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Thesis & Dissertation Acknowledgements | Tips & Examples

Published on May 3, 2022 by Tegan George . Revised on July 18, 2023.

Acknowledgements-section

The acknowledgements section is your opportunity to thank those who have helped and supported you personally and professionally during your thesis or dissertation process.

Thesis or dissertation acknowledgements appear between your title page and abstract  and should be no longer than one page.

In your acknowledgements, it’s okay to use a more informal style than is usually permitted in academic writing , as well as first-person pronouns . Acknowledgements are not considered part of the academic work itself, but rather your chance to write something more personal.

To get started, download our step-by-step template in the format of your choice below. We’ve also included sample sentence starters to help you construct your acknowledgments section from scratch.

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Table of contents

Who to thank in your acknowledgements, how to write acknowledgements, acknowledgements section example, acknowledgements dos and don’ts, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about the acknowledgements section.

Generally, there are two main categories of acknowledgements: professional and personal .

A good first step is to check your university’s guidelines, as they may have rules or preferences about the order, phrasing, or layout of acknowledgements. Some institutions prefer that you keep your acknowledgements strictly professional.

Regardless, it’s usually a good idea to place professional acknowledgements first, followed by any personal ones. You can then proceed by ranking who you’d like to thank from most formal to least.

  • Chairs, supervisors, or defense committees
  • Funding bodies
  • Other academics (e.g., colleagues or cohort members)
  • Editors or proofreaders
  • Librarians, research/laboratory assistants, or study participants
  • Family, friends, or pets

Typically, it’s only necessary to mention people who directly supported you during your thesis or dissertation. However, if you feel that someone like a high school physics teacher was a great inspiration on the path to your current research, feel free to include them as well.

Professional acknowledgements

It is crucial to avoid overlooking anyone who helped you professionally as you completed your thesis or dissertation. As a rule of thumb, anyone who directly contributed to your research process, from figuring out your dissertation topic to your final proofread, should be mentioned.

A few things to keep in mind include:

  • Even if you feel your chair didn’t help you very much, you should still thank them first to avoid looking like you’re snubbing them.
  • Be sure to follow academic conventions, using full names with titles where appropriate.
  • If several members of a group or organization assisted you, mention the collective name only.
  • Remember the ethical considerations around anonymized data. If you wish to protect someone’s privacy, use only their first name or a generic identifier (such as “the interviewees”)/

Personal acknowledgements

There is no need to mention every member of your family or friend group. However, if someone was particularly inspiring or supportive, you may wish to mention them specifically. Many people choose to thank parents, partners, children, friends, and even pets, but you can mention anyone who offered moral support or encouragement, or helped you in a tangible or intangible way.

Some students may wish to dedicate their dissertation to a deceased influential person in their personal life. In this case, it’s okay to mention them first, before any professional acknowledgements.

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masters dissertation acknowledgement

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After you’ve compiled a list of who you’d like to thank, you can then sort your list into rank order. Separate everyone you listed into “major thanks,” “big thanks,” and “minor thanks” categories.

  • “Major thanks” are given to people who your project would be impossible without. These are often predominantly professional acknowledgements, such as your advisor, chair, and committee, as well as any funders.
  • “Big thanks” are an in-between, for those who helped you along the way or helped you grow intellectually, such as classmates, peers, or librarians.
  • “Minor thanks” can be a catch-all for everyone else, especially those who offered moral support or encouragement. This can include personal acknowledgements, such as parents, partners, children, friends, or even pets.

How to phrase your acknowledgements

To avoid acknowledgements that sound repetitive or dull, consider changing up your phrasing. Here are some examples of common sentence starters you can use for each category.

Note that you do not need to write any sort of conclusion or summary at the end. You can simply end the acknowledgements with your last thank you.

Here’s an example of how you can combine the different sentences to write your acknowledgements.

A simple construction consists of a sentence starter (in purple highlight ), followed by the person or entity mentioned (in green highlight ), followed by what you’re thanking them for (in yellow highlight .)

Acknowledgements

Words cannot express my gratitude to my professor and chair of my committee for her invaluable patience and feedback. I also could not have undertaken this journey without my defense committee, who generously provided knowledge and expertise. Additionally, this endeavor would not have been possible without the generous support from the MacArthur Foundation, who financed my research .

I am also grateful to my classmates and cohort members, especially my office mates, for their editing help, late-night feedback sessions, and moral support. Thanks should also go to the librarians, research assistants, and study participants from the university, who impacted and inspired me.

Lastly, I would be remiss in not mentioning my family, especially my parents, spouse, and children. Their belief in me has kept my spirits and motivation high during this process. I would also like to thank my cat for all the entertainment and emotional support.

  • Write in first-person, professional language
  • Thank your professional contacts first
  • Include full names, titles, and roles of professional acknowledgements
  • Include personal or intangible supporters, like friends, family, or even pets
  • Mention funding bodies and what they funded
  • Appropriately anonymize or group research participants or non-individual acknowledgments

Don’t:

  • Use informal language or slang
  • Go over one page in length
  • Mention people who had only a peripheral or minor impact on your work

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In the acknowledgements of your thesis or dissertation, you should first thank those who helped you academically or professionally, such as your supervisor, funders, and other academics.

Then you can include personal thanks to friends, family members, or anyone else who supported you during the process.

Yes, it’s important to thank your supervisor(s) in the acknowledgements section of your thesis or dissertation .

Even if you feel your supervisor did not contribute greatly to the final product, you must acknowledge them, if only for a very brief thank you. If you do not include your supervisor, it may be seen as a snub.

The acknowledgements are generally included at the very beginning of your thesis , directly after the title page and before the abstract .

In a thesis or dissertation, the acknowledgements should usually be no longer than one page. There is no minimum length.

You may acknowledge God in your dissertation acknowledgements , but be sure to follow academic convention by also thanking the members of academia, as well as family, colleagues, and friends who helped you.

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The Acknowledgements Section

How to write the acknowledgements for your thesis or dissertation

By: Derek Jansen (MBA) | Reviewers: Dr Eunice Rautenbach | January 2024

Writing the acknowledgements section of your thesis might seem straightforward, but it’s more than just a list of names . In this post, we’ll unpack everything you need to know to write up a rock-solid acknowledgements section for your dissertation or thesis.

Overview: The Acknowledgements

  • What (exactly) is the acknowledgements section?

Who should you acknowledge?

  • How to write the section
  • Practical example
  • Free acknowledgements template
  • Key takeaways

What is the acknowledgements section?

The acknowledgements section of your thesis or dissertation is where you give thanks to the people who contributed to your project’s success. Generally speaking, this is a relatively brief, less formal section.  

With the acknowledgements section, you have the opportunity to show appreciation for the guidance, support, and resources provided by others during your research journey. We’ll unpack the exact contents, order and structure of this section in this post.

Need a helping hand?

masters dissertation acknowledgement

Although this is a less “academic” section, acknowledging the right people in the correct order is still important. Typically, you’ll start with the most formal (academic) support received, before moving on to other types of support.

Here’s a suggested order that you can follow when writing up your acknowledgements:

Level 1: Supervisors and academic staff

Start with those who have provided you with academic guidance, including your supervisor, advisors, and other faculty members.

Level 2: Funding bodies or sponsors

If your research was funded, acknowledging these organisations is essential. You don’t need to get into the specifics of the funding, but you should recognise the important role that this made in bringing your project to life.

Level 3: Colleagues and peers

Next you’ll want to mention those who contributed intellectually to your work, including your fellow cohort members and researchers.

Level 4: Family, friends and pets

Last but certainly not least, you should acknowledge your personal (non-academic) support system – those who have provided emotional and moral support. If Fido kept you company during those long nights hunched over the keyboard, you can also thank him here 🙂

As you can see, the order of the acknowledgements goes from the most academic to the least . Importantly, your thesis or dissertation supervisor (sometimes also called an advisor) generally comes first . This is because they are typically the person most involved in shaping your project (or at least, they should be). Plus, they’re oftentimes involved in marking your final work and so a kind word never hurts…

All that said, remember that your acknowledgements section is personal . So, feel free to adjust this order, but do pay close attention to any guidelines or rules provided by your university. If they specify a certain order or set of contents, follow their instructions to the letter.

masters dissertation acknowledgement

How to write the acknowledgements section

In terms of style, try to strike a balance between conveying a formal tone and a personal touch . In practical terms, this means that you should use plain, straightforward language (this isn’t the time for heavy academic jargon), but avoid using any slang, nicknames, etc.

As a guide, you’ll typically use some of the following phrases in the acknowledgements section:

I would like to express my appreciation to… for their help with… I’m particularly grateful to… as they provided… I could not have completed this project without… as this allowed me to… Special thanks to… who did… I had the pleasure of working with… who helped me… I’d also like to recognise… who assisted me with…

In terms of positioning, the acknowledgements section is typically in the preliminary matter , most commonly after the abstract and before the table of contents. In terms of length, this section usually spans one to three paragraphs , but there’s no strict word limit (unless your university’s brief states otherwise, of course).

If you’re unsure where to place your acknowledgements or what length to make this section, it’s a good idea to have a look at past dissertations and theses from your university and/or department to get a clearer view of what the norms are.

Aim to use plain, straightforward language with as little jargon as possible. At the same time, avoid using any slang or nicknames.

Practical Example

Alright, let’s look at an example to give you a better idea of what this section looks like in practice.

I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Professor Smith, whose expertise and knowledge were invaluable during this research. My sincere thanks also go to the University Research Fund for their financial support.   I am deeply thankful to my colleagues, John and Jane, for their insightful discussions and moral support. Lastly, I must acknowledge my family for their unwavering love and encouragement. Without your support, this project would not have been possible.

As you can see in this example, the section is short and to the point , working from formal support through to personal support.

To simplify the process, we’ve created a free template for the acknowledgements section. If you’re interested, you can download a copy here .

Dissertation/thesis template for the acknowledgements section

FAQs: Acknowledgements

Can i include some humour in my acknowledgements.

A touch of light humour is okay, but keep it appropriate and professional. Remember that this is still part of an academic document.

Can I acknowledge someone who provided informal or emotional support?

Yes, you can thank anyone who offered emotional support, motivation, or even informal advice that helped you during your studies. This can include friends, family members, or a mentor/coach who provided guidance outside of an academic setting.

Should I mention any challenges or difficulties I faced during my research?

While the acknowledgements section is primarily for expressing gratitude, briefly mentioning significant challenges you overcame can highlight the importance of the support you received. That said, you’ll want to keep the focus on the gratitude aspect and avoid delving too deeply into the challenges themselves.

Can I acknowledge the contribution of participants in my research?

Absolutely. If your research involved participants, especially in fields like social sciences or human studies, acknowledging their contribution is not only courteous but also an ethical practice. It shows respect for their participation and contribution to your research.

How do I acknowledge posthumous gratitude, for someone who passed away during my study period?

Acknowledging a deceased individual who played a significant role in your academic journey can be done respectfully. Mention them in the same way you would a living contributor, perhaps adding a note of remembrance.

For example, “I would like to posthumously acknowledge John McAnders for their invaluable advice and support in the early stages of this research.”.

Is there a limit to the number of people I can acknowledge?

How do i acknowledge a group or organisation.

When thanking a group or organization, mention the entity by name and, if applicable, include specific individuals within the organization who were particularly helpful.

For example, “I extend my thanks to The Speakers Foundation for their support, particularly Mr Joe Wilkins, for their guidance.”

Recap: Key Takeaways

Writing the acknowledgements section of your thesis or dissertation is an opportunity to express gratitude to everyone who helped you along the way.

Remember to:

  • Acknowledge those people who significantly contributed to your research journey
  • Order your thanks from formal support to personal support
  • Maintain a balance between formal and personal tones
  • Keep it concise

In a nutshell, use this section to reflect your appreciation in a genuinely and professionally way.

masters dissertation acknowledgement

Psst… there’s more (for free)

This post is part of our dissertation mini-course, which covers everything you need to get started with your dissertation, thesis or research project. 

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14 Dissertation Acknowledgements Examples

Dissertation acknowledgements examples.

Here are 14 dissertation acknowledgements examples to inspire you. They cover a range of academic subjects and are all from UK students. Note how they vary in length, style and substance. 

Note – all samples have been taken from documents available in the public realm. 

Remember to always keep your acknowledgements to a maximum of a page .

So let’s dive right in!

Thank you to my supervisor, Dr Andrew R., for providing guidance and feedback throughout this project. Thanks also to my wife Anna, for putting up with me being sat in the office for hours on end, and for providing guidance and a sounding board when required.
I would like to thank the following people for helping with this research project: Representatives from Historic England, Historic Scotland, the Society for the Protection of Scottish Buildings and the Sustainable Buildings Alliance for their willingness to impart their knowledge. All the conservation officers and heritage team members who took the time to complete my questionnaire and who contributed so thoroughly through their further comments and emails. I would particularly like to thank those conservation officers who agreed to be interviewed. Brenda P., my tutor, who guided me so positively and who always made me feel confident in my abilities after coming off the phone to her. Jan W. for his help with statistics. My husband and children for their patience and encouragement.
I would like to thank the following people, without whom I would not have been able to complete this research, and without whom I would not have made it through my masters degree! The XYZ team at Johnson University, especially to my supervisor Dr Paul C., whose insight and knowledge into the subject matter steered me through this research. And special thanks to Linda T., whose support as part of her PhD allowed my studies to go the extra mile (sorry for all the extra work Linda!). The residents of Dundee, who took the time to return surveys and allowed me into your homes for follow up surveys, and without whom I would have no content for my thesis. My colleagues at the Old Building Trust and Old Building Foundation, who have supported me and had to put up with my stresses and moans for the past three years of study! And my biggest thanks to my family for all the support you have shown me through this research, the culmination of three years of distance learning. For my kids, sorry for being even grumpier than normal whilst I wrote this thesis! And for my wife Jenny, thanks for all your support, without which I would have stopped these studies a long time ago,. You have been amazing, and I will now clear all the papers off the kitchen table as I promised!
I would like to thank the following people who have helped me undertake this research: My supervisor Dr. Peter B., for his enthusiasm for the project, for his support, encouragement and patience; The Institute of Energy and Sustainable Development, Johnson University, for input throughout this MSc programme. For their contributions to data collection: David K at Tech David K, VS Limited Steven M Conal M., Engineer, County Council The good people of Brighton who were so generous with their time in completing the questionnaire surveys. My partner Billy – I simply couldn’t have done this without you, special thanks. Dear friends and family and Hattie. And to my parents, who set me off on the road to this MSc a long time ago.
I would like to thank Mr. Joe Smith for guiding me to his important publications and for the stimulating questions on artificial intelligence and automation. The meetings and conversations were vital in inspiring me to think outside the box, from multiple perspectives to form a comprehensive and objective critique.
First of all, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Beauville Scholarships, the UK government’s global scholarship programme, funded by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) and partner organisations, for letting me be part of this incredible leaders’ network. Further, I would like to thank my supervisor Alejandro for the thoughtful comments and recommendations on this dissertation. I am also thankful to the School of Engineering and all its member’s staff for all the considerate guidance. To conclude, I cannot forget to thank my family and friends for all the unconditional support in this very intense academic year.
I would like to thank my supervisor Prof. Mark W. and Liam H. for their consistent support and guidance during the running of this project. Furthermore I would like to thank the rest of the undergraduate research team for their collaborative effort during data collection. I would also like to acknowledge the school in Bradford for their participation and engagement in the study.
I would like to thank my supervisor Gina K. for her dedicated support and guidance. Gina continuously provided encouragement and was always willing and enthusiastic to assist in any way she could throughout the research project. I would also like to thank Andrew P. for providing advice regarding analysis.Finally, many thanks to all participants that took part in the study and enabled this research to be possible.
With many thanks to my supervisor Dr Martyn G. for his guidance during this research. To Jennie R., the dissertation module leader, for her support and encouragement throughout the process. Furthermore, to my mentor, Josh B. for providing access and introductions to women leaders, without this, the research would not have been possible. Finally, to all of the women who sacrificed their time, and the support of these well-known companies for their participation.
I would like to express my gratitude and appreciation for Barbara S. whose guidance, support and encouragement has been invaluable throughout this study. I also wish to thank the team an CIL who have been a great source of support.
Firstly, I’d like to express my thanks to my patient and supportive supervisor, Tao J., who has supported me throughout this research project. I am extremely grateful for our friendly chats at the end of our meetings and your personal support in my academic and business endeavours. I’d also like to thank my participants and customers who took the time to reflect on their consumption choices. Thank you for expressing your thoughts so eloquently and your feminism so unapologetically.
I would like to say a special thank you to my supervisor, Jennie R. Her support, guidance and overall insights in this field have made this an inspiring experience for me. I would also like to thank all of the women who participated in the study’s interviews. Finally, I would like to thank my family for supporting me during the compilation of this dissertation.
I would like to thank Rik B. for his continued support throughout this project. Guy R., through Dyesol and Philip L. for their SIM images of porous stone. I would also like to thank Dr. Steven M. for his advice throughout the project. Finally I would like to thank Maureen H. at the University of Freetown for allowing me to visit her and her explanation of various techniques.
From the bottom of my heart I would like to say big thank you for all the bioelectronics research group members for their energy, understanding and help throughout my project, especially to Mr D. N. for the guidance throughout the gel extraction, Mr Andrew L. for the help with AFM imaging and Mr Samuel D. H. for advice on the DNA analysis process. It truly has been very, very good time in this lab. I also would like to say special thank you to Professor P. W.and Dr R. S., without your help and wise guidance this project would have not been the same!

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Thesis acknowledgements: Samples and how to write your own thesis or dissertation acknowledgements

masters dissertation acknowledgement

Writing a thesis can be tricky. That’s why I’m starting a new series covering each section of the thesis, from thesis acknowledgements all the way to conclusions. I’ll be guiding you through the whole process, from what to include in your thesis to how to write it, along with examples from defended theses to help you to write your own.

We’ll begin by covering thesis acknowledgments. The acknowledgements section appears at the start of the thesis so it is often one of the first parts that everyone tries to tackle. As this will likely be your first taste of your thesis it can often feel quite intimidating to write!

Thankfully it’s also one of the easiest parts of the thesis to complete, which may help to give you a boost for the rest.

In this post we’ll cover everything to do with thesis acknowledgements: samples, what to include and how to write them. At the end I’ll also outline a 60 minute exercise which will get you preparing a first draft of your own!

I’m writing this post with a PhD thesis in mind but it could work just as well if you’re looking for help including acknowledgements in your Master’s or undergraduate thesis/ dissertation.

What is the purpose of the acknowledgements section in a thesis?

The acknowledgements section of your thesis is an opportunity to reflect on the people who have supported and shaped your PhD experience.

Don’t worry, although your examiners will be interested to read your acknowledgements section, you won’t really get judged on it in your PhD viva. This section is for you to share as little, or as much, as you want about everyone involved in your PhD journey.

The acknowledgements are a very personal section of your thesis and each PhD student will have different things they want to include. For example, many people wonder: How do I thank my family in a thesis? And the acknowledgements section is the answer!

Note – You can also use a thesis dedication to thank your family. This is a separate section to your thesis acknowledgements and is entirely optional. It’s usually just a single line, just like you might find at the front of some books. Most people don’t include a separate dedication section but you can if you want to go that extra step.

What to include in your thesis acknowledgements

There are usually no formal requirements dictating what to include in your acknowledgements. However, do double check for any potential rules at your specific institution.

In general the acknowledgements are the section of your thesis where you have some creative liberty and are not bound by rigid research protocols or guidelines.

Many students choose to use the acknowledgements section to thank people (or organisations) who:

  • Introduced them to the topic
  • Helped with their PhD application
  • Funded the project
  • Supervisors
  • Technicians
  • Partners, friends or family
  • Or anyone else who made an impression along the way!

But remember, you can include whatever you want! For example in my own PhD acknowledgements, which you’ll read further down this post, I thanked the university for providing a green outdoor space for us.

Acknowledge whoever and whatever influenced your own PhD experience.

You may find it helpful to start by writing a list of everyone you wish to thank.

How do you write an acknowledgements section?

Since there are no guidelines to worry about, it is really up to you how you write your own thesis acknowledgements. You have a lot of freedom for what to include and how to write it.

However you may find the following suggested phases helpful as a starting point.

Who you want to thank…

  • “First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to…”
  • “I must thank…”
  • “A special thanks to…”
  • “I would like to highlight two truly exceptional people from…”
  • “I want to thank…”
  • “In addition, I would like to mention”
  • “I would also like to extend my thanks to…”
  • “I want to give my deepest appreciation to…”
  • “Finally, but the most importantly, I would like to thank…”

…then, why you want to thank them

It can be nice to also include why you’re thanking these people, using phrases such as:

  • “…for the opportunity to be a part of this project”
  • “…for always being there when I needed his support, reviewing my progress constantly, and guiding me through my PhD studies”
  • “….for being a great bunch of people in and out of the lab”
  • …”for all the guidance, support and outstanding feedback”
  • “… who took their time to help teach me…”
  • “…for her unlimited support and unconditional guidance during my PhD journey”
  • “…were always there for discussions about anything that I was unsure on”
  • “…whom has offered invaluable advice that will benefit me throughout my life”
  • “…for supporting me since my undergraduate, and for the valuable discussions we had along the road”
  • “…for making the past 4 years much more enjoyable and keeping me sane throughout the whole process”

Here is a whole example from an accepted PhD thesis:

Firstly, I want to thank [supervisor’s name(s)] for giving me the opportunity to work on this project, providing valuable guidance and feedback, and challenging me to grow as a scientist.  Excerpt from Dr Wane’s thesis acknowledgements, available via this page or use this direct download link .

Some people will choose to use full names and titles for any professional acknowledgements and first names for any personal ones. Again, this is up to you.

To help illustrate the variety of thesis acknowledgement formats, we’ll shortly be coming on to some examples of acknowledgment sections from successfully defended theses.

Before then I want to cover some of the main questions relating to how to write your own thesis acknowledgements section:

How long should you spend writing your thesis acknowledgements?

My suggestion is to spend only an hour or two making a first draft. I suggest doing this well ahead of your final deadline so that you have time to come back to it. Even so, I’d certainly look to spend far less than one day’s work on it in total.

It is a “nice to have” and means a lot to a lot of people, but remember you’re really only writing this section for yourself. I probably spent about two hours writing mine in total, simply because it wasn’t a priority for me.

What order should you write your acknowledgements in?

A typical way to write your acknowledgements is to go from the most formal/academic relationships to the least.

It is normal to start with any funding bodies, then formal people like your PhD supervisors, then move through labmates, friends and family. But again, there are generally no rules!

How long should the acknowledgements section be?

You can include as much or as little as you want. My own PhD acknowledgements section was just under a page long and it consisted of 386 words or 1892 characters (without spaces).

Here is how it was formatted:

A screenshot of the acknowledgements section from my PhD thesis

But let’s not just look at my thesis. Using Imperial’s publicly accessible database I went through 25 published PhD theses for you.

The average (mean) length of these 25 theses was 365 words and 1793 characters without spaces. Writing an acknowledgements section of length 350-450 words was the most common:

Histogram of thesis acknowledgements length. Most theses were between 350-450 words long

The shortest acknowledgements sections was 122 words(653 characters) long. The longest one consisted of 1022 words and 5082 characters. Hopefully this illustrates that you’re not really bound by any limits. Write as much or as little as you want for this section.

Sample thesis acknowledgements

My own phd thesis acknowledgement.

