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Q. What is the format for the bibliography for Law coursework and dissertations? (OSCOLA)

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Answered By: Claire Mazer Last Updated: 16 Oct, 2023     Views: 18666

**Please check for current guidance from Brunel Law School**

In academic work more generally, a bibliography is typically used to show everything you have cited and anything else you have read, even if not cited. Recent advice from the Law School suggests that academic colleagues only wished for cited works to appear in the bibliography and not anything else. So, if you have read a source (book, article etc) , but not cited it in your footnotes, then don't include it in your bibliography.

Bibliography format for law coursework: The key points to note are that sources need to be in categories, with primary sources (cases, legislation) listed first, followed by secondary sources (books, journals, websites) all in alphabetical and then chronological order. Note that case names appear in plain text and not italics.

Note that authors names are inverted. Surname appears first followed by the initial of the first name and then a comma, i.e. Choo A, or Natile S, This does not apply to company, departmental or organisational names (including law firms and barristers chambers), i.e. European Commission, Ministry of Justice, British Red Cross, Freshfields Bruckhaus Deringer, which remain as they are in both footnotes and the bibliography.

Electronic versions of cases and journal articles: Many cases and journal articles can be found in legal databases such as Westlaw, Lexis+ etc. However, it is not necessary to cite databases as the source. Almost all law reports and journals are available in printed form. The citation itself is sufficient since it includes the law report or journal in which the case was reported or journal article was published. There are a few journals where only an electronic version is available, usually the clue is in the title: The Internet Journal of Criminology. For these titles it is necessary to add the URL in triangular brackets and the date it was accessed.

Here is a sample bibliography:


Pepper v Hart [1993] AC 593 (HL)

Mastercard Inc v Merricks [2021] Bus LR 25

R v Brockway (Andrew Robert) (2008) 2 Cr App R (S) 4

R v Edwards (John) (1991) 93 Cr App R 48


Crime and Disorder Act 1998

Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984

Dembour M-B, Who believes in human rights?: reflections on the European Convention (Cambridge University Press 2006)

Herring J, Criminal Law: Text and Materials (9th edn, OUP 2020)

Norrie A, Crime, Reason and History (3rd edn, Cambridge University Press 2014)

Ashworth A, ‘Social Control and “Anti-Social Behaviour”: the Subversion of Human Rights’ (2004) 120 LQR 263

Behan C and O'Donnell I, 'Prisoners, Politics and the Polls: Enfranchisement and the Burden of Responsibility' (2008) 48(3) Brit J Criminol 31

Stephens-Chu G, ‘Is it Always All About the Money? The Appropriateness of Non-Pecuniary Remedies in Investment Treaty Arbitration’ (2014) 30(4) Arbitration International 661

Gazard B, ‘What’s happened to crime during the pandemic? How ONS has responded to the measurement challenge’ ( Office for National Statistics , 25 August 2020) <> accessed 16 December 2020

Gowin J, ‘Can We Predict Crime Using Brain Scans?’ ( You, Illuminated. Psychology Today, 2013)  <> accessed 20 October 2020

Metropolitan Police, ‘What is hate crime?’ ( Metropolitan Police, 2021) < > accessed 26 February 2021

Bibliography format for law dissertations: Broadly the same as above except that separate tables of cases / legislation / EU or International legal materials (as applicable) should appear between the end of the dissertation and the beginning of the bibliography. The purpose of the bibliography at dissertation level is to provide a list of secondary sources, i.e. books, journals, online documents, websites, blogs.

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law essay bibliography example

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  • How to cite a law in APA Style

How to Cite a Law in APA Style | Format & Examples

Published on February 11, 2021 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on October 3, 2023.

To cite federal laws (also commonly referred to as statutes or acts) in APA Style , include the name of the law, “U.S.C.” (short for United States Code ), the title and section of the code where the law appears, the year, and optionally the URL.

The year included is when the law was published in the source consulted, not when it was passed, amended, or supplemented.

Table of contents

Symbols and abbreviations in law citations, citing federal statutes with the public law number, citing state laws, frequently asked questions about apa style citations.

The United States Code and most other compilations of laws are divided into parts called “titles,” and within those titles, sections.

No symbol is used for the title in your reference, but the section number is preceded by the symbol §. To insert the section symbol in Word, click on “Insert,” “Symbol,” “More symbols,” “Special characters,” and then find it in the list under “section.”

When a law is spread across multiple consecutive sections, the term “ et seq .” (Latin for “and following”) is added after the initial section number. It is always italicized and followed by a period.

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law essay bibliography example

A law may also have a public law number . This is not used in the citation, except in special cases: when the law is not (yet) included in the United States Code , or when it is spread across non-consecutive parts of the Code .

Laws not included in the Code

A law that has not been codified (published in the United States Code ) should be cited using its public law number and information about wherever it was published.

The law below was published in the United States Statutes at Large , which is abbreviated to “Stat.”

Laws spread across different sections

When an act is codified across different non-consecutive sections of the Code , it is also cited using the public law number and information about its location in the Statutes at Large .

The example below was codified in titles 2, 28, and 42 of the Code , so it is cited using the public law number instead.

The laws and statutes of individual states are cited in a similar format to federal laws where possible. “U.S.C.” is replaced with an abbreviation for the law code of that state, and titles and sections are presented in the same way. However, some state codes use article or chapter numbers instead of or in addition to section numbers, or do not use titles.

Make sure to adapt your reference to the standards of the state. For example, the title for a law from the Virginia Code is included with the section number, separated by a hyphen , as shown in this example.

Generally, you should identify a law in an APA reference entry by its location in the United States Code (U.S.C.).

But if the law is either spread across various sections of the code or not featured in the code at all, include the public law number in addition to information on the source you accessed the law in, e.g.:

No, including a URL is optional in APA Style reference entries for legal sources (e.g. court cases , laws ). It can be useful to do so to aid the reader in retrieving the source, but it’s not required, since the other information included should be enough to locate it.

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Law research and writing skills: Citing and referencing

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Other citing guides

law essay bibliography example

  • Legal Referencing by Stuhmcke, A
  • How to Cite Legal Authorities (U.K.) by French, D
  • Oxford Standard for Citation Of Legal Authorities (OSCOLA) (4th ed, Faculty of Law, University of Oxford)
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  • Introduction to Basic Legal Citation (U.S.) by Peter W. Martin
  • Universal Citation in International Arbitration (UCIA)

Current edition -  4th ed, 2018 .   Available to view  ONLINE or use in print in the Law Library.

Published by University of Melbourne Law Review.

The previous edition, 3rd ed, is archived  online. 

  • Summary of changes in AGLC4
  • Australian Guide to Legal Citation - accessibility document

AGLC Citing FAQs

Why do you need to cite?

When submitting a piece of academic work, you need to properly acknowledge the material that you have consulted. This allows others who read your work to verify facts or research the same information more easily. Acknowledgment may be in the form of footnotes and/or a bibliography.

You must reference your sources whenever you quote, paraphrase, or use someone else's ideas or words.

To find out more about why citing and referencing appropriately is crucial, and how you can avoid unintentional plagiarism, take a look at:

  • Demystifying Citing and Referencing  online tutorial
  • Maintain academic integrity online tutorial
  • Turnitin Library guide for advice on how to best use this software with your assignments
  • Did you know....Citations, sources and references  (2012) 37(1) Alternative Law Journal , 51, by Monash Law lecturers, Becky Batagol and Melissa Castan.
  • A beginner's guide to academic integrity and legal referencing using the AGLC (2022)  Alternative Law Journal , 

The Law Faculty views plagiarism and undisclosed collusion seriously, partly on academic grounds and partly because of the possible impact of academic misdemeanors on legal practice. You may like to look up recent cases in Victoria ( Re OG: a Lawyer ) and in other States.

