the year, include the phrase “Approved by:” (with colon) followed by each faculty member's name on subsequent double-spaced lines. Do not include titles such as Professor, Doctor, Dr., PhD, or any identifiers such as “chair” or “advisor” before or after any names. Line up the first letter of each name on the left under the “A” in the “Approved by:” line. If a name is too long to fit on one line, move this entire section of text slightly to the left so that formatting can be maintained.
- No signatures, signature lines, or page numbers should be included on the title page.
Include a copyright page with the following information single-spaced and centered 2″ above the bottom of the page:
© Year Author's Full Name (as it appears on the title page) ALL RIGHTS RESERVED
This page immediately follows the title page. It should be numbered with the lower case Roman numeral ii centered with a 1/2″ margin from the bottom edge.
Inclusion of this page offers you, as the author, additional protection against copyright infringement as it eliminates any question of authorship and copyright ownership. You do not need to file for copyright in order to include this statement in your thesis or dissertation. However, filing for copyright can offer other protections.
See Section IV for more information on copyrighting your thesis or dissertation.
Include an abstract page following these guidelines:
- Include the heading “ABSTRACT” in all capital letters, and center it 2″ below the top of the page.
- One double-spaced line below “ABSTRACT”, center your name, followed by a colon and the title of the thesis or dissertation. Use as many lines as necessary. Be sure that your name and the title exactly match the name and title used on the Title page.
- One single-spaced line below the title, center the phrase “(Under the direction of [advisor's name])”. Include the phrase in parentheses. Include the first and last name(s) of your advisor or formal co-advisors. Do not include the name of other committee members. Use the advisor's name only; do not include any professional titles such as PhD, Professor, or Dr. or any identifiers such as “chair” or “advisor”.
- Skip one double-spaced line and begin the abstract. The text of your abstract must be double-spaced and aligned with the document's left margin with the exception of indenting new paragraphs. Do not center or right-justify the abstract.
- Abstracts cannot exceed 150 words for a thesis or 350 words for a dissertation.
- Number the abstract page with the lower case Roman numeral iii (and iv, if more than one page) centered with a 1/2″ margin from the bottom edge.
Please write and proofread your abstract carefully. When possible, avoid including symbols or foreign words in your abstract, as they cannot be indexed or searched. Avoid mathematical formulas, diagrams, and other illustrative materials in the abstract. Offer a brief description of your thesis or dissertation and a concise summary of its conclusions. Be sure to describe the subject and focus of your work with clear details and avoid including lengthy explanations or opinions.
Your title and abstract will be used by search engines to help potential audiences locate your work, so clarity will help to draw the attention of your targeted readers.
You have an option to include a dedication, acknowledgements, or preface. If you choose to include any or all of these elements, give each its own page(s).
A dedication is a message from the author prefixed to a work in tribute to a person, group, or cause. Most dedications are short statements of tribute beginning with “To…” such as “To my family”.
Acknowledgements are the author's statement of gratitude to and recognition of the people and institutions that helped the author's research and writing.
A preface is a statement of the author's reasons for undertaking the work and other personal comments that are not directly germane to the materials presented in other sections of the thesis or dissertation. These reasons tend to be of a personal nature.
Any of the pages must be prepared following these guidelines:
- Do not place a heading on the dedication page.
- The text of short dedications must be centered and begin 2″ from the top of the page.
- Headings are required for the “ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS” and “PREFACE” pages. Headings must be in all capital letters and centered 2″ below the top of the page.
- The text of the acknowledgements and preface pages must begin one double-spaced line below the heading, be double-spaced, and be aligned with the document's left margin with the exception of indenting new paragraphs.
- Subsequent pages of text return to the 1″ top margin.
- The page(s) must be numbered with consecutive lower case Roman numerals (starting with the page number after the abstract) centered with a 1/2″ margin from the bottom edge.