My own PhD thesis is available here *, the acknowledgements section is on page 5. Here is the complete version of my acknowledgements section:

I would like to acknowledge both EPSRC and the Class of 1964 Scholarship for their financial support. It has been an honour to be the inaugural recipient of the Class of 1964 Scholarship and I am indebted to the donors in providing me complete academic freedom in this research. An immense thank you to my PhD supervisors: Jonathan Jeffers, Ulrich Hansen and Julian Jones. Support and guidance throughout the project from you all has been invaluable. JJ in particular you’ve been a fantastic primary supervisor. Thank you to all the academics who helped me get to this stage. The late Dr Kajal Mallick and his Biomedical Materials course at the University of Warwick was a huge influence and without which I would have never followed this path. My “pre-doc” supervisors in Dr Helen Lee of University of Cambridge and in particular the remarkable Prof Judith Hall OBE of Cardiff University from whom I learned so much. Thanks to Alison Paul and Michael Lim for being so supportive when I was considering applying for PhDs. It has been an amazing experience working between two research groups across different departments, thanks to everyone from the Biomechanics and JRJ groups I’ve worked with and from whom I’ve learned so much. Thank you of course to the Hybrids team I’ve worked so closely on this project with: Fra, Gloria, Agathe, Maria, Silvia, it’s been great fun working with you all! Gloria in particular thanks for you all your help, support and friendship: your inclusivity is appreciated by many. Saman, I’ve been so pleased to have you working on DVC with me and being able to discuss ideas with you really has been invaluable. I am grateful to everyone I’ve collaborated with externally: Farah, Amin and Brett (Natural History Museum) plus Andy and Behzad (Royal Veterinary College), thank you all for your support and input. Thanks also to everyone I’ve met through the Environmental Society at Imperial in particular Chelcie: your friendship and support have added a lot to my life. Thanks to Imperial for providing space for the ESoc garden, taking a break and enjoy nature in this space has certainly improved my work. Thanks of course to my family for their support. Finally, thank you Jo for always being so supportive and helping me every step of the way. My PhD thesis, available here . Acknowledgements are on page 5.

*For me the thesis was a means to an end. I wanted my PhD and didn’t want to spend too long agonising over each page. Therefore, it is possible there are typos in there, if you read any of it: firstly well done, I haven’t looked at it much since submitting the final copy, secondly, please don’t tell me about any typos you find!

Other PhD thesis acknowledgement examples

Below are the other 24 published and openly accessible STEM PhD theses I found for this article.

For each person’s thesis, either follow the first link to be taken to the landing page or follow the second link to directly download their thesis: I gave you a choice in case you don’t want stuff to start downloading automatically from a random text link!

PhD thesis acknowledgements example access tutorial

The list is formatted as follows:

  • [Link to thesis page on repository], [which page the acknowledgements appear on], [direct link to download the thesis]
  • Dr Shipman’s thesis , for the acknowledgements go to page 3. Direct download here .
  • Longest acknowledgements section of the list at 1022 words.
  • Dr Li’s thesis , page 11. Direct download here .
  • Dr Podgurschi’s thesis , page 5. Direct download here .
  • Dr Medjeral-Thomas’ thesis page 3. Direct download here .
  • Dr Sztuc’s thesis , page 5. Direct download here .
  • Dr Yap’s thesis , page 5. Direct download here .
  • Dr Sukkar’s thesis , page 9. Direct download here .
  • Dr Lo’s thesis , page 11. Direct download here .
  • Dr Sullivan’s thesis , page 5. Direct download here .
  • Dr Tawy’s thesis , page 3. Direct download here .
  • Dr Wane’s thesis , page 2. Direct download here .
  • Dr Addison’s thesis , page 4. Direct download here .
  • Dr Wang’s thesis , page 5. Direct download here .
  • Dr Sebest’s thesis , page 3. Direct download here .
  • Dr Hopkins’ thesis , page 7. Direct download here .
  • Dr Bates’s thesis , page 4. Direct download here .
  • Dr Somuyiwa’s thesis , page 6. Direct download here .
  • Dr Reynolds’ thesis , page 5. Direct download here .
  • My labmate’s thesis, who wrote the acknowledgements in a different style to the rest by using bullet points.
  • Shortest acknowledgements section of the list at 122 words.
  • Dr Manca’s thesis , acknowledgements on page 5. Direct download here .
  • Dr Liu’s thesis , page 5. Direct download here .
  • Dr Hotinli’s thesis , page 7. Direct download here .

My top tips for writing your own thesis acknowledgements

  • Don’t spend too long on them. The acknowledgements section is really not worth spending too much time on. Even worse, since they appear at the start of your thesis, it is tempting to write your acknowledgements first. This can be fine, or, it can be an opportunity for lots of unnecessary procrastination. Which I why I instead suggest that you…
  • Write your acknowledgements at the end of your first draft of the thesis. There is no need to write your thesis in the order it is presented. If you write your acknowledgements at the end you’ll be less likely to spend precious time on a section which really doesn’t warrant too much brain power.
  • Don’t stress about it. The acknowledgements are merely for yourself and for anyone close to you that you want to thank. There are far more important sections for you to be particular about!
  • Remember: You can make changes after you submit the copy for your viva. As with everything in your thesis, you can make changes after you submit the thesis for your viva. The real “final” copy is when you submit your thesis to the university for archiving. Which is even more reason to not spend too much time writing it the first time around.

Draft your own thesis or dissertation acknowledgements in 60 minutes

Hopefully you now feel inspired to start writing your own thesis acknowledgments!

For the exercise below I’d suggest setting a stop-watch on your phone and move on to the next section when the alarm goes, even if you’ve not fully finished. The aim is to have a rough draft at the end which you can polish off at a later point in time.

  • Read a few of the example thesis acknowledgements above to get a feel for the structure ( 15 mins )
  • List everyone (or everything!) you wish to thank – including any personal and professional acknowledgements in addition to funding bodies if relevant ( 10 mins )
  • Decide on a rough order in which to thank them ( 5 mins )
  • Craft some sentences using the phrases mentioned above ( 30 mins )

Congratulations you’re now well on your way to having one section of your PhD thesis completed!

I hope this post has been useful for constructing your own thesis or dissertation acknowledgements. It is the first in a series of posts aiming to help your thesis writing by delving into each section in depth. Be sure to let me know if you have any questions or suggestions for other content which you would find useful.

Subscribe below to stay updated about future posts in the series:

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masters dissertation acknowledgement

  • Acknowledgements for PhD Thesis and Dissertations – Explained
  • Doing a PhD

The Purpose of Acknowledgements

The acknowledgement section of a thesis or dissertation is where you recognise and thank those who supported you during your PhD. This can be but is not limited to individuals, institutions or organisations.

Although your acknowledgements will not be used to evaluate your work, it is still an important section of your thesis. This is because it can have a positive (or negative for that matter) influence the perception of your reader before they even reach the main body of your work.

Who Should I Acknowledge?

Acknowledgements for a PhD thesis will typically fall into one of two categories – professional or personal.

Within these categories, who you thank will ultimately be your decision. However, it’s imperative that you pay special attention to the ‘professional’ group. This is because not thanking someone who has played an important role in your studies, whether it be intentional or accidental, will more often than not be seen as a dismissal of their efforts. Not only would this be unfair if they genuinely helped you, but from a certain political aspect, it could also jeopardise any opportunities for future collaborations .

Professional Acknowledgements

This may include, but is not limited to:

  • Funding bodies/sponsorship providers
  • Supervisors
  • Research group and lab assistants
  • Research participants
  • Proofreaders

Personal Acknowledgements

  • Key family members and friends
  • Individuals who inspired you or directly influenced your academic journey
  • Anyone else who has provided personal support that you would like to mention

It should be noted that certain universities have policies which state only those who have directly supported your work, such as supervisors and professors, should be included in your acknowledgements. Therefore, we strongly recommend that you read your university guidelines before writing this section of your thesis.

How to Write Acknowledgements for PhD Thesis

When producing this section, your writing style can be more informal compared to the rest of your thesis. This includes writing in first person and using more emotive language. Although in most cases you will have complete freedom in how you write this section of your thesis, it is still highly advisable to keep it professional. As mentioned earlier, this is largely because it will be one of the first things your assessors will read, and so it will help set the tone for the rest of your work.

In terms of its structure, acknowledgements are expected to be ordered in a manner that first recognises the most formal support before moving onto the less formal support. In most cases, this follows the same order that we have outlined in the ‘Who Should I Thank’ section.

When thanking professionals, always write out their full name and provide their title. This is because although you may be on a first-name basis with them, those who read your thesis will not. By providing full names and titles, not only do you help ensure clarity, but it could also indirectly contribute to the credibility of your thesis should the individual you’re thanking be well known within your field.

If you intend to include a list of people from one institution or organisation, it is best to list their names in alphabetical order. The exception to this is when a particular individual has been of significant assistance; here, it would be advisable to list them.

How Long Should My Acknowledgements Be?

Acknowledgements vary considerably in length. Some are a single paragraph whilst some continue for up to three pages. The length of your acknowledgement page will mostly depend on the number of individuals you want to recognise.

As a general rule, try to keep your acknowledgements section to a single page. Although there are no word limits, creating a lengthy acknowledgements section dilutes the gratitude you’re trying to express, especially to those who have supported you the most.

Where Should My Acknowledgements Go?

In the vast majority of cases, your acknowledgements should appear directly after your abstract and before your table of contents.

However, we highly advise you to check your university guidelines as a few universities set out their own specific order which they will expect you to follow.

Phrases to Help You Get Started

Dissertation acknowledgements example for researchers and PhD students

We appreciate how difficult it can be to truly show how grateful you are to those who have supported you over the years, especially in words.

To help you get started, we’ve provided you with a few examples of sentences that you can complete or draw ideas from.

  • I am deeply grateful to XXX…
  • I would like to express my sincere gratitude to XXX…
  • I would like to offer my special thanks to XXX…
  • I would like to extend my sincere thanks to XXX…
  • …for their assistance at every stage of the research project.
  • …for their insightful comments and suggestions.
  • …for their contribution to XXX.
  • …for their unwavering support and belief in me.

Thesis Acknowledgement Examples

Below are three PhD thesis acknowledgment samples from which you can draw inspiration. It should be noted that the following have been extracted from theses which are freely available in the public domain. Irrespective of this, references to any individual, department or university have been removed for the sake of privacy.

First and foremost I am extremely grateful to my supervisors, Prof. XXX and Dr. XXX for their invaluable advice, continuous support, and patience during my PhD study. Their immense knowledge and plentiful experience have encouraged me in all the time of my academic research and daily life. I would also like to thank Dr. XXX and Dr. XXX for their technical support on my study. I would like to thank all the members in the XXX. It is their kind help and support that have made my study and life in the UK a wonderful time. Finally, I would like to express my gratitude to my parents, my wife and my children. Without their tremendous understanding and encouragement in the past few years, it would be impossible for me to complete my study.

I would like to thank my supervisors Dr. XXX and Dr. XXX for all their help and advice with this PhD. I would also like to thank my sisters, whom without this would have not been possible. I also appreciate all the support I received from the rest of my family. Lastly, I would like to thank the XXX for the studentship that allowed me to conduct this thesis.

I would like to thank my esteemed supervisor – Dr. XXX for his invaluable supervision, support and tutelage during the course of my PhD degree. My gratitude extends to the Faculty of XXX for the funding opportunity to undertake my studies at the Department of XXX, University of XXX. Additionally, I would like to express gratitude to Dr. XXX for her treasured support which was really influential in shaping my experiment methods and critiquing my results. I also thank Dr. XXX, Dr. XXX, Dr. XXX for their mentorship. I would like to thank my friends, lab mates, colleagues and research team – XXX, XXX, XXX, XXX for a cherished time spent together in the lab, and in social settings. My appreciation also goes out to my family and friends for their encouragement and support all through my studies.

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Dissertation acknowledgments [with examples]

masters dissertation acknowledgement

What are dissertation acknowledgements?

What to consider when writing your dissertation acknowledgments, who to thank in your dissertation acknowledgments, what (and what not) to write in your dissertation acknowledgments, good examples of dissertation acknowledgments, a final word on writing dissertation acknowledgments: have fun, frequently asked questions about dissertation acknowledgments, related articles.

While you may be the sole author of your dissertation, there are lots of people who help you through the process—from your formal dissertation advisors to the friends who may have cooked meals so that you could finish your last chapter . Dissertation acknowledgments are a chance to thank everyone who had a hand in the completion of your project.

Dissertation acknowledgments are a brief statement of your gratitude to advisors, professors, peers, family, and friends for their help and expertise.

In this guide, we’ll cover:

  • the most important things to consider when you’re writing your dissertation acknowledgments
  • who to thank in your dissertation acknowledgments
  • what (and what not) to write in your dissertation acknowledgments
  • short examples of dissertation acknowledgments

Once you’re at the stage where you’re writing your dissertation acknowledgments, you may be tempted to kick back and relax. After all, the hard part of writing the dissertation itself is over and a list of thanks should be simple to churn out.

However, the acknowledgments are an important part of your overall work and are something that most people who read your dissertation, including prospective employers, will look at.

Tip: The best dissertation acknowledgements are concise, sincere, and memorable.

Approach this part of the process, brief as it may be compared to the long haul of writing the dissertation, with the same high level of care and attention to detail. It’s an explicit and permanent statement of who made a real impact on your work and contributed to your academic success.

Plus, the people you thank are often deeply moved by being included—some even go so far as to frame the acknowledgments. Aim to make yours sincere, memorable and something that people will be touched by.

First things first: who should you include in your dissertation acknowledgments? If you’re not sure who to thank, try the brainstorming technique to generate some ideas. Consider these two approaches:

  • Make a list of everyone, both professional and personal, who was involved at any point during your work on your dissertation, and then thin down the list from there.
  • Make a list of the pivotal aspects of your process and think about who was involved and how they helped.

As you select the people and groups to include in your dissertation acknowledgments, keep in mind that it’s essential to acknowledge your supervisor and anyone else with a visible connection to your work.

It’s an unfortunate reality that not every supervisor goes above and beyond to provide feedback and guidance to the students they are supposed to supervise. However, leaving them out, even if you personally felt disappointed by their involvement or lack thereof, could be seen as a snub.

You should end up with a fairly short list of people to thank. While being mindful of professional etiquette and personal feelings, be choosy about who makes the final cut since your acknowledgments should be limited to no more than a page.

Now that you have your list of people and groups to thank, it’s time to start writing. Before your first pen or keystroke, however, check your university’s guidelines as your institution may have specific rules around what can and cannot be included.

The standard practice is to begin with the formal and then progress to the informal, so the first people to mention would be:

  • supervisors
  • committee members
  • other professional contacts

Use their full names and titles and go into brief detail about how they contributed to your work.

Once those are done, you can move on to the personal thanks, which can include friends, family, even pets. If you are so inclined, it is also considered appropriate to thank God or make mention of spiritual support.

You may also choose to inject a little humor at this point, but don’t get carried away and definitely don’t include sarcasm or critical comments of any kind, including self-critical ones. Remember that the acknowledgments precede your dissertation, so you want to be taken seriously.

A couple more basics that are essential when creating your acknowledgments:

  • Position: Acknowledgments should be placed after the title page and before the abstract.
  • Perspective: Write from the first-person perspective and speak in your own voice.

A really good way to get a sense of how to write your own dissertation acknowledgments is to read ones written by others. Notice which ones you respond particularly well to and use them as a model upon which to base your own.

Here are some good examples to help you get started:

I couldn’t have reached this goal without the help of many people in my life. I’d like to take this opportunity to thank them for their support.

First, my sincere thanks to my dissertation committee. The value of their guidance cannot be overstated. Dr. Elaine Gooding and Dr. Matthew Hunter provided much wisdom that helped me chart my course. I couldn’t have asked for a better supervisor than Dr. Fiona Moore, whose knowledge and experience guided me every step of the way.

Next, I’d like to thank my partner, Elliott. Your votes of confidence kept me going when my spirits dipped. I couldn’t have done this without you.

Last but not least, I’d like to acknowledge the emotional support provided by my family and friends. We made it to the top of the mountain! I look forward to celebrating with all of you.

This example is shorter, but still contains the key components:

Several people played a decisive role in my success and I would like to take this opportunity to thank them.

My chair, Dr. Ronald Saulk, provided invaluable support and infinite patience and I am truly grateful for all of his wisdom and guidance. I also owe the entire staff of the Wilhelm Library a debt of gratitude. From tracking down books and arranging for interlibrary loans to keeping the coffee maker in the lobby well-stocked and in good working order, they offered the practical help and kind gestures that made all the difference.

I’d also like to thank my family and God, for always being there for me.

One final piece of advice: enjoy this process. Writing a dissertation doesn’t happen every day, and the opportunity to acknowledge the important people in your life in a published format is as rare as it is wonderful.

What’s more, this part of your dissertation is unlike any other. It’s unbounded by the conventions that apply to the formal work. It’s a chance to really flex some creative muscle and let your personality shine through. So make the most of it and have fun!

In your dissertation acknowledgments, you thank everyone who has contributed to your work or supported you along the way. Who you want to thank is a very personal choice, but you should include your supervisors and anyone else with a visible connection to your work. You may also thank friends, family, and partners.

First, you need to come up with a list of people you want to thank in your dissertation acknowledgments. As a next step, begin with the formal and then progress to the informal, so the first people to mention would be supervisors, mentors, committees, and other professional contacts. Then, you can move on to the personal thanks, which can include friends, family, even pets.

Who you acknowledge in your dissertation is ultimately up to you. You should, however, thank your supervisor and anyone else with a visible connection to your work. Leaving them out, even if you personally felt disappointed by their involvement or lack thereof, could be seen as a snub. In addition, you can thank friends, partners or family.

There are many ways so you can acknowledge your dissertation supervisor. Some examples can be found in this article above. If you need more examples, you can find them here .

While acknowledgments are usually more present in academic theses, they can also be a part of research papers. In academic theses, acknowledgments are usually found at the beginning, somewhere between abstract and introduction. In research papers, acknowledgments are usually found at the end of the paper.

masters dissertation acknowledgement

masters dissertation acknowledgement

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How to Write Acknowledgement for Dissertation?

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  • Updated on  
  • Apr 21, 2023

How to Write Acknowledgement for Dissertation (1)

Students pursuing doctoral or master’s programs are required to submit a dissertation as part of their studies. A dissertation is a written document that summarises the research conducted and includes findings either on a question or a topic chosen by the student. A dissertation is important as it demonstrates a student’s knowledge about their subject and their ability to use research methods to define a topic/subject. As part of the dissertation, students are required to submit an acknowledgement. This blog guides you on how to write an acknowledgement for your dissertation acknowledgement, what to include in an acknowledgement for a dissertation, and includes tips and samples for acknowledgement for dissertation projects.

Must Read: All About PhD Thesis

This Blog Includes:

Acknowledgement for dissertation, why is thesis acknowledgement so important, professional and academic acknowledgements, how to write acknowledgement for a dissertation, including thanks in acknowledgement for the dissertation, how long should my acknowledgements be, where should my acknowledgements go, phrases to help you get started, dissertation acknowledgement examples, dissertation acknowledgement sample, dos and don’ts while writing acknowledgement for dissertation, [bonus] find out the best country to pursue phd, when to write dissertation acknowledgements, differences between your thesis acknowledgement and preface, summary of writing dissertation acknowledgements.

An acknowledgement for the dissertation is written to acknowledge and thank all individuals and academic departments that helped you during the process of writing a dissertation. It is a section where you thank funders, dissertation supervisors, other academics, colleagues, family and friends that helped in the research and writing process. The acknowledgement is placed after the title page of the dissertation and is no longer than one page. 

Also Read:  What is Research Proposal?

Some students add an acknowledgement part to their thesis or dissertation projects because they were difficult, while others do so because they worked hard for a long period. If a lot of individuals have helped you over the years, you might want to think about them to express your thanks. Who are these individuals? In a thesis acknowledgement, it’s common to see:

  • Fellow students;
  • Colleagues;
  • Possible respondents;

The main objective of an acknowledgement page is to express gratitude to people who helped you during your research.

No dissertation is ever finished in a vacuum. There are many individuals to thank, from those who read your work to academic supervisors who assisted you through the project. Thank these individuals in your dissertation acknowledgements. Take care to use complete names and titles while naming. After a long writing process, your supervisor is likely to know you by your first name. To credit them, though, it’s best to include their complete name and title. There are no hard and fast rules in this part, but make sure to appreciate individuals that helped you out tremendously. Consider including the following:

  • Supervisors of dissertations
  • Academics who worked on the study directly, such as lab workers or your research group
  • Colleagues who assisted you with research or proofread your work

There is no format to write an acknowledgement for a dissertation. You should simply start by thanking everyone who helped you. While writing, you can use an informal tone as an acknowledgement is more personal. It should be written in first-person. You can acknowledge individuals, institutions or organisations. It is preferred to start with professional acknowledgements first and then move to personal acknowledgements. You choose to simply say thank you in some acknowledgements whereas in others you can elaborate on how that person helped you.

Make sure you thank the right people from your institution as well as from your personal life.

Professional acknowledgements can include:

  • Committee members
  • Supervisors
  • Professors 
  • Librarians (generalists and specialists)
  • Proofreaders
  • Laboratory assistants
  • Other academics
  • Professional colleagues
  • Classmates who contributed in some way
  • Research participants
  • You can also mention if someone in authority gave you valuable suggestions

Personal Acknowledgements can include:

  • Your  partner
  • Friends and the Family members who contributed or inspired in some way
  • Any other individual who inspired or guided you in your academic journey
  • You can also choose to thank God.

Also Read: PhD in UK

The length of acknowledgements varies greatly. Some areas short as a single paragraph, while others are as long as three pages. The length of your recognition page will mostly be determined by the number of people you wish to thank. Try to restrict your acknowledgements section to one page as a general guideline. Even though there is no word restrictions, a long acknowledgements section dilutes the thankfulness you’re attempting to show, especially to those who have aided you the most.

Your acknowledgements should, in the great majority of circumstances, come after your abstract and before your table of contents. However, we strongly urge you to examine your university’s standards, as some universities have their own set of rules that you must observe.

We understand how difficult it is to express your gratitude to people who have helped you throughout the years, especially in words. To assist you in getting started, we’ve supplied a few samples of phrases from which you may finish or obtain ideas.

  • I am deeply grateful to XXX…
  • I would like to express my sincere gratitude to XXX…
  • I would like to offer my special thanks to XXX…
  • I would like to extend my sincere thanks to XXX…
  • …for their assistance at every stage of the research project.
  • …for their insightful comments and suggestions.
  • …for their contribution to XXX.
  • …for their unwavering support and belief in me.
  • You can use the following examples that will help to write an acknowledgement for your dissertation. You can simply say thank you or elaborate on how each person or group contributed to your dissertation.
  • First of all, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to ________ for providing financial support without which this research would not have been possible. 
  • I would like to thank my supervisor _____ for the constant support and guidance throughout this project.
  • I would like to thank the following people for helping with this research project
  • Many thanks to _____without whom I would not have been able to complete this research.
  • I would also like to acknowledge _________ for their participation and engagement. 
  • I would like to express my gratitude to ______ for providing valuable suggestions that helped guide this entire project.
  • I would like to thank ____  from the bottom of my heart for their constant support, guidance and encouragement.
  • Special thanks to ______ for their invaluable advice, continuous support, and patience during my research
  • I would like to extend my sincere thanks to ____ for their assistance at every stage of the research project.
  • ___ provided constant encouragement and was always willing and enthusiastic to assist in any way he/she could throughout the research project.
  • I am grateful to have the pleasure of working with 
  • I am deeply grateful to _____ for their unwavering support and belief in me
  • I wish to thank my loving and supportive partner/parents/friends

Also Read: How to Write a Motivation Letter for PhD Programs?

  • Do check if the university has provided guidelines to write an acknowledgement
  • Do Make sure that you include individuals who directly helped you in the process.
  • Do keep the tone informal and personal.
  • Do use the full name and appropriate titles and qualifications.
  • Do remember to keep the acknowledgement of the appropriate length. 
  • Don’t thank each and every member of your family unless someone was particularly inspiring or supportive.
  • Don’t overlook anybody, especially people you know and have helped you in a professional capacity, even if their contribution was very little.
  • Don’t forget to revise the acknowledgement and remove any redundancies.  

Must Read: Dissertation vs Thesis

I’ve seen that a surprising percentage of students submit proposal draughts with the acknowledgements section fully prepared. “The more portions I do now, the less I’ll have to do later,” we imagine the reasoning goes. It’s also understandable that filling up a part that doesn’t require any citations is appealing.