  • Read the journal article, Matthew Groves,  ' Your Cheating Art Will Tell On You' , (2009) 89(8)  Law Institute Journal  43.

Other AGLC guides and tools

  • Easy cite (RMIT)
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  • AGLC Reference app for iPhone, iPad, Android (University of Western Sydney)

Keep track of your references

  • EndNote Look at the Working with Word tab on the EndNote guide to use the AGLC citation style for Law.
  • Zotero Consider using Zotero as freely available Web based system to keep track of your references. The AGLC style can be set up.
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  • Harvard Style Bibliography | Format & Examples

Harvard Style Bibliography | Format & Examples

Published on 1 May 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on 7 November 2022.

In Harvard style , the bibliography or reference list provides full references for the sources you used in your writing.

  • A reference list consists of entries corresponding to your in-text citations .
  • A bibliography sometimes also lists sources that you consulted for background research, but did not cite in your text.

The two terms are sometimes used interchangeably. If in doubt about which to include, check with your instructor or department.

The information you include in a reference varies depending on the type of source, but it usually includes the author, date, and title of the work, followed by details of where it was published. You can automatically generate accurate references using our free reference generator:

Harvard Reference Generator

Table of contents

Formatting a harvard style bibliography, harvard reference examples, referencing sources with multiple authors, referencing sources with missing information, frequently asked questions about harvard bibliographies.

Sources are alphabetised by author last name. The heading ‘Reference list’ or ‘Bibliography’ appears at the top.

Each new source appears on a new line, and when an entry for a single source extends onto a second line, a hanging indent is used:

Harvard bibliography

Prevent plagiarism, run a free check.

Reference list or bibliography entries always start with the author’s last name and initial, the publication date and the title of the source. The other information required varies depending on the source type. Formats and examples for the most common source types are given below.

  • Entire book
  • Book chapter
  • Translated book
  • Edition of a book

Journal articles

  • Print journal
  • Online-only journal with DOI
  • Online-only journal without DOI
  • General web page
  • Online article or blog
  • Social media post

Newspapers and magazines

  • Newspaper article
  • Magazine article

When a source has up to three authors, list all of them in the order their names appear on the source. If there are four or more, give only the first name followed by ‘ et al. ’:

Sometimes a source won’t list all the information you need for your reference. Here’s what to do when you don’t know the publication date or author of a source.

Some online sources, as well as historical documents, may lack a clear publication date. In these cases, you can replace the date in the reference list entry with the words ‘no date’. With online sources, you still include an access date at the end:

When a source doesn’t list an author, you can often list a corporate source as an author instead, as with ‘Scribbr’ in the above example. When that’s not possible, begin the entry with the title instead of the author:

Though the terms are sometimes used interchangeably, there is a difference in meaning:

  • A reference list only includes sources cited in the text – every entry corresponds to an in-text citation .
  • A bibliography also includes other sources which were consulted during the research but not cited.

In Harvard referencing, up to three author names are included in an in-text citation or reference list entry. When there are four or more authors, include only the first, followed by ‘ et al. ’

In Harvard style referencing , to distinguish between two sources by the same author that were published in the same year, you add a different letter after the year for each source:

  • (Smith, 2019a)
  • (Smith, 2019b)

Add ‘a’ to the first one you cite, ‘b’ to the second, and so on. Do the same in your bibliography or reference list .

To create a hanging indent for your bibliography or reference list :

  • Highlight all the entries
  • Click on the arrow in the bottom-right corner of the ‘Paragraph’ tab in the top menu.
  • In the pop-up window, under ‘Special’ in the ‘Indentation’ section, use the drop-down menu to select ‘Hanging’.
  • Then close the window with ‘OK’.

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If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the ‘Cite this Scribbr article’ button to automatically add the citation to our free Reference Generator.

Caulfield, J. (2022, November 07). Harvard Style Bibliography | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved 14 November 2023, from

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Law: Legal essay

Four tips on how to write a good law essay.

An essay is a common type of assessment in a law degree. This resource offers tips and resources to help you plan and write law essays. There are usually two types of law essays: the theoretical based essay and the problem-style essay.

The theoretical based essay may ask you to critically discuss a new piece of legislation or a recent case in relation to existing laws or legal principles. You may also be asked to take a side in an argument or discuss the wider societal implications of a legal outcome.

Problem-style essays require you to advise a party based on the analysis of a scenario or given problem. You will be required to identify the legal issues and apply relevant law. See more on legal problem-solving in this resource . This resource will focus on theoretical based law essays. There are a number of strategies that may help you in starting, structuring and presenting a law essay.

1. Starting your answer

The first step to a successful law essay is understanding the question. One of the most effective ways of breaking down the question is to identify the direction, content, and scope or limiting words.

For example, look at the following essay question:

Direction Words : Critically analyse.

Content Words: tort of negligence; tort of battery; consenting to medical treatment; patient’s right (autonomous decision).

Scope/Limiting Words: the extent to which, protect.

  • In this case, we need to critically analyse an area of law.
  • Here, we need to research the torts of negligence and battery and the issues of consent in medical treatments and patients’ rights .
  • Here we should critically analyse how well (the extent to which) the aforementioned torts do or do not protect patients’ rights in the context of medical consent .

You may also find it useful to look at the rubric to help you interpret your examiner’s expectations.

2. Planning your argument

When reading a case, journal article, book chapter or online article, it can be hard to know exactly how to use the source in an essay. This is where taking good notes while reading critically is helpful. Take a look at our other resources to help you Read critically and Read difficult material .

The next step is to take notes that help you understand different arguments and issues, or information and context, and refer back to your assignment question to keep you on track.

Writing a very short summary of each source is a great way to start. For example, for each journal article you read, try to summarise the author's main points in a few lines. This will help you to articulate the meaning in your own words.

Then, expand on this summary with some key points. Be sure that when taking notes, you make a note of the source and the pinpoint reference or page number, so that you can correctly cite the source in your essay.

Planning strategies

Understanding arguments.

Think about how you will use your resources. You may use a primary or secondary resource to:

  • to support your argument with evidence
  • to demonstrate a range of issues and opinions (remember, it’s OK if you don’t agree with all your sources! Show where these contrasting arguments fit into your discussion)

It may be helpful to ask:

  • How does this source contribute to my argument?
  • Do I agree or disagree with the author’s argument?

See our resource Master the art of note-making and Brainstorming and mind mapping for more tips.

Integrating resources into your essay

It is important to use your research well. One way to do this is to plan the main points of your essay, and how you will use your primary and secondary resources (such as journal articles, books, case law, legislation, websites) to support one or more of those points.

3. Structuring your answer

A key element of successful law essays is the structure. A good structure will enable you to communicate your ideas fluently and efficiently. This is an important and highly valued skill not only in law school, but in practice as well.

Usually, your essay requires an introduction, body paragraphs and a conclusion. Generally, you should have one idea per paragraph. This may mean shorter paragraphs than what you would ordinarily write in high school or other faculties. Concision is key in law. Therefore, we recommend a short paragraph which efficiently addresses an issue over a long and winding exploration of many different issues.

Remember to use subheadings to provide structure to your writing. It is a good idea to come up with your subheadings before you start writing so that you have a structure to follow. The subheadings should act as a series of subtopics which reflect the arguments needed to substantiate your thesis statement.