Include a table of contents following these guidelines:
- Include the heading “TABLE OF CONTENTS” in all capital letters, and center it 2″ below the top of the page.
- Include one double-spaced line between the heading and the first entry.
- The table of contents should not contain listings for the pages that precede it, but it must list all parts of the thesis or dissertation that follow it.
- If relevant, be sure to list all appendices and a references section in your table of contents. Include page numbers for these items but do not assign separate chapter numbers.
- Entries must align with the document's left margin or be indented to the right of the left page margin using consistent tabs.
- Major subheadings within chapters must be included in the table of contents. The subheading(s) should be indented to the right of the left page margin using consistent tabs.
- If an entry takes up more than one line, break up the entry about three-fourths of the way across the page and place the rest of the text on a second line, single-spacing the two lines.
- Include one double-spaced line between each entry.
- Page numbers listed in the table of contents must be located just inside the right page margin with leaders (lines of periods) filling out the space between the end of the entry and the page number. The last digit of each number must line up on the right margin.
- Information included in the table of contents must match the headings, major subheadings, and numbering used in the body of the thesis or dissertation.
- The Table of Contents page(s) must be numbered with consecutive lower case Roman numerals centered with a 1/2″ margin from the bottom edge.
Lists of Tables, Figures, and Illustrations
If applicable, include a list of tables, list of figures, and/or list of illustrations following these guidelines:
- Include the heading(s) in all capital letters, centered 1″ below the top of the page.
- Each entry must include a number, title, and page number.
- Assign each table, figure, or illustration in your thesis or dissertation an Arabic numeral. You may number consecutively throughout the entire work (e.g., Figure 1, Figure 2, etc.), or you may assign a two-part Arabic numeral with the first number designating the chapter in which it appears, separated by a period, followed by a second number to indicate its consecutive placement in the chapter (e.g., Table 3.2 is the second table in Chapter Three).
- Numerals and titles must align with the document's left margin or be indented to the right of the left page margin using consistent tabs.
- Page numbers must be located just inside the right page margin with leaders (lines of periods) filling out the space between the end of the entry and the page number. The last digit of each number must line up on the right margin.
- Numbers, titles, and page numbers must each match the corresponding numbers, titles, and page numbers appearing in the thesis or dissertation.
- All Lists of Tables, Figures, and Illustrations page(s) must be numbered with consecutive lower case Roman numerals centered with a 1/2″ margin from the bottom edge.
If you use abbreviations extensively in your thesis or dissertation, you must include a list of abbreviations and their corresponding definitions following these guidelines:
- Include the heading “LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS” in all capital letters, and center it 1″ below the top of the page.
- Arrange your abbreviations alphabetically.
- Abbreviations must align with the document's left margin or be indented to the right of the left page margin using consistent tabs.
- If an entry takes up more than one line, single-space between the two lines.
- The List of Abbreviations page(s) must be numbered with consecutive lower case Roman numerals centered with a 1/2″ margin from the bottom edge.
If you use symbols in your thesis or dissertation, you may combine them with your abbreviations, titling the section “LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS”, or you may set up a separate list of symbols and their definitions by following the formatting instructions above for abbreviations. The heading you choose must be in all capital letters and centered 1″ below the top of the page.
Graduate Research Hub
- Preparing my thesis
- Incorporating your published work in your thesis
- Examples of thesis and chapter formats when including publications
The following examples are acceptable ways of formatting your thesis and chapters when including one or more publications.