While there’s nothing wrong with planning out your acknowledgements section ahead of time, it’s preferable to store it apart from your proposal document. Your Chair and committee members may find it weird to be acknowledged before they’ve finished assisting you through the dissertation process, as acknowledgements are intended to be written retroactively.

It’s pointless to use your prologue and acknowledgement in your thesis at the same time. What is the best way to make this decision? Write a prologue if you wish to express gratitude and give readers further information. Write your thesis acknowledgement if you don’t have enough room.

  • You should thank the department, staff, or funding organizations who helped you with your project in a separate acknowledgement section of your thesis. Find excellent thank-you letter templates to express thanks to individuals who have supported you financially, given you positive feedback, or benefited you in any other way. Your thank-you notes function as a formal recognition of your thesis.
  • Because there is a political consideration to consider when writing, professional acknowledgements should come first. Check your list of collaborators to discover whether any academics supported you in the creation of this crucial publication.
  • Before you begin writing, make a list of anybody who is linked to your project in any way. Some of them will read or edit your work, while others will listen to your academic problems or support you regularly. Mention friends or family members who are pursuing graduate degrees.

The acknowledgement portion of your dissertation is the section with the least amount of control. There aren’t any particular headers or word counts required. I recommend that you take your time and reflect on the people that assisted you in completing your journey and express your gratitude to them. You may send them a note or invite them to dinner, which is a fantastic idea. However, a lasting acknowledgement in your dissertation serves as a reminder to yourself and the rest of the world that these people had a significant impact on your life and future. The acknowledgement page of several pleased parents has been framed! Remember that, while this is your chance to express gratitude to people, how you do so (and the care with which you do so) reflects who you are. Even if you’re weary of writing, it’s important to put actual effort into this part since it will communicate who you are as a person to everyone who reads it.

You should recognize people who supported you academically or professionally, such as your supervisor, funders, and other academics, first in the acknowledgements of your thesis or dissertation. Then you may express your gratitude to friends, family members, or anybody else who helped you along the way.

The acknowledgements are usually found at the very beginning of your thesis, immediately following the title page and before the abstract.

To begin, make a list of persons you’d want to thank in your dissertation acknowledgements. In the following step, start with the official and work your way down to the informal, thus supervisors, mentors, committees, and other professional relationships should be included first. Then you may go on to personal expressions of gratitude, which might include friends, family, and even pets.

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How to Write Dissertation Acknowledgements

Published by Owen Ingram at August 13th, 2021 , Revised On August 29, 2023

Acknowledging someone means thanking them. The acknowledgement section in a dissertation is used to express gratitude towards all those who have helped you prepare the dissertation.

Both professional and personal acknowledgements can be included in it. The acknowledgement section comes in between the title page  and the  abstract page . It is best suited to be on one page.

The writer has the liberty to use  personal pronouns (I, we, my, etc) in this section, as this section allows more of an informal way of writing. Here is a quick guide to help you understand how to write acknowledgements for your own dissertation .

Dissertation Acknowledgement Example

Let’s start with an example, so you have an idea of the basics, to begin with.

How to Write Dissertation Acknowledgements?

“I am deeply grateful for the guidance and support of my supervisor, Dr. Smith, whose insights and feedback were invaluable throughout this journey. I also extend my appreciation to my family for their unwavering encouragement and to my friends for their understanding during this endeavor.”

“I am deeply grateful for the guidance and support of my supervisor, Dr. Smith, whose insights and feedback were invaluable throughout this journey. I also extend my appreciation to my family for their unwavering encouragement and to my friends for their understanding during this endeavour.”

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The list of figures and tables in dissertation help the readers find tables and figures of their interest without looking through the whole dissertation.

If your dissertation includes many abbreviations, it would make sense to define all these abbreviations in a list of abbreviations in alphabetical order.

Wish that you had more time to write your dissertation paper? Here are some practical tips for you to learn “How to get dissertation deadline extension”.

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Trapped in dissertation revisions?

How to write acknowledgments for a dissertation, published by steve tippins on april 23, 2020 april 23, 2020.

Last Updated on: 2nd February 2024, 05:46 am

If you are wondering how to write your dissertation acknowledgments, that means you are basically finished. Congratulations! You have done the hard work and are just putting the finishing touches on your masterpiece and deciding who to thank.

Seriously though, deciding whom to acknowledge and how to do it is important.

How to Write Dissertation Acknowledgements

There are a few things to keep in mind when writing your dissertation acknowledgements:

  • Know your school’s requirements
  • Thank the right people from your institution
  • Thank the right people from your personal life
  • Add a touch of humor (when appropriate)
  • Keep it the appropriate length

Jump to: Dissertation Acknowledgements Example

Know Your School’s Requirements

The first thing to do is check with your university to see if there are any requirements for or limitations on what to write in the acknowledgments for your dissertation. Some schools have page or word limits. 

Others may limit the types of things that you can say, but for the most part I have seen few limitations. Universities recognize that it takes a village, so to speak, and they want to give you ample opportunity to recognize those who’ve played a part in your success.

Know Whom to Thank

Finishing a dissertation is a celebration. Go ahead and tell those who are meaningful that you appreciate them. 

woman thinking while holding her eyeglasses

It is generally best to start with the most formal relationships and move from there to the personal. Keep in mind that there is a certain political aspect to your list of acknowledgements, so be careful to avoid leaving out anyone at your institution who made a contribution. These are some of the people to consider thanking as a courtesy:

masters dissertation acknowledgement

  • Committee members
  • Supervisors
  • Librarians (generalists and specialists)
  • Other academics
  • Professional colleagues
  • Classmates who contributed in some way
  • Research participants

The acknowledgement section of your dissertation is also a great place to thank those in your personal life who contributed to your ability to go to school and take the time to write this tome. These can include:

  • Past teachers
  • Family — parents, spouses, children, extended family members
  • If you are religious, thanking God (using whatever name is appropriate to your religion) is acceptable as well
  • Pets (I saw a student thank her cat for keeping her company during the many long nights of writing in her office)

I once had someone ask about thanking a therapist. This is fine, but I would suggest asking their permission first.

Should I Add Humor in my Dissertation Acknowledgements?

Dissertations can be somewhat dry, so adding a little bit of humor may make it more fun for both you and the reader — and a degree of humor is appropriate in the acknowledgements section. I once read an acknowledgement that said, “And now that I will have time to tend to relationships, I want to thank my three unborn children for being patient.” 

couple laughing on the couch while writing acknowledgments on a laptop

Another student recounted a cute family story in one sentence that captured the sacrifices his family made to support him.

With regard to humor, remember to maintain a level of professionalism and avoid straying too far into the weeds. Avoid critical (including self-critical) humor or presenting anyone in a bad light. Remember that prospective employers will likely be perusing this document.

Dissertation Acknowledgements Length

I have never seen an acknowledgement section go beyond one page. Keep it to those who really helped you through the process.

Sample Dissertation Acknowledgement 

The best way to learn how to write acknowledgements for a dissertation is by reading the acknowledgements section in dissertations previously published by your institution. However, to help you get started, here is an example of an acknowledgement for a dissertation.

Acknowledgements

There are many who helped me along the way on this journey. I want to take a moment to thank them.

First, I wish to thank my dissertation committee . Without their guidance, I would not have made it. Dr. Betty Rubble and Dr. Colin Slate served as wise committee members, and Dr. Barney Rubble, my Chair, went above and beyond to help me reach my goal.

To my friends, my parents, and my siblings: you put up with me being distracted and missing many events. I am forever grateful for your patience and understanding. I hope to have time now to reconnect with each of you.

Finally, to my wife, Charlotte, and my daughter, Jane: your love and understanding helped me through the dark times. Without you believing in me, I never would have made it. It is time to celebrate; you earned this degree right along with me.

When to Write Dissertation Acknowledgements

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I’ve seen a surprising number of students turn in drafts of their proposals with the acknowledgements section already written. I suppose the thinking goes, “the more sections I complete now, the less I’ll have to do later.” And it must be tempting to fill out a section that doesn’t require any citations.

While there’s nothing wrong with drafting the acknowledgements section ahead of time, it’s best to keep it saved separately from the draft of your proposal. Acknowledgements are supposed to be written retroactively, and your Chair and committee members may find it strange to be thanked before they’ve finished the work of guiding you through the dissertation process. 

How to Write Dissertation Acknowledgements: Summary

The acknowledgement section of your dissertation is the least controlled area of the document. There are no special headings needed or word counts. I suggest you take your time and really think about those who helped you complete this journey and give them the thanks they deserve.

You can give them a card or take them out to dinner, and that’s a great idea. But an acknowledgement in your dissertation is a permanent reminder and an announcement to the wider world that these people really made a difference in your life and your future. Some proud parents have framed their child’s acknowledgement page! Try to make yours worthy of framing. 

masters dissertation acknowledgement

And remember, though this is your opportunity to thank others, the way that you do so (and the care you put into it) is a reflection of who you are. As much as you might be tired of writing, it’s worth putting genuine effort into this section, as it will speak to everyone who reads it about who you are as a person.

Wondering what’s next after you have your PhD? As a PhD coach, I help recent graduates reach their goals , whether that’s landing their dream job at a university, diving into research, creating your own business, or beginning a career outside of academia.

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Steve Tippins, PhD, has thrived in academia for over thirty years. He continues to love teaching in addition to coaching recent PhD graduates as well as students writing their dissertations. Learn more about his dissertation coaching and career coaching services. Book a Free Consultation with Steve Tippins

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Best Acknowledgement for Dissertation (10 Samples and Guide)

January 15, 2024

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By Mohsin Khurshid

Embark on a journey through the art of crafting heartfelt acknowledgments for your dissertation. Explore examples and a comprehensive guide on acknowledging those who made your project possible. Uncover the best practices in expressing gratitude, from family to mentors.

Table of Contents

  • 1.1 Acknowledgement for Dissertation
  • 1.2 Dissertation Acknowledgement Sample
  • 1.3 Acknowledgement for Dissertation Paper
  • 1.4 Acknowledgement Sample for Dissertation
  • 1.5 Acknowledgement in Dissertation to Family
  • 1.6 Acknowledgement for Masters Dissertation
  • 1.7 Undergraduate Dissertation Acknowledgements
  • 1.8 Dissertation Acknowledgements Funny
  • 1.9 Example of Dissertation Acknowledgement to God
  • 1.10 Sample Acknowledgement for Dissertation File
  • 2 How to Write Acknowledgement for Dissertation:
  • 3 Conclusion

Ten Best Samples of Acknowledgement for Dissertation Project

Discover diverse examples showcasing gratitude in dissertation acknowledgments. Explore samples ranging from traditional expressions to unique acknowledgments for family, masters, and even humorous takes. Find inspiration for your own heartfelt acknowledgment.

Acknowledgement for Dissertation

I express my deep appreciation to my advisor for their unwavering guidance in shaping this dissertation. Their expertise and encouragement were vital throughout the research journey. Gratitude extends to my family, whose unwavering support made this academic endeavor possible.

I also acknowledge the contributions of colleagues and friends, creating a collaborative atmosphere that enriched my work. This acknowledgment is a heartfelt tribute to those who played a pivotal role in the success of this dissertation.

Dissertation Acknowledgement Sample

My sincere gratitude goes to all who contributed to this dissertation. Special thanks to my advisor, whose mentorship was invaluable. The support from family, friends, and colleagues created an uplifting environment. This acknowledgment is a token of appreciation to those who stood by me.

Each contributor, whether big or small, has left an indelible mark on this academic journey, and for that, I am truly thankful.

Acknowledgement for Dissertation Paper

In expressing gratitude for this dissertation, my heartfelt thanks go to my advisor for their continuous support and guidance. The collaborative efforts of colleagues and friends added depth to the research. Special acknowledgment is due to family, whose unwavering support sustained me.

This dissertation acknowledgment is a tribute to the combined efforts that made this academic endeavor possible.

Acknowledgement Sample for Dissertation

This acknowledgment is a sincere expression of gratitude to my advisor, mentors, and peers who contributed significantly to the completion of this dissertation. Their unwavering support, valuable insights, and encouragement have been pivotal in shaping the project.

I extend special thanks to [Advisor’s Name] for their guidance and patience, which made this journey a rewarding experience. This acknowledgment is a token of appreciation for the collaborative effort that made this dissertation possible.

Acknowledgement in Dissertation to Family

In the completion of this dissertation, my family has been a pillar of support and encouragement. Their unwavering belief in my capabilities and understanding during challenging times were instrumental. This acknowledgment extends heartfelt thanks to [Family Members’ Names] for their constant encouragement and unwavering support. Their role in this academic endeavor goes beyond words, and I am deeply grateful for their presence throughout this journey.

Acknowledgement for Masters Dissertation

Completing this master’s dissertation wouldn’t have been possible without the support and guidance of [Advisor’s Name]. Their mentorship and expertise played a crucial role in shaping this academic work.

I also extend my thanks to [Mention Other Contributors] for their contributions. This acknowledgment is a reflection of the collaborative effort that went into the successful completion of this master’s dissertation.

Undergraduate Dissertation Acknowledgements

Completing my undergraduate dissertation was a journey marked by invaluable support from various corners. I express my deep gratitude to my advisor for their guidance and patience throughout the process. Thanks are also due to [Mention Other Contributors], whose insights enriched my research.

The support from friends and family played a crucial role in navigating the challenges. This acknowledgment is a tribute to the collective effort that made my undergraduate dissertation a reality.

Dissertation Acknowledgements Funny

Embarking on the serious task of dissertation writing, a touch of humor lightens the load. Special thanks to my caffeine companion, coffee, for being a constant ally during those late-night writing sessions. Gratitude to my computer for not crashing during critical moments.

Humorous acknowledgment goes to [Include Something Funny], who brought laughter to the stressful times. This funny dissertation acknowledgment is a lighthearted nod to the quirks and challenges that made the academic journey memorable.

Example of Dissertation Acknowledgement to God

In completing this dissertation, I humbly acknowledge the divine guidance of God. My gratitude extends to the Almighty for providing strength, wisdom, and inspiration throughout this academic journey.

The acknowledgment to God is a heartfelt expression of faith, recognizing the unseen hand that guided me in moments of doubt and challenge. This dissertation stands as a testament to the divine support that made the impossible possible.

Sample Acknowledgement for Dissertation File

As I present this dissertation file, I express my sincere appreciation to all who contributed to its creation. Special thanks to my advisor and mentors for their guidance. This acknowledgment extends to family, friends, and colleagues whose support shaped this document. The acknowledgment for the dissertation file is a recognition of the collaborative effort that turned ideas into written words.

It’s a token of gratitude to those who played a role, big or small, in bringing this document to completion.

Sample Acknowledgement for Dissertation File

How to Write Acknowledgement for Dissertation:

Crafting an effective dissertation acknowledgment involves thoughtful consideration of those who contributed to your academic journey. Begin with a genuine expression of gratitude to those who played significant roles:

1. Primary Advisor:

Start with your primary advisor. Acknowledge their guidance, support, and mentorship.

2. Thesis Committee:

Extend gratitude to other committee members . Recognize their valuable insights and contributions.

3. Academic Mentors:

Acknowledge mentors, professors, or colleagues who provided guidance and support.

4. Fellow Students:

Include fellow students for their camaraderie and shared academic experiences.

5. Family and Friends:

Express appreciation for the unwavering support of family and friends. Acknowledge their understanding and encouragement.

6. Institutions or Funding Sources:

If applicable, acknowledge any institutions, organizations, or funding sources that supported your research.

7. Colleagues or Collaborators:

Recognize any collaborators or colleagues who contributed to the project.

8. Professional Contacts:

If relevant, include professionals in the field who provided assistance or insights.

When structuring your acknowledgment, consider starting with the most influential contributors, such as your primary advisor and committee members. Progress to those who played supporting roles, ensuring that each acknowledgment is sincere and specific. Use warm and appreciative language, keeping the acknowledgment concise and focused on those directly related to the dissertation.

In crafting your dissertation acknowledgments, draw inspiration from these examples. Express gratitude thoughtfully to create a meaningful acknowledgment section that reflects the collaborative spirit of your academic journey.

Acknowledgement for PhD Thesis (5 Samples and Guide)

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Writing a dissertation  is a hard task, but it is too early to relax after completing it. Before defending your scientific thesis, you must write dissertation acknowledgements.

Dissertation acknowledgements allow the author to express appreciation to those who provided support during the research and writing process. This section provides an opportunity to recognize the contributions of other individuals and institutions who helped with your study.

Although this section is not taken into account when your dissertation defense is evaluated, it can impress readers and the academic community. Still, this page is not easy to handle, since you should follow certain rules. Read on this guide and find out how to write a thesis or dissertation acknowledgements without effort. Don’t forget to check out examples that will surely come in handy.  

What Is Acknowledgement: Dissertation

Acknowledgement in dissertation is an optional section. It is a common courtesy rule in any academic community. Acknowledgements are placed immediately after the front page. This section contains personal thanking to all people who have helped and supported you with dissertation writing. This is not only a formal  acknowledgement . It can also be a recognition of these people’s contribution to a full-fledged research. After all, you’ve probably got advice from professors or asked to find the necessary literature. Chances are that you also enjoyed the support of your beloved ones.  

Who Should You Thank in Dissertation Acknowledgements

A list of people you can thank may vary greatly. But we recommend including these people in dissertation acknowledgements :

  • funding bodies
  • supervisors (both current and former ones, if there have been a few of them)
  • laboratory assistants
  • research participants.

It is not required to dedicate a separate paragraph to each of them. This can take the text beyond 1-page limits. You can unite them into groups or not mention them if their contribution was not significant enough. A separate part should be dedicated to your dissertation defense committee chairman . Do not highlight any of them, try paying the same attention to each member of your list. After a formal list of dissertation participants, you can thank an informal group of people. These may be parents and other family members, spouses, children, friends. Even pets or shop assistants will do – in short, everyone who has influenced your work.  

No one limits you when choosing your acknowledgment section volume. Still, we recommend writing down your appreciation in 1 page. As a rule, no one exceeds this length and for good reason. It’s not too long and complicated, but long enough to mention all important members of your research process. Nevertheless, figure out your alma mater’s requirements. Sometimes, the limitations are set by educational institutions.

For formatting PhD dissertation acknowledgements, you should follow certain criterias:

  • Place a page at the very beginning of your thesis — right after your title page and before the  dissertation abstract .
  • Align all margins on both sides.
  • Place the ‘Acknowledgements’ title at the top of your page and center-align it.
  • Leave 4 space lines after the title.

How to Write Acknowledgements for Dissertation

Before you start writing Ph.D. dissertation acknowledgements , you should make a list of those who have made an important contribution to creating your study. You should distinguish personal support from professional help. Still, your writing style may be slightly informal. But you should not lean toward common speech. It is better to follow a semi-formal style. Remember that it’s not a dissertation itself – there is no need to use complex terms. Having gathered your wits and thinking of all those who supported you in writing your scientific work, proceed to our writing tips:  

  • Work on a professional style. Make all merits in acknowledgement concise but succinct. Mention the provided help without going into unnecessary details.
  • Stick to all recommendations. Some educational institutions set requirements for how an acknowledgement page should look like. Some schools even provide a sample. But most universities still guarantee creative freedom.
  • Put the most important people first. Sort those who will receive acknowledgement by the importance of their contribution made. An alphabetical list  is not recommended.
  • Don’t exclude your advisor from a list. Even if your supervisor’s support wasn’t that significant, they still have contributed to your research. Besides, some people may perceive this as disrespect for advisor’s achievements.

Now, let’s see how to mention professional and personal contributions in a dissertation.

Professional Acknowledgements

It is recommended dedicating the beginning of your appreciation section to professional acknowledgement. This section implies gratitude to:

  • Academic community
  • Research supervisor

Think of those people who provided you with support and helped with collecting and handling all information. Here are some examples of professional acknowledgement:

Example of dissertation acknowledgement

These are examples of formal acknowledgement to all scientists who have helped with your research. It is a great opportunity to highlight some merits of the scientific team. But it is equally important to mention the names of sponsors if they supported you financially.

Personal Acknowledgements

Keep your final part for personal acknowledgement to those who were the most meaningful. These can be family members, partners and friends who have inspired you. Here, a less formal style is appropriate, you can add quotes, poems, even put a touch of humor to your text – this is not prohibited. Take a personal approach into account and include personal facts. Provided this approach, your acknowledgement will be as complete as possible. Specify not only the first and second names of people involved, but their positions and titles if there are any. Thus, we suggest the following personal dissertation acknowledgements sample:  

Personal dissertation acknowledgements sample

Do not make it too personal. Keep in mind that you are still writing a part of your scientific thesis, even if it does not affect the evaluation. If you doubt your skills, contact our academic writing service. Whether it’s a dissertation or a research paper, we will compose a work in line with all requirements.

Dissertation Acknowledgements Examples

Below, please find a short sample of what dissertation acknowledgements may look like in general. As you can see, a writer has mentioned important people from both professional and personal circles. All paragraphs should be well-organized and of equal size.

Dissertation Acknowledgements Examples

Contact our  academic writers  who can add professional touches to this section, as in the example above.  

Acknowledgement Template Dissertation

Follow our recommendations and you will be able to write a dissertation acknowledgement yourself. Feel free to use this dissertation acknowledgements template to express gratitude you have accumulated over the years of scientific work. If you ever need proper hands-on  dissertation proposal writing services , feel free to ask StudyCrumb.

Acknowledgement template dissertation

Bottom Line

The best dissertation acknowledgements are a reflection on an opportunity that you got. It is an informal part of the scientific work that won’t be considered during the evaluation process. However, common courtesy generally requires you to work on this section. To write a good acknowledgement part, you should mention those whom you really appreciate. You can thank them in prose. Besides, you can also allow a little restrained humor if allowed by the person’s status. If you are in need of expert backing – contact StudyCrumb dissertation writing service . We’ve got a dedicated team of professional writers who have extensive experience in the scientific field. They are ready to handle any part of your dissertation and deliver it in time.  

Frequently Asked Questions

1. where do the acknowledgements go in a thesis or dissertation.

Usually, dissertation acknowledgements are placed after the title page and before your abstract page. This is a section where you thank everyone who has helped, inspired, and supported you when writing your scientific thesis. Place an acknowledgement page before the main text. This will help readers understand who has contributed to your work.

2. How long should the acknowledgements be?

There are no specific requirements for how long dissertation acknowledgements should be. We recommend including your recognition in 1 page with standard layout. Start your acknowledgement with the most important people. Work on sincere but brief recognition. You can expand this list a bit later, but usually there is no such need. By keeping to 1-page text volume, you will be able to highlight the most valuable assistants who have really ensured the success of your scientific work.

3. How do you express gratitude in Acknowledgement?

We recommend not going deeply into listing all merits of your assistants. After all, an acknowledgement in dissertation is a text that will allow you to remember all those to whom you are grateful. Use the sample phrases “I am grateful...”, “I express gratitude to...”, “I am deeply grateful...” and others. They will help you express your attitude to all important people, while not setting this page apart from the main style of your dissertation.

4. How do you thank your boss in Acknowledgement?

You can omit highlighting your boss in the acknowledgement of your dissertation. Especially if he has put a minimum of effort into your work. But if this is not a case and their support was sufficient, work out your gratitude deeply. Specify his academic degree and given assistance. Remember all important moments of cooperation. This will show that you appreciate this specialist.

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How to write a unique thesis acknowledgement (+ FAQs)

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Crafting a thesis acknowledgement is typically one of the final steps in completing a thesis. This post aims to assist you in gaining insights and guidance by addressing common questions related to thesis acknowledgements. By doing so, it enables you to create a distinct and meaningful acknowledgment section that reflects your gratitude and appreciation.

What is a thesis acknowledgement?

Do i need a thesis acknowledgement, who should i thank in my thesis acknowledgment, how can i make my thesis acknowledgement uniquely personal, how formal should a thesis acknowledgement be, to what extent should i express personal sentiments in my thesis acknowledgement, how should i structure my thesis acknowledgement, how long should a thesis acknowledgement be, where is the thesis acknowledgement located, where can i find examples of thesis acknowledgements.