Below we have an overview of the working components of good law essays. Examiners expect you to use all of these in your writing. The samples come from Julie Cassidy, ‘Hollow Avowals of Human Rights Protection: Time for an Australian Federal Bill of Rights?’ (2008) 13 Deakin Law Review 131.

NB: This is an illustrative example only. It is not concise enough for an undergraduate research essay and you would be expected to remove phrases like “In the course of, it is suggested that, in regard to.”

4. Presenting your ideas

In order to do well, you must also present your essay so that it reflects academic standards. This includes correct citation practices, subheadings, Plain English, and grammar and spelling.

Examiners highly value closely edited and proofed work. First-year students commonly rely too much on passive constructions and embellished language. Good lawyers write in clear and concise English that is easily understood.

  • Correct Citation
  • Subheadings
  • Plain English
  • Grammar and Spelling

Your essay must adhere to the AGLC4 rules , including appropriate pinpoint footnotes and bibliography.

A comprehensive guide to AGLC4 is provided by the Library.

Law essays use subheadings frequently, but judiciously. This may be different to what you are used to.

Subheadings also help provide a structure. See the previous section for more advice.

In accordance with AGLC 4, the first word of your heading must be capitalised.

Examiners do not want to see the full extent of your vocabulary. They prefer to see complex arguments rendered in simple language.

This, surprisingly, is not easy. We tend to think through writing. That is, our ideas come to us as we are writing. This leaves a lot of writing which is repetitive, vague, or contradictory as our ideas evolve.

Use the editing worksheet to learn which words you can easily swap out to improve readability and strategies to avoid long-winded constructions.

Do not leave your assignment to the last minute. Not only will this create undue stress, but you will not have adequate time to proofread your assignment.

When we work intensively on a piece of writing, we need a period of time away, or distance, in order to re-read our work objectively. Give yourself 2-3 days before the due date so you can print your text and edit it carefully to remove any typos or grammatical errors.

Services like Grammarly may help to pick up errors that are missed by Microsoft Word.

Further resources

Legal essay strategies, legal essay strategies accordion.

  • Writing a Law essay mind map Take a look at this useful mind map to see the steps involved and the questions you should ask yourself when writing a law essay.
  • Melbourne Law School: Research essay guide / Legal essay checklist
  • Professor Steven Vaughan (University College London): How to write better law essays ( Prezi slides )
  • Associate Professor Douglas Guilfoyle (University of New South Wales): Plain Legal English ( YouTube playlist )
  • Professor James Lee (King’s College London): #FreeLawRevision Guides (see especially Essay Technique Parts 1, 2 and 3) ( YouTube playlist )
  • Strategies for Essay Writing - Harvard College Writing Center See particularly, the section on Counterargument.

Examples and language

  • University of Western Australia Law School: Examples of legal writing
  • Columbia Law School: Writing in plain English
  • Dr Patrick Goold (City, University of London): ‘It’s a subject where words matter’: how to write the perfect law essay ( The Guardian )
  • 'Don't just vomit on the page': how to write a legal essay Law lecturer Steven Vaughan (University College, London) explains why the best essays take discipline, editing, and teamwork.

Effective Legal Writing: A Practical Approach

Corbett-Jarvis and Grigg

How to write better law essays : tools and techniques for success in exams and assignments

Steve Foster

How to write law essays and exams

Stacie Strong

Legal Writing

Lisa Webley

Level Up Your Essays: How to get better grades at university

Inger Mewburn, Shaun Lehmann, and Katherine Firth

Your feedback matters

We want to hear from you! Let us know what you found most useful or share your suggestions for improving this resource.

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Law & Policy Studies: Sample Bibliography and Footnote Citations

  • Books & Films
  • News & Primary Sources
  • Web Sources
  • Help Resources for Law School Applications

The following examples display the entry first as it would appear in the bibliography, then the footnote.

Books with Two Authors:

Weinberg, Arthur and Lila Weinberg. Clarence Darrow: A Sentimental Rebel . New York: Putnam's Sons, 1980.

 1. Arthur Weinberg and Lila Weinberg, Clarence Darrow: A Sentimental Rebel (New York: Putnam's Sons,

Work in an Anthology (a book with an editor who collected essays by different authors):

Dayan, Peter. “The Romantic Renaissance.” In Poetry in France , edited by Keith Aspley and Peter France,

333-43. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1992.

 2. Peter Dayan, “The Romantic Renaissance,” in Poetry in France , ed. Keith Aspley and Peter France

(Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1992), 341.

Books with Edition Other than the First:

Rolle, Andrew F. California: A History . 5th ed. Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, 1998.

3. Andrew F. Rolle, California: A History , 5th ed. (Wheeling, IL: Harland Davidson, 1998), 243.

Book with Editor in Place of Author:

Hall, Kermit L, and James W. Ely, Jr., eds. The Oxford Guide to Supreme Court Decisions . New York: Oxford

University Press, 2009.

 5. Kermit L. Hall and James W. Ely, Jr., eds, The Oxford Guide to Supreme Court Decisions , (New York:

Oxford University Press, 2009), 178.

Electronic Books and Books Consulted Online :

Cite these as you would a traditional book, but add the medium in which the book was accessed or a DOI or URL to the end of the citation. Since some ereaders do not use traditional pages to cite locations in a text you can include a chapter, section, or other information to cite a location. Cite books that are read online as you would a print book with the addition of a URL or DOI.

Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. Seattle, Washington: Amazon & Public Domain Books, 1998. Kindle

Thrall, Grant Ian. Land Use and Urban Form. New York: Methuen, 1987.


1. F. A. Mckenzie, Korea's Fight for Freedom (Seattle, Washington: Amazon & Public Domain

Books, 2004),location 35. Kindle edition.

2. Soyeon Park, Underground (Seoul, South Korea: Daltagi, 2011), location 55. PDF e-book.

3. Grant Ian Thrall, Land Use and Urban Form (New York: Methuen, 1987),

/Thrallbook/Land%20Use%20and%20Urban%20Form.pdf .

Scholarly Article:

Robertson, Noel. "The Dorian Migration and Corinthian Ritual." Classical Philology 75, no. 2 (1980): 1-22.

6. Noel Robertson, "The Dorian Migration and Corinthian Ritual," Classical Philology 75, no.2 (1980), 16.

Popular Article:

King, Victoria. "The Domesday Book." History Magazine , October/November 2001, 275-78.

7. Victoria King, "The Domesday Book," History Magazine , October/November 2001, 276.

Newspaper Article (anonymous author):

"Senatorial Contest in Illinois – Speech of Mr. Lincoln." New York Times . 16 July 1858, 4.

8. "Senatorial Contest in Illinois – Speech of Mr. Lincoln." New York Times , 16 July 1858, 4.

National Park Service. “Catoctin Mountain Park.” Last modified November 8, 2011.

/cato/index.htm .

Neuman, Scott. “As Occupy Camps Close, What's Next For Movement?” National Public Radio . November

15, 2011.

-movement .

1. “Catoctin Mountain Park,” National Park Service, last modified November 8, 2011, .

2. Scott Neuman, “As Occupy Camps Close, What's Next For Movement?,” National Public Radio , November

15, 2011, .

  • Last Updated: Oct 25, 2023 12:10 PM
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Referencing - UK & EU Law: Bibliography

  • Repeated references
  • Bibliography
  • Neutral citation
  • Pre-1865 case
  • Unreported case
  • Judicial opinion
  • EU unreported case
  • Opinion of Advocate General
  • Decision of the European Commission
  • ECHR unreported case
  • Statute (Act of Parliament)
  • Statutory instrument (SI)
  • EU regulation/directive (etc)
  • Law Commission report/paper
  • Command Paper
  • Select Committee report
  • Hansard (Parliamentary debates)
  • European COM Docs
  • Book with one author
  • Book with two authors
  • Book with three authors
  • Book with more than three authors
  • Edited book
  • Contribution to an edited book
  • Encyclopedia
  • Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law
  • Journal article
  • Newspaper article
  • Working paper
  • Websites/Web documents
  • Plagiarism & Copyright This link opens in a new window

How do I create a bibliography?

