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One of the most common questions we receive at the Writing Center is “what am I supposed to do in my conclusion?” This is a difficult question to answer because there’s no one right answer to what belongs in a conclusion. How you conclude your paper will depend on where you started—and where you traveled. It will also depend on the conventions and expectations of the discipline in which you are writing. For example, while the conclusion to a STEM paper could focus on questions for further study, the conclusion of a literature paper could include a quotation from your central text that can now be understood differently in light of what has been discussed in the paper. You should consult your instructor about expectations for conclusions in a particular discipline.
With that in mind, here are some general guidelines you might find helpful to use as you think about your conclusion.
Begin with the “what”
In a short paper—even a research paper—you don’t need to provide an exhaustive summary as part of your conclusion. But you do need to make some kind of transition between your final body paragraph and your concluding paragraph. This may come in the form of a few sentences of summary. Or it may come in the form of a sentence that brings your readers back to your thesis or main idea and reminds your readers where you began and how far you have traveled.
So, for example, in a paper about the relationship between ADHD and rejection sensitivity, Vanessa Roser begins by introducing readers to the fact that researchers have studied the relationship between the two conditions and then provides her explanation of that relationship. Here’s her thesis: “While socialization may indeed be an important factor in RS, I argue that individuals with ADHD may also possess a neurological predisposition to RS that is exacerbated by the differing executive and emotional regulation characteristic of ADHD.”
In her final paragraph, Roser reminds us of where she started by echoing her thesis: “This literature demonstrates that, as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”
Highlight the “so what”
At the beginning of your paper, you explain to your readers what’s at stake—why they should care about the argument you’re making. In your conclusion, you can bring readers back to those stakes by reminding them why your argument is important in the first place. You can also draft a few sentences that put those stakes into a new or broader context.
In the conclusion to her paper about ADHD and RS, Roser echoes the stakes she established in her introduction—that research into connections between ADHD and RS has led to contradictory results, raising questions about the “behavioral mediation hypothesis.”
She writes, “as with many other conditions, ADHD and RS share a delicately intertwined pattern of neurological similarities that is rooted in the innate biology of an individual’s mind, a connection that cannot be explained in full by the behavioral mediation hypothesis.”
Leave your readers with the “now what”
After the “what” and the “so what,” you should leave your reader with some final thoughts. If you have written a strong introduction, your readers will know why you have been arguing what you have been arguing—and why they should care. And if you’ve made a good case for your thesis, then your readers should be in a position to see things in a new way, understand new questions, or be ready for something that they weren’t ready for before they read your paper.
In her conclusion, Roser offers two “now what” statements. First, she explains that it is important to recognize that the flawed behavioral mediation hypothesis “seems to place a degree of fault on the individual. It implies that individuals with ADHD must have elicited such frequent or intense rejection by virtue of their inadequate social skills, erasing the possibility that they may simply possess a natural sensitivity to emotion.” She then highlights the broader implications for treatment of people with ADHD, noting that recognizing the actual connection between rejection sensitivity and ADHD “has profound implications for understanding how individuals with ADHD might best be treated in educational settings, by counselors, family, peers, or even society as a whole.”
To find your own “now what” for your essay’s conclusion, try asking yourself these questions:
- What can my readers now understand, see in a new light, or grapple with that they would not have understood in the same way before reading my paper? Are we a step closer to understanding a larger phenomenon or to understanding why what was at stake is so important?
- What questions can I now raise that would not have made sense at the beginning of my paper? Questions for further research? Other ways that this topic could be approached?
- Are there other applications for my research? Could my questions be asked about different data in a different context? Could I use my methods to answer a different question?
- What action should be taken in light of this argument? What action do I predict will be taken or could lead to a solution?
- What larger context might my argument be a part of?
What to avoid in your conclusion
- a complete restatement of all that you have said in your paper.
- a substantial counterargument that you do not have space to refute; you should introduce counterarguments before your conclusion.
- an apology for what you have not said. If you need to explain the scope of your paper, you should do this sooner—but don’t apologize for what you have not discussed in your paper.
- fake transitions like “in conclusion” that are followed by sentences that aren’t actually conclusions. (“In conclusion, I have now demonstrated that my thesis is correct.”)
- Tips for Reading an Assignment Prompt
- Asking Analytical Questions
- What Do Introductions Across the Disciplines Have in Common?
