About APA Citation Online Tools
As anyone who has ever written a paper for a college class knows, there are certain style rules and guidelines to be followed depending on which discipline you are in. Such style rules ensure consistency in formatting and publishing and address details such as comma placement, capitalization, references and in-text citations. One of the most commonly used styles is the APA style, which is the style preferred by the American Psychological Association. APA style is style that is generally used for disciplines such as the social sciences, education and psychology.
For many college students, learning APA style can be tricky. The specifics of the style often trip up even the best writers, since it is difficult to remember whether titles should be in italics or not, how references should be alphabetized and how to cite citations, which can vary depending upon where they appear.
According to the APA, the style originated in 1929, when a group of psychologists, anthropologists, and business managers decided to establish a simple set of procedures, or style rules, to bring uniformity to the elements of scientific writing to increase the ease of reading comprehension.
Some of the procedures they decided upon can be challenging. Plus, there are various online tools and style generators out there that can help. We’ve gathered a few of them here.
Online Citation Machines
It takes just a few clicks to find any number of reliable citation machines that help writers be sure their papers conform to APA style. In general, a citation machine website helps students and professionals properly credit the information that they use. As any good student knows, proper credits are essential to presenting a strong paper, because they cite the sources used, giving credit where credit is due and not plagiarizing.
Avoid Plagiarism at All Costs
In a reference paper, article, blog post or any other published work, writers must give credit to their sources. Failing to do so, even if you have completely reworded the information or summarized the information, is considered to be plagiarism. A good rule of thumb is to cite sources extensively, because even if you think you have an original thought, you may actually be paraphrasing something you’ve read elsewhere. It is safe to say that you cannot cite too many sources.
Citation Machine Ensures APA Conformity
Citation Machine is a free online tool that students, researchers, teachers and publishers can use to see how well their paper conforms to APA style guidelines.
The site is extremely clear about the two types of APA citations and provides a good summary. The first kind of citation is called an in-text or parenthetical citation. These citations must be included when you use information from someone else’s work in your own paper. They are used in the main body of your paper and must be placed immediately after the information you have borrowed.
The second kind of citation is a reference citation and is included with all other full citations at the end of your paper on the last page. They are alphabetical and listed one after the other. They’re the full citations for the in-text citations included in the body of your paper.
BibMe Details APA Style
BibMe is another free online citation generator for APA style. Along with citation guidelines, it spells out ways in which paper elements such as publication dates and titles should be structured. For example, publication dates should place the date that the source was published in parentheses, after the author’s name. If no date is available, you should write n.d. In parentheses, which stands for no date.
Book titles should capitalize just the first letter of the first word in the title. Do the same for the subtitle. The first letter of any proper nouns should be capitalized and italicized. Each should end with a period.
Check Every Last Detail
Learning APA style on your own can be daunting. Fortunately, you can learn more about it while making sure that paper is correct and that you properly cite each and every one of your sources by using online tools developed for this exact purpose.
- Terms of Service
- © 2023 Ask Media Group, LLC
Generate accurate APA citations for free
- Knowledge Base
- How to cite a dissertation in APA Style
How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style | Format & Examples
Published on December 16, 2020 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on September 14, 2022.
The format for citing someone else’s dissertation or thesis in APA Style depends on whether the thesis is available from a database, published somewhere else (e.g. on a university archive or personal website), or unpublished (only available in print form directly from the author or university).
To cite a dissertation or thesis from a database, use the following format. In the square brackets, specify the type of dissertation or thesis and the university. As with other database sources, no URL or DOI is included.
Table of contents
Citing a dissertation published elsewhere, citing an unpublished dissertation in apa style.
To cite a dissertation or thesis published in a university archive (often in PDF form ) or on a personal website, the format differs in that no publication number is included, and you do list a URL.
Are your APA in-text citations flawless?
The AI-powered APA Citation Checker points out every error, tells you exactly what’s wrong, and explains how to fix it. Say goodbye to losing marks on your assignment!