A thesis acknowledgement is a special section commonly included at the beginning of a thesis or dissertation. In this section, the author of the thesis expresses gratitude and appreciation to individuals or groups who have contributed to the successful completion of their academic work. It is a way for the author to acknowledge the support, guidance, and assistance they received during the research and writing process.

While a thesis acknowledgement is typically not a mandatory requirement, omitting it might not be seen positively. Writing a thesis almost always involves some form of assistance or support, whether from a supervisor, family, or friends.

Acknowledging these contributions is not only considerate but also showcases your gratitude and reflects well on your character. Including a thesis acknowledgement demonstrates your appreciation for the help you received throughout your academic journey, underscoring the collaborative nature of research and academic pursuits.

  • Yes, it is strongly recommended to include a thesis acknowledgement.

The thesis acknowledgement offers flexibility, but thanking your thesis supervisor/s is an absolute must—non-negotiable. It would be highly unusual to omit their appreciation.

Additionally, it’s customary to thank those who contributed data, such as interviewees or survey participants. While listing every individual may be impractical, acknowledging their assistance shows respect and gratitude. If someone went above and beyond to help you establish contacts for your case study, it’s worth mentioning.

Apart from these essentials, you have the freedom to thank anyone you desire. Common mentions include parents, partners, friends, peers, and colleagues. Some may even extend gratitude to pets or coffee! Injecting humor is acceptable, but maintaining a certain level of formality is advised, as explained in the subsequent section.

  • Acknowledging your thesis supervisor/s is a non-negotiable requirement.
  • Show appreciation to those who contributed data or support, like interviewees or survey participants.
  • Feel free to thank parents, partners, friends, and colleagues.

How to deal with a thesis supervisor with whom I had a challenging relationship in my thesis acknowledgement?

Regrettably, not everyone shares a positive relationship with their thesis supervisor. Nevertheless, it is important to acknowledge them in your thesis.

When doing so, maintain a concise approach while ensuring a respectful and diplomatic tone, refraining from any negative aspects or conflicts. Instead, emphasize the professional aspects of their contribution, such as supporting the development of the theoretical framework or providing valuable critical feedback that enhanced the quality of your work.

  • Acknowledge your thesis supervisor, even if your relationship was challenging.
  • Maintain a concise and respectful tone.
  • Focus on the supervisor’s professional contributions.

Once you have decided whom to thank in your thesis acknowledgement, consider going beyond generic expressions of gratitude. Making your acknowledgements more personal and specific can make them truly special. Instead of simply thanking someone for their guidance and support, include examples that highlight the unique contributions of those individuals.

For instance, if you are thanking your fellow thesis writers, you can say something like: “Long study sessions at the library with John and Sabine made thesis writing a joyful experience.” This demonstrates the specific way they contributed to your journey.

Similarly, if you had engaging conversations during walks in the park with someone, you can mention: “Our thoughtful discussions while strolling through the park were a crucial aspect of getting excited about my thesis topic.”

By providing concrete examples, your acknowledgements become more heartfelt and memorable, showing the genuine impact of each person you thank.

  • If possible, make thesis acknowledgements personal and specific.
  • Include examples of how each person contributed uniquely.
  • Highlight specific interactions or experiences that made a difference in your thesis journey.

While there are no strict rules for writing a thesis acknowledgement, it’s essential to consider its significance as one of the first things readers encounter in your thesis. Therefore, maintaining a certain level of formality is advised.

Avoid including details of personal experiences like drinking excesses with friends or lavish parties to cope with thesis stress. Such content could create a negative impression and should be avoided.

Remember that your thesis is an academic work, and the acknowledgement should not detract from its academic merit. Focus on expressing gratitude to those who contributed to your academic journey in a professional and appropriate manner.

  • Keep a level of formality, as your acknowledgement section is one of the first things readers see.

People have different boundaries in terms of how open they are, and you should do what you feel comfortable with. But don’t forget that your thesis will likely be a document open to the public. So make sure that you will be comfortable with the information out there, also 2, 5 or ten years from now.

That said, the thesis acknowledgement is there to showcase your human side and your gratitude for your loved ones. So don’t hold back when you really want to thank someone deep from your heart.

And of course make sure that the information you reveal about the people you thank, they are also comfortable with it. You should not, for instance, describe your messy breakup with a person and even worse naming the person by name. Instead, you can write something more neutral in a way that people who know you well still know what you mean. For instance, you could thank your friends for always being there for you during challenging times, which you are grateful for.

  • Remember that your thesis is public, so ensure you’ll be okay with the information long-term.
  • Thank people genuinely but avoid sharing sensitive or personal details about others.

When writing a thesis acknowledgement, there are several acceptable ways to structure it, each serving its purpose. Three commonly used approaches stand out.

The first method is the chronological structure, typically employed in longer theses like PhD dissertations. In a chronological acknowledgement, you express gratitude to those who supported you throughout your entire thesis journey . For instance, you can start by thanking your supervisor for their guidance from the very beginning, then acknowledge the organizers of the PhD summer school you attended in year two, followed by appreciation for your friends who encouraged you during the challenging writing phase in year three, and so on.

The second approach involves structuring the acknowledgement based on the nature of relationships, ranging from formal to personal. Here, you begin by expressing thanks to your formal supervisors and professors who played a significant role in shaping your research, then move on to more informal yet professional mentors. Subsequently, you extend your gratitude to friends, family, and, if applicable, your partner or spouse.

The third common method is essentially the reverse of the second one, starting with personal relationships and ending with formal ones. In this arrangement, you begin by thanking your close friends and family members for their unwavering support, then move on to acknowledge professional mentors who contributed to your academic growth, and finally conclude the acknowledgement with appreciation for your thesis supervisor.

  • Thesis acknowledgements can be structured chronologically.
  • Thesis acknowledgements can be structured from formal to personal.
  • Thesis acknowledgements can be structured from personal to formal.

The general guideline is that the length of the thesis acknowledgement can vary depending on the length of the thesis itself. However, this doesn’t imply that it must be excessively long.

For bachelor or master theses, the average length typically ranges from 100 to 250 words, equivalent to about half a page.

PhD thesis acknowledgements, on the other hand, tend to be longer, given the extended duration of PhD research. The average length for a PhD thesis acknowledgement ranges from 250 to 1000 words, or approximately half a page to 2 pages.

  • Bachelor’s theses: usually 100-250 words
  • Master’s theses: usually 100-350 words
  • PhD theses: usually 250 – 1000 words

The thesis acknowledgement is typically positioned right at the beginning of the thesis, following the title page and preceding the table of contents. This placement ensures that it remains distinct from the academic content of the thesis.

When formatting your document, it’s advisable to insert blank pages to maintain a proper layout in the printed version, especially when double-paged printing is used. To achieve this layout, page 1 is reserved for the title page, page 2 is often left empty, and page 3 contains the thesis acknowledgement. Additionally, page four is frequently left blank as well. This arrangement enhances the reading experience of the printed version and provides a more polished appearance to the document.

  • The thesis acknowledgement is typically placed at the beginning of the thesis, after the title page and before the table of contents.
  • Leaving empty pages, such as page 2 and often page 4, helps in maintaining a visually pleasing layout, when double-sided printing is used.

masters dissertation acknowledgement

Many universities maintain thesis repositories, providing students access to previous years’ theses. This serves a twofold purpose: firstly, it helps students gain clarity on the university’s expectations, preferred style, and required length for a thesis. Secondly, it offers a valuable opportunity to explore a diverse array of thesis acknowledgements, serving as a source of inspiration for crafting one’s own acknowledgment section.

In addition to utilizing the university’s repository, I have created five examples of PhD thesis acknowledgements that you can review for further guidance and ideas.

  • Check your university’s thesis repository.
  • Find five PhD thesis acknowledgement examples here .

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  • Thesis & Dissertation Acknowledgements | Tips & Examples

Thesis & Dissertation Acknowledgements | Tips & Examples

Published on 4 May 2022 by Tegan George . Revised on 4 November 2022.

Acknowledgements-section

The acknowledgements section is your opportunity to thank those who have helped and supported you personally and professionally during your thesis or dissertation process.

Thesis or dissertation acknowledgements appear between your title page and abstract  and should be no longer than one page.

In your acknowledgements, it’s okay to use a more informal style than is usually permitted in academic writing , as well as first-person pronouns . Acknowledgements are not considered part of the academic work itself, but rather your chance to write something more personal.

To get started, download our step-by-step template in the format of your choice below. We’ve also included sample sentence starters to help you construct your acknowledgments section from scratch.

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Table of contents

Who to thank in your acknowledgements, how to write acknowledgements, acknowledgements section example, acknowledgements dos and don’ts, frequently asked questions.

Generally, there are two main categories of acknowledgements: professional and personal .

A good first step is to check your university’s guidelines, as they may have rules or preferences about the order, phrasing, or layout of acknowledgements. Some institutions prefer that you keep your acknowledgements strictly professional.

Regardless, it’s usually a good idea to place professional acknowledgements first, followed by any personal ones. You can then proceed by ranking who you’d like to thank from most formal to least.

  • Chairs, supervisors, or defence committees
  • Funding bodies
  • Other academics (e.g., colleagues or cohort members)
  • Editors or proofreaders
  • Librarians, research/laboratory assistants, or study participants
  • Family, friends, or pets

Typically, it’s only necessary to mention people who directly supported you during your thesis or dissertation. However, if you feel that someone like a secondary school physics teacher was a great inspiration on the path to your current research, feel free to include them as well.

Professional acknowledgements

It is crucial to avoid overlooking anyone who helped you professionally as you completed your thesis or dissertation. As a rule of thumb, anyone who directly contributed to your research should be mentioned.

A few things to keep in mind include:

  • Even if you feel your chair didn’t help you very much, you should still thank them first to avoid looking like you’re snubbing them.
  • Be sure to follow academic conventions, using full names with titles where appropriate.
  • If several members of a group or organisation assisted you, mention the collective name only.
  • Remember the ethical considerations around anonymised data. If you wish to protect someone’s privacy, use only their first name or a generic identifier (such as ‘the interviewees’).

Personal acknowledgements

There is no need to mention every member of your family or friend group. However, if someone was particularly inspiring or supportive, you may wish to mention them specifically. Many people choose to thank parents, partners, children, friends, and even pets, but you can mention anyone who offered moral support or encouragement, or helped you in a tangible or intangible way.

Some students may wish to dedicate their dissertation to a deceased influential person in their personal life. In this case, it’s okay to mention them first, before any professional acknowledgements.

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After you’ve compiled a list of who you’d like to thank, you can then sort your list into rank order. Separate everyone you listed into ‘major thanks’, ‘big thanks’, and ‘minor thanks’ categories.

  • ‘Major thanks’ are given to people who your project would be impossible without. These are often predominantly professional acknowledgements, such as your advisor , chair, and committee, as well as any funders.
  • ‘Big thanks’ are an in-between, for those who helped you along the way or helped you grow intellectually, such as classmates, peers, or librarians.
  • ‘Minor thanks’ can be a catch-all for everyone else, especially those who offered moral support or encouragement. This can include personal acknowledgements, such as parents, partners, children, friends, or even pets.

How to phrase your acknowledgements

To avoid acknowledgements that sound repetitive or dull, consider changing up your phrasing. Here are some examples of common sentence starters you can use for each category.

Note that you do not need to write any sort of conclusion or summary at the end. You can simply end the acknowledgements with your last thank-you.

Here’s an example of how you can combine the different sentences to write your acknowledgements.

A simple construction consists of a sentence starter (in purple highlight ), followed by the person or entity mentioned (in green highlight ), followed by what you’re thanking them for (in yellow highlight .)

Acknowledgements

Words cannot express my gratitude to my professor and chair of my committee for her invaluable patience and feedback. I also could not have undertaken this journey without my defense committee, who generously provided knowledge and expertise. Additionally, this endeavor would not have been possible without the generous support from the MacArthur Foundation, who financed my research .

I am also grateful to my classmates and cohort members, especially my office mates, for their editing help, late-night feedback sessions, and moral support. Thanks should also go to the librarians, research assistants, and study participants from the university, who impacted and inspired me.

Lastly, I would be remiss in not mentioning my family, especially my parents, spouse, and children. Their belief in me has kept my spirits and motivation high during this process. I would also like to thank my cat for all the entertainment and emotional support.

  • Write in first-person, professional language
  • Thank your professional contacts first
  • Include full names, titles, and roles of professional acknowledgements
  • Include personal or intangible supporters, like friends, family, or even pets
  • Mention funding bodies and what they funded
  • Appropriately anonymise or group research participants or non-individual acknowledgments

Don’t:

  • Use informal language or slang
  • Go over one page in length
  • Mention people who had only a peripheral or minor impact on your work

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

You may acknowledge God in your thesis or dissertation acknowledgements , but be sure to follow academic convention by also thanking the relevant members of academia, as well as family, colleagues, and friends who helped you.

Yes, it’s important to thank your supervisor(s) in the acknowledgements section of your thesis or dissertation .

Even if you feel your supervisor did not contribute greatly to the final product, you still should acknowledge them, if only for a very brief thank you. If you do not include your supervisor, it may be seen as a snub.

In the acknowledgements of your thesis or dissertation, you should first thank those who helped you academically or professionally, such as your supervisor, funders, and other academics.

Then you can include personal thanks to friends, family members, or anyone else who supported you during the process.

The acknowledgements are generally included at the very beginning of your thesis or dissertation, directly after the title page and before the abstract .

In a thesis or dissertation, the acknowledgements should usually be no longer than one page. There is no minimum length.

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What is an acknowledgement and what is its purpose?

The acknowledgement section is one of the sections of a bachelor’s or master’s thesis, dissertation, research paper, etc. destined to show your appreciation of the persons who took part in your research, contributed to your project, or provided any kind of support. In other words, this section is a way for the author to say a thank you to all those whose contribution they recognise as important.

How to write the acknowledgement section for a PhD thesis or dissertation

We are going to provide the basic guidelines below but please make sure to review the style guide of your university or department, as each institution might have some specific requirements as regards the contents and/or formatting of the acknowledgement section in your thesis.

So, here are several key recommendations for writing the acknowledgement section.

Whom to thank in the acknowledgement

This is up to you to decide whom to acknowledge. Select those persons who indeed contributed to your research or helped you perform your duties. In general, there are two main groups of persons to consider: professionals and personal acquaintances.

Professional acknowledgements

You can say a thank you to your:

  • Thesis supervisor.
  • Thesis opponents.
  • Co-authors of your scientific papers.
  • Research participants.
  • Colleagues.
  • Companies providing funding.
  • Any other individuals or entities who anyhow contributed to the effective process of writing the dissertation.

Acknowledging the contribution of professionals is important from the perspective of academic integrity but also in terms of scientific ethics.

When addressing professionals, make sure to write their names in full and include their titles (e.g. associate professor at the Department…, PhD , etc.). This is important for identifying the contributors unequivocally. At the same time, it also makes your research look more credible and professional.

Personal acknowledgements

These include any persons other than professionals whom you would like to thank, e.g.:

  • Parents or relatives (father/mother, grandparents, husband/wife, children, etc.).
  • People who inspired or supported you.

Do not include any personal details, except the first name and last name (e.g. avoid giving the age, the place of living, etc.).

Language and style

The acknowledgement section differs from the rest of your PhD thesis, as it does not relate directly to the research, is addressing your readers, and thus can be less formal.

  • Keep your language simple. Avoid complex and long phrases. Keep everything simple and straightforward.
  • Your writing can be more informal. In the acknowledgement section, you can use more appealing and emotive language. Furthermore, you can use sentences in the first person (while you should use the impersonal or the passive form when presenting the results of your research in the body of your thesis).
  • Remain within the academic framework. While the acknowledgement section is more informal, do not push too hard and remain within the framework of academic writing.
  • Do not use dotted lists for names. Mention all the persons in sentences, do not present their names as dotted or numbered lists.

Length of the acknowledgement section

Your acknowledgement section should never be too long. As a rule, it should be at most 1 page. Do not try to overextend this section if less is sufficient for thanking your contributors.

Where to put the acknowledgement in the thesis

Most often, your acknowledgement goes after the abstract and before the table of contents or between the declaration and the table of contents. Please check the guidelines of your university or department.

Structure of the acknowledgement section

While it is up to you to choose (remember that your university might also have some guidelines for this), we can generally recommend the following structure for your acknowledgement:

  • Brief introduction (one or a few sentences: why you are writing this section and why you need to acknowledge someone).
  • Gratitude to your supervisor.
  • Recognition of the other professional contributors.
  • Recognition of personal supporters.

Thesis acknowledgement examples

Here are a few sample acknowledgements to give you an idea of how you can do it in your thesis.

Sample acknowledgement – supervisors

First and foremost, I would like to express my sincere gratitude to my supervisors who guided, instructed, and motivated me. Your feedback allowed me deepening and refining my research, and the results presented in my thesis would be impossible without your supervision.

Sample acknowledgement – companies and entities

I would like to acknowledge the financial and organisational support provided by Company X. I would also like to thank the Economics Department of University Y for the technical support.

Sample acknowledgement – individuals and relatives

Finally, I express my profound gratitude to my beloved husband James who continuously supported me, sacrificed his time, and always believed in me.

  • Write the acknowledgement section in the end – once you have written the body of your thesis and have completed your research. This will allow avoiding redundant work.
  • While the acknowledgement section is important, remember that the main part is the body of your thesis. In addition to running an in-depth research and achieve academic results, you also need to reference correctly the sources you have used. This is where Grafiati can help you: use our service to get perfect references, avoid unintentional plagiarism, and cite your sources correctly.

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Victor Mukhin

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Victor Mukhin, Speaker at Chemical Engineering Conferences

Title : Active carbons as nanoporous materials for solving of environmental problems

However, up to now, the main carriers of catalytic additives have been mineral sorbents: silica gels, alumogels. This is obviously due to the fact that they consist of pure homogeneous components SiO2 and Al2O3, respectively. It is generally known that impurities, especially the ash elements, are catalytic poisons that reduce the effectiveness of the catalyst. Therefore, carbon sorbents with 5-15% by weight of ash elements in their composition are not used in the above mentioned technologies. However, in such an important field as a gas-mask technique, carbon sorbents (active carbons) are carriers of catalytic additives, providing effective protection of a person against any types of potent poisonous substances (PPS). In ESPE “JSC "Neorganika" there has been developed the technology of unique ashless spherical carbon carrier-catalysts by the method of liquid forming of furfural copolymers with subsequent gas-vapor activation, brand PAC. Active carbons PAC have 100% qualitative characteristics of the three main properties of carbon sorbents: strength - 100%, the proportion of sorbing pores in the pore space – 100%, purity - 100% (ash content is close to zero). A particularly outstanding feature of active PAC carbons is their uniquely high mechanical compressive strength of 740 ± 40 MPa, which is 3-7 times larger than that of  such materials as granite, quartzite, electric coal, and is comparable to the value for cast iron - 400-1000 MPa. This allows the PAC to operate under severe conditions in moving and fluidized beds.  Obviously, it is time to actively develop catalysts based on PAC sorbents for oil refining, petrochemicals, gas processing and various technologies of organic synthesis.

Victor M. Mukhin was born in 1946 in the town of Orsk, Russia. In 1970 he graduated the Technological Institute in Leningrad. Victor M. Mukhin was directed to work to the scientific-industrial organization "Neorganika" (Elektrostal, Moscow region) where he is working during 47 years, at present as the head of the laboratory of carbon sorbents.     Victor M. Mukhin defended a Ph. D. thesis and a doctoral thesis at the Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (in 1979 and 1997 accordingly). Professor of Mendeleev University of Chemical Technology of Russia. Scientific interests: production, investigation and application of active carbons, technological and ecological carbon-adsorptive processes, environmental protection, production of ecologically clean food.   

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Art Law is a survey course on the law and business of art. In-class simulations include negotiations of the following: an artist-dealer representation agreement; an art consignment agreement with an auction house; a commission agreement between an artist and collector; a loan agreement with a museum. Other topics for discussion include the international transport of art and the conflicting values of free trade and repatriation, the efficacy of the Visual Artists Rights Act in according moral rights to artists, and the tensions between the restitution of Holocaust-looted art and the merits of the good-faith purchaser. Other topics explored from the perspective of the artist include First Amendment rights, copyright, and resale rights. Also touched on are tax and estate planning for collectors and artists, including the tax and estate planning aspects of charitable contributions, and the art collection as investment property.

This survey course deals with the related substantive law, policy, and theory. In-depth discussion and some simulations will be conducted.

Recommended for the Following Professional Pathways:  IP/Copyright and Trademark; Media, Entertainment, Sports, Fashion; Trusts and Estates

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“A Comprehensive Guide to Pursuing an Art Law LLM: Your Path to Legal Mastery in the Arts”

Jun 23, 2023

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Unlock the World of Art Law with an LLM

The legal world is fascinating, and the field of art law only further amplifies the intrigue. Art law refers to the legal issues arising from the creation, buying, and selling of artwork, and the maze-like infrastructure of rules and regulations that govern it. An LLM, or a Master of Laws degree, is the ideal way to gain the skills and knowledge needed to understand art law and facilitate the smooth operation of the art world. Here is why an LLM in art law is worth the effort.

An LLM in Art Law is a specialized, advanced-level graduate legal degree which focuses on legal expert knowledge and guidance specifically related to the fine art industry. The aim of this type of degree is to prepare students to properly counsel clients, negotiate contracts, and guide legal transition procedures related to any corporate or private transactions involving any type of artwork, from paintings and sculpture to music and film. With an LLM in Art Law , graduates become proficient in handling copyright infringement questions, litigating disputes related to works of art, collecting royalties, and providing guidance in contract negotiation.

This type of advanced legal education typically requires full-time course work including seminars, skill-building courses, hands-on training, and research papers. Students specializing in the Law of Art receive instruction in key areas such as intellectual property, management of art collections, valuation of art, negotiating and managing contracts, international copyright and trademark protection, and other related topics.

Completing an LLM in Art Law can open up opportunities for graduates to join art law firms, represent clients during litigation, advise dealers, oversee transactional agreements, and manage other legal aspects of the art world. It is also possible for candidates to use an advanced degree to teach, become an auction house specialist, or focus their career in arts-related fields such as fashion, computer animation, photography, visual arts, and video gaming.

What is the difference between an Art Law LLM and an LLM in Intellectual Property Law?

An Art Law LLM is a specialized degree that focuses on legal issues related to the art industry. This type of degree covers topics such as copyright, contracts, and taxation, and prepares students to work as attorneys, legal advisors, or legal consultants in the art world. Students in this program learn how to interpret laws, regulations, and contracts pertaining to art and art-related matters, as well as study the legal aspects of intellectual property, such as copyrights, patents, trademarks, and trade secrets. Due to its specialized nature, an Art Law LLM is especially helpful for those interested in intellectual property law and the legal aspects of the art world. In addition, graduates of Art Law LLM programs have the opportunity to gain specialized experience in the art world while keeping up with the latest developments in the law.

An LLM in Art Law typically covers a wide range of topics, from Art and Cultural Heritage Law to Art and Investment Law. Within these topics, students learn the fundamentals of copyright and intellectual property law, art and museum law, taxation of art transactions, negotiation and dispute resolution in art transactions, auction law, international art law, art and entertainment law, art and technology law, art and media law, art and insurance law, art and banking law, art and investment law, art and risk management law, and art and the law of evidence. The course also covers the essential skills of contracts and negotiations in art transactions. Students are equipped with the legal knowledge to operate in the art law and art business sectors, as well as the tools to review, draft, and negotiate transactions related to art. With an LLM in Art Law, graduates are capable of working in the art world as art lawyers, art advisors, art curators, and art dealers.

What are the benefits of pursuing an LLM in Art Law

An LLM in Art Law provides students with the legal expertise necessary to thrive in the art world. With this degree, students will gain a comprehensive understanding of the laws governing the art market, the rights of artists, the regulation of museums, and the legal aspects of art collecting. Additionally, most LLM in Art Law programs provide courses taught by experienced professionals in the field, giving students the opportunity to learn from experts and gain practical insight into the legal aspects of the art world.