A bibliography contains full references to all the sources you have cited or relied on for your assignment or dissertation.

The bibliography should be divided into the following categories, as appropriate:

  • UK statutes (Acts)
  • UK statutory instruments
  • EU legislation
  • International legislation
  • International cases
  • Official materials (e.g. reports, Command Papers, Hansard)
  • Journal articles
  • Newspaper articles
  • Websites / web documents
  • Other materials.

List sources in alphabetical order within each category.

What if an author has written more than one source?

If citing several sources of the same type (e.g. books) by the same author, list the author's works in chronological order (starting with the oldest) within the relevant category.

If an author has written several sources of the same type (e.g. books) that were published in the same year, list them in alphabetical order of first major word of the title within the relevant category.

How do I reference an author's name in a bibliography?

An author's name is referenced differently in a footnote and a bibliography. This applies to ANY source with a named author.

In a footnote, cite the author's name exactly as it is given in the source used (see 'Footnotes' ):

In a bibliography, give the author's last name followed by his/her initial(s) with no punctuation between them:

What if a source doesn't have an author?

If a source doesn't have a named person or an organization as the author, treat it as an unattributed work in the biblography.

Begin the reference with a double dash - - in place of an author's name.

List the unattributed work at the beginning of the relevant section in the bibliography. The example above is a journal article, so it would be listed at the beginning of the 'Journal articles' section.

If there is more than one unattributed work in a section, list them in alphabetical order of first major word of the title.

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How to write a first-class bibliography for a legal essay

by WardBlawg on November 9, 2010

How to write a bibliography to conclude your first-class dissertation

There are three stages for completing an abundant and competent bibliography. First, go into the footnotes on your document, select all, copy and paste to the foot of your article, then separate into different categories. Then, second, go back through the materials which you have read and add them. Finally, third, sort alphabetically using Word or Excel.