To cite an unpublished dissertation (one you got directly from the author or university in print form), add “Unpublished” to the bracketed description, and list the university at the end of the reference, outside the square brackets.
Cite this Scribbr article
If you want to cite this source, you can copy and paste the citation or click the “Cite this Scribbr article” button to automatically add the citation to our free Citation Generator.
Caulfield, J. (2022, September 14). How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style | Format & Examples. Scribbr. Retrieved November 28, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/apa-examples/dissertation/
Is this article helpful?
Other students also liked, how to cite a journal article in apa style, how to cite a website in apa style, how to cite a report in apa style, scribbr apa citation checker.
An innovative new tool that checks your APA citations with AI software. Say goodbye to inaccurate citations!
Dissertation & Doctoral Project Formatting & Clearance: Citing In Text
- Submitting to the Library
- Formatting Manual & Forms
- APA Style 7th Ed.
- Submitting to ProQuest ETD
In-Text Citation Basics
Author/Date Citation Method
APA publications use the author/date in text citation system to briefly identify sources to readers. Each in-text citation is listed alphabetically in the reference list. All in-text citations referenced in the body of work musr appear in the reference list and vice versa.
The author-date method includes the author's surname and the the publication year. Do not include suffixes such as Jr., Esq., etc.
The author/date method is also used with direct quotes. Another component is added in this format:
(Jones, 2009, p.19)
When multiple pages are referenced, use pp.
(Jones, 2009, pp.19-21)
Variations of author/date within a sentence
Here are some examples of how the author/date citation method are formatted within different parts of a sentence. Please note the author, publication date, and study are entirely fictional (see APA, p.174).
Beginning of a sentence:
Jones (2009) completed a study on the effects of dark chocolate on heart disease.
Middle of a sentence:
In 2009, Jones's study on the effects of dark chocolate and heart disease revealed...
End of a sentence:
The study revealed that participants who ate dark chocolate bars every day did not develop heart disease (Jones, 2009).
Citing a specific part of source (chapter, tables, figures, or equations)
When citing a particular part of a source, it is important to indicate the page, chapter, figure, table, or equation. Remember to always give page numbers for direct quotations (see APA, section 6.19, p. 179).
Correct abbreviations continue to be used (see APA, sections 4.22 - 4.30).
(National Chocolate Lovers Association, 2007, p.17)
(Jones, 2009, Chapter 8)
Paraphrasing is great because it allows you to use your own words and your own voice. It demonstrates that you truly understand what the author is saying. Word of caution: Avoid changing the author's meaning and/or plagiarizing the author. Looking up certain words within the thesaurus is not paraphrasing. It is also important to cite the author while paraphrasing.
Here is an example of paraphrasing:
"With rates of childhood obesity climbing over the last decade, some parents and policy-makers have thought to consider whether the availability of endless soda and junk food in school vending machines might be contributing to the problem—and if banning those foods in schools might help solve it" (Price, 2012).
Price discusses the possibility that the availability of unhealthy, sugary snacks and drinks in school vending machines has contributed to the rising epidemic of obesity in children. In an effort to eliminate the source of the problem, some of have proposed implementing a ban (2012).
Direct Quotes: the Short and Long
Direct quotations are sometimes necessary to truly convey the author's meaning to the reader. When directly quoting an author(s), (a) the quote must be relevant to your argument, (b) it needs to smoothly transition between what comes first and move to what comes later, (c), it must fit logically and make grammatical sense, and (d) it should be no longer than absolutely necessary.
When reproducing an author's word directly, it is extremely important to quote and cite. Direct quotations with citation prevents plagiarism and gives the author credit for his/her work. The parenthetical cite should always contain the author's surname, the publication year of the work, and the page citation or paragraph number (for nonpaginated material).
Direct quotations can vary in length. Quotes fewer than 40 words should be incorporated into the text of the paragraph. Quotes comprised of 40 or more words, need to be formatted in block quotes. (see APA, section 6.03, pp.170 - 173; and APA Style Blog , "How to Cite Direct Quotations" or APA Style Blog , "You Can Quote Me on This").