Furthermore, an LLM in Art Law presents excellent networking opportunities, allowing students to connect with other professionals in the field and potentially open the door to job opportunities. An LLM in Art Law can also provide students with the knowledge and skills to pursue a career in the art world, including positions in galleries, museums, auction houses, and other art-related organizations. With the right education and experience, an LLM in Art Law can be a great opportunity for individuals to develop their expertise in the art world.

If you are interested in pursuing an LLM in Art Law, there are a few prerequisites you must meet. Generally, you should have a bachelor’s degree in law, a master’s degree in a related field, and relevant legal experience. Additionally, having a strong background in art history, art theory, and art law is highly recommended. Also, many schools require that you pass an entrance exam such as the Law School Admission Test (LSAT).

To ensure you are well-prepared for the entrance exam, you should review the LSAT study guide and practice tests offered by the Law School Admission Council. Additionally, you should review the specific requirements of the school you are applying to, as they may differ from the general requirements. This may include taking specific courses, completing a particular number of credit hours, or submitting letters of recommendation.

Making sure to meet all the prerequisites for getting an LLM in Art Law is an important part of the application process. Once you have done your research and prepared for the entrance exam, you will be well on your way to achieving your goal of obtaining an LLM in Art Law.

What are the benefits of pursuing an LLM in Art Law?

An LLM in Art Law provides a wealth of knowledge and opportunities that are essential for those interested in pursuing a career in the art world. Not only does it provide an in-depth understanding of the legal issues surrounding the art world, but it also helps to develop a network of professionals in the art industry and to gain the skills necessary to provide legal advice and services to art collectors, galleries, museums, and other art institutions. Furthermore, students have the opportunity to specialize in a particular area of art law, such as cultural heritage law, art restitution, or art finance, and to develop a better understanding of the ever-changing legal landscape of the art industry. With an LLM in Art Law, students can gain invaluable knowledge and experience, which will be invaluable for furthering their career in the art sector.

art law llm_1

What are the benefits of studying an Art Law LLM?

Completing an Art Law LLM offers a range of practical and legal benefits to those interested in the field. Individuals pursuing this degree gain a better understanding of the regulations and legal issues that impact the art world, like copyright laws, contracts, and taxation. They also develop the skills necessary to advise clients on the legal aspects of their art or creative projects. In addition, students of Art Law LLM programs learn to negotiate and draft contracts, as well as protect the rights of artists and other creators. Furthermore, they acquire the knowledge to help those in the art world understand and comply with the law. Finally, those who complete an Art Law LLM program gain a better understanding of the ethical issues related to art and the law, which lets them provide valuable advice on art exhibitions, auctions, and other art-related events.

Developing a deep understanding of the laws, regulations, and principles related to art and cultural heritage is a complex but highly beneficial undertaking. From international art transactions to conservation and restoration, the legal aspects of the art market can affect art collectors, dealers, and galleries in numerous ways. Understanding issues such as copyright, contracts, intellectual property, export/import regulations, taxation, dispute resolution, and art authentication is essential to protect the interests of art investors, dealers, and conservators. It can also ensure that cultural heritage is protected and secure.

In order to fully understand and follow the principles related to art and cultural heritage, professionals should possess a number of key skills. These include being able to negotiate and draft contracts and agreements, authenticate and attribute artworks correctly, and advise clients on the legal aspects of the art market. Additionally, professionals need the ability to represent clients in court proceedings related to art law. Having knowledge of the complex legal landscape surrounding the art market can significantly reduce legal risk and help ensure the security of artworks, galleries, and dealers.

In conclusion, understanding the legal principles and regulations related to art and cultural heritage is of paramount importance for art investors, dealers, conservators, and anyone working in the art market. Professionals should possess the skills necessary to protect their clients, as well as the ability to accurately authenticate, attribute, and follow the legal principles of the art market in order to ensure the safety and security of artworks and cultural heritage.

What qualifications are necessary for admission to an LLM program in Art Law

To gain admission to an accredited Art Law LLM Program without any doubt, an applicant must have a first degree in law from an accredited institution as the minimum threshold. Obtaining external qualifications such as a statement of purpose, letters of recommendation and a resume will be advantageous to the student’s chances of acceptance. Applicants with two or more years of legal experience will have a significantly higher chance of securing a coveted spot than more inexperienced candidates.

To give an example of the necessary criteria, the University of London requires its applicants to be holders of either an LLB, CPE or JD qualification with 60% or higher marks, as well as two years’ prior work experience (not including any internships undertaken as part of a qualification). There is also a need to provide two references, plus a CV, and a 750-word statement of purpose outlining the applicant’s motivations.

It is therefore the responsibility of the candidate to ensure they have the appropriate credentials in order to gain entry into an LLM in Art Law. Furthermore, the qualifications of other applicants should be taken into consideration as potential competition.

In summary:

For applicants to an LLM in Art Law, meeting the minimum criteria may not be enough to guarantee a successful application. When considering all of the requirements, it is essential for the applicant to plan ahead and be fully aware of and prepared for the process to maximize their opportunities for acceptance.

A Master of Laws in Art Law (LLM) is a specialized degree program focused on the legal issues of the art industry. It provides a unique opportunity to develop an in-depth understanding of the legal principles and practices in the art industry. This degree is beneficial for anyone who wants to pursue a career in the art industry or related fields. It can help open the door to new career opportunities, such as working in a law firm, an art gallery, or a museum. The program also provides a unique opportunity to gain practical experience in the field, through internships and other hands-on learning opportunities.

In addition, LLM programs offer curriculums that cover a wide range of topics related to art law. These topics may include legal issues such as copyright, contracts, taxation, and other aspects of the industry. By delving into these topics, students can build an advanced knowledge of the legal principles and practices of the industry. This knowledge gives them the means to stay updated with the rapidly evolving art industry. In addition, graduates can network with other art law professionals and gain fresh insights into the industry.

What are the benefits of an Art Law LLM program?

A comprehensive understanding of the legal issues related to art and the art market is paramount to the success of an attorney in this field. This requires an extensive grasp of intellectual property law, contract law, taxation, and copyright, as well as knowledge of the global art market and laws and regulations surrounding the import and export of art. Additionally, one must develop the skills necessary to advise clients on buying and selling art, and structuring and negotiating art deals. This includes representing clients in art-related litigation, as well as providing legal advice on art financing and protecting the rights of artists. By gaining this knowledge, attorneys navigating the art world are able to safeguard and promote the interests of their clients, and likewise advise them competently on a variety of matters related to gaining a competitive edge in the art world.

develop and understand the legal issues that arise within the arts.

An LLM in Art Law is an invaluable way for students to gain specialized knowledge and expertise in the area of art law. Not only does the program provide students with an in-depth understanding of the legal issues surrounding the art world, but it also offers an opportunity to expand one’s professional network and enhance career prospects. Furthermore, an LLM in Art Law provides students with a greater appreciation for the art world and its complexities, and the knowledge and insight needed to navigate the legal issues that may arise. With the increasing prevalence of art law and the vast opportunities it presents, it is clear that an LLM in Art Law would be a great investment for any aspiring art entrepreneur.

What are the benefits of pursuing an Art Law LLM

Studying for an LLM in Art Law can open up many exciting professional opportunities for students, and provide them with specialized skills and knowledge in the art world. With a comprehensive understanding of the legal issues surrounding art and the art world, students can gain access to a network of art professionals and learn from experienced professionals in the field. This in turn leads to enhancing their career opportunities in the art world, with possible positions ranging from working as a legal advisor to an art gallery to working as a museum curator. It is no wonder that an Art Law LLM is becoming increasingly popular amongst law students seeking to gain an edge in the art industry.

Understanding international art law is a complex issue due to the unique and varying laws throughout the world. International art law consists of a wide range of regulatory and contractual matters, such as copyright and contract law, intellectual property law, art transactions, art financing, art taxation, art history, and the art market. The fundamentals of international law, including the scope of copyright protection, the process of obtaining copyright protection, remedies available for infringement, and formation of contracts, breach of contract, and remedies for breach of contract, must be thoroughly understood in order to properly transact art and maintain a functioning art market. Furthermore, understanding intellectual property law, such as trademarks, patents, and trade secrets, and how these laws pertain to international art transactions is incredibly important. Art transactions must be negotiated and drafted correctly in order to adhere to each country’s laws and prevent potential infringement. Additionally, art financing and taxation must be carefully considered when engaging in international art deals. Although understanding international art law is a complex topic, it is essential for art dealers, collectors, and those in the art business to have a working knowledge of international art laws in order to effectively manage art transactions.

Gaining a comprehensive understanding of the legal issues related to the art market can open the door to a variety of career opportunities. An LLM in Art Law provides students with a deep dive into these issues, from the creation of art to the sale of art. Students have the opportunity to develop specialized knowledge and skills in topics such as copyright law, contracts, and intellectual property, allowing them to gain a global perspective and an edge in the field. In addition, students have the possibility to network with art industry professionals, which can be beneficial for future career opportunities. An LLM in Art Law grants graduates access to a range of art-related jobs, including art law, art consulting, and art authentication. This program allows students to refine their knowledge, make valuable contacts, and access new opportunities in the art industry. With the right set of qualifications, graduates of this program can become sought-after professionals with an in-depth knowledge of art-related legal issues.

art law llm_2

The LLM in Art Law is a specialized degree program for legal professionals looking to deepen their understanding and knowledge of legal issues related to works of art, artifacts, culture, and heritage. These issues often range from copyright, to museum ownership, to art market disputes. An LLM in Art Law can provide a much needed platform for those interested in the legal aspects of art collecting and protection. Additionally, potential art lawyers can benefit from the coursework and research experience that this degree program provides.

Q1. What is an Art Law LLM?

A1. An Art Law LLM is an advanced degree program that focuses on the legal aspects of the art, entertainment, and media industry. This program combines legal theory and practice to give students a comprehensive overview of the legal obligations and rights of those involved in these industries. Students learn about the laws, regulations, and principles concerning the control and management of copyright, trademarks, intellectual property, and related legal matters.

Q2. What kinds of topics are covered in an Art Law LLM?

A2. Generally, topics covered in an Art Law LLM include copyrights, trademarks, intellectual property, media regulations, media contracts, the first amendment, corporate law, contracts, dispute resolution, privacy, and entertainment law.

Q3. What kind of career opportunities are possible with an Art Law LLM?

A3. Graduates from the Art Law LLM program are typically sought after to work in positions within the media, entertainment, art, and digital industries. Such positions include lawyers, legal advisors, entertainment lawyers, intellectual property consultants, copyright specialists, media consultants, and corporate lawyers.

A degree in Art Law LLM is an excellent choice for those interested in a career in the art, entertainment, and media industries. The program combines legal theory and practice to provide students with a comprehensive and in-depth understanding of the laws, regulations, and principles that apply to these industries. Students gain knowledge in copyrights, trademarks, intellectual property, media regulations, the first amendment, contracts, dispute resolution, and more. An Art Law LLM can open many doors to employment in the legal field – from lawyers to legal advisors to corporate lawyers – and lead to a successful and rewarding career.

Georgetown Law

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Between 9:00 PM EST on Saturday, May 29th and 9:00 PM EST on Sunday, May 30th users will not be able to access resources through the Law Library’s Catalog, the Law Library’s Database List, the Law Library’s Frequently Used Databases List, or the Law Library’s Research Guides. Users can still access databases that require an individual user account (ex. Westlaw, LexisNexis, and Bloomberg Law), or databases listed on the Main Library’s A-Z Database List.

  • Georgetown Law Library

Art Law Research Guide

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  • Secondary Sources
  • U.S. Primary Law
  • Foreign Law & Treaties
  • Art Crime (Fraud, Looting, Stolen Art)
  • Other: Government Entities, Professional Associations, Organizations & Institutes, Images of Art, and Provenance

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Introduction

Art law is multidisciplinary and encompasses numerous areas of law. A useful definition is found in  Robert C. Lind, Robert M. Jarvis & Marilyn E. Phelan, Art and Museum Law (2002) :

Art law, simply put, is the body of law, involving numerous disciplines, that protects, regulates and facilitates the creation, use and marketing of art. Art law is not a separate jurisprudence or unified legal doctrine that applies to all of the issues confronting those in the art world. Those involved in the practice of art law look to a variety of disciplines, such as intellectual property, contract, constitutional, tort, tax, commercial and international law to protect the interests of their clients. Some of these legal principles are national in scope, while others vary according to the development of state law. Increasingly, the creation, sale, collection and display of art receive specialized legal treatment by statute, ordinance, regulation, treaty or case law.

Although "art" in the broad sense of the term includes "the arts" (music, film, theater, literature, et cetera), art law as traditionally defined concerns only works of fine art and/or the visual arts. Additionally, art law is closely related to, and often overlaps with, the area known as cultural property law.

For more information on the development of art law as an area of study and practice, see Stephen E. Weil,  Introduction: Some Thoughts on "Art Law,"   85 Dick. L. Rev. 555  (1981).

This guide provides an introduction to notable resources for conducting art law research available at Georgetown University and online. Given the breadth and interdisciplinary nature of the field, this guide is selective and focuses on general sources on art law rather than sources on specific subjects, such as copyright or the First Amendment. For more information on those topics, see our  treatise finders and many other research guides on those specific subjects. This guide focuses primarily on U.S. law and sources, but it also necessarily includes some foreign and international law since art law is international in scope.

Members of the Georgetown University community may seek additional assistance at the reference desk or  online .

Getting Started

Other research guides.

The Georgetown has a number of other resources that are relevant to art law research, such as:

  • Copyright Law Research Guide
  • D.C. Historic Preservation Law
  • Entertainment Law Research Guide
  • Estate Planning Research Guide
  • International Customs Law Research Guide
  • U.S. Customs Law Research Guide
  • Trademark Law Research Guide
  • Art, Art History & Museum Studies Research Guide  (Lauinger Library)

​ For a list of all the law library's research guides, see  Research > Research Guides  on our website.

There are other guides on art and art law research that may also be useful, such as those listed below. However, you may have to search our catalog  or contact the  reference desk  to see if the resources discussed therein are available at Georgetown.

  • Cultural Property  (University of Iowa Law Library)
  • Cultural Property: A Legal Research Guide (2012)
  • Legal Protection of Cultural Property: A Selective Resource Guide  (Louise Tsang, LLRX) (2007)

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Reference desk : atrium, 2nd (main) floor (202) 662-9140 request a research consultation  , update history.

Updated December 2021

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  • © Georgetown University Law Library. These guides may be used for educational purposes, as long as proper credit is given. These guides may not be sold. Any comments, suggestions, or requests to republish or adapt a guide should be submitted using the Research Guides Comments form . Proper credit includes the statement: Written by, or adapted from, Georgetown Law Library (current as of .....).
  • Last Updated: Mar 7, 2023 4:58 PM
  • URL: https://guides.ll.georgetown.edu/artlaw

Art Law Courses and Programs Worldwide

Last updated: May 18, 2021

International Courses

United states courses, summer programs, online courses, become a member.

Since 2009, the Center for Art Law has organized hundreds of events and published over 1,000 relevant, accessible, and editorially independent articles. As a nonprofit working with artists and students, the Center for Art Law relies on your support to fund our work. Become a premium subscriber and gain access to discounts on events and archives of articles and/or hundreds of case summaries, intended for a worldwide audience of legal professionals, artists, researchers, and students

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Thaler v. Perlmutter, Civil Action No. 22-1564 (BAH) (D.C. Aug. 18, 2023).

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Applications of Art Law

Applications of Art Law

The importance of recognizing law as a compass on how art is created, sold, collected, and distributed has never been more important than today. As a member of Sotheby’s Art Institute since 2007, graduate faculty Judith Prowda provides Master’s students with an insightful and rigorous curriculum for comprehending art law and its application across different careers and professional sectors. According to Prowda, there is not an aspect of the art market that is not somehow affected by the law.

Taking the lifecycle of a work of art, from the moment art is created there are immediate questions of copyrights and ownerships of intellectual property. Upon its entry to the primary market a work is sold for the first time, through a gallery or other point of sale. Later the art may be resold through a secondary market - a dealer or at auction. “At each stage along the way, there are legal issues,” Prowda says. An art business professional must understand the legal aspects of copies, copyright infringement, and forgeries; art entering museums and tax implications, or the legal frameworks in creating foundations and new business ventures.

Students leave the graduate program at Sotheby’s Institute with a wealth of knowledge, able to negotiate their own contracts and to navigate professional scenarios with legal and ethical implications. Yet, Judith says, there are alternatives the savvy professional might consider to settle disputes, such as mediation and arbitration. “Anyone who’s been involved in litigation can tell you how much it takes over their life.” Another advantage to settling out of court is avoiding lack of privacy for the artists, dealers, or galleries involved or implicated in a case. As Prowda says, “reputations can become compromised when cases go for long periods of time in litigation.”

As a pedagogical exercise she uses in the classroom, Prowda brings up a scenario of an artwork that may have been stolen by the Nazis during World War II and is currently possessed by a owner in good faith. Upon consigning with an auction house, the owner is confronted by a person whose family it was stolen from. Now there’s a dispute on who owns the property: the original owner, the heirs of the original owner, or the good faith purchaser, who currently owns it. Other scenarios are also modeled in Prowda’s classroom, often with guest appearances from colleagues who have litigated specific cases. restitution of art; pre-colonial works that were taken during a colonial era, and the restitution of those works back to their home countries. The legal landscape of the art world is ever-changing, with new developments and unprecedented legal scenarios emerging around digital art and ownership especially.

_________________________

Judith B. Prowda is an attorney, mediator, and arbitrator focused on art law, copyright, entertainment and commercial law. She is a founding member of Stropheus Art Law, a collective of art law and business specialists who offer unbundled services to the art community. She is Past Chair of the Entertainment, Arts and Sports Law Section of the NYS Bar Association and Co-Chair of the Fine Arts Committee and Alternative Dispute Resolution Committee and a member of the Art Law Committee of the NYC Bar. Recently, Judith participated in a small working group of lawyers who created the Court of Arbitration for Art (CAfA). She is a frequent speaker and has published extensively on issues related to art law and business.

Prowda is the author of Visual Arts and the Law: A Handbook for Professionals (Lund Humphries, 2013), The Perils of Selling Art at an Art Fair: Legal Issues in Title, Chapter in Art, Cultural Heritage and the Market: Ethical and Legal Issues (Springer, 2014) and The Art of Mediating Art Disputes: A Case for Mediation (chapter in Appraising Art: The Definitive Guide to Appraising Fine and Decorative Arts (Appraisers Association of America, 2013). Her law articles have appeared in numerous law reviews, journals and books and have garnered prestigious awards. She is a Member of the Editorial Board of the Journal of the Copyright Society of the USA.

Advance your career in the art wrold and learn with thought leaders and experts in the space. Explore MA options in London  and  New York .   

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Art and the Law

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Art and the Law (3502): This course covers the legal, public policy, and ethical issues that concern artists, art dealers, auction houses, museums, collectors, and others who comprise the world of visual art. Our focus will be on artists' rights (including copyright, resale royalties, moral rights, and freedom of expression issues), how the markets in art function (such as the artist-dealer relationship, auction rules, and issues faced by collectors), and the legal and ethical rules governing the collection, donation, and display of visual art, particularly for museums and their donors. The course focuses on certain recurrent themes: How do statutes and courts define (or attempt to define) art, and how is art defined differently for different legal purposes? How does the special character of art justify or require different treatment under the law from that accorded other tangible personal property, and how does (and should) the expressive nature of art affect the way it is owned, protected, regulated, or funded? We anticipate having two or three visitors to the class during the quarter, such as a gallery owner, auctioneer, and museum director. In addition, we will also have the students participate in one or two interactive negotiation simulation exercises inspired by real situations and controversies in the art world. Graduate students from other departments and schools are welcome to take this course with the permission of the instructors. Elements used in grading: Class participation, attendance, final exam.

Art and the Law | LAW 3502 Section 01 Class #1052

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  • Adine Varah
  • Grading: Law Honors/Pass/Restrd Cr/Fail
  • Enrollment Limitations: Lottery 40
  • 1L: Winter Elective (Open to First-Year JD Students)
  • In-class Final
  • Details to come
  • LO1 - Substantive and Procedural Law
  • LO2 - Legal Analysis and Reasoning
  • Law and Humanities
  • 2023-2024 Winter ( Jan 8 Mar 11 )
  • Mon 7:15 PM 9:15 PM
  • Room: LAW 280B

Past Offerings

2021-2022 autumn.

Art and the Law (3502): This course covers the legal, public policy, and ethical issues that concern artists, art dealers, auction houses, museums, collectors, and others who comprise the world of visual art. Our focus will be on artists' rights (including copyright, resale royalties, moral rights, and freedom of expression issues), how the markets in art function (such as the artist-dealer relationship, auction rules, and issues faced by collectors), and the legal and ethical rules governing the collection, donation, and display of visual art, particularly for museums and their donors. The course focuses on certain recurrent themes: How do statutes and courts define (or attempt to define) art, and how is art defined differently for different legal purposes? How does the special character of art justify or require different treatment under the law from that accorded other tangible personal property, and how does (and should) the expressive nature of art affect the way it is owned, protected, regulated, or funded? We anticipate having two or three visitors to the class during the quarter, such as a gallery owner, auctioneer, and museum director. In addition, we will also have the students participate in at least one or two interactive negotiation simulation exercises inspired by real situations and controversies in the art world. Graduate students from other departments and schools are welcome to take this course with the permission of the instructors. Elements used in grading: Class participation, attendance, final exam.

Art and the Law | LAW 3502 Section 01 Class #1019

  • 2021-2022 Autumn Schedule No Longer Available
  • Remote: Details to come

A project of the Berkeley Center for Law and Business, dedicated to the art world and its intersections with law, finance, technology, and culture.

The Art, Law, and Finance Project is an interdisciplinary effort dedicated to exploring issues at the intersection of art, law, finance, technology, and culture.  It seeks to be at the forefront of discussions on hot topics such as repatriation, artificial intelligence, securitization, and fraud in the art world.  The project hosts an annual symposium featuring leaders from a variety of relevant fields, and also releases a periodic newsletter, Canvas , to keep interested readers up to date.

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Explore Canvas , our newsletter dedicated to the art world and its intersections with law, finance, technology, and culture.

Subscribe to Canvas

Mona Lisa Painting in the Louvre

Canvas, Issue 7

Painting of people on grass in front of a body of water

Canvas, Issue 6

Person in long coat in front of mirror

Canvas, Issue 5

Painting of woman in cafe

Canvas, Issue 4

MGP Andersen - Progress, 2022 - Oil on canvas

Canvas, Issue 3

Serge Gay Jr. - And when it grows, 2011 - Acrylic on canvas

Canvas, Issue 2

Cece Carpio - When She Rises, 2016 - Acrylic and enamel on canvas

Canvas, Issue 1

Annual art, finance, and law symposium.

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Featured Research

Professor Amy Adler

Artificial Authenticity

Professor Tang

Art After Warhol

Peter Menell Headshot

Reflections on Music Copyright Justice

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Court Says No Human Author, No Copyright

sonia katyal

Technoheritage

Andy Warhol

Misreading Campbell: Lessons for Warhol

pamela samuelson

Copyright Infringement or Fair Use? Probing the ‘Transformative’ Issue Before the Supreme Court

NFTs

US and EU Regulation on Fractionalized NFTs – Navigating Unchartered Waters

For more information on the Art, Law, and Finance Project, contact Delia Violante at [email protected] .

Institute of Art and Law

The Institute of Art & Law

Internationally recognised source of knowledge on art and cultural heritage law

The Institute of Art and Law is an educational organisation, founded in 1995, giving knowledge and perspective on the law relating to cultural heritage, a concept which includes art, antiquities, archives, archaeology, architecture, monuments, treasure and much more.  IAL’s educational remit is fulfilled through publishing and courses. It convenes distance learning and intensive courses (both public and in-house) on art and museums law, as well as seminars, study groups and conferences in the United Kingdom and abroad. It also publishes books and commentaries on all aspects of the law relating to cultural heritage, in addition to a quarterly periodical, Art Antiquity and Law , now in its twenty-eighth year.