7. BIBLIOGRAPHY 7.1. TABLE OF CASES A and others v Denmark [1996] ECHR 2 AG of Zambia v Meer Care and Desai [2005] EWHC 2102 (Ch), appeals dismissed [2006] EWCA Civ 390 Airbus Industrie GIE v Patel [1999] 1 AC 119 Airey v Ireland [1979] ECHR 3 Al-Bassam v Al-Bassam [2004] EWCA Civ 857 Amuur v France (1996) 22 E.H.R.R. 533 Andreucci v Italy [1992] ECHR 8 Ashingdane v United Kingdom [1985] ECHR 8 Att. Gen. v Arthur Anderson & Co [1989] ECC 224 Axelsson v. Sweden, no.11960/86, 13 July 1990 Bensaid v United Kingdom (2001) 33 EHRR 10 Berghofer v. ASA SA Case 221/84 [1985] ECR 2699 Berisford Plc v New Hampshire Insurance [1990] 2 QB 631 Bock v. Germany [1989] ECHR 3 Boddaert v Belgium (1993) 16 EHRR 242 Bosphorus Hava Yollari Turizm Ve Ticaret Anonim Sirketi(“Bosphorus Airways“) v Ireland (2006) 42 EHRR 1 Bottazzi v. Italy [1999] ECHR 62 Brazilian Loans (PCIJ Publications, Series A, Nos. 20-21, p.122) Bristow Heliocopters v Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation [2004] 2 Ll Rep 150 British Airways v Laker Airways [1983] AC 58 British South Africa Co v Companhia de Moçambique [1893] AC 602 Buchholz v Germany [1981] ECHR 2 Carel Johannes Steven Bentinck v Lisa Bentinck [2007] EWCA Civ 175 Ceskoslovenska Obchodni Banka AS v Nomura International Plc [2003] IL Pr 20 Chellaram v Chellaram [1985] 1 Ch 409 Connelly v RTZ Corpn plc [1998] AC 854 Credit Agricole Indosuez v Unicof Ltd [2004] 1 Lloyd.s Rep 196 Cumming v Scottish Daily Record and Sunday Mail Ltd, The Times June 8, 1995 Darnell v United Kingdom (1993) 18 EHRR 205 Delcourt v Belgium (1979-80) 1 EHRR 355 Derbyshire CC v Times Newspapers Ltd [1992] QB 770 Deweer v Belgium (1979-80) 2 EHRR 439 Di Mauro v. Italy ECHR 1999-V Drozd and Janousek v France and Spain (1992) 14 EHRR 745 Eckle v Germany (1983) 5 EHRR 1 Elderslie Steamship Company v Burrell (1895) 22 R 389 Elefanten Schuh GmbH v Jacqmain (Case 150/80) [1981] ECR 1671 Erich Gasser GmbH v Misat Srl, C-116/02 [2005] QB 1 ERT v DEP C-260/89 [1991] ECR I-2925 F v Switzerland [1987] ECHR 32 Ferrari v Italy [1999] ECHR 64 Foti v Italy (1982) EHRR 313 Fritz and Nana v France, 75 DR 39 Golder v. United Kingdom [1975] ECHR 1 Gorbachev v Russia, No. 3354/02, Judgment of 15 February 2007. Government of the United States of America v Montgomery (No 2) [2004] UKHL 37 Guincho v Portugal (1984) 7 EHRR 223 H v France (1990) 12 EHRR 74 Hesperides Hotels Ltd v Aegan Turkish Holidays Ltd [1979] AC 508 Hewit’s Trs v Lawson (1891) 18 R 793. Huseyin Erturk v Turkey [2005] ECHR 630. Irish Shipping Ltd v Commercial Union [1991] 2 QB 206. Iveco Fiat v Van Hool Case 313/85 [1986] ECR 3337 Jones v Saudi Arabia [2004] EWCA Civ 1394 JP Morgan Europe Ltd v Primacom [2005] EWHC 508 Katte Klitsche de la Grange v Italy (1994) 19 EHRR 368 Klockner Holdings GmbH v Klockner Beteiligungs GmbH [2005] EWHC 1453 Konamaneni v Rolls-Royce Industrial Power (India) Ltd [2002] 1 WLR 1269 Konig v Federal Republic of Germany (1978) 2 EHRR 170 Krombach v Bamberski Case C-7/98 [2001] QB 709 Kudla v Poland [2000] ECHR 512 Lacey v Cessna Aircraft (1991) 932 F.2d 170 Ledra Fisheries Ltd v Turner [2003] EWHC 1049 Lubbe v Cape Industries Plc [2000] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 383 Malone v United Kingdom (1985) 7 EHRR 1 Malstrom v Sweden (1983) 38 Decisions and Reports 18 Manieri v Italy [1992] ECHR 26 Margareta and Roger Andersson v Sweden (1992) 14 EHRR 615. Markovic v Italy [2006] ECHR 1141 Maronier v Larmer [2003] QB 620 Matthews v United Kingdom [1999] ECHR 12. Messier-Dowty v Sabena [2000] 1 WLR 2040 Netherlands 6202/73 1975 1 DR 66 OT Africa Line Ltd v Hijazy (The Kribi) [2001] Lloyd’s Rep 76 Owens Bank Ltd v Bracco [1992] 2 AC 433 Owners of the Atlantic Star v Owners of the Bona Spes (The Atlantic Star and The Bona Spes) [1974] AC 436 Owusu v Jackson and Others C-281/02 [2005] QB 801 Pafitis v Greece (1999) 27 EHRR 566 Pfeiffer and Plankl v Austria (1992) 14 EHRR 692 Philip Morris International Inc v Commission of the European Communities [2003] ECR II-1 Prince Hans-Adam II of Liechtenstein v Germany ECHR 2001-VIII. R (Razgar) v Special Adjudicator [2004] 1 AC 368 R v Jones [2003] 1 AC 1 R. (Alconbury Developments Ltd) v Secretary of State for the Environment [2001] 2 WLR 1389 R. (on the application of Ullah) v Special Adjudicator [2004] UKHL 26 Riccardo Pizzati v Italy [2006] ECHR 275 Robins v United Kingdom (1998) 26 EHRR 527 Salesi v Italy [1993] ECHR 14 Salotti v RUWA Case 23/76 [1976] ECR 1831 Santambrogio v Italy [2004] ECHR 430 Scopelliti v Italy (1993) 17 EHRR 493 Sim v Robinow (1892) 19 R 665 Soc Divagsa v Spain (1993) 74 DR 274. Soering v United Kingdom (1989) 11 EHRR 439 Spiliada Maritime Corporation v Cansulex Lid [1987] 1 AC 460 Standard Steamship Owners Protection and Indemnity Association v Gann [1992] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 528 Stogmuller v Austria (1979) 2 EHRR 155 Stubbings v United Kingdom [1996] ECHR 44 Sunday Times v United Kingdom (1979-80) 2 EHRR 245 The Al Battani [1993] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 219 The Benarty [1984] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 244 The Fehmarn [1958] 1 WLR 159 The Jalakrishna [1983] 2 Lloyd’s Rep. 628 The Lakhta [1992] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 269 The Nile Rhapsody [1992] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 399 The Pioneer Container [1994] 2 AC 324 The Polessk [1996] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 40 The Vishva Ajay [1989] 2 Lloyd’s Rep 558 Toepfer International G.M.B.H. v. Molino Boschi Srl [1996] 1 Lloyd’s Rep. 510 Trendex v Credit Suisse [1982] AC 679 Turner v Grovit and Others [2005] 1 AC 101 Union Alimentaria SA v Spain (1990) 12 EHRR 24 Vocaturo v Italy [1991] ECHR 34. Wemhoff v Germany (1968) 1 EHRR 55 Winterwerp v The Netherlands [1979] ECHR 4 X v France [1992] ECHR 45 Xn Corporation Ltd v Point of Sale Ltd [2001] I.L.Pr. 35 Z and Others v. United Kingdom (2002) 34 EHRR 3 Zimmermann and Steiner v Switzerland [1983] ECHR 9 7.2. TABLE OF LEGISLATION European Union EC Treaty Art 6(2) Art 307 Council Regulation 44/2001 (Brussels Regulation) Art 2 Art 4 Art 27 Art 28 Art 30 Art 34(1) Art 34(2) Art 35(3) Art 71 Italy Law no.89 of 24 March 2001 (the “Pinto Act”). United Kingdom Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments Act 1982 Civil Procedure Rules 1998 Part 11 r 3.1(2)(f) Human Rights Act 1998 (HRA 1998) s1(1)(a) s2(1)(a) s3(1) s6(3)(a) 7.3. TABLE OF CONVENTIONS Brussels Convention on Jurisdiction and Judgments in Civil and Commercial Matters (Brussels Convention) Art 21 Art 22 Art 57 European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR) Art 5 Art 6 Art 7 Art 13 7.4. TEXTBOOKS Anton, A.E., and Beaumont, P., 1995. Anton & Beaumont’s Civil Jurisdiction in Scotland: Brussels and Lugano Conventions. 2nd ed ., Edinburgh: Greens Bell, A., 2003. Forum Shopping and Venue in Transnational Litigation. Oxford: OUP Briggs, A., 2002. The Conflict of Laws, Oxford: OUP. Briggs, A., and Rees, P., 2002. Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments. 3rd ed., London: LLP Briggs, A., and Rees, P., 2005. Civil Jurisdiction and Judgments. 4rd ed., London: LLP Clarkson, C.M.V., and Hill, J., 2002. Jaffey on the Conflict of Laws. 2nd ed., Oxford: OUP Clarkson, C.M.V., and Hill, J., 2006. The Conflict of Laws. New York: OUP Clayton, R. and Tomlinson, H., 2000. The Law of Human Rights. Oxford: OUP Collier, J.C., 2001. Conflict of Laws. 3rd ed., Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Collins, L., et al (eds), 2006. Dicey Morris and Collins on the Conflict of Laws. 14th ed. London: Sweet and Maxwell Crawford, E.B., and Carruthers, J.M., 2006. International Private Law in Scotland. 2nd ed, Edinburgh: Greens Einhorn, T. and Siehr, K., 2004. Intercontinental Cooperation Through Private International Law – Essays in Memory of Peter E. Nygh. The Hague, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press. Fawcett, J.J., 1995. Declining jurisdiction in private international law: reports to the XIVth congress of the International Academy of Comparative Law, Athens, August 1994. Oxford: Clarendon Press Fawcett, J.J., Harris, J. and Bridge, M., 2005. International Sale of Goods in the Conflict of Laws. Oxford: OUP Grosz, S., Beatson, J. and Duffy, P., 2000. Human Rights: The 1998 Act and the European Convention,.London: Sweet and Maxwell Harris, D.J., O’Boyle, M., Warbrick, C., 1995. Law of the European Convention on Human Rights. London: Butterworth Hill, J., 2005. International Commercial Disputes in English Courts. 