Short, direct quotes (less than 40 words):
Author and quote separated
Bell and Shank (2007) identify that "[a]t least one survey identified library instruction as the type of collaboration mentioned most frequently by librarians" (p.67).
Article retrieved online (see APA, section 6.05, p.171-172)
Price (2012) notes "[t]he results aren't huge, but apparently these laws have a real—and positive—effect on students' health" (para.4).
Author and quote together
"Design is designed in many ways. By one definition it is the conscious examination of objects and processes to determine how they can be made better" (Bell & Shank, 2007, p. 23).
" The books, sold in the United States, share a piece of a foreign culture, while profits are put back into the country the story came from" (Anthony, 2012, para. 2).
Long, block quotes (40 words or more):
• Indent the block quote five spaces or half an inch. • Do not use quotation marks. • Double space the quote unless your school has a rule about single spacing block quotes. • Do not include any additional lines or spaces before or after the block quote. • Notice that in block quotes, the period goes before the parentheses, not after.
Michelli (2007) uses the coffee chain, Starbucks, as example on how to become extraordinary. He discusses in detail various principles he discovered during his research on the renowned company. One of the principles focuses on "making it your own." He writes,
Like most companies, Starbucks has wrestled with ways to invite its partners to fully engage their passions and talents everyday in every interaction at wor. Simultaneously, the leadership has to ensure that individual partners' differences are blending into a generally uniform experience for customers. Finding a balance between these two important, yet somtimes divergent, leadership responsibilities can be awkward. Yet through its principle of Make It Your Own, Starbucks has succeeded in creating a unique model that encourages partners at all levels to pour their creative energy and dedication into everything they do. (p. 20)
This principle does not only apply to businesses; it can be part of anyone's personal beliefs.
- Last Updated: Oct 23, 2023 5:16 PM
- URL: https://alliant.libguides.com/LibraryClearance
- RRU Writing Centre
Q. How do I reference a PhD dissertation or MA thesis in APA style?
- 2 Academic Integrity
- 45 Academic writing
- 38 APA Style
- 32 APA Style: Formatting
- 107 APA Style: In-text citations
- 105 APA Style: References
- 18 Legal citations
- 15 Paraphrasing
- 10 Punctuation
- 24 Quotations
- 16 Writing Centre information
- 64 Writing Centre resources
Answered By: Theresa Bell (she/her/hers) Last Updated: Nov 04, 2021 Views: 61842
APA Style (7th ed.)
Unpublished print dissertations/theses retrieved from university
Author, A. (year). Title of dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation OR master's thesis]. Name of Institution.
- In-text citation: (Author, year, p. X)
- See pages 333-334 in the APA Style manual for information and examples.
Published dissertation/thesis retrieved from online database
Author, A. (year). Title of dissertation [Doctoral dissertation, Name of Institution Granting Award]. Database Name.
Myers, S. (2018). In British Columbia's nature programs where hearts are rooted: A multiple case study of nature education in early childhood education [Doctoral dissertation, Royal Roads University]. Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global.
- In-text citation: (Myers, 2018, p. 45)
Author, A. (year). Title of thesis [Master's thesis, Name of Institution Granting Award]. Database Name.
Dawson, N. M. (2019). ła w eyasens gayułas: Ancestral teachings to reclaim the roles of Kwakwaka'wakw women in governance and leadership [Master's thesis, Royal Roads University]. Proquest Dissertations and Theses Global.
- In-text citation: (Dawson, 2019, p. 60)
Published dissertation/thesis retrieved from university archive or personal website
Author, A. (year). Title of thesis [Master's thesis, Name of Institution Granting Award]. URL of university archive or personal website
M a nuel, R. (2017). Like semaphore in the dark: There must be a better way to communicate [Master's thesis, Royal Roads University]. VIURRSpace. https://viurrspace.ca/bitstream/handle/10613/17238/Manuel_royalroads_1313O_10623.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
- In-text citation: (Manuel, 2017, p. 39)
American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
- Share on Facebook
Was this helpful? Yes 0 No 0
- Library Guides
APA 7th Referencing
Apa 7th referencing: theses.