IAL offers memberships to individuals and institutions looking to remain connected and active in this field. For more information on membership, including the benefits offered, see here .

Alexander Herman | Director

art law phd

Alexander Herman is the Director of the Institute of Art and Law. He has written, taught and presented on an array of topics in relation to art, law and cultural property. His writing appears regularly in The Art Newspaper and he has been quoted widely in the press on art law topics (including in The Guardian , The New York Times , The Atlantic, The Telegraph, ArtNET ,  The Globe & Mail  and Bloomberg ). His work has also been cited in the UK House of Lords and before the US Supreme Court. He trained in both common law and civil law legal systems at McGill University and practised law in Canada. He is Programme Co-Director of the Art, Business and Law LLM and is a frequent contributor to the IAL blog . His books include Restitution: The Return of Cultural Artefacts (Lund Humphries, 2021) and The Parthenon Marbles: Heritage, Law, Politics (Hart Publishing, 2023). On Twitter he is @artlawalex

Emily Gould | Assistant Director

Emily Gould profile

Emily Gould is Assistant Director of the Institute of Art and Law. She writes, teaches and presents on a range of areas pertaining to art and cultural heritage law including copyright, heritage crime, museum ethics and contracts. She teaches and convenes on the Art, Business and Law LLM at the Centre for Commercial Law Studies, Queen Mary University of London and is a frequent contributor to the IAL blog . Emily practised as a lawyer both in private practice and in-house, and has also worked in the charity sector in fundraising and grants management in a range of sectors. Her association with the IAL goes back to 1997, when she worked in the organisation’s first office in Leicester. In April 2023, she was an expert witness on NFTs before the UK House of Commons Select Committee on Culture, Media and Sport.

Ruth Redmond-Cooper | Head of Publications

art law phd

Ruth Redmond-Cooper founded the Institute of Art and Law with Professor Norman Palmer in 1995 and now acts as a consultant to the IAL and Editor of the quarterly journal Art Antiquity and Law . She holds degrees in law from the Universities of Kent, Bristol and Paris-Sud and has lectured at several universities, including Leicester, Nottingham, Tasmania, Dokkyo (Japan), Paris-Sud and Essex. Ruth has written articles and presented papers at conferences on a range of art-law areas. She is happy to discuss book publishing proposals with potential authors.

Geoffrey Bennett | Senior Fellow

Geoffrey Bennet profile

Geoffrey Bennett is a Senior Fellow of the Institute of Art and Law. After studying Classics and Law at Cambridge he was called to the Bar and has held university posts at Liverpool, Leeds, Louisville, City London and Notre Dame. He has also practised and teaches and writes in the area of cultural heritage law. He is a Visiting Professor at Queen Mary University of London, where he teaches on the Art, Business and Law LLM .

Jo Crabtree | Accounts and Office Manager

art law phd

Jo Crabtree is Accounts and Office Manager at the IAL, where she has worked since 2012. After working in business administration in healthcare in London for 10 years, she is now based in Mid-Wales. In addition to the finance side, Jo also manages the administration of events and courses at the IAL. She has backpacked extensively around the world from Suriname to Belarus and beyond. In her spare time, she has turned her hand to plastering and plumbing on a large environmentally-friendly barn conversion project in Wales.

Rebecca Hawkes-Reynolds | Assistant Researcher

Rebecca Reynolds

Dr Rebecca Hawkes-Reynolds is an Assistant Researcher at the Institute of Art and Law. She studied archaeology and art history at the University of Nottingham and attained a PhD in archaeology in 2015. She then trained in law and was called to the Bar of England and Wales by The Honourable Society of Middle Temple in 2016. She has assisted the Institute in teaching at study days on various aspects of art law since 2017 and is a regular contributor to the Institute’s art law blog. She has a particular interest in planning and the historic environment as well as exploring how heritage protection can be disseminated to the public and all concerned. The odd assemblage of archaeological fish bones still captures her interest.

Kiri Cragin-Folwell | Marketing Consultant

Kiri Craigin-Folwell

Kiri Cragin-Folwell is a Marketing Consultant for the Institute of Art and Law. Since graduating with a masters from Christie’s Education (London) in Modern and Contemporary Art History, she has worked on marketing teams at leading art galleries, auction houses and educational institutions, including Queen Mary University of London. Kiri assists the Institute with social media strategy, content development and data analytics reporting.

IN MEMORIAM – Professor Norman Palmer QC CBE

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Art, business and law llm.

Part of: Law and Business and Management

This LLM, offered by Queen Mary's Centre for Commercial Law Studies (CCLS) in partnership with the  Institute of Art and Law (IAL) is a unique and challenging programme exploring the legal issues surrounding art and cultural objects. You’ll get an in-depth understanding of the workings of the law when it comes to the arts industry and cultural property, as well as the application of the law in everyday practice.

  • Learn from legal experts and meet expert practitioners in the field
  • Conduct advanced research in this exciting, innovative legal area
  • Take part in networking and social events run by the Art, Business and Law student representatives, CCLS, and the IAL.
  • Take advantage of the opportunity to attend the numerous public lectures, workshops and seminars on all sorts of topics reflecting the wide and various areas of study on offer by CCLS to all its LLM students across specialisms. 

Study options

  • Full-time September 2024 | 1 year
  • Part-time September 2024 | 2 years

What you'll study

As part of the programme, we organise visits and discussions at some of the most influential art establishments in the UK. Previously, this has included guided tours of the British Museum, The Tate and the Victoria and Albert Museum, together with legal discussions of their collections and practices. Some of these visits are part of our formal Co-Curricular Programme we offer across the semesters where we invite practitioners across the field to engage with our students, while other visits are conducted on a more informal, ad hoc basis.

Further enriching the academic experience, is our Visiting Scholar and Researcher in Residence Scheme , augmenting the research environment for our faculty and students through interactions with a visiting scholar and the various workshops or masterclasses delivered by them during their time with us.  For example, our first scholar in residence, from the University of Amsterdam delivered a public lecture as well as a student seminar on restitution issues relating to Nazi-looted art, and also a master class on research methodology for all post-graduate students.  

You will also have voluntary access to an excellent series of lectures in Critical Thinking and Writing in Law , a programme offered to all our LLM students to help you to improve your writing and legal research skills.

You will also have the opportunity to attend introductory lectures offered to LLM students during the CCLS induction weeks, including seminars on the common law, commercial law and other relevant topics.

Educational activities

CCLS’s qLegal clinic offers further career training opportunities for our students.  It is an award-winning law clinic, providing legal assistance and support to tech start-ups and entrepreneurs, providing students with in-depth commercial and legal training, with an emphasis on innovation and creativity.  Past projects in the creative industry including working with clothes designers, film makers, immersive experience organisers, NFTs and IP issues.

qLegal also hosts a blog competition allowing students to research topics of their choice. These articles can be creative and link to any area of law, such as this blogpost about the menswear industry published in 2021.

An experience in the field of art law is not guaranteed. However, qLegal’s experience is always legal and commercial. The programmes will allow you to develop a set of skills and knowledge transferable to any field.

Join the Queen Mary Network and speak to our community about this programme.  

Lecture Series

The ABL programme has introduced two lecture series since its inception. The first, Visiting Scholar and Researcher Lecture Series involves scholars and researchers visiting at CCLS.

Another exciting new initiative was introduced in 2022 with artist, Ben Kinmont giving the inaugural lecture of our Artists’ Talks series which explores issues such as the relationship between art and law from the artist’s perspective. The series is the brainchild of one of our former students, Mary Rinebold, writer and consultant at Canvas Art Law, who is the curator of the series and has continued this year with artist Haley Mellin exploring the link between art and conservation.

  • Six compulsory modules over 2 semesters (150 credits)
  • Compulsory 10,000-word dissertation (30 credits)

This programme is available as part time study. Part time study allows the student to complete their programme over a 2-year period. The same credit requirements apply as for the full-time LLM apply but are spread over 2 years.

Please see the link to the academic year plan for each of the start dates for an idea of the structure of the programme and key periods of assessment:

  • September 2023 full year programme

View the full list of modules available on this programme .

  • You will be assessed by a range of methods combining examinations and coursework which will be fully explained in your student pack available during induction.
  • You will undertake self-directed research and writing in completing your assessed dissertation

Read our  FAQs for more information about applying to us .

The course provided a holistic learning experience covering all the relevant and important topics in this specialised area, right in the heart of the art capital of London. Through guest seminars, workshops and lectures, we were given access to a wide range of different stakeholders and experts in the art market which further contextualised our studies. — Zaki Jumahri, Art, Business and Law LLM, 2022. Read more testimonials from students on the Art, Business and Law LLM .

The modules are taught in a diversity of styles including lecture format, case study analysis, group exercises, with plenty of opportunity for interactive discussion throughout.

The faculty if made up of an eclectic mix of leading academics and researchers from CCLS and the IAL, and respected industry practitioners, some of whom are featured on the right.

You will have a team of advisors to support you, including the LLM and Researcher Directors, your dissertation supervisor and your module convenors. 

Debbie De Girolamo profile image

Dr Debbie De Girolamo

PhD (LSE); LLM in Alternative Dispute Resolution (Osgoode Hall Law School); LLB (University of Windsor); BA Hons. (University of Toronto); Barrister and Solicitor (Ontario, Canada)

Dr De Girolamo is the Programme Director for the Art, Business and Law LLM at Queen Mary. She has written in the area of dispute resolution. Her book, The Fugitive Identity of Mediation: Negotiations, Shift Changes and Allusionary Action is published by Routledge. She is a qualified Barrister and Solicitor in Ontario Canada.

Gaetano Dimita

Dr Gaetano Dimita

Diploma di Laurea in Giurisprudenza (Rome), LLM (London), PhD (London), Avvocato (Italian Bar - Rome)

Dr Dimita’s research focus on the interrelationship among creativity, interactivity and new technologies. He is the editor-in-chief of the Interactive Entertainment Law Review, Edward Elgar, and the organiser of the ‘More than Just a Game’ conference series.

Emily Gould profile image

Emily Gould

MA (Cambridge)

Ms Gould entered the legal profession after studying history at Cambridge University. She trained as a solicitor, initially working in private practice as an intellectual property lawyer with a US firm then moving in-house as counsel for a global pharmaceutical company. She writes, teaches and presents on a range of areas pertaining to art and cultural heritage law including copyright, heritage crime, museum ethics and contracts.

art law phd

Alexander Herman

LLB / BCL (McGill); MA (Dublin); Lawyer at the Quebec Bar

Alexander Herman is the Director of the Institute of Art and Law and acts as Programme Co-Director for the Art, Business and Law LLM. He has written, taught and presented on an array of topics in relation to art and cultural property. His writing appears frequently in The Art Newspaper and he has been quoted widely in the press on art law topics. His latest book is Restitution - The Return of Cultural Artefacts (Lund Humphries, 2021).

Geoffery Bennett profile image in black and white

Geoffrey Bennett

After studying Classics and Law at Cambridge, Mr Bennett was called to the Bar and has held university posts at Liverpool, Leeds, Louisville, City London and Notre Dame. He has also practised and teaches and writes in the area of cultural heritage law. He is also a Visiting Professor at Queen Mary University of London.

Miriam Goldby standing on a balcony

Dr Miriam Goldby

BA LLD (Malta) LLM (LSE) PhD (UCL)

Dr Miriam Goldby is Professor of Shipping, Insurance and Commercial Law. She authored Electronic Documents in Maritime Trade: Law and Practice (OUP), and has published extensively in the fields of shipping, insurance and financial law.

Ioannis Kokkoris wearing a suit and blue tie, standing in front of the ocean

Professor Ioannis Kokkoris

BA Economics (Essex), MPhil Economics (Cambridge) LLM (Warwick), PhD (Kings College London)

Professor Kokkoris is Vice Chairman of the Institute of Studies in Competition Law and Policy. His main research interests are in law and economics, comparative competition law/economics and policy focusing on EU, China and ASEAN, as well as intellectual property, and financial regulation.

art law phd

Mr Anthony Misquitta

Consultant Solicitor Mr Misquitta specialises in both contract negotiation and litigation for businesses involved in art, brands and technology. He acts as General Counsel for the Victoria & Albert Museum and is a trustee of both the Association for Cultural Enterprises and the Sir Percival David Foundation of Chinese Art.

Rodrigo Olivares-Caminal

Professor Rodrigo Olivares-Caminal

LLB (Bue), LLM (Warwick) and PhD (London)

Professor Olivares-Caminal specialises in international finance and insolvency law. He has acted as a consultant to central banks and sovereign states. He is the author/editor of seven books and has extensively published in peer-reviewed journals.

Where you'll learn

  • Free access to online databases and collections including: LexisNexis, Westlaw, Justis, Eur-lex, Hein-Online and many more.
  • The Postgraduate School of Law Centre in Lincoln's Inn Fields and the Graduate Centre at Mile End.
  • Queen Mary’s excellent Law Library and European Documentation Centre.
  • Access to the University of London’s Institute of Advanced Legal Studies (IALS) and the Library at Senate House.
  • Queen Mary’s unique Intellectual Property Archive at Clore House.

You will be based in the heart of London, a short walk from some of the UK's leading art institutions and their archives. You will have access to an extraordinary range of archives and resources – helping you to build a network of professional connections.

Teaching is based at the School of Law's postgraduate centre and the Centre for Commercial Law Studies (CCLS), located in Lincoln's Inn Fields. This area is home to numerous barristers’ chambers and law firms and is a short walk from the Royal Courts of Justice. Our academics and students interact with leading legal professionals, many of whom regularly teach and take part in our seminars and conferences.

Depending on the modules you choose, you may also have classes at the Mile End Campus  or the University of London's  Institute of Advanced Legal Studies or Charterhouse Square .

About the School

The school of law.

The School of Law is part of Queen Mary University of London, a member of both the University of London and the  Russell Group. The School was ranked 8th in the UK by the Guardian University Guide 2022, 10th in the UK by the  Complete University Guide 2022 a nd 32nd in the world by the QS World University rankings by subject 2023.

The School of Law has consistently been ranked in the top 10 law schools in the UK for the quality of our research and teaching, and many of our internationally recognised staff act as advisers to governments, industry and NGOs, both nationally and internationally.

The School's central focus is on the role of law and its institutions in contemporary international society. The School of Law is divided into two organisational units: the Department of Law and the Centre for Commercial Law Studies (CCLS). The School of Law hosts the largest and most diverse LLM programme in the UK.

School of Law

  • Tel: +44 (0)20 7882 8223

Career paths

There is a very high rate of employment of our students within six months of graduation. Our graduates have gone on to work in culture ministries, museums, creative industries, practising as solicitors, working as consultants and continuing education in the field. We have specialist career advisers who organise events and assist with finding internship opportunities at UK and international law firms and other employers.

We also offer:

  • A student workplace scheme at major London firm Boodle Hatfield, with a specialist art law team
  • A mentoring programme
  • Specialist training with qLegal , our award-winning law clinic. Past projects include working with clothes designers, film makers, NFTs and IP issues.
I was assigned to a tech start-up working as an intern on tasks and projects involving crypto and digital art, and NFTs. The experience was useful and helped me understand more about crypto art and apply knowledge learned in class across a range of issues. — Chiara Gallo, 2022, participated in an internship during her time with qLegal . Read more testimonials from students on the Art, Business and Law LLM .

Fees and funding

Full-time study.

September 2024 | 1 year

  • Home: £18,850
  • Overseas: £29,950 EU/EEA/Swiss students

Conditional deposit

Overseas: £2000 Information about deposits

Part-time study

September 2024 | 2 years

  • Home: £9,450
  • Overseas: £15,000 EU/EEA/Swiss students

Queen Mary alumni can get a £1000, 10% or 20% discount on their fees depending on the programme of study. Find out more about the Alumni Loyalty Award

There are a number of ways you can fund your postgraduate degree.

School of Law scholarships

The School of Law offers a range of scholarships for Law Masters programmes each year, including the new School of Law Postgraduate Scholarships . Full details are made available on the law funding page from October – November each year.

Other sources of funding

  • Scholarships and bursaries
  • Postgraduate loans (UK students)
  • Country-specific scholarships for international students

Our Advice and Counselling service offers specialist support on financial issues, which you can access as soon as you apply for a place at Queen Mary. Before you apply, you can access our funding guides and advice on managing your money:

  • Advice for UK and EU students
  • Advice for international students

Entry requirements

Degree requirements.

Law graduates with a 2:2 honours degree who also have other legal qualifications and/or substantial professional legal experience may also qualify.

Other routes

Non-law graduates with a minimum second class honours degree, that have also obtained a Merit (or 60 per cent) in the Common Professional Examination (CPE) or Graduate Diploma in Law (GDL) recognised by the UK professional bodies, may also qualify. Non-law graduates may also be considered on the basis of exceptional professional experience (of at least five years) in a legal area or an area directly related to their programme of study. Particular regard will be had to (i) successful completion by the applicant of any certificate or diploma course or courses offered by IAL and (ii) professional experience in the art field with a legal element.

Find out more about how to apply for our postgraduate taught courses.

International

Afghanistan We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Master Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 90%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Albania We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Algeria We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Diplome de [subject area]; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures; Diplome de Docteur end Pharmacie; or Diplome de Docteur en Medecine from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Angola We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grau de Licenciado/a (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: 17 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 15 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 13 out of 20

Argentina We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo/ Grado de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Armenia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 87 out of 100 UK 2:1 degree: 75 out of 100 UK 2:2 degree: 61 out of 100

Australia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: High Distinction; or First Class with Honours UK 2:1 degree: Distinction; or Upper Second Class with Honours UK 2:2 degree: Credit; or Lower Second Class with Honours

Austria We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 1.5 out of 5.0 UK 2:1 degree: 2.5 out of 5.0 UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5.0

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 5 is the lowest.

Azerbaijan We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 90%; or GPA 4.7 out of 5 UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or GPA 4 out of 5 UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA 3.5 out of 5

Bahamas We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies. UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Bahrain We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 90 out of 100 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or 80 out of 100 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.3 out of 4.0; or 74 out of 100

Bangladesh We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.2 to 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.3 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.3 to 2.7 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide. 

Barbados We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from the University of West Indies, Cave Hill or Barbados Community College. UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours*; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0** UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours*; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0** UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours*; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0**

*relates to: the University of West Indies, Cave Hill.

**relates to: Barbados Community College.

Belarus We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10; or 4.7 out of 5 UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10; or 4 out of 5 UK 2:2 degree: 5 out of 10; or 3.5 out of 5

Belgium We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 80% or 16/20*; or 78%** UK 2:1 degree: 70% or 14/20*; or 72%** UK 2:2 degree: 60% or 12/20*; or 65%**

*Flanders (Dutch-speaking)/ Wallonia (French-speaking) **German-speaking

Belize We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies. UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Benin We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maitrise or Masters from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Bolivia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Bachiller Universitario or Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 85%* or 80%** UK 2:1 degree: 75%* or 70%** UK 2:2 degree: 65%* or 60%**

*relates to: Titulo de Bachiller Universitario

**relates to: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] 

Bosnia and Herzegovina We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Botswana We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 5 years) or Master Degree from the University of Botswana. UK 1st class degree: 80% UK 2:1 degree: 70% UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Brazil We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Título de Bacharel / Título de [subject area] or Título de Licenciado/a (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 8.25 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

The above grades assumes that the grading scale has a pass mark of 5.

Brunei We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Bulgaria We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 5.75 out of 6.0 UK 2:1 degree: 4.75 out of 6.0 UK 2:2 degree: 4.0 out of 6.0

Burundi We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 16 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or 14 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or 12 out of 20

Cambodia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 3.5 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: 70%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or GPA 2.35 out of 4.0

Cameroon We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; Licence; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures de Commerce; Diplome d'Ingenieur de Conception/ Travaux; Doctorat en Medecine/ Pharmacie; or Maitrise or Master 1 from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Canada We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Chile We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grado de Licenciado en [subject area] or Titulo (Professional) de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 6.5 out of 7 UK 2:1 degree: 5.5 out of 7 UK 2:2 degree: 5 out of 7

China We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: 85 to 95% UK 2:1 degree: 75 to 85% UK 2:2 degree: 70 to 80%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  Generally, we do not accept applications from students studying at Affiliate Colleges.

Colombia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado en [subject area] or Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 4.60 out of 5.00 UK 2:1 degree: 4.00 out of 5.00 UK 2:2 degree: 3.50 out of 5.00

Congo, Dem. Rep. of We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies or Diplome d'Etudes Speciales from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20; or 90% UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20; or 80% UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20; or 70%

Congo, Rep. of We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Etudes Superieures or Maitrise from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Costa Rica We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachiller or Licenciado from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Croatia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education Level VII/1 (Diploma - Visoko obrazovanje) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5 UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5 UK 2:2 degree: 3 out of 5

Cuba We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Arquitecto/ Doctor/ Ingeniero from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5 UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5 UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Cyprus We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: 6.0 out of 10; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Czech Republic We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 1.2 out of 4 UK 2:1 degree: 1.5 out of 4 UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 4

The above relates to grading scale where 1 is the highest and 4 is the lowest.

Denmark We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 12 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 11 out of 13 (before 2007) UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 8 out of 13 (before 2007) UK 2:2 degree: 4 out of 12 (2007 onwards); or 7 out of 13 (before 2007)

Dominican Republic We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 95/100 UK 2:1 degree: 85/100 UK 2:2 degree: 78/100

Ecuador We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 9/10; or 19/20; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 8/10; or 18/20; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or 7/10; or 14/20; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Egypt We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: 85%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4 UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4 UK 2:2 degree: 65%; or GPA 2.5 out of 4

El Salvador We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 5 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 8.5 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Eritrea We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Estonia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; University Specialist's Diploma; or Professional Higher Education Diploma from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5 UK 2:1 degree: 3.5 out of 5 UK 2:2 degree: 2 out of 5

The above grades assumes that 1 is the pass mark. 

Eswatini We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 80% UK 2:1 degree: 70% UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Ethiopia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Fiji We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from one of the following institutions: Fiji National University, the University of Fiji, or the University of South Pacific, Fiji. UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.0 out of 5.0*; or overall grade A with High Distinction pass**; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.5*** UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.33 out of 5.0*; or overall grade B with Credit pass**; or GPA 3.5 out of 4.5*** UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.33 out of 5.0*; or overall grade S (Satisfactory)**; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.5***

*relates to Fiji National University

**relate to the University of Fiji

***relates to the University of South Pacific, Fiji

Finland We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree/ Kandidaatti/ Kandidat (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution; or Bachelor degree (Ammattikorkeakoulututkinto/ Yrkeshögskoleexamen) from a recognised University of Applied Sciences. UK 1st class degree: 4.5 out of 5; or 2.8 out of 3 UK 2:1 degree: 3.5 out of 5; or 2 out of 3 UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 5; or 1.4 out of 3

France We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Grade de Licence; Diplome d'Ingenieur; or Maitrise from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 14 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 12 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Gambia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.3 UK 2:1 degree: 67%; or GPA 3.3 out of 4.3 UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or GPA 2.7 out of 4.3

Georgia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 91 out of 100; or 4.7 out of 5 UK 2:1 degree: 81 out of 100; or 4 out of 5 UK 2:2 degree: 71 out of 100; or 3.5 out of 5

Germany We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 1.5 out of 5.0 UK 2:1 degree: 2.5 out of 5.0 UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5.0

Ghana We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: First Class UK 2:1 degree: Second Class (Upper Division) UK 2:2 degree: Second Class (Lower Division)

Greece We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Degrees from recognised selected institutions in the University sector or Degrees (awarded after 2003) from recognised Technological Educational Institutes. UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10*; or 9 out of 10** UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10*; or 7.5 out of 10** UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10*; or 6.8 out of 10**

*Relates to degrees from the University Sector. **Relates to degrees from Technological Educational Institutes.