3rd ed Portland: Hart Publishing McClean, D. and Beevers, K., 2005. Morris on the Conflict of Laws. 6th ed., London: Sweet and Maxwell North, P.M. and Fawcett, J.J., 2004. Cheshire and North’s Private International Law. 13th ed. Oxford: OUP Ovey, C. and White, R., 2002. The European Convention on Human Rights. New York: OUP Raitio, J., 2003. The Principle of Legal Certainty in EC Law. The Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers Reed, R. and Murdoch, J., 2001. A Guide to Human Rights Law in Scotland. Edinburgh: Butterworths Scotland Starmer, K., 1999. European Human Rights Law. London: Legal Action Group 7.5. ARTICLES Baldwin, J., and Cunnington, R., 2004. “The Crisis in Enforcement of Civil Judgments in England and Wales.” 2004 PL (SUM) 305-328 Briggs, A., 2005a. “Foreign Judgments and Human Rights.” 121(APR) L.Q.R. 185-189 Briggs, A., 2005b. “The Death of Harrods: Forum non Conveniens and the European Court.” 121(OCT) L.Q.R. 535-540 Clarke, A., 2007. “The Differing Approach to Commercial Litigation in the European Court of Justice and the Courts of England and Wales” 18 E.B.L.Rev. 101-129 Collins, L., 1995. “The Brussels Convention Within the United Kingdom”, 111 LQR 541 Costa, J-P., 2002, Rivista internazionale dei diritti dell’uomo, 435, cited in Kinsch, P., 2004. “The Impact of Human Rights on the Application of Foreign Law and on the Recognition of Foreign Judgments – A Survey of the Cases Decided by the European Human Rights Institutions,” in Einhorn, T. and Siehr, K., 2004. Intercontinental Cooperation Through Private International Law – Essays in Memory of Peter E. Nygh, The Hague, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press, pp197-228, p228 n100 Crawford, E.B., 2005. “The Uses of Putativity and Negativity in the Conflict of Laws.” 54 ICLQ 829-854 Crifo, C., 2005. “First Steps Towards the Harmonisation of Civil procedure: The Regulation Creating a European Enforcement Order for Uncontested Claims.” C.J.Q. 2005, 24(APR), 200-223 Eardley, A., 2006. “Libel Tourism in England: Now the Welcome is Even Warmer.” 17(1) Ent. L.R. 35-38 Fabri, M., and Langbroek, P.M., 2003. “Preliminary draft report: Delay in Judicial Proceedings: A preliminary Inquiry into the Relation Between the Demands of the Reasonable Time Requirements of Article 6(1) ECHR and Their Consequences for Judges and Judicial Administration in the Civil, Criminal and Administrative Justice Chains”, CEPEJ (2003) 20 Rev Farran, S., 2007. “Conflicts of Laws in Human Rights: Consequences for Colonies”, (2007) 1 EdinLR 121 Fawcett, J.J., 2007. “The Impact of Article 6(1) of the ECHR on Private International Law.” 56 ICLQ 1-48 Fentiman, R., 2005. “English Domicile and the Staying of Actions” [2005] 64 CLJ 303 Flannery, L., 2004. “The End of Anti-Suit Injunctions?” New Law Journal, 28 May 2004, 798 Franzosi, M., 2002. “Torpedoes are here to stay” [2002] 2 International Review of Industrial Property and Copyright Law 154 Franzosi, M., 1997. “Worldwide Patent Litigation and the Italian Torpedo” 19 (7) EIPR 382 Green, L., 1956. “Jury Trial and Mr. Justice Black,” 65 Yale LJ 482 Halkerston, G., 2005. “A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum.” 155 NLJ 436 Hare, C., “Forum non Conveniens in Europe: Game Over or Time for ‘Reflexion’” JBL 2006, Mar, 157-179 Harris, J., 2001. “The Brussels Regulation.” 20 Civil Justice Quarterly 218 Harris, J., 2005. “Stays of Proceedings and the Brussels Convention.,” 54 ICLQ 933 Hartley, T.C., 1994. “Brussels Jurisdiction and Judgments Convention: Agreement and Lis Alibi Pendens.” 19(5) E.L.Rev 549-552 Hartley, T.C., 2001. “International Law and the Law of the European Union – A Reassessment”, 72 BYBIL 1 Hartley, T.C., 2005a. “Choice-of-court agreements, lis pendens, human rights and the realities of international business: reflection on the Gasser case” in Le droit international privé: mélanges en l’honneur de Paul Lagarde, (Dalloz, Paris, 2005), pp383-391 Hartley, T.C., 2005b. “The European Union and the Systematic Dismantling of the Common Law Conflict of Laws”, 54 ICLQ 813 Higgins, R., 2006. “A Babel of Judicial Voices? Ruminations From the Bench.” 55 ICLQ 791-804. Hogan, G., 1995. “The Brussels Convention, Forum non Conveniens and the Connecting Factors Problem.” 20(5) E.L. Rev. 471-493 Hood, K.J., 2006. “Drawing Inspiration? Reconsidering the Procedural Treatment of Foreign Law.” 2(1) JPrIL 181-193. Hunt, M., 1998. “The “Horizontal Effect” of the Human Rights Act”. 1998 Public Law 423-443 Hunter-Henin, M., 2006. “Droit des personnes et droits de l’homme: combinaison ou confrontation? (Family Law and Human Rights: Can They Go Along or Do They Exclude Each Other?),” 95(4) Revue critique de droit international privé pp743-775. Kennett, W., 1998. “Service of Documents in Europe.” 17(JUL) C.J.Q. 284-307 Kennett, W., 2001. “The Brussels I Regulation.” 50 ICLQ 725 -737 Kennett, W., 2001. “The Enforcement Review: A Progress Report.” 20(Jan) CJQ 36-57 Kennett, W., and McEleavy, P., 2002. “(Current Development): Civil and Commercial Litigation” 51 ICLQ 463 Kinsch, P., 2004. “The Impact of Human Rights on the Application of Foreign Law and on the Recognition of Foreign Judgments – A Survey of the Cases Decided by the European Human Rights Institutions,” in Einhorn, T. and Siehr, K., 2004. Intercontinental Cooperation Through Private International Law – Essays in Memory of Peter E. Nygh, The Hague, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press, pp197-228. Lester, A., and Pannick, D., 2000. “The Impact of the Human Rights Act on Private Law: The Knight’s Move.” 116 LQR 380-385 Loucaides, L.G., 2003. “Questions of a Fair Trial Under the European Convention on Human Rights.” (2003) HRLR 3(1), pp27-51. Lowenfield, A.F., 2004. “Jurisdiction, Enforcement, Public Policy and Res Judicata: The Krombach Case,” in in Einhorn, T. and Siehr, K., 2004. Intercontinental Cooperation Through Private International Law – Essays in Memory of Peter E. Nygh, The Hague, The Netherlands: T.M.C. Asser Press, pp229-248 Mance, J., 2004a. “Civil Jurisdiction in Europe – Choice of Court Clauses, Competing Litigation and Anti-Suit Injunctions – Erich Gasser v. Misat and Turner v. Grovit: Address to Second Conference of European Commercial Judges, (“Problems of enforcement of european law”)” Paris – 14th October 2004;, (Accessed 10 March 2007) Mance, J., 2004b. “Exclusive Jurisdiction Agreements and European Ideals.” 120 LQR 357 Mance, J., 2005. “The Future of Private International Law.” 1(2) JPrIL 185-195 Mance, J., 2007. “Is Europe Aiming to Civilise the Common Law?” 18 EBLRev 77-99 McLachlan, C., 2004. “International Litigation and the Reworking of the Conflict of Laws” 120(OCT) LQR 580-616 Meidanis, H.P., 2005. “Public Policy and Ordre Public in the Private International Law of the EU: Traditional Positions and Moderns Trends.” 30(1), ELRev, 95-110 Merrett, L., 2006. “The Enforcement of Jurisdiction Agreements within the Brussels Regime,” 55 ICLQ 315 Muir Watt, H., 2001. “Evidence of an Emergent European Legal Culture: Public Policy Requirements of Procedural Fairness Under the Brussels and Lugano Conventions.” 36 Tex. ILJ, p. 539. North, P., 2001. “Private International Law: Change or Decay?” 50 ICLQ 477-508 Orakhelashvili, A., 2006. “The Idea of European International Law.” 17 Eur. J. Int’l L. 315 Peel, E., 2001. “Forum non Conveniens Revisited.” 117(APR) L.Q.R. 187-194 Robertson, D.W., 1987. “Forum Non Conveniens in America and England: ‘A rather fantastic fiction’.” 103 LQR 398 Robert-Tissot, S., and Smith, D., 2005. “The Battle for Forum”, New Law Journal, 7 October 2005, p1496 Robert-Tissot, S., 2005. “The Battle for Forum.” 155 NLJ 1496 Rodger, B.J., 2006. “Forum non Conveniens: Post Owusu.” 2(1) JPrIL 71 Schiavetta, S., 2004. “The Relationship Between e-ADR and Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights pursuant to the Case Law of the European Court of Human Rights.” 2004 (1) The Journal of Information, Law and Technology (JILT). (Accessed 28 February 2007) Sinopoli, L., 2000. Le droit au procès équitable dans les rapports privés internationaux (doctoral dissertation, University of Paris-I, 2000) Slater, A.G., 1988. “Forum Non Conveniens: A View From the Shop Floor.” 104 LQR 554 Svantesson, D.J.B., 2005. “In Defence of the Doctrine of Forum Non Conveniens.” (2005) HKLJ 395 Van Hoek: 2001. “Case note on Krombach v Bamberski” (2001) 38 CMLR 1011. Wade, H.W.R., 2000. “Horizons of Horizontality.” 116 LQR 217-224 Williams, J.M., 2001. “Forum non Conveniens, Lubbe v Cape and Group Josi v Universal General Insurance.” J.P.I. Law 2001, 1, 72-77 Zhenjie, H., 2001. “Forum Non Conveniens: An Unjustified Doctrine.” 48 NILR 143
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OSCOLA referencing guide (Online): Bibliography