- In-text referencing
- Compiling a Reference list
- Citing tables and figures
- DOIs and Live hyperlinks
- Secondary sources
- Journal Articles
- Reports & Grey Literature
- Conference Materials
- Datasets, Software & Tests
- Social Media
- Images, tables & figures
- Sound & video
- Legislation & Cases
- Personal Communications
- Standards & Patents
- Course Notes or Course Presentations
- Generative AI
- Sample Reference List
On this page
Basic format to reference a thesis or dissertation.
- Referencing theses: Examples
The basics of a reference list entry for a thesis or dissertation:
- Author. The surname is followed by first initials.
- Year (in round brackets).
- Title (in italics ).
- Level of Thesis or Dissertation [in square brackets].
- University, also in [square brackets] following directly after the Level of Thesis, for e.g. [Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University]
- Database or Archive Name
- The first line of each citation is left adjusted. Every subsequent line is indented 5-7 spaces.
Mosek, E. (2017). Team flow: The missing piece in performance [Doctoral dissertation, Victoria University]. Victoria University Research Repository. http://vuir.vu.edu.au/35038/
- << Previous: Standards & Patents
- Next: Course Notes or Course Presentations >>
- Last Updated: Oct 12, 2023 7:58 AM
- URL: https://libraryguides.vu.edu.au/apa-referencing
Home / Guides / Citation Guides / APA Format / How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA
How to Cite a Thesis or Dissertation in APA
In this citation guide, you will learn how to reference and cite an undergraduate thesis, master’s thesis, or doctoral dissertation. This guide will also review the differences between a thesis or dissertation that is published and one that has remained unpublished. The guidelines below come from the 7th edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2020a), pages 333 and 334. Please note that the association is not affiliated with this guide.
Alternatively, you can visit EasyBib.com for helpful citation tools to cite your thesis or dissertation .
Citing an unpublished thesis or dissertation, citing a published dissertation or thesis from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation published online but not from a database, citing a thesis or dissertation: reference overview, what you need.
Since unpublished theses can usually only be sourced in print form from a university library, the correct citation structure includes the university name where the publisher element usually goes.
Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case [Unpublished degree type thesis or dissertation]. Name of institution.
Ames, J. H., & Doughty, L. H. (1911). The proposed plans for the Iowa State College athletic field including the design of a reinforced concrete grandstand and wall [Unpublished bachelor’s thesis]. Iowa State University.
In-text citation example:
- Parenthetical : (Ames & Doughty, 1911)
- Narrative : Ames & Doughty (1911)
If a thesis or dissertation has been published and is found on a database, then follow the structure below. It’s similar to the format for an unpublished dissertation/thesis, but with a few differences:
- The institution is presented in brackets after the title
- The archive or database name is included
Author’s last name, F. M. (Year published). Title in sentence case (Publication or Document No.) [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Database name.
Knight, K. A. (2011). Media epidemics: Viral structures in literature and new media (Accession No. 2013420395) [Doctoral dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Trotman, J.B. (2018). New insights into the biochemistry and cell biology of RNA recapping (Document No. osu1523896565730483) [Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University]. OhioLINK Electronic Theses & Dissertations Center.
In the example given above, the dissertation is presented with a Document Number (Document No.). Sometimes called a database number or publication number, this is the identifier that is used by the database’s indexing system. If the database you are using provides you with such a number, then include it directly after the work’s title in parentheses.
If you are interested in learning more about how to handle works that were accessed via academic research databases, see Section 9.3 of the Publication Manual.