Grenada We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies. UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Guatemala We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 90% UK 2:1 degree: 80% UK 2:2 degree: 70%

The above grades assumes that the pass mark is 61% or less.

Guinea We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Master; Maitrise; Diplome d'Etudes Superieures; or Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Guyana We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Graduate Diploma (Postgraduate) or Masters degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Honduras We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/a / Grado Academico de Licenciatura (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 4.0 out of 5; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or 3.5 out of 5; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Hong Kong We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours

Hungary We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (Alapfokozat) or University Diploma (Egyetemi Oklevel) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 4.75 out of 5 UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5 UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Iceland We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (Baccalaureus or Bakkalarprof) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 8.25 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 7.25 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

India We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: 70% to 80% UK 2:1 degree: 60% to 70% UK 2:2 degree: 50% to 60%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  For some institutions/degrees we will ask for different grades to above, so this is only a guide.  

For India, offers may be made on the GPA scale.

We do not consider the Bachelor of Vocation (B. Voc.) for Masters entry.

Indonesia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Sarjna I (S1) Bachelor Degree or Diploma IV (D4) (minimum 4 years) from selected degree programmes and institutions. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 to 3.8 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.2 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.67 to 2.8 out of 4.0

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from and the degree that you study.

Iran We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 17.5 to 18.5 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 15 to 16 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 13.5 to 14 out of 20

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.  

Iraq We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 85 out of 100 UK 2:1 degree: 75 out of 100 UK 2:2 degree: 60 out of 100

Ireland We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Honours Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours UK 2:1 degree: Second Class Honours Grade I UK 2:2 degree: Second Class Honours Grade II

Israel We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 90% UK 2:1 degree: 80% UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Italy We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Laurea (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 110 out of 110 UK 2:1 degree: 105 out of 110 UK 2:2 degree: 94 out of 110

Cote D’ivoire (Ivory Coast) We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Ingenieur; Doctorat en Medicine; Maitrise; Master; Diplome d'Etudes Approfondies; or Diplome d'Etudes Superieures Specialisees from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Jamaica We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from the University of West Indies (UWI) or a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or First Class Honours from the UWI UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or Upper Second Class Honours from the UWI UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or Lower Second Class Honours from the UWI

Japan We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: S overall* or A overall**; or 90%; or GPA 3.70 out of 4.00 UK 2:1 degree: A overall* or B overall**; or 80%; or GPA 3.00 out of 4.00 UK 2:2 degree: B overall* or C overall**; or 70%; or GPA 2.3 out of 4.00

*Overall mark is from the grading scale: S, A, B, C (S is highest mark) **Overall mark is from the grading scale: A, B, C, D (A is highest mark)

Jordan We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 85%; or GPA of 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or GPA of 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: 70%; or GPA of 2.5 out of 4.0

Kazakhstan We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 3.8 out of 4.0/4.33; or 4.7 out of 5 UK 2:1 degree: 3.33 out of 4.0/4.33; or 4.0 out of 5 UK 2:2 degree: 2.67 out of 4.0/4.33; or 3.5 out of 5

Kenya We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: Second Class Honours Upper Division; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: Second Class Honours Lower Division; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Kosovo We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 7.5 out of 10

Kuwait We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.67 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.67 out of 4.0

Kyrgyzstan We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.7 out of 4 UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5; or GPA 3.0 out of 4 UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5; or GPA 2.4 out of 4

Laos We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Latvia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (awarded after 2002) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 7.5 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10

Lebanon We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree; Licence; or Maitrise from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 90% or Grade A; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 16 out of 20 (French system) UK 2:1 degree: 80% or Grade B; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or 13 out of 20 (French system) UK 2:2 degree: 70% or Grade C; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0; or 12 out of 20 (French system)

Lesotho We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree (minimum 5 years total HE study); Masters Degree or Postgraduate Diploma from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: 80% UK 2:1 degree: 70% UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Liberia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 90% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: 80% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: 70% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Libya We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 3.7 out of 4.0 GPA UK 2:1 degree: 75%; or 3.0 out of 4.0 GPA UK 2:2 degree: 65%; or 2.6 out of 4.0 GPA

Liechtenstein We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 5.6 out of 6.0 UK 2:1 degree: 5.0 out of 6.0 UK 2:2 degree: 4.4 out of 6.0

Lithuania We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Luxembourg We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Macau We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Licenciatura) (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Macedonia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diploma of Completed Higher Education - Level VII/1 or Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Madagascar We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maîtrise; Diplome d'Ingenieur; Diplôme d'Etat de Docteur en Médecine; Diplôme d’Etat de Docteur en Chirurgie Dentaire; Diplôme d'Études Approfondies; Diplôme de Magistère (Première Partie) – also known as Master 1; or Diplôme de Master – also known as Master 2 from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Malawi We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: 80% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: 70% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: 60% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Malaysia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: Class 1; or 3.7 out of 4.0 CGPA UK 2:1 degree: Class 2 division 1; or 3.0 out of 4.0 CGPA UK 2:2 degree: Class 2 division 2; or 2.6 out of 4.0 CGPA

Maldives We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (awarded from 2000) from the Maldives National University. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Malta We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: First Class Honours; or Category I UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class Honours; or Category IIA UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours; or Category IIB

Mauritius We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: Class I; or 70% UK 2:1 degree: Class II division I; or 60% UK 2:2 degree: Class II division II; or 50%

Offer conditions will vary depending on the grading scale used by your institution.

Mexico We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo (Profesional) de [subject area] from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 9.0 to 9.5 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 8.0 to 8.5 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 7.0 to 7.5 out of 10

Offer conditions will vary depending on the grading scale your institution uses.

Moldova We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Diploma de Licenta) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 6.5 out of 10

Monaco We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Mongolia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.6 out of 4.0; or 90%; or grade A UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0; or 80%; or grade B UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.8 out of 4.0; or 70%; or grade C

Montenegro We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diploma of Completed Academic Undergraduate Studies; Diploma of Professional Undergraduate Studies; or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 8.5 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Morocco We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Diplome d'Ecoles Nationales de Commerce et de Gestion; Diplome de Docteur Veterinaire; Doctorat en Medecine; Docteur en Medecine Dentaire; Licence; Diplome d'Inegeniuer d'Etat; Diplome de Doctorat en Pharmacie; or Maitrise from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 13 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Mozambique We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grau de Licenciado (minimum 4 years) or Grau de Mestre from from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Myanmar We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 80% or GPA of 4.7 out of 5.0 UK 2:1 degree: 70% or GPA of 4.0 out of 5.0 UK 2:2 degree: 60% or GPA of 3.5 out of 5.0

Namibia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree or Professional Bachelor Degree (NQF level 8 qualifications) - these to be awarded after 2008 from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 80% UK 2:1 degree: 70% UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Nepal We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: 80%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: 65%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: 55%; or GPA of 2.4 out of 4.0

Bachelor in Nursing Science are not considered equivalent to UK Bachelor degrees.

Netherlands We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 8 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 7 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 10

New Zealand We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: A-*; or First Class Honours** UK 2:1 degree: B*; or Second Class (Division 1) Honours** UK 2:2 degree: C+*; or Second Class (Division 2) Honours**

*from a Bachelor degree **from a Bachelor Honours degree

Nigeria We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.50 out of 5.00; or GPA 6.0 out of 7.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.50 out of 5.00; or GPA 4.6 out of 7.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.80 out of 5.00; or GPA 3.0 out of 7.0

Norway We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: Overall B grade with at least 75 ECTS (of 180 ECTS min overall) at grade A or above. UK 2:1 degree: Overall B grade UK 2:2 degree: Overall C grade

Oman We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Pakistan We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.0 to 3.8 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 2.6 to 3.6 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.0 to 3.0 out of 4.0

Palestine, State of We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 90% or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: 80% or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: 70% or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Panama We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado / Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 91% UK 2:1 degree: 81% UK 2:2 degree: 71%

Papua New Guinea We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: Class I UK 2:1 degree: Class II, division A UK 2:2 degree: Class II, division B

Paraguay We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado / Titulo de [professional title] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5 UK 2:1 degree: 4 out of 5 UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out fo 5

Peru We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Grado Academico de Bachiller or Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo (Professional) de [subject area] from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 17 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Philippines We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions or Juris Doctor; Bachelor of Laws; Doctor of Medicine; Doctor of Dentistry/ Optometry/ Veterinary Medicine; or Masters Degree from recognised institutions. UK 1st class degree: 3.6 out of 4.0; or 94%; or 1.25 out of 5 UK 2:1 degree: 3.0 out of 4.0; or 86%; or 1.75 out of 5 UK 2:2 degree: 2.5 out of 4.0; or 80%; or 2.5 out of 5

The above 'out of 5' scale assumes  1 is highest mark and 3 is the pass mark.

Poland We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licencjat or Inzynier (minimum 3 years) - these must be awarded after 2001 from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 4.8 out of 5.0 UK 2:1 degree: 4.5 out of 5.0 UK 2:2 degree: 3.8 out of 5.0

The above grades are based on the 2 to 5 scale, where 3 is the pass mark and 5 is the highest mark.

Portugal We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licenciado (minimum 180 ECTS credits) or Diploma de Estudos Superiores Especializados (DESE) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 14 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 12 out of 20

Puerto Rico We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 90/100 or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: 80/100 or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: 70/100 or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Qatar We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or GPA 4.4 out of 5.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or GPA 3.6 out of 5.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or GPA 2.8 out of 5.0

Romania We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 9.75 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 8.0 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 7.0 out of 10

Russia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5 UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5 UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Rwanda We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 85%; or 17 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 70%; or 15 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 60%; or 13 out of 20

Saudi Arabia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.75 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.75 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.75 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 5.0; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Senegal We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Maîtrise; Master II; Diplôme d'Études Approfondies (DEA); Diplôme d'Études Supérieures Specialisées (DESS); Diplôme d'État de Docteur en Médecine; Diplôme d'Ingénieur; Diplôme de Docteur en Chirurgie Dentaire; or Diplôme de Pharmacien from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 16/20 UK 2:1 degree: 14/20 UK 2:2 degree: 12/20

Serbia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Advanced Diploma of Higher Education from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 9 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Sierra Leone We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Honours) or a Masters degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: First Class honours; or GPA 4.7 out of 5; or GPA 3.75 out of 4 UK 2:1 degree: Upper Second Class honours; or GPA 4 out of 5; or GPA 3.25 out of 4 UK 2:2 degree: Lower Second Class Honours; or GPA 3.4 out of 5; or GPA 2.75 out of 4

Singapore We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.3 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.6 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.8 out of 5.0; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.3 out of 5.0; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Slovakia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (180 ECTS credits) (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 93%; or 1 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark) UK 2:1 degree: 86%; or 1.5 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark) UK 2:2 degree: 72%; or 2.5 overall (on 1 to 4 scale, where 1 is highest mark)

Slovenia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Univerzitetni Diplomant (180 ECTS credits) (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 9.5 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 7 out of 10

Somalia Bachelor degrees from Somalia are not considered for direct entry to our postgraduate taught programmes. Holders of Bachelor degrees from Somali National University can be considered for our Pre-Masters programmes on a case by case basis.

South Africa We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: NQF Level 8 qualifications such as Bachelor Honours degrees or Professional Bachelor degrees from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 75% UK 2:1 degree: 70% UK 2:2 degree: 60%

South Korea We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.2 out of 4.5; or GPA 4.0 out of 4.3; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.5 out of 4.5; or GPA 3.3 out of 4.3; or GPA 3.2 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.5; or GPA 2.8 out of 4.3; or GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Spain We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo Universitario Oficial de Graduado en [subject area] (Grado) or Titulo Universitario Oficial de Licenciado en [subject area] (Licenciatura) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 8.0 out of 10; or 2.5 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or 2.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: 6.0 out of 10; or 1.5 out of 4.0

Sri Lanka We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Special or Honours) or Bachelor Degree (Professional) (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.5 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Sudan We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution or Bachelor degree in one of the following Professional subjects: Architecture; Dentistry; Engineering; Medicine/Surgery from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 80% UK 2:1 degree: 65% UK 2:2 degree: 60%

Sweden We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (Kandidatexamen) or Professional Bachelor Degree (Yrkesexamenfrom) (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: Overall B grade with at least 75 ECTS at grade A or above (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 65% of credits graded at VG overall UK 2:1 degree: Overall B grade (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 50% of credits graded at VG overall UK 2:2 degree: Overall C grade (180 ECTS minimum overall); or at least 20% of credits graded at VG overall.

Switzerland We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor degree (180 ECTS credits) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 5.5 out of 6; or 9 out of 10 UK 2:1 degree: 5 out of 6; or 8 out of 10 UK 2:2 degree: 4.25 out of 6; or 7 out of 10

Syria We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 85% UK 2:1 degree: 75% UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Taiwan We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from selected institutions. UK 1st class degree: 85 to 90% UK 2:1 degree: 70 to 75% UK 2:2 degree: 65 to 70%

Tajikistan We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Specialist Diploma or Masters Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5 UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5 UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Tanzania We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.4 out of 5.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.5 out of 5.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.7 out of 5.0

Thailand We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.40 to 3.60 out of 4.00 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.00 to 3.20 out of 4.00 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.40 to 2.60 out of 4.00

Offer conditions will vary depending on the institution you are applying from.

Trinidad and Tobago We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or First Class Honours from the University of West Indies UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0; or Upper Second Class Honours from the University of West Indies UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.4 out of 4.0; or Lower Second Class Honours from the University of West Indies

Tunisia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Licence; Diplome National d'Architecture; Maitrise; Diplome National d'Ingeniuer; or Doctorat en Medecine / Veterinaire from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 16 out of 20 UK 2:1 degree: 13 out of 20 UK 2:2 degree: 11 out of 20

Turkey We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.40 to 3.60 out of 4.00 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 2.80 to 3.00 out of 4.00 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.30 to 2.50 out of 4.00

Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.60 out of 4.00 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.00 out of 4.00 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.50 out of 4.00

Turkmenistan We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Diploma of Higher Education (awarded after 2007) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 4.7 out of 5 UK 2:1 degree: 4.0 out of 5 UK 2:2 degree: 3.5 out of 5

Turks and Caicos Islands We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (accredited by the Council of Community Colleges of Jamaica) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0; or 80% UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.3 out of 4.0; or 75% UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.7 out of 4.0; or 65%

Uganda We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 3 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 4.4 out of 5.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 4.0 out of 5.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 5.0

Ukraine We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 10 out of 12; or 4.7 out of 5 UK 2:1 degree: 8 out of 12; or 4.0 out of 5 UK 2:2 degree: 6 out of 12; or 3.5 out of 5

United Arab Emirates We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

United States of America We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: GPA 3.2 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: GPA 2.5 out of 4.0

Uruguay We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] (minimum 4 years) from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 10 to 11 out of 12 UK 2:1 degree: 7 to 9 out of 12 UK 2:2 degree: 6 to 7 out of 12

Uzbekistan We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) or Specialist Diploma from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 90%; or 4.7 out of 5 UK 2:1 degree: 80%; or 4.0 out of 5 UK 2:2 degree: 71%; or 3.5 out of 5

Venezuela We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Titulo de Licenciado/ Titulo de [subject area] from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 81% UK 2:1 degree: 71% UK 2:2 degree: 61%

Non-percentage grading scales, for example scales out of 20, 10, 9 or 5, will have different requirements. 

Vietnam We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 8.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.7 out of 4 UK 2:1 degree: 7.0 out of 10; or GPA 3.0 out of 4 UK 2:2 degree: 5.7 out of 10; or GPA 2.4 out of 4

Yemen We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters (Majister) degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 90% UK 2:1 degree: 80% UK 2:2 degree: 65%

Bachelor Degrees from Lebanese International University (in Yemen) can be considered for entry to postgraduate taught programmes - please see Lebanon for guidance on grade requirements for this.

Zambia We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Masters Degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 75%; or GPA 3.7 out of 4.0 UK 2:1 degree: 65%; or GPA 3.0 out of 4.0 UK 2:2 degree: 55%; or GPA 2.4 out of 4.0

Zimbabwe We normally consider the following qualifications for entry to our postgraduate taught programmes: Bachelor Degree (minimum 4 years) or Bachelor Honours degree from a recognised institution. UK 1st class degree: 75% UK 2:1 degree: 65% UK 2:2 degree: 60%

English language requirements

If you got your degree in an English speaking country or if it was taught in English, and you studied within the last five years, you might not need an English language qualification - find out more .

The minimum English Language requirements for entry to postgraduate degree programmes within the School Law are:

7.0   overall  including 7.0 in Writing, and 5.5 in Reading, Listening and Speaking.

100   overall  including 27 in Writing, 18 in Reading, 17 in Listening and 20 in Speaking.

76  overall  including 76in Writing, and 59 in Reading, Listening and Speaking. 

Trinity College London, Integrated Skills in English (ISE) III with a minimum of  Merit  in Writing, Reading, Listening and Speaking.

185 overall including  185  in Writing, and 162 in Reading, Listening and Speaking.

Visas and immigration

Find out how to apply for a student visa .

Postgraduate Admissions

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LL.M. Program

5005   Wasserstein Hall (WCC) 1585 Massachusetts Avenue Cambridge ,  MA 02138

The LL.M. (Master of Laws) program is a one-year degree program that typically includes 180 students from some 65 countries. The Graduate Program is interested in attracting intellectually curious and thoughtful candidates from a variety of legal systems and backgrounds and with various career plans. Harvard’s LL.M. students include lawyers working in firms, government officials, law professors, judges, diplomats, human rights activists, doctoral students, business people, and others. The diversity of the participants in the LL.M. program contributes significantly to the educational experience of all students at the School.

LL.M. Degree Overview

Ll.m. degree requirements, academic resources, ll.m. class profile, modal gallery.

York Law School

WRoCAH competition for PhD studentships

Looking for PhD funding in Arts and Humanities? The WRoCAH competition for PhD studentships starting in October 2024 is now open.

The White Rose College of the Arts and Humanities (WRoCAH) is a Doctoral Training Partnership of the Universities of Leeds, Sheffield and York. The College is responsible for the distribution of Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) -funded doctoral studentships for these universities and for the coordination of a doctoral training programme.

WRoCAH have a number AHRC studentships that will be awarded through open competition.

Students can make one application for funding through the open competition at either Leeds, Sheffield or York. Projects are welcome from all departments, not just Arts and Humanities, so long as the research falls within the remit of the AHRC .

The studentship application form and the Guidance Notes for Applicants are available from the WRoCAH website . Please contact your prospective supervisor if you have any questions or need support with the application process. Questions can also be sent to [email protected] . 

Applicants will first be considered by the department and then nominated for further consideration in the application process. To facilitate this, you must have applied for your PhD programme by Thursday 4 January 2024, 5pm BST. You must also indicate on your application your intention to apply for funding from the WRoCAH AHRC.

MFA program 'cannot survive' with proposed changes, University of Cincinnati faculty say

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University of Cincinnati's fine arts graduate students are at the heart of the region's art scene. They are teaching artists at the Cincinnati Art Museum and present work at the Contemporary Arts Center in Downtown.

They go on to teach at the Art Academy of Cincinnati and at other area schools. Graduates work with ArtWorks , the nonprofit behind Cincinnati's iconic and beautiful city murals, and ArtsWave , the organization that funds a large share of the city's art projects and performances.

But faculty say the 50-year-old program is in jeopardy if the university goes through with a newly proposed funding model that reduces aid to fine arts students. According to the administration, the new funding policy aims to make graduate programs more equitable across the university's College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning, called DAAP.

Instead of leveling the playing field, faculty in the master of fine arts program say the changes would make it impossible to recruit new fine art students and effectively destroy the program. Faculty say that would be a tragedy for the university and devastating for the city of Cincinnati, which has championed art and creativity for decades.

The university declined to share specifics about its graduate funding changes. But according to an open letter from faculty to university President Neville Pinto and Provost Valerio Ferme , the new plan would have master of fine arts students pay for about two-thirds of their studies, on average. Other programs in the region fully fund their graduate art students.

"We as a faculty believe that the arts are a crucial component of a vibrant city and are extremely concerned about what this shift would mean for the University of Cincinnati, our research, faculty retention, and undergraduate programs," the faculty's open letter reads. It posted Dec. 14 and garnered more than 550 verified signatures in less than a week.

"Without a pipeline of highly trained artists, art organizers, and arts leaders, Cincinnati will lose the vibrancy and appeal that has helped both the city and the university grow over the past decade," the letter says. "In plain terms, this will be an immeasurably large hit to Cincinnati’s creative and nonprofit community."

In response to the letter, Timothy Jachna, the dean of the college, said the college only has enough money to cover about 35% of graduate tuition. The new policy distributes that money across the college's six graduate programs in alignment with enrollment, instead of ad hoc, "to give students in all programs equal opportunity to benefit from this common fund."

Historically, the master's in fine arts has gotten the largest allocation of tuition coverage, Jachna said, so the department will receive less funding than it has in the past. But the program should rely on funding outside allocations from the Graduate School, he said, and the college is committed to finding additional resources to keep it going.

"We are working to forge a way forward for this program, including the student financing question but also broader issues of communication, recruitment, resourcing, etc., while equitably providing opportunities to students in all masters programs in the college," Jachna wrote.

How other Ohio MFA programs compare

Other master of fine arts programs in the region fully cover fine art students' tuition and even offer stipends, including the studio art program at Miami University . At Miami, all 12 studio art graduate students have assistantships. That means they work 20 hours a week while taking classes to receive full tuition and a yearly $14,000 stipend.

Funding its graduate students allows Miami to compete for top applicants, said Dana Saulnier, Miami's graduate director for fine art.

"We want the best students," she said. "We want to create communities that excel at meaningful experimentation in the arts. Having a rigorous graduate program fosters the kind of intense educational environment that benefits everyone involved, not least, our undergraduate students."

That's also been true at University of Cincinnati. Graduate students and alumni teach roughly three-fourths of the art school's courses, faculty wrote in their letter to Pinto. Without graduate students, the college's undergraduate program would suffer, too.

"As the only MFA program in the city, the majority of arts faculty at the Art Academy of Cincinnati are also our alumni," the letter from University of Cincinnati faculty says. "These actions will have impacts that will quickly spread beyond the University and into the fabric of Cincinnati."

Faculty in other departments have funding fears, too

Evan Torner, a German studies graduate professor at University of Cincinnati, said he's seen this play out before. The German department is in its second year of being unable to recruit a cohort of Ph.D. students.

"We're at a point where the bachelor's degree is in jeopardy if things continue as they are," Torner said.

The university's moves are in line with national trends to shrink arts and humanities programs. Miami University announced earlier this year that it's consolidating 18 humanities majors .

University of Cincinnati's fine art faculty are hoping they can avoid the same fate. In their letter to Pinto, faculty asked the university to reconsider its proposed funding model and commit to funding the master of fine arts program's first-year students. The department developed a five-year plan in September to raise $5 million to support the graduate program on its own, before it was aware of the new budget model.

"One of the central components of this plan is to reach out to donors, corporations, and entities that may not realize the impact that our program has on their businesses, the community, and the city as a whole," the letter says.

The college's new funding policy is set to start in the fall of 2024.

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This is a mass-produced replica of a famous miracle-working icon of the Virgin and Child, brought to Russia from Byzatium in the 12th century, known as the "Virgin of Vladimir", and currently kept in Moscow (State Tretyakov Gallery). The Virgin and Child are each identified by abbreviated inscriptions.

Provenance Provenance (from the French provenir , 'to come from/forth') is the chronology of the ownership, custody, or location of a historical object.

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In Michael O’Donnell’s debut novel, a father and son hide from danger in the White Mountains

The boston college law graduate drew inspiration for ‘above the fire’ from a time of covid isolation with his own son.

Michael O'Donnell, a BC Law School grad, has written a novel about a father and son hiking and hiding in New Hampshire.