- Anatomy of a Body Paragraph
- Tips for Organizing Your Essay
- Strategies for Essay Writing: Downloadable PDFs
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This resource outlines the generally accepted structure for introductions, body paragraphs, and conclusions in an academic argument paper. Keep in mind that this resource contains guidelines and not strict rules about organization. Your structure needs to be flexible enough to meet the requirements of your purpose and audience.
Conclusions wrap up what you have been discussing in your paper. After moving from general to specific information in the introduction and body paragraphs, your conclusion should begin pulling back into more general information that restates the main points of your argument. Conclusions may also call for action or overview future possible research. The following outline may help you conclude your paper:
In a general way,
- Restate your topic and why it is important,
- Restate your thesis/claim,
- Address opposing viewpoints and explain why readers should align with your position,
- Call for action or overview future research possibilities.
Remember that once you accomplish these tasks, unless otherwise directed by your instructor, you are finished. Done. Complete. Don't try to bring in new points or end with a whiz bang(!) conclusion or try to solve world hunger in the final sentence of your conclusion. Simplicity is best for a clear, convincing message.
The preacher's maxim is one of the most effective formulas to follow for argument papers:
Tell what you're going to tell them (introduction).
Tell them (body).
Tell them what you told them (conclusion).
What this handout is about.
This handout will explain the functions of conclusions, offer strategies for writing effective ones, help you evaluate conclusions you’ve drafted, and suggest approaches to avoid.
Introductions and conclusions can be difficult to write, but they’re worth investing time in. They can have a significant influence on a reader’s experience of your paper.
Just as your introduction acts as a bridge that transports your readers from their own lives into the “place” of your analysis, your conclusion can provide a bridge to help your readers make the transition back to their daily lives. Such a conclusion will help them see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.
Your conclusion is your chance to have the last word on the subject. The conclusion allows you to have the final say on the issues you have raised in your paper, to synthesize your thoughts, to demonstrate the importance of your ideas, and to propel your reader to a new view of the subject. It is also your opportunity to make a good final impression and to end on a positive note.
Your conclusion can go beyond the confines of the assignment. The conclusion pushes beyond the boundaries of the prompt and allows you to consider broader issues, make new connections, and elaborate on the significance of your findings.
Your conclusion should make your readers glad they read your paper. Your conclusion gives your reader something to take away that will help them see things differently or appreciate your topic in personally relevant ways. It can suggest broader implications that will not only interest your reader, but also enrich your reader’s life in some way. It is your gift to the reader.
Strategies for writing an effective conclusion
One or more of the following strategies may help you write an effective conclusion:
- Play the “So What” Game. If you’re stuck and feel like your conclusion isn’t saying anything new or interesting, ask a friend to read it with you. Whenever you make a statement from your conclusion, ask the friend to say, “So what?” or “Why should anybody care?” Then ponder that question and answer it. Here’s how it might go: You: Basically, I’m just saying that education was important to Douglass. Friend: So what? You: Well, it was important because it was a key to him feeling like a free and equal citizen. Friend: Why should anybody care? You: That’s important because plantation owners tried to keep slaves from being educated so that they could maintain control. When Douglass obtained an education, he undermined that control personally. You can also use this strategy on your own, asking yourself “So What?” as you develop your ideas or your draft.
- Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle. For example, if you begin by describing a scenario, you can end with the same scenario as proof that your essay is helpful in creating a new understanding. You may also refer to the introductory paragraph by using key words or parallel concepts and images that you also used in the introduction.
- Synthesize, don’t summarize. Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together.
- Include a provocative insight or quotation from the research or reading you did for your paper.
- Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study. This can redirect your reader’s thought process and help her to apply your info and ideas to her own life or to see the broader implications.
- Point to broader implications. For example, if your paper examines the Greensboro sit-ins or another event in the Civil Rights Movement, you could point out its impact on the Civil Rights Movement as a whole. A paper about the style of writer Virginia Woolf could point to her influence on other writers or on later feminists.
Strategies to avoid
- Beginning with an unnecessary, overused phrase such as “in conclusion,” “in summary,” or “in closing.” Although these phrases can work in speeches, they come across as wooden and trite in writing.
- Stating the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion.
- Introducing a new idea or subtopic in your conclusion.
- Ending with a rephrased thesis statement without any substantive changes.
- Making sentimental, emotional appeals that are out of character with the rest of an analytical paper.
- Including evidence (quotations, statistics, etc.) that should be in the body of the paper.