In-text citation examples :
- Parenthetical citation : (Trotman, 2018)
- Narrative citation : Trotman (2018)
Author’s last name, F. M. (Year Published). Title in sentence case [Degree type thesis or dissertation, Name of institution]. Name of archive or collection. URL
Kim, O. (2019). Soviet tableau: cinema and history under late socialism [Doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh]. Institutional Repository at the University of Pittsburgh. https://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/37669/7/Olga%20Kim%20Final%20ETD.pdf
Stiles, T. W. (2001). Doing science: Teachers’ authentic experiences at the Lone Star Dinosaur Field Institute [Master’s thesis, Texas A&M University]. OAKTrust. https://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/ETD-TAMU-2001-THESIS-S745
It is important to note that not every thesis or dissertation published online will be associated with a specific archive or collection. If the work is published on a private website, provide only the URL as the source element.
In-text citation examples:
- Parenthetical citation : (Kim, 2019)
- Narrative citation : Kim (2019)
- Parenthetical citation : (Stiles, 2001)
- Narrative citation : Stiles (2001)
We hope that the information provided here will serve as an effective guide for your research. If you’re looking for even more citation info, visit EasyBib.com for a comprehensive collection of educational materials covering multiple source types.
If you’re citing a variety of different sources, consider taking the EasyBib citation generator for a spin. It can help you cite easily and offers citation forms for several different kinds of sources.
To start things off, let’s take a look at the different types of literature that are classified under Chapter 10.6 of the Publication Manual :
- Undergraduate thesis
- Master’s thesis
- Doctoral dissertation
You will need to know which type you are citing. You’ll also need to know if it is published or unpublished .
When you decide to cite a dissertation or thesis, you’ll need to look for the following information to use in your citation:
- Author’s last name, and first and middle initials
- Year published
- Title of thesis or dissertation
- If it is unpublished
- Publication or document number (if applicable; for published work)
- Degree type (bachelor’s, master’s, doctoral)
- Thesis or dissertation
- Name of institution awarding degree
- DOI (https://doi.org/xxxxx) or URL (if applicable)
Since theses and dissertations are directly linked to educational degrees, it is necessary to list the name of the associated institution; i.e., the college, university, or school that is awarding the associated degree.
To get an idea of the proper form, take a look at the examples below. There are three outlined scenarios:
- Unpublished thesis or dissertation
- Published thesis or dissertation from a database
- Thesis or dissertation published online but not from a database
American Psychological Association. (2020a). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
American Psychological Association. (2020b). Style-Grammar-Guidelines. https://apastyle.apa.org/style-grammar-guidelines/citations/basic-principles/parenthetical-versus-narrative
Published August 10, 2012. Updated March 24, 2020.
Written and edited by Michele Kirschenbaum and Elise Barbeau. Michele Kirschenbaum is a school library media specialist and the in-house librarian at EasyBib.com. Elise Barbeau is the Citation Specialist at Chegg. She has worked in digital marketing, libraries, and publishing.
APA Formatting Guide
- Annotated Bibliography
- Block Quotes
- et al Usage
- In-text Citations
- Multiple Authors
- Page Numbers
- Parenthetical Citations
- Reference Page
- Sample Paper
- APA 7 Updates
- View APA Guide
- Book Chapter
- Journal Article
- Magazine Article
- Newspaper Article
- Website (no author)
- View all APA Examples
How useful was this post?
Click on a star to rate it!
We are sorry that this post was not useful for you!
Let us improve this post!
Tell us how we can improve this post?
To cite a published thesis in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, publication year, title of the thesis, institute name, archive name, and URL (uniform resource locator). The templates for an in-text citation and reference list entry of a thesis, along with examples, are given below:
In-text citation template and example:
Use the author surname and the publication year in the in-text citation.
Author Surname (Publication Year)
(Author Surname, Publication Year)
Reference list entry template and example:
The title of the thesis is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose the thesis and the institute awarding the degree inside brackets following the publication year. Then add the name of the database followed by the URL.
Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the thesis [Master’s thesis, Institute Name]. Name of the Database. URL
Cartmel, J. (2007). Outside school hours care and schools [Master’s thesis, Queensland University of Technology]. EPrints. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/17810/1/Jennifer_Cartmel_Thesis.pdf
To cite an unpublished dissertation in APA style, it is important that you know some basic information such as the author, year, title of the dissertation, and institute name. The templates for in-text citation and reference list entry of an online thesis, along with examples, are given below:
Author Surname (Year)
(Author Surname, Year)
The title of the dissertation is set in sentence case and italicized. Enclose “Unpublished doctoral dissertation” inside brackets following the year. Then add the name of the institution awarding the degree.
Author Surname, F. M. (Publication Year). Title of the dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of the Institute.
Averill, R. (2009). Teacher–student relationships in diverse New Zealand year 10 mathematics classrooms: Teacher care [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Victoria University of Wellington.
APA Citation Examples
Other Citation Styles
Upload a paper to check for plagiarism against billions of sources and get advanced writing suggestions for clarity and style.
APA 6th referencing style
- About APA 6th
- In-text references
- Direct quotations
- Indirect citation or secondary source
- Reference list
- Author information
- Additional referencing information
- Using headings
- Book chapter
- ChatGPT and other generative AI tools
- Journal article
- Other Internet sources
- Social media
- Dictionary or encyclopaedia
- Newspaper or magazine article
Thesis retrieved from website, thesis retrieved from database.
- Lecture notes and slides
- Video or DVD
- Television program
- Government legislation
- Legal sources
- Patents and standards
- Personal communication
- Specialised health information
- Press (media) release
- Works in non-English languages
- Works in non-English scripts, such as Arabic or Chinese
- Printing this guide
- << Previous: Report
- Next: Dataset >>
- Last Updated: Sep 6, 2023 12:19 PM
- URL: https://guides.library.uq.edu.au/referencing/apa6
Purdue Online Writing Lab Purdue OWL® College of Liberal Arts
Reference List: Other Print Sources
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here .
Important Note: Because the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual heavily emphasizes digital and electronic sources, it does not contain explicit instructions for certain less-common print sources that earlier editions covered. For this reason, some of the examples below have been adapted from the instructions for sources with similar attributes (e.g., the conference proceedings example is derived from the instructions the 7 th edition manual gives for citing edited collections). Every example below that has been adapted in this way is accompanied by a note explaining how it was adapted.
Please also note: While this resource contains many examples of citations for uncommon print sources that we think are helpful, it may not account for every possibility. For even more examples of how to cite uncommon print sources, please refer to the 7 th edition of the APA Publication Manual.
Entry in a Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with a Group Author
The 7 th edition of the APA manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite physical reference works such as dictionaries, thesauruses, or encyclopedias. Therefore, this citation, as well as the one for an individual author of an entry in a reference work, is modeled on that of a chapter in an edited book or anthology, both which are similar in format to reference works.
Institution or organization name. (Year). Title of entry. In Title of reference work (edition, page numbers). Publisher name.
Merriam-Webster, Incorporated. (1997). Goat. In Merriam Webster’s collegiate dictionary (10 th ed., pp. 499-500). Merriam-Webster, Incorporated.
Entry in a Dictionary, Thesaurus, or Encyclopedia with an Individual Author
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of entry. In F. M. Lastname (ed.), Title of reference work (edition, page numbers). Publisher.
Tatum, S. R. (2009). Spirituality and religion in hip hop literature and culture. In T. L. Stanley (ed.), Encyclopedia of hip hop literature (pp. 250-252). Greenwood.
Work Discussed in a Secondary Source
Provide the source in which the original work was referenced:
Nail, T. (2017). What is an assemblage? SubStance , 46 (1), 21-37. http://sub.uwpress.org/lookup/doi/10.3368/ss.46.1.21
Note: Provide the secondary source in the references list; in the text, name the original work, and give a citation for the secondary source. For example, if Deleuze and Guattari’s work is cited in Nail and you did not read the original work, list the Nail reference in the References. In the text, use the following citation:
Deleuze and Guattari’s concept of the assemblage (as cited in Nail, 2017)….