All theses with publications must have the following:
- Preface – noting collaborations, and contributions to authorship
- Table of contents
- List of tables, figures & illustrations
- Main text/chapters
- Bibliography or list of references
Main text examples
- Chapter 1: Introduction
- Chapter 2: Literature review
- Chapter 3: Methods
- Chapter 4: Paper 1 & general discussion
- Chapter 5: Paper 2
- Chapter 6: Regular thesis chapter – results
- Chapter 7 : Regular thesis chapter/general discussion tying in published and unpublished work
- Chapter 8: Conclusion
- Appendices - May include CD, DVD or other material, also reviews & methods papers
- Chapter 2: Methods
- Chapter 3: Paper 1
- Chapter 4: Regular thesis chapter
- Chapter 6: Regular thesis chapter, final preliminary study
- Chapter 7: General discussion
- Chapter 5: Regular thesis chapter
- Chapter 6: Regular thesis chapter
- Chapter 7: Regular thesis chapter, final preliminary study
- Chapter 8: General discussion
- Chapter 4: Paper 2 - e.g. data paper, including meta analyses
- Chapter 5: Paper 3
- Chapter 6: Paper 4
- Chapter 7: Paper 5
- Chapter 3: Major paper
- Chapter 4: Normal thesis chapter, final preliminary study
- Chapter 5: General discussion
- Introduction – including specific aims and hypotheses
- Introduction – including specific aims, hypotheses
- Methods – results (including validation, preliminary) not included in the paper
- Results (including validation, preliminary) not included in paper
- Discussion – expansion of paper discussion, further method development
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How to Write a Thesis Introduction
What types of information should you include in your introduction .
In the introduction of your thesis, you’ll be trying to do three main things, which are called Moves :
- Move 1 establish your territory (say what the topic is about)
- Move 2 establish a niche (show why there needs to be further research on your topic)
- Move 3 introduce the current research (make hypotheses; state the research questions)
Each Move has a number of stages. Depending on what you need to say in your introduction, you might use one or more stages. Table 1 provides you with a list of the most commonly occurring stages of introductions in Honours theses (colour-coded to show the Moves ). You will also find examples of Introductions, divided into stages with sample sentence extracts. Once you’ve looked at Examples 1 and 2, try the exercise that follows.
Most thesis introductions include SOME (but not all) of the stages listed below. There are variations between different Schools and between different theses, depending on the purpose of the thesis.
Stages in a thesis introduction
- state the general topic and give some background
- provide a review of the literature related to the topic
- define the terms and scope of the topic
- outline the current situation
- evaluate the current situation (advantages/ disadvantages) and identify the gap
- identify the importance of the proposed research
- state the research problem/ questions
- state the research aims and/or research objectives
- state the hypotheses
- outline the order of information in the thesis
- outline the methodology
Example 1: Evaluation of Boron Solid Source Diffusion for High-Efficiency Silicon Solar Cells (School of Photovoltaic and Renewable Energy Engineering)
Example 2: Methods for Measuring Hepatitis C Viral Complexity (School of Biotechnology and Biological Sciences)
Note: this introduction includes the literature review.
Now that you have read example 1 and 2, what are the differences?
Example 3: The IMO Severe-Weather Criterion Applied to High-Speed Monohulls (School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering)
Example 4: The Steiner Tree Problem (School of Computer Science and Engineering)
Example 5.1 (extract 1): The effects of Fluoride on the reproduction of three native Australian plant Species (School of Geography)
Example 5.2 (extract 2): The effects of Fluoride on the reproduction of three native Australian plant Species (School of Geography)
Example 5.4 (extract 4): The effects of Fluoride on the reproduction of three native Australian plant Species (School of Geography)
Example 5.5 (extract 5): The effects of Fluoride on the reproduction of three native Australian plant Species (School of Geography)
Example 5.6 (extract 6): The effects of Fluoride on the reproduction of three native Australian plant Species (School of Geography)
Well, firstly, there are many choices that you can make. You will notice that there are variations not only between the different Schools in your faculty, but also between individual theses, depending on the type of information that is being communicated. However, there are a few elements that a good Introduction should include, at the very minimum:
- Either Statement of general topic Or Background information about the topic;
- Either Identification of disadvantages of current situation Or Identification of the gap in current research;
- Identification of importance of proposed research
- Either Statement of aims Or Statement of objectives
- An Outline of the order of information in the thesis
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