Four kinds of ineffective conclusions
- The “That’s My Story and I’m Sticking to It” Conclusion. This conclusion just restates the thesis and is usually painfully short. It does not push the ideas forward. People write this kind of conclusion when they can’t think of anything else to say. Example: In conclusion, Frederick Douglass was, as we have seen, a pioneer in American education, proving that education was a major force for social change with regard to slavery.
- The “Sherlock Holmes” Conclusion. Sometimes writers will state the thesis for the very first time in the conclusion. You might be tempted to use this strategy if you don’t want to give everything away too early in your paper. You may think it would be more dramatic to keep the reader in the dark until the end and then “wow” him with your main idea, as in a Sherlock Holmes mystery. The reader, however, does not expect a mystery, but an analytical discussion of your topic in an academic style, with the main argument (thesis) stated up front. Example: (After a paper that lists numerous incidents from the book but never says what these incidents reveal about Douglass and his views on education): So, as the evidence above demonstrates, Douglass saw education as a way to undermine the slaveholders’ power and also an important step toward freedom.
- The “America the Beautiful”/”I Am Woman”/”We Shall Overcome” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion usually draws on emotion to make its appeal, but while this emotion and even sentimentality may be very heartfelt, it is usually out of character with the rest of an analytical paper. A more sophisticated commentary, rather than emotional praise, would be a more fitting tribute to the topic. Example: Because of the efforts of fine Americans like Frederick Douglass, countless others have seen the shining beacon of light that is education. His example was a torch that lit the way for others. Frederick Douglass was truly an American hero.
- The “Grab Bag” Conclusion. This kind of conclusion includes extra information that the writer found or thought of but couldn’t integrate into the main paper. You may find it hard to leave out details that you discovered after hours of research and thought, but adding random facts and bits of evidence at the end of an otherwise-well-organized essay can just create confusion. Example: In addition to being an educational pioneer, Frederick Douglass provides an interesting case study for masculinity in the American South. He also offers historians an interesting glimpse into slave resistance when he confronts Covey, the overseer. His relationships with female relatives reveal the importance of family in the slave community.
We consulted these works while writing this handout. This is not a comprehensive list of resources on the handout’s topic, and we encourage you to do your own research to find additional publications. Please do not use this list as a model for the format of your own reference list, as it may not match the citation style you are using. For guidance on formatting citations, please see the UNC Libraries citation tutorial . We revise these tips periodically and welcome feedback.
Douglass, Frederick. 1995. Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave, Written by Himself. New York: Dover.
Hamilton College. n.d. “Conclusions.” Writing Center. Accessed June 14, 2019. https://www.hamilton.edu//academics/centers/writing/writing-resources/conclusions .
Holewa, Randa. 2004. “Strategies for Writing a Conclusion.” LEO: Literacy Education Online. Last updated February 19, 2004. https://leo.stcloudstate.edu/acadwrite/conclude.html.
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How to Write a Conclusion for an Essay
A well-structured conclusion is considered an important element of a strong essay and is often a part of the grading criteria.
Some instructors or grading rubrics might be more lenient on this aspect, while others might place a higher emphasis on it. To avoid potential point deductions, it's generally a good practice to include a well-structured conclusion, which usually takes 10-15% of your work (e.g., a 2,000-word essay should have a 250-word conclusion). In this article, you will find out how to write a concluding paragraph, what are the elements of an A-grade conclusion, as well as a couple of great examples.
How to Write a Conclusion Step by Step
Writing an effective conclusion paragraph involves several steps. Here's a step-by-step guide on how to write a conclusion for your essay:
Restate the Thesis Statement
Begin your conclusion by restating the thesis statement. This reminds the reader of the overall argument or point of your essay. However, don't simply repeat things word for word; rephrase them to add a sense of closure.
Summarize Key Points
Summarize the main argument and the paper's main points. You don't need to go into great detail - simply repeat the main idea. Briefly touch upon the most important ideas discussed in the body of your essay.
Connect to the Introduction
Link your last sentence back to the introductory paragraph. Refer to something mentioned in the introduction or use similar language to create a sense of unity and closure in your essay.
Offer a Final Insight or Perspective
Provide a final perspective related to your topic. This can be a thought-provoking comment, a recommendation, a call to action, a broader implication of your argument, or even a provocative insight. Consider the "So What?" question – why should the reader care about your essay's topic?
Avoid Introducing New Information
Your final sentence is not the place to introduce new information or arguments. Stick to summarizing and tying up what you've already presented in the essay without any new ideas.
Keep It Concise
Essay conclusions should be concise and to the point. Maintain control by avoiding extensive detail or rehashing the entire essay. Aim for clarity and brevity.