The 7 th edition of the APA manual does not provide specific guidance on how to cite dissertation abstracts. Therefore, this citation models that of a journal article, which is similar in format.
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation. Dissertation Abstracts International , Vol., Page.
Angeli, E. L. (2012). Networks of communication in emergency medical services. Dissertation Abstracts International, 74 , 03(E).
Dissertation or Master’s Thesis, Published
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis (Publication No.) [Doctoral dissertation/Master’s thesis, Name of Institution Awarding the Degree]. Database or Archive Name.
Angeli, E. L. (2012). Networks of communication in emergency medical services (Publication No. 3544643) [Doctoral dissertation, Purdue University]. ProQuest Dissertations Publishing.
Note: If the dissertation or thesis is not published in a database, include the URL of the site where the document is located.
Dissertation or Master’s Thesis, Unpublished
Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of dissertation/thesis [Unpublished doctoral dissertation/master’s thesis]. Name of Institution Awarding the Degree.
Samson, J. M. (2016). Human trafficking and globalization [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.
Federal or State Statute
Name of Act, Public Law No. (Year). URL
The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, Publ. L. No. 111-148, 124 Stat. 119 (2010). https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/PLAW-111publ148/pdf/PLAW-111publ148.pdf
Report by a Government Agency or Other Organization
Organization Name. (Year). Title of report. URL
United States Government Accountability Office. (2019). Performance and accountability report: Fiscal year 2019 . https://www.gao.gov/assets/710/702715.pdf
Report by Individual Authors at Government Agency or Other Organization
Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Year). Title of report . Organization Name. URL
Palanker, D., Volk, J., Lucia, K., & Thomas, K. (2018). Mental health parity at risk: Deregulating the individual market and the impact on mental health coverage . National Alliance on Mental Illness. https://www.nami.org/About-NAMI/Publications-Reports/Public-Policy-Reports/Parity-at-Risk/ParityatRisk.pdf
The 7 th edition of the APA manual does not provide guidance on citing conference proceedings. Therefore, this citation models that of an edited collection, which is similar in format.
Lastname, F. M., & Lastname, F. M. (Eds.). (Year). Title of Proceedings . Publisher. URL (if applicable)
Huang, S., Pierce, R., & Stamey, J. (Eds.). (2006). Proceedings of the 24 th annual ACM international conference on the design of communication . ACM Digital Library. https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=1166324&picked=prox
How to Cite a Dissertation in APA 7
Published by steve tippins on june 25, 2020 june 25, 2020.
Last Updated on: 3rd June 2022, 04:25 am
The specific guidelines for how to cite a dissertation in APA style depend on a few factors. We’ll go over those below. However, no matter the specifics of the citation, the title of the dissertation is always written the same way.
The dissertation’s title should be written in sentence case and in italics. The first word of the title should be capitalized, and all other words should be in lower case, except for proper nouns.
With that in mind, let’s dive into the specifics of how to cite a dissertation in APA.
How to Cite a Dissertation in APA
In Text Citation
The guidelines for how to cite a dissertation in APA are the same for writing an in-text citation, paraphrase, and quotation; only the format for the reference list differs.
(Name of Author, year)
Horace Mann developed the common school, which was a free, non-sectarian, public institution (Stanford, 2016).
According to Stanford (2016), “the common school was the best educational institution to help Americans achieve moral and socioeconomic uplift” (p. 46).
P ublished Dissertations
Published dissertations and theses are on databases, such as Pro-Quest Dissertations and Theses Globa, a university archive, or a website.
Author’s last name, initial of first name. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication number). [Type of dissertation or thesis, Academic Institution]. Name of database.
Howard, B. (2017). The new media and literary structures . (Publication No. 1076483) [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s Thesis, University of Virginia]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Unpublished dissertations and theses are usually only available in print form.
Author’s last name, initial of first name. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Unpublished doctoral or master’s thesis). Academic Institution.