  • Paraphrasing
  • Repeating Citations
  • Secondary Referencing


  • Referencing Tools
  • Two or Three Authors
  • Four plus Authors
  • Chapter in an Edited Book
  • Editor or Translator
  • Author & Editor or Translator
  • Encyclopaedias
  • Books of Authority
  • Cases with Neutral Citation
  • Cases without neutral citation
  • Unreported Cases
  • Cases before 1865
  • Judges' Names
  • Scot, NI & International
  • Parts of Statutes
  • Statutory Instruments
  • Journal Articles
  • Forthcoming Articles
  • Working Papers
  • Newspaper Articles
  • Hansard & Select Committee reports
  • Command Papers
  • Law Commission Reports
  • Official reports
  • Official Publications
  • Legislation
  • ECJ & GC cases
  • Decisions of the European Commission
  • European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) cases
  • Websites & Blogs
  • Personal Communications
  • Press Release
  • Podcasts & Youtube videos
  • Insight & LPC

You should create a bibliography at the end of your work that lists all of the sources used in your work. Each source only needs to be listed once, even if you have referred to it multiple times in your work. Do not include background reading in your bibliography. The bibliography should appear after the text and after appendices. The bibliography should list the sources in alphabetical order.

If your piece of work is long, you can divide the bibliography into three sections:  Cases, Legislation, and Bibliography

  • Cases - Do not italicise case names. You should list the cases alphabetically in order of the first significant word. If the parties involved are only identified by initials the case should be listed under the initial. List trademark cases and shipping cases under the full case name, but insert an additional entry in the table under the trademark or the name of the ship with a cross-reference to the full name.
  •   Legislation - This should include every statute listed in your piece of work (unless your lecturer has told you differently). Legislation should be listed in alphabetical order. Statutory Instruments should be listed separately after Statutes.
  • Bibliography - Unlike in footnotes, the author's surname should be listed first, followed by the author's initials. Unlike in the footnotes, you do not list the author's first names, just initials. The secondary material should also be listed alphabetically. If citing more than one work by the same author, list the author’s works in chronological order (oldest first), and in alphabetical order of the first major word of the title within a single year. 

For further guidance see the full OSCOLA guide.

  • OSCOLA full referencing guide
  • OSCOLA Bibliography This document shows how to format a bibliography using the OSCOLA referencing style
  • << Previous: Secondary Referencing
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  • Last Updated: Sep 8, 2023 11:56 AM
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Bond University Library Website

  • Bibliographies
  • A bibliography appears at the end of a document and lists all sources relied upon (not just those referred to in text and in footnotes)
  • Do not include pinpoint references in a bibliography (Note that the starting page of some sources, such as journal articles and reported cases, forms part of the citation and is separate from the pinpoint)
  • Do not place a full stop at the end of a citation
  • In a bibliography, the author's surname comes before their first name, separated by a comma (if a source has more than one author, only the first author is listed as surname first)
  • Case name or legislation title
  • The first listed author's surname
  • The name of the institution (excluding the word 'the')
  • Where there is no author, the first word of the title (excluding the word 'the')
  • A bibliography may be divided into the sections as shown below (you may change/remove/add other categories or subdivisions as relevant/needed):

A   Articles/Books/Reports

B  Cases

C  Legislation

D  Treaties

E  Other

Example bibliography


A   Articles/Books/Reports

Bedford, Narelle and Monica Taylor, 'Model No More: Querulent Behaviour, Vexatious Litigants and the Vexatious Proceedings Act 2005 (Qld)' (2014) 24(1)  Journal of Judicial Administration  46

Boulle, Laurence and Rachael Field,  Mediation in Australia  (LexisNexis Buttersworths, 2018)

Haas, Ulrich and Deborah Healey (eds),  Doping in Sport and the Law  (Hart, 2016)

James, Nickolas et al,  Business and Company Law  (Wiley, 2 nd  ed, 2019)

Kenny, Paul, Michael Blissenden and Sylvia Villios, 'Wine Options of Australian Tax Reform' (2017) 15(1)  eJournal of Tax Research  22

Kirby, Michael, 'Judicial Independence and Accountability: An Asia-Pacific Perspective' [2009] (1)  LAWASIA Journal  1

OECD,  The Future of Education and Skills: Education 2030  (Report, 2018)

Ong,  Denis,  Trusts Law in Australia  (Federation Press, 5 th  ed, 2018)

Svantesson, Dan Jerker B and William Van Caenegem, 'Is it Time for an Offence of "Dishonest Algorithmic Manipulation for Electoral Gain"?' (2017) 42(3)  Alternative Law Journal  184

Vivian, Alison et al, 'Indigenous Self-Government in the Australian Federation' (2017) 20(1)  Australian Indigenous Law Review  215

B   Cases

AAT Case 7422  (1991) 22 ATR 3450

Blundell v Queensland Building and Construction Commission  [2018] QSC 58

Brown v Tasmania  (2017) 261 CLR 328

Moroccanoil Israel Ltd v Aldi Foods Pty Ltd  (2017) AIPC ¶92-533

Morris v Morris  [1982] 1 NSWLR 61

Palmer v Ayres  [2017] HCA 5

R  v Schelvis  (2016) 263 A Crim R 1

R v Visconti  [1982] 2 NSWLR 104

Re Nguyen and Migration Agents Registration Authority  [2012] AATA 925

Ross v Chambers  (Supreme Court of the Northern Territory, Kriewaldt J, 5 April 1956)

Waddy v Rabba  [1982] Qd R 20

C   Legislation

Australian Constitution

Constitution of Queensland 2001  (Qld)

Family Law Act 1975  (Cth)

High Court Rules 2004  (Cth)

Refugee Protection Bill 2018 (Cth)

Right to Information Act 2009  (Qld)

Right to Information Bill 2009 (Qld)

Right to Information Regulation 2009  (Qld)

Uniform Civil Procedure Rules 1999  (Qld)

D   Other

CCH Australia,  Australian Family Law and Practice Premium Commentary  (online at 28 February 2019)

Crowe, Jonathan and Zali Brookes, 'How Do We Think About Lolita? Difference, Alterity and Animal Liberation' (Speech, Australasian Society of Legal Philosophy Annual Conference, 6–8 July 2018)

Explanatory Memorandum, Freedom to Marry Bill 2016 (Cth)

Explanatory Notes, Right to Information Bill 2009 (Qld)

Jackson, Melanie and Daniel Walker, 'Boolean Guess Who? Using Gamification to Engage First Year Law Students with Advanced Legal Research Techniques', Centre for Professional Legal Education (Blog Post, 3 December 2022) <>

LexisNexis,  Halsbury's Laws of Australia  (online at 27 February 2019) 10 Administrative Law

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Home » Samples » Sample Law Bibliography

Sample Law Bibliography

Posted on February 9, 2016


Blick, A., “Codifying-or not codifying-the UK Constitution” <> (Accessed 26 November 2015) Dicey, Albert Venn, Lectures Introductory to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (London: Macmillan, 1885) n. page

Melton, J., “Codification of the UK Constitution is not essential” <> (Accessed 26 November 2015)

Ministry of Justice, “Review of the Executive Royal Prerogative Powers: Final Report” (2009) <> (Accessed 26 November 2015)

Walters, M. ‘Dicey On Writing The Law Of The Constitution’ Oxford Journal of Legal Studies Reports 32, issue 1 (2012): 21

This bibliography was created by writing service as a sample. If you need bibliography made specially for you as a sample order it! You also can order write my essay service and anything you need for college.