Avoid overused phrases and clichés. Instead, find more creative and engaging ways to write good conclusion sentences.
Consider the Tone
The tone of your conclusion should match the tone of your essay. If your essay is formal, keep the conclusion formal. If it's more casual or personal, maintain that tone. Always conclude essays on a positive note.
After writing your conclusion, take the time to proofread and edit it. Ensure there are no grammatical or spelling errors and that the language is clear and concise. This will leave a good final impression.
Think About the Reader
Put yourself in the reader's shoes. Consider what you would want to take away from the essay and what kind of conclusion would be most satisfying and impactful for them.
Remember that knowing how to start a conclusion paragraph can significantly impact the reader's overall impression of your essay. A well-crafted conclusion not only provides closure but also reinforces your main points and leaves a lasting impact.
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Why Conclusion Writing Is Important
Writing a conclusion is important because it provides closure and completeness to the essay, reinforcing the main points and giving the reader a final perspective on the topic.
Many students wonder if it's possible to turn in an essay without a closing sentence. Some see it as a creative choice; others - because they don't understand how to write a good conclusion.
Basically, the absence of a conclusion in an essay can affect the overall quality and coherence, so we always recommend finishing any academic article with a strong concluding paragraph.
Here are several reasons why a conclusion is a must-have in any essay:
- Summarizes key points: A conclusion provides an opportunity to recap the main points and arguments made in the essay. It serves as a summary of the entire essay, reminding the reader of the most important information and ideas presented.
- Reinforces the thesis statement: The conclusion should reiterate the thesis statement or the central argument of the essay. This reinforces the main message and helps the reader remember the purpose and focus of the essay.
- Provides closure: A well-written conclusion gives the essay a sense of closure. It signals to the reader that the essay is ending and provides a satisfying wrap-up to the discussion.
- Offers a final perspective: In the conclusion, you can provide your final thoughts and insights on the topic. This is an opportunity to express your perspective or offer suggestions for further research or action related to the subject matter.
- Leaves a lasting impression: The conclusion is your last chance to leave a strong impression on the reader. A well-crafted conclusion can make your essay more memorable and impactful.
- Connects to the introduction: A good conclusion should link back to the introduction, creating a sense of unity and coherence in the essay. It reminds the reader of the journey they've taken from the beginning to the end of the essay.
- Encourages reflection: The conclusion invites the reader to reflect on the content of the essay and its significance. It can stimulate critical thinking and leave the reader with something to ponder.
- Guides the reader: A conclusion can guide the reader on what to take away from the essay. It can suggest implications, applications, or further considerations related to the topic.
Knowing how to make a conclusion is important because it helps tie together the various elements of an essay, reinforces the main points, provides closure, and leaves a lasting impression on the reader. It is a critical component of effective essay writing that can enhance the overall impact and understanding of your work.
If you'd like to know more about how to write an essay , we've prepared some useful tips for you. In the meantime, we'd like to demonstrate a couple of great conclusion examples essay authors shared for your reference needs.
Three Essentials of a Perfect Final Paragraph
We want to share some practical tips regarding how to write a conclusion for an essay. First and foremost, a concluding passage should start with restating a thesis statement.
It involves rephrasing or summarizing the key arguments of your essay while maintaining the original intent and meaning.
Don't forget to use different wording, parallel structure, and link back to the introduction. E.g.:
Original: "The advancement of technology has had both positive and negative effects on society."
Restated: "Society has experienced a range of consequences, both beneficial and detrimental, due to technological progress."
Secondly, summarize key points and prioritize the main ideas. Focus on the most significant and relevant key points that support your thesis.
You don't need to mention every detail, only the most crucial elements. Be concise and to the point in your summaries. Avoid using lengthy sentences or providing too much context.
Get straight to the core of each key point. Present the key points in a logical order that follows the structure of your essay.
This helps the reader follow your thought process. If your key points in the body of your essay were related to the benefits and drawbacks of technology, this is how you summarize them:
"In summary, this essay has explored the multifaceted impact of technology on society. We have discussed its positive contributions, such as increased efficiency and connectivity, but also examined the negative aspects, including privacy concerns and overreliance on screens. These key points underscore the complexity of our relationship with technology and the need for balanced, informed decision-making."
Thirdly, it's hard to imagine how to conclude an essay without connecting the conclusion to the introduction. Try to use similar or parallel language in your conclusion that was used in the introduction.
This could be in the form of specific words, phrases, or even sentence structures. Such a linguistic connection will reinforce the relationship between the two sections.