Stanford, C. (2016). Horace Mann (1796–1859) and nineteenth-century educational reform . (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University.
Note: For dissertations and theses published or unpublished in countries other than the United States, you have to provide the location.
Howard, B. (2017). The new media and literary structures . (Publication No. 1076483) [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s Thesis, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.
Dissertation From an Academic Institution’s Online Archive
There is only one difference in the guidelines for how to cite a dissertation from an online archive or repository and other ones. The name of the institution’s repository or archive and link needs to be provided. It should be written at the end of the other publication information.
Template (Name of Author, year)
Example (Howard, 2017)
Paraphrase Literary structure is the arrangement of text elements, written in a way that ensures the author’s meaning is conveyed (Howard, 2017).
Quotation According to Howard (2016), “technological advances have resulted in a change in the paradigm regarding literature structures” (p. 46).
Howard, B. (2017). The new media and literary structures . (Publication No. 1076483) [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s Thesis, University of Virginia]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. University of Virginia Archives. https://uovarchives.net/10389/11814
How to Cite a Dissertation Published Online (Not in a Database)
The guidelines for how to cite a dissertation or thesis published online are similar to those of published and unpublished ones, except for the format in the reference list.
Author’s last name, initial of first name. (Year). Title of dissertation or thesis (Publication number). [Type of dissertation or thesis, Academic Institution]. URL.
Howard, B. (2017). The new media and literary structures . (Publication No. 1076483) [Doctoral dissertation or Master’s Thesis, University of Virginia]. https://uv.edu/Howard /10288/
Note: You can find more information about how to cite a dissertation or thesis in APA 7th editionon pages 333-334.
How to Cite a Dissertation in APA Style: Final Thoughts
Citing a dissertation is relatively simple. As long as you adhere to the rules above, you should have no problem generating the correct citations.
If you need of assistance with APA style, feel free to take a look at our Dissertation Editing services.
Book a Free Consultation
Book a Free Consultation with one of our expert coaches today.
Steve Tippins, PhD, has thrived in academia for over thirty years. He continues to love teaching in addition to coaching recent PhD graduates as well as students writing their dissertations. Learn more about his dissertation coaching and career coaching services. Book a Free Consultation with Steve Tippins
How to Create a Table of Contents for a Dissertation (APA)
In your dissertation, you will need to have a table of contents. The table of contents should contain all the headings, subheadings, preliminary pages, and supplementary pages in the body of your paper. APA does Read more…
APA uses the American style imperial standard system of measurement, although it does allow the use of the metric system of measurement if there is a need for it. If you need it, the APA Read more…
APA Paragraph Format
To format your text paragraphs in your papers, you will need to follow a few APA guidelines so that their appearance will be consistent. Consistency in size of paragraphs means that paragraphs are more than Read more…
Make This Your Last Round of Dissertation Revision.
Learn How to Get Your Dissertation Accepted .
Discover the 5-Step Process in this Free Webinar .
Please verify your email address by clicking the link in the email message we just sent to your address.
If you don't see the message within the next five minutes, be sure to check your spam folder :).
Hack Your Dissertation
5-Day Mini Course: How to Finish Faster With Less Stress
Interested in more helpful tips about improving your dissertation experience? Join our 5-day mini course by email!
APA Style 7th Edition: Citing Your Sources
- Basics of APA Formatting
- In Text Quick View
- Block Quotes
- Books & eBooks
Formatting rules, various examples.
- Conference Presentations
- Social Media
- Legal References
- Reports and Gray Literature
- Academic Integrity and Plagiarism
- Additional Resources
- Reference Page
Adapted from American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
- Italicize the title
- Identify whether source is doctoral dissertation or master’s thesis in parentheses after the title
See Ch. 10 pp. 313-352 of APA Manual for more examples and formatting rules
- << Previous: Articles
- Next: Websites >>
- Last Updated: Nov 1, 2023 3:17 PM
- URL: https://libguides.usc.edu/APA7th