As a fan of Cormac McCarthy, Peter Heller, and walking New England woods, I blazed through “Above the Fire,” by Michael O’Donnell in one weekend.

The former Somerville resident’s debut novel, released this month, is billed as fit for fans of McCarthy’s “The Road” and Heller’s “The Dog Stars,” but it veers away from the sunless apocalypse plagued by bands of marauding cannibals in the former, and by pandemic in the latter.

Instead, we have a tenderly wrought father-son novel — a year of homeschool, resolve, and isolation where a man closely observes his son as they become, to borrow a line from McCarthy, “each the other’s world entire.”

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O’Donnell, 44, an attorney based in Chicago, spent “months and months” during COVID lockdown with his young son. The book is “very much a love letter to him,” the 2004 Boston College Law School alum said in a phone interview from his home.

O’Donnell’s characters, a widower, Doug, and his 7-year-old son, Tim, from “near Boston,” venture to New Hampshire’s White Mountains for a days-long hike on the Presidential Trail, sometime in October. They stay in trail huts , eat snickerdoodles, meet fellow hikers. Then one day, a fire is spotted below. A hiker tells Doug: “Something’s going on down below. We’re not sure what. … Phones, internet, broadband — it’s all down. … [Someone] said there was heavy traffic on I-91 and I-93. People driving north” to Canada.

Rumors swirl of a cyberattack, of chaos in Philadelphia. Fearing a war, Doug decides he and Tim will winter above the fire in a trail hut.

Unlike in “The Road,” the actual crisis here is never spelled out. The book is a quiet quasi-thriller, more ode-to-nature-and-family The enemies here are loneliness, boredom, uncertainty, anxiety.

“Fire” is ripe for book-club discussion, a solid read for anyone who appreciates the stark beauty of New England woods — White Mountains hiker or not.

"Above the Fire" is Michael O'Donnell's debut novel set in winter in the White Mountains.

Q. What sparked this book?

A. It came out of the pandemic. My wife took on a new job in May 2020. My son was 7 — school was closed, no summer camp. The two of us were a pair. We’d ride our bikes down the middle of the street because there was no traffic. Ride scooters down the entire parking garage. Hike the forest preserve. We cemented a bond. I wanted to reflect on that, but didn’t want to write about COVID. I tried to think of a good story that could get at that parent-child experience.

Q. Why New Hampshire’s White Mountains?

A. That’s a really special place to me. My wife and I lived in Brighton and Somerville in the early 2000s. With two great buddies from BC, I’d climb Mount Washington or Mount Jefferson or Mount Madison. Five years ago, a buddy and I did the Presidential Traverse described in the book — and, boy, it kicks your butt. But it’s beautiful terrain. There are these awesome [Appalachian Mountain Club] cabins. It’s just a special place.

Q. Are the details inspired by your actual time there?

A. Some is, some is from other hiking journeys. Parts of the setting I had to tweak. For example, there are no fireplaces in AMC huts. People who know the range will spot that. I did take a couple liberties.

Q. I love “The Road.” This book feels inspired by it.

A. Very much. I love “The Road,” too, but it’s so bleak. I remember being enthralled, but thinking: I don’t know if I could ever read that again. It has a tragic conclusion, even though there’s a grace-note of hope. The relationship between the father and son is poignant; I was inspired by that. But the landscape they move through is savage and grim. I thought it would be interesting to have a similar set of high stakes, but with a landscape that’s beautiful: mountains, open sky, snow, shelter.

Q. Unlike in “The Road,” where everyone’s out to get you, here, they run into just one person: the man in the orange socks.

A. At first Doug thinks he’s a villain. Turns out, he’s just a lonely guy. I think that mirrors our experience during COVID, where suddenly, we had to be a little bit fearful of one another. Maybe on some subconscious level, I was reflecting that.

Q. There seemed to be many COVID parallels. Doug gets used to the solitude. “The thought of a meeting room packed with adults filled him with dread.” That was a huge crisis people went through.

A. It’s something I still struggle with, to be honest. I went from a downtown 9-to-5 job to working primarily at home. I’ve gotten used to it. I’m an introvert by nature, and I’ve enjoyed the solitude. [Many have] struggled to find a balance.

Q. The ending is vague as to what, if anything, actually happened. Doug feared a war, but there are no signs of that.

A. I think that’ll bother some readers, and won’t bother others. If you need to know what it was that was happening down below, that irresolution is tough. I was less interested in what was going on below than what was going on above: Doug and Tim’s relationship. It could be any roadblock in our lives — environmental crisis, war. What we have is each other.

Q. Did you have an idea of what happened?

A. I did, but I don’t want to share it. The imagination is maybe more powerful.

Lauren Daley can be reached at [email protected] . Follow her on Twitter @laurendaley1 .

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Guest Essay

What Happened to Kate Cox Is Tragic, and Completely Expected

A photo illustration shows a woman’s head silhouetted inside an image from a fetal ultrasound.

By Greer Donley

Ms. Donley is a law professor at the University of Pittsburgh whose research includes the workability of medical exceptions to abortion regulations.

Many people were shocked when the Texas Supreme Court intervened recently to stop Kate Cox from getting an abortion in the state — an abortion needed to protect her health and future fertility after her fetus was diagnosed with a severe fetal anomaly in her second trimester. She ultimately traveled out of state to get the abortion she needed.

As someone who has been studying state abortion definitions and exceptions in the wake of Roe v. Wade’s demise, I was not shocked.

The Texas anti-abortion law that went into effect shortly after Roe was overturned was drafted to ban the care needed by Ms. Cox and other women with similar cases: It does not include an exception for fetal anomalies, unlike laws in a handful of other states . The law does have a narrow exception allowing abortions in some medical emergencies, but it is written in such a vague and confusing way that it is difficult for even experts on this topic, like me, to parse.

What is clear to me is that the Texas Supreme Court would have needed to make a broad and compassionate interpretation of the law for Ms. Cox to meet the high bar of that exception. Instead, the court interpreted the law narrowly — which is exactly what the state lawmakers who passed the legislation were hoping for. And the results have been tragic.

Since Dobbs v. Jackson Women’s Health Organization , the case that overturned Roe, numerous women around the country have shared Ms. Cox’s experience. They, too, have been forced to travel for abortion care in the middle of a medical crisis, wait until their health deteriorated toward death or give birth to a child who died in their arms . Ms. Cox’s story is unique only because she had the remarkable fortitude and bravery to sue her state while she was still pregnant instead of after her medical emergency concluded, as many other plaintiffs have done .

The exception in Texas’ abortion ban permits pregnant Texans to receive an abortion only if they are facing “a life-threatening physical condition,” such as one that “poses a serious risk of substantial impairment of a major bodily function unless the abortion is performed or induced.”

This language contains a great deal of ambiguity. What constitutes a “serious risk” or a “substantial impairment” or a “major bodily function”? Does an 80 percent chance of losing a uterus or fallopian tube qualify? What about a 30 percent chance of a cardiac event that could be fatal? These questions are critical but confounding for the health care providers who must look to the law, not medicine, to answer them.

The penalties for abortion providers who violate the state’s law include a decades-long prison sentence, a $100,000 fine and the loss of a medical license. When one misinterpretation of the law could mean the loss of your vocation and freedom, it’s no wonder that the legislation has had a chilling effect on doctors in the state providing any abortions at all.

Texas’ choice not to include a fetal anomaly exception in its abortion ban was in keeping with what many in the anti-abortion movement believe: that the proper response to all fetal anomaly diagnoses is perinatal hospice. In response to Ms. Cox’s case, Texas Right to Life said : “Every child is uniquely precious and should continue to be protected in law no matter how long or short the baby’s life may be. The compassionate approach to these heartbreaking diagnoses is perinatal palliative care, which honors, rather than ends, the child’s life.” The fetus’s condition is therefore irrelevant under Texas law, unless the anomaly increases risks for the pregnant patient.

As for Ms. Cox’s personal medical risks, they relate primarily to her two prior cesarean sections . Continuing her pregnancy would have put her in an impossible bind: Either she would have had a third cesarean (major abdominal surgery that could threaten her future fertility ), or she would have attempted a vaginal birth, which, post-C-section, carries a low but significant risk of catastrophic uterine rupture . She also had an elevated risk of developing gestational hypertension and diabetes. In my view, these risks are “serious” — to quote the Texas law — particularly to birth a dying child. But they are also not uncommon: If Texas allowed these risks to a woman’s health to satisfy the exception in its abortion law, the exception would be available to anyone with an unwanted pregnancy that is also medically complicated.

And therein lies the problem: There is no nonarbitrary way to identify medically necessary abortions. Anti-abortion legislators and activists often try to place abortions into two categories: therapeutic abortions, meaning those that are medically indicated, and elective abortions, meaning those chosen to avoid having a child. The Dobbs decision itself engaged in this thinking, finding that Mississippi had a legitimate interest in regulating abortion “for nontherapeutic or elective reasons.”

What this categorization misses is that pregnancy is inherently risky. This is especially true in the United States, which, compared with other high-income countries , has by far the highest (and worsening) maternal mortality. Every person who carries a pregnancy to term will endure months of significant and occasionally debilitating physical side effects and medical risks that include the possibility of death . Given that abortion is many times safer than childbirth , abortions help people avoid medical risks.

This issue extends beyond exceptions for medical emergencies. Take fetal anomaly exceptions, which are typically reserved for lethal anomalies in the states that have them. The boundaries of lethality have created deep confusion, in large part because only a tiny number of conditions are 100 percent fatal in infancy. Even a small percentage of babies born with trisomy 18, the condition Ms. Cox’s fetus was diagnosed with — which is often considered incompatible with life — can survive to 10 years old with aggressive treatment. As a result, some even outside the anti-abortion movement have questioned whether it deserves the moniker “lethal.”

But if trisomy 18 doesn’t count as lethal, hardly any fetal diagnosis does. The prognoses of most severe fetal anomalies are complex, involving varying risks of stillbirth and infant mortality, coupled with significant risk of severe disability in survivors, a subset of whom will die in childhood. There is no categorical way to distinguish the diagnoses that are worthy of exemption in anti-abortion laws and those that are not.

The Dobbs decision greenlit a patchwork of abortion bans that are inherently standardless and functionally unworkable, forcing judges with no medical background into the business of making medical judgments. The boundaries between fatal and nonfatal, therapeutic and elective, and even abortion and miscarriage are blurry for medical professionals; they are virtually impossible to decipher for the lawyers and judges who have to navigate them.

This problem cannot be solved with clearer language; it is a problem intrinsic to the Dobbs ruling that allowed the complicated experience of pregnancy into the courtroom. The only way forward is to protect abortion, no matter the reason — to refuse to play the game of “good” abortion versus “bad” abortion. What happened to Kate Cox, and so many patients like her, is a symptom of a broken law that cannot be fixed.

Greer Donley is an associate dean and associate professor at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. Her research has surveyed a variety of post-Dobbs legal issues, including the workability of medical exceptions to abortion regulations.

Source photograph by Fairfax Media Archives/Getty Images.

The Times is committed to publishing a diversity of letters to the editor. We’d like to hear what you think about this or any of our articles. Here are some tips . And here’s our email: [email protected] .

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art law phd

Center for Art Law welcomes applications for internships and graduate fellowships at our offices in DUMBO-Brooklyn (NY), Zürich (CH) and/or online. Last updated: November 22, 2023. Details The Fellowship Program (6-12 months-appointment) is open to recent graduates (relevant graduate degrees, J.D. preferred).

We have 26 art law PhD Projects, Programmes & Scholarships More Details History of Art - Postgraduate Research Opportunities University of Birmingham School of Languages, Cultures, Art History and Music

Art Law. Art Law is a survey course on the law and business of art. In-class simulations include negotiations of the following: an artist-dealer representation agreement; an art consignment agreement with an auction house; a commission agreement between an artist and collector; a loan agreement with a museum. Other topics for discussion include ...

An Art Law LLM is a specialized degree that focuses on legal issues related to the art industry. This type of degree covers topics such as copyright, contracts, and taxation, and prepares students to work as attorneys, legal advisors, or legal consultants in the art world.

1 year full-time Department Department of History of Art, York Law School Start date September 2024 ( semester dates) Apply for this course Meet us Join us online or in person to find out more about postgraduate study at York. Upcoming events The global trade in art is now a multi-billion dollar industry.

Art law, simply put, is the body of law, involving numerous disciplines, that protects, regulates and facilitates the creation, use and marketing of art. Art law is not a separate jurisprudence or unified legal doctrine that applies to all of the issues confronting those in the art world.

The seminar Law and the Visual Arts will focus on the myriad of legal topics that lawyers for visual artists, dealers , auction houses and museums handle on a daily basis. These include the role of the museum in society and the art market, tax issues important to these groups, copyright (particularly the Visual Artists Rights Act), issues of ...

As a nonprofit working with artists and students, the Center for Art Law relies on your support to fund our work. Become a premium subscriber and gain access to discounts on events and archives of articles and/or hundreds of case summaries, intended for a worldwide audience of legal professionals, artists, researchers, and students ...

The importance of recognizing law as a compass on how art is created, sold, collected, and distributed has never been more important than today. As a member of Sotheby's Art Institute since 2007, graduate faculty Judith Prowda provides Master's students with an insightful and rigorous curriculum for comprehending art law and its application across different careers and professional sectors.

Art law is an exciting and fast-developing area, tackling issues surrounding the legal treatment of fine art and cultural heritage. Our LLM in Art Law is a unique collaborative and interdisciplinary course, co-taught by academic specialists from York Law School and the Department of History of Art. You'll gain a deep understanding of the ...

Art and the Law (3502): This course covers the legal, public policy, and ethical issues that concern artists, art dealers, auction houses, museums, collectors, and others who comprise the world of visual art. Our focus will be on artists' rights (including copyright, resale royalties, moral rights, and freedom of expression issues), how the markets in art function (such as the artist-dealer ...

The Coordinated JD/PhD Program is designed for students interested in completing interdisciplinary work at Harvard University and is founded on the belief that students' legal studies and their arts and sciences graduate studies can be mutually enriched through this pursuit.

The Art, Law, and Finance Project is an interdisciplinary effort to dedicated to exploring issues at the intersection of art, law, finance, technology, and culture. It seeks to be at the forefront of discussions on hot topics such as repatriation, artificial intelligence, securitization, and fraud in the art world.

The Institute of Art and Law is an educational organisation, founded in 1995, giving knowledge and perspective on the law relating to cultural heritage, a concept which includes art, antiquities, archives, archaeology, architecture, monuments, treasure and much more. IAL's educational remit is fulfilled through publishing and courses.

Art, Business and Law LLM Part of: Law and Business and Management This LLM, offered by Queen Mary's Centre for Commercial Law Studies (CCLS) in partnership with the Institute of Art and Law (IAL) is a unique and challenging programme exploring the legal issues surrounding art and cultural objects.

Art Law Viale Romania, Rome, Italy Program duration Tuition Fee/year 15 Dec, 2022 Application Deadline Yes Program Overview Admission Requirements Tuition Fee and Scholarships More Programs Program overview Degree LLM Study Level

FindAPhD. Search Funded PhD Projects, Programmes & Scholarships in Philosophy, art law. Search for PhD funding, scholarships & studentships in the UK, Europe and around the world.

Contact Us The LL.M. (Master of Laws) program is a one-year degree program that typically includes 180 students from some 65 countries. The Graduate Program is interested in attracting intellectually curious and thoughtful candidates from a variety of legal systems and backgrounds and with various career plans.

We have 3 Economics (art law) PhD Projects, Programmes & Scholarships. Show more Show all . More Details . PhD opportunities in Economics and Finance at Brunel University London. Brunel University London. Become a leading voice in Economics. Analyse critical issues in business and policy using our state-of-the-art econometrics.

The WRoCAH competition for PhD studentships starting in October 2024 is now open. The White Rose College of the Arts and Humanities (WRoCAH) is a Doctoral Training Partnership of the Universities of Leeds, Sheffield and York. The College is responsible for the distribution of Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC) -funded doctoral ...

The faculty petition stated that the university enrolls more than 1,000 students from the seven countries covered by the law each fall. In 2020, 1,100 students — 40 percent of the University of ...

I was born and raised in a working-class city, Elektrostal, Moscow region. I received a higher education in television in Moscow. I studied to be a documentary photographer. My vision of the aesthetics of the frame was significantly influenced by the aesthetics of my city - the endless forests and swamps of the Moscow region with endless factories, typical architecture and a meagre color palette.

At Miami, all 12 studio art graduate students have assistantships. That means they work 20 hours a week while taking classes to receive full tuition and a yearly $14,000 stipend.

The Bensons have established two prior scholarships in Arts and Sciences, including their inaugural Carol and Jack Benson '63 President's Endowed Scholarship in 2004 and the Benson Endowed Scholarship for Study Abroad, created in 2017 to help ArtSci students travel internationally and interact with people of different cultures and perspectives.

The regulations for professors in the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, of which Dr. Gay, a professor of government and of African and African American studies, is a member, define plagiarism similarly.

This is a mass-produced replica of a famous miracle-working icon of the Virgin and Child, brought to Russia from Byzatium in the 12th century, known as the "Virgin of Vladimir", and currently kept in Moscow (State Tretyakov Gallery). The Virgin and Child are each identified by abbreviated inscriptions.

The Mind-Body & Movement Research for Whole-Person Health Lab, under the leadership of Minjung Shim, PhD, serves as a pioneering research hub focusing on the intersection of mind-body health, creative/expressive arts and integrated care.The lab's core mission is to integrate mind-body practices and creative arts-based therapies into conventional health care through high-caliber research and ...

The Boston College Law graduate drew inspiration for 'Above the Fire' from a time of COVID isolation with his own son By Lauren Daley Globe Correspondent, Updated December 20, 2023, 3:43 p.m ...

The penalties for abortion providers who violate the state's law include a decades-long prison sentence, a $100,000 fine and the loss of a medical license. When one misinterpretation of the law ...

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  1. Thesis & Dissertation Acknowledgements

    The acknowledgements section is your opportunity to thank those who have helped and supported you personally and professionally during your thesis or dissertation process. Thesis or dissertation acknowledgements appear between your title page and abstract and should be no longer than one page.

  2. Thesis Acknowledgements: Free Template With Examples

    The acknowledgements section of your thesis or dissertation is where you give thanks to the people who contributed to your project's success. Generally speaking, this is a relatively brief, less formal section.

  3. 14 Dissertation Acknowledgements Examples

    Dissertation Acknowledgements Examples Here are 14 dissertation acknowledgements examples to inspire you. They cover a range of academic subjects and are all from UK students. Note how they vary in length, style and substance. Note - all samples have been taken from documents available in the public realm.

  4. Thesis acknowledgements: Samples and how to write your own thesis or

    The acknowledgements section of your thesis is an opportunity to reflect on the people who have supported and shaped your PhD experience. Don't worry, although your examiners will be interested to read your acknowledgements section, you won't really get judged on it in your PhD viva.

  5. How to Write an Acknowledgment for a Thesis

    Lindsay Kramer Updated on November 17, 2023 Students You're almost there. You've finished your research, you've written your thesis, you've formatted your work and bibliography, and now you can see yourself in a cap and gown, the newly minted holder of a master's degree or PhD. You put in the work—but you didn't get there alone.

  6. Acknowledgements for Thesis and Dissertations with Examples

    The acknowledgement section of a thesis or dissertation is where you recognise and thank those who supported you during your PhD. This can be but is not limited to individuals, institutions or organisations. Although your acknowledgements will not be used to evaluate your work, it is still an important section of your thesis.

  7. PDF WRITING ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: Saying "Thank You"

    When you write your acknowledgements, write an exhaustive list of all the people you wish to thank for helping or collaborating with you on your thesis; then organize them, beginning with those who helped you with the product (the actual writing of the dissertation itself) the most.

  8. Dissertation acknowledgments [with examples]

    Here are some good examples to help you get started: Example 1. I couldn't have reached this goal without the help of many people in my life. I'd like to take this opportunity to thank them for their support. First, my sincere thanks to my dissertation committee. The value of their guidance cannot be overstated. Dr.

  9. Dissertation Acknowledgement Examples

    11 min Read | February 06 2024 In this article we explain how to write the best acknowledgement for your university dissertation or thesis, and provide examples to guide you. If you're getting ready to write your dissertation acknowledgement, first of all, congratulations!

  10. How to Write Acknowledgement for Dissertation?

    Students pursuing doctoral or master's programs are required to submit a dissertation as part of their studies. A dissertation is a written document that summarises the research conducted and includes findings either on a question or a topic chosen by the student.

  11. How to Write Dissertation Acknowledgements

    The acknowledgement section in a dissertation is used to express gratitude towards all those who have helped you prepare the dissertation. Both professional and personal acknowledgements can be included in it. The acknowledgement section comes in between the title page and the abstract page. It is best suited to be on one page.

  12. How to Write Acknowledgments for a Dissertation

    These are some of the people to consider thanking as a courtesy: Get Your Dissertation Accepted On Your Next Submission Get customized coaching for crafting your proposal, collecting and analyzing your data, or preparing your defense. BOOK YOUR FREE CONSULTATION Over 100+ Students Coached • 30+ Years of Experience • 90% Success Rate Chair

  13. 3 inspiring master's thesis acknowledgement examples

    Master's thesis acknowledgement example 1: formal and polite Master's thesis acknowledgement example 2: emotional and personal Master's thesis acknowledgement example 3: humorous and grateful What to consider when writing a master's thesis acknowledgement

  14. 6 Best Master Thesis Acknowledgement Samples

    By Mohsin Khurshid Acknowledging the support and contributions in a master's thesis is a crucial part of academic writing. Discovering exemplary acknowledgments can offer insight and inspiration for crafting one's own. Here, we present six compelling samples that showcase gratitude and recognition in scholarly work. Table of Contents

  15. Best Acknowledgement for Dissertation (10 Samples and Guide)

    January 15, 2024 By Mohsin Khurshid Embark on a journey through the art of crafting heartfelt acknowledgments for your dissertation. Explore examples and a comprehensive guide on acknowledging those who made your project possible. Uncover the best practices in expressing gratitude, from family to mentors. Table of Contents

  16. Dissertation Acknowledgements

    For formatting PhD dissertation acknowledgements, you should follow certain criterias: Place a page at the very beginning of your thesis — right after your title page and before the dissertation abstract. Align all margins on both sides. Place the 'Acknowledgements' title at the top of your page and center-align it.

  17. How to write a unique thesis acknowledgement (+ FAQs)

    In short: Yes, it is strongly recommended to include a thesis acknowledgement. Who should I thank in my thesis acknowledgment? The thesis acknowledgement offers flexibility, but thanking your thesis supervisor/s is an absolute must—non-negotiable. It would be highly unusual to omit their appreciation.

  18. Thesis & Dissertation Acknowledgements

    The acknowledgements section is your opportunity to thank those who have helped and supported you personally and professionally during your thesis or dissertation process. Thesis or dissertation acknowledgements appear between your title page and abstract and should be no longer than one page.

  19. How to Write Acknowledgements for a Thesis

    The acknowledgement section is one of the sections of a bachelor's or master's thesis, dissertation, research paper, etc. destined to show your appreciation of the persons who took part in your research, contributed to your project, or provided any kind of support. ... Thesis acknowledgement examples. Here are a few sample acknowledgements ...

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    PDF | On Sep 1, 1986, Vladimir Sabelnikov published Intermittency and concentration probability density function in turbulent flows, Thesis Doctor en Science, Moscow Institute of Physics and ...

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    Catalysis Conference is a networking event covering all topics in catalysis, chemistry, chemical engineering and technology during October 19-21, 2017 in Las Vegas, USA. Well noted as well attended meeting among all other annual catalysis conferences 2018, chemical engineering conferences 2018 and chemistry webinars.

  22. Active carbons as nanoporous materials for solving of environmental

    Catalysis Conference is a networking event covering all topics in catalysis, chemistry, chemical engineering and technology during October 19-21, 2017 in Las Vegas, USA. Well noted as well attended meeting among all other annual catalysis conferences 2018, chemical engineering conferences 2018 and chemistry webinars.

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