If your introduction posed a question, hypothesis, or series of questions, use the conclusion to provide an answer, reflect on the evolution of thought, or address how these questions have been explored and answered in the essay.
Discuss the significance of the introduction's ideas or themes in light of the discussion that has unfolded in the body of the essay. E.g.:
Introduction: "In a world driven by technological advancements, the impact of our digital age on interpersonal relationships remains a topic of great interest."
Conclusion: "As we navigate the ever-changing landscape of the digital age, the significance of maintaining authentic and meaningful connections in our interpersonal relationships becomes even more apparent. The insights gained in this essay reaffirm the importance of striking a balance between the virtual and the real, ensuring that technology enhances rather than hinders our connections."
Ten Mistakes to Avoid When Writing a Conclusion
Writing essay conclusions can be challenging, so students should know how to write a conclusion correctly. Here are ten hints to help you prepare excellent concluding paragraphs:
- Repetition of introduction.
- Introducing new information.
- Being too vague.
- Lack of clarity.
- Failure to address the "So What?" question.
- Inconsistency with the essay's tone.
- Lack of connection to the introduction.
- Neglecting to revisit the thesis.
- Not leaving a lasting impression.
Don't repeat these mistakes, and you'll know how to make a conclusion in an essay perfectly well. It's essential to plan your conclusion carefully, review your essay thoroughly, and consider the reader's perspective.
Practice and feedback from instructors can also help. However, if it isn't sufficient, buy essay online in a few clicks to get the upper hand.
How Much Time Does It Take to Start Writing Proper Essay Conclusions
Practice makes perfect. To master the art of writing conclusions, you'll have to demonstrate patience, skill, and experience.
The time it takes to learn to write great conclusions for essays varies from person to person and depends on several factors, including your starting point, your dedication to improvement, and the quality of feedback and guidance you receive.
There is no fixed timeline for writing great essay conclusions. It doesn't happen overnight.
However, with consistent effort and a willingness to learn from your experiences, you can steadily improve your ability to craft effective concluding paragraphs.
It's also worth noting that writing is a continuous learning process, and even experienced writers continue to refine their skills over time.
How an Effective Conclusion Paragraph Should End
Good conclusions should always end with concluding phrases that can provide a strong, memorable finish to your essay. Remember that the effectiveness of these phrases depends on the context and the specific message you want to convey in your conclusion.
Choose the one that best suits the tone and content of your essay while providing a clear and impactful ending:
- In conclusion.
- In summary.
- To wrap it up.
- In a nutshell.
- To put it simply.
- In the final analysis.
- As a result.
- To conclude.
- In essence.
- For these reasons.
- In light of this.
- With all factors considered.
- Taking everything into account.
- Given these points.
- In the grand scheme of things.
- To bring it all together.
Knowing how to end a conclusion will help you convey the overall purpose and message of your essay to readers.
It will provide closure and give the reader a sense of completeness while reinforcing the main points and leaving them with a final thought.
Since we speak a lot about conclusions and connecting them to introductions, you might also like to brush up on how to write an outline for an essay .
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Conclusion Paragraph Examples
"In essence, mastering the craft of how to write conclusion of essay is essential for creating impactful and well-structured essays. By reiterating the thesis, summarizing key points, and leaving a lasting impression, we are writing conclusions that not only provide closure but also reinforce the central message of our essays. As we continue to hone this skill, our ability to communicate effectively through our writing will undoubtedly improve, making our essays more persuasive and memorable."
"In summary, learning how to write a conclusion paragraph requires careful consideration and practice. By reiterating the main point, summarizing key arguments, leaving the reader with a thought-provoking final message, and keeping the conclusion format in mind, we can create conclusions that not only provide closure to our essays but also leave a lasting impact on our readers. As we continue to refine this skill, our ability to write compelling conclusions will enhance the overall quality of our essays and make our writing more engaging and persuasive. As writers, we should continually refine our knowledge of how to end a conclusion paragraph to make our essays more memorable and impactful."
"To sum up, producing an effective conclusion is vital for any writer. Understanding how to write a good conclusion ensures that our essays have the power to resonate with readers, leaving a lasting impression and reinforcing the central message of our work. By following these principles, we can elevate our experience with how to make a good conclusion and engage our audience effectively. It's a skill that, once honed, can distinguish our essays and make them truly memorable, leaving a lasting impact on those who read them."
In this article, we've demonstrated how to write a conclusion - a vital skill for crafting effective college articles.