Table of Cases

Entick v Carrington [1765] 19 St Tr 1029, [1795] 95 ER 807

Burmah Oil v Lord Advocate [1965] AC 75

Table of Statute

1. 1689 Bill of Rights

2. 1937 Constitution of Ireland

Dicey, Albert Venn, Lectures Introductory to the Study of the Law of the Constitution (London: Macmillan, 1885) n. page

Journal Articles

Blick, A., “Codifying-or not codifying-the UK Constitution” <> (Accessed 26 November 2015)

Type of paper: Bibliography Citation style: Other Pages: 1 Sources: 3 Level: Undergraduate

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Professional Publication Annotated Bibliographies Example

Annotated bibliography, water pollution studies annotated bibliographies example, development annotated bibliographies example, ontario school library association. (2013). legal and ethical use of information. retrieved from accessola2:

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Should Smoking In Public Places Be Allowed Annotated Bibliographies Examples

Concussion in football annotated bibliographies example, cantu, r.c.. "concussion in professional football: morphology of brain injuries in the nfl concussion." yearbook of sports medicine 2010 (2010): 23-24. print..

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Essay Samples on Law

Law essay writing relates to one of the most complex academic tasks because there are numerous case studies, court hearing analysis assignments, and comparisons of both local and international laws. As most students majoring in Law will agree, it’s much better when you can approach free law essay examples because it helps to understand things in a much clearer way. We have a great collection of various legal assignments for you that focus on modern and historical topics. Students that are not majoring in Law will also find these helpful as law essay topics presented address various social issues. It helps to explain the importance of Law essays for students majoring in Business Management, Healthcare, Psychology, and Marketing. As you browse through the list, you shall encounter American, British, European, and International law essay ideas that you will find inspiring. See the list of sources that have been used (at the end of each sample provided) as these may be helpful as you compose your Law essay. As you look through the samples on offer, do not forget to focus on how each paper has been structured and how the laws have been cited to provide a piece of evidence.

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How to Write a Law Essay

Last Updated: August 11, 2023

This article was co-authored by Clinton M. Sandvick, JD, PhD . Clinton M. Sandvick worked as a civil litigator in California for over 7 years. He received his JD from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1998 and his PhD in American History from the University of Oregon in 2013. This article has been viewed 237,868 times.

In a college legal studies course, and in some law school courses, you may be required to write a research paper addressing a legal topic. These essays can be tricky, because the law is constantly evolving. To secure a top grade, your essay must be well-researched and coherently argued. With proper planning and research, you can write a stellar legal essay. [Note: this article does not address how to write law school essay exams or bar exam questions, which require different techniques and strategies.]

Choosing an Essay Topic

Step 1 Carefully read the assignment prompt.

  • A narrow essay prompt might read, "Discuss the evolution and impact of the exclusionary rule of evidence in the United States." A broad prompt might read, "Discuss how a civil rights movement led to changes in federal and/or state law."
  • If you are invited to choose your own topic, your professor may require you to submit a written proposal or outline to ensure that your chosen topic complies with the prompt. If you are not sure if your topic is within the parameters of the prompt, propose your topic to your professor after class or during his or her office hours.

Step 2 Read any required materials.

  • Hopefully, your course readings, lectures, and class discussions will have given you enough background knowledge to select a topic. If not, review your class notes and browse online for additional background information.
  • It is not uncommon to change your topic after doing some research. You may end up narrowing the questions your essay will answer, or changing your topic completely.

Step 4 Choose an essay topic of interest to you.

  • If you can, try to focus on an are of the law that affects you. For example, if your family is involved in agriculture, you may be interested in writing about water use regulations .

Researching Your Topic

Step 1 Identify what types of sources you are required to use.

  • If you are prohibited from citing internet resources, you can still use online research to guide you to physical primary and secondary sources in your local library or bookstore.

Step 2 Begin with tertiary sources.

  • Look at footnotes, citations, and indexes in tertiary sources. These are great for finding books, articles, and legal cases that are relevant to your topic. Also take note of the names of authors, who may have written multiple works on your topic.

Step 3 Speak to a librarian.

  • Also find search engines for related fields, such as history or political science. Ask your librarian to recommend specialized search engines tailored to other disciplines that may have contributed to your topic.

Step 5 Gather sources and read them.

  • Never cut and paste from the web into your notes or essay. This often leads to inadvertent plagiarism because students forget what is a quotation and what is paraphrasing. When gathering sources, paraphrase or add quotation marks in your outline.
  • Plagiarism is a serious offense. If you ultimately hope to be a lawyer, an accusation of plagiarism could prevent you from passing the character and fitness review.

Step 7 Look for arguments on both sides of an issue.

Drafting the Essay

Step 1 Write your thesis statement.

  • An effective introduction takes the reader out of his world and into the world of your essay. [2] X Trustworthy Source University of North Carolina Writing Center UNC's on-campus and online instructional service that provides assistance to students, faculty, and others during the writing process Go to source Explain why the subject is important and briefly summarizes the rest of your argument. After reading your introduction, your reader should know what you are going to discuss and in what order you will be discussing it.
  • Be prepared to revise your introduction later. Summarizing your essay will be easier after you have written it, especially if you deviate from your outline.

Step 4 Develop your arguments.

  • State each argument of your essay as a statement that, if true, would support your thesis statement.
  • Provide supporting information drawn from primary and secondary sources that support your argument. Remember to cite your sources.
  • Provide your own original analysis, explaining to the reader that based on the primary and secondary sources you have presented, the reader should be persuaded by your argument.

Step 5 Outline counter-arguments.

Formatting Your Essay

Step 1 Review your essay prompt.

Proofreading the Essay

Step 1 Read the essay backwards.

  • Open up a Word document. On the Quick Access Toolbar at the top, click on the down arrow. The words “Customize Quick Access Toolbar” will appear when you hover over the arrow for two seconds.
  • Click on the arrow. Then click on “More Commands.”
  • In the “Choose commands from” drop-down box, choose “All commands.”
  • Scroll down to find “Speak.” Highlight this and then click “add.” Then click “okay.” Now the Speak function should appear on your Quick Access Toolbar.
  • Highlight the text you want read back to you, and then click on the Speak icon. The text will be read back to you.

Step 3 Search for common typographical errors.

  • Do not rely on a spell checker exclusively, as it will not catch typos like "statute" versus "statue."

Revising the Essay

Step 1 Share the essay with a classmate.

  • You can share the essay with someone outside of class, but a classmate more likely has the requisite knowledge to understand the subject matter of the essay.

Step 2 Incorporate your professor’s comments.

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About This Article

Clinton M. Sandvick, JD, PhD

To write a law essay, start by writing a thesis statement on your chosen topic. Phrase your thesis statement as an argument, using words like “because” or “therefore” to state your point. Write an outline of the arguments you will use to support your thesis statement, then use that outline to build the body of your paper. Include any counter-arguments, but use your evidence to convince the reader why your point of view is valid, and the counter-arguments are not. Be sure to cite all of your sources in the format preferred by your professor. For tips from our reviewer on finding the best sources for your topic, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No

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