This knowledge will prove highly beneficial to your educational progress.
By guiding you in restating the thesis, summarizing key points, offering closure, reflecting on significance, and avoiding introducing new information in conclusions, we've equipped you with the tools to leave a lasting impression on your academic work.
This newfound expertise regarding how to end a conclusion in an essay will undoubtedly enhance your college success and contribute to your overall academic achievement.
Why Writing a Conclusion Is Important?
Writing a conclusion paragraph is important because it provides closure, summarizes key points, reinforces the thesis, and leaves a lasting impression on the reader, ensuring that your message is effectively communicated and your work is well-rounded and impactful. Knowing how to write a conclusion sentence allows you to tie together the main ideas presented in your writing. It offers an opportunity to reflect on the broader implications of your work. It allows your audience to leave with a clear understanding of the significance of your argument or findings. Moreover, a strong conclusion can leave a memorable mark on your reader, making it a critical element in effective communication and achieving the desired impact with your writing. That's why every student should know how to write a good conclusion for an essay.
What Is an Essay Conclusions Outline?
A conclusion paragraph outline is a structured plan that helps writers summarize key points, restate the thesis, provide closure, and reflect on the broader significance of their essay. It serves as a roadmap for crafting a well-organized and impactful conclusion. This outline typically includes a section summarizing the main arguments or findings, followed by a restatement of the thesis to reinforce the central message. It also guides writers in discussing the broader implications or significance of their topic. Writing a conclusion for an essay ensures that you effectively encapsulate the essay's core ideas and leave a strong and lasting impression on the reader.
How to Write a Good Conclusion?
Demonstrate that you know how to write a conclusion by restating your thesis, summarizing key points, providing closure, and reflecting on the broader significance of your work. Avoid introducing new information, and aim to leave a strong and memorable final impression on the reader. A good conclusion should tie back to the introduction and the main body of your work, creating a sense of completeness. While learning how to end a essay, it's essential to maintain a consistent tone and style with the rest of the piece, ensuring a harmonious flow. Engage the reader by highlighting the relevance and real-world implications of your topic, leaving them with a clear understanding of why your argument or findings matter. According to MBA essay writing service experts, a good conclusion is an integral part of grading criteria and should be featured in the article.
Any Tips on How to Write a Concluding Paragraph?
The concluding paragraph is a critical component of effective writing, serving as the last opportunity to make a compelling impression on your audience. If you'd like to learn how to write a good conclusion paragraph, start by reiterating your thesis or central argument, reinforcing the core message. Summarize the key points and arguments presented in the body of your work, providing a concise overview of your main ideas. Next, offer closure by crafting a conclusion that brings your narrative or argument to a logical and satisfying end. Lastly, refrain from introducing new information, as this can disrupt the flow and purpose of your conclusion. When practicing how to write conclusion in essay, focus on reinforcing the existing content and leaving a memorable final impression on your readers.
How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph for an Essay
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- An effective conclusion paragraph is vital to writing a successful college essay.
- A strong conclusion restates the thesis, offers new insight, and forms a personal connection.
- Be sure the conclusion doesn't introduce new arguments or analyze points you didn't discuss.
The first steps for writing any college essay are coming up with a strong thesis statement and composing a rough introduction . Once you've done that, you can collect information that supports your thesis, outline your essay's main points, and start writing your body paragraphs . Before you can submit the essay, though, you'll also need to write a compelling conclusion paragraph.
Conclusions aren't especially difficult to write and can even be fun, but you still need to put in effort to make them work. Ultimately, a strong conclusion is just as important as an effective introduction for a successful paper.
Here, we explain the purpose of a conclusion and how to write a conclusion paragraph using a simple three-step process.
The Purpose of a Conclusion Paragraph
A conclusion paragraph does :
- Check Circle Summarize the essay's thesis and evidence to further convince the reader
- Check Circle Elevate your essay by adding new insight or something extra to impress the reader
- Check Circle Leave a personal impression that connects you more closely to the reader
A conclusion paragraph does not :
- X Circle Summarize something the paper does not discuss
- X Circle Introduce a new argument
How to Write a Conclusion in 3 Easy Steps
Step 1: restate your thesis claim and evidence.
The conclusion's primary role is to convince the reader that your argument is valid. Whereas the introduction paragraph says, "Here's what I'll prove and how," the conclusion paragraph says, "Here's what I proved and how." In that sense, these two paragraphs should closely mirror each other, with the conclusion restating the thesis introduced at the beginning of the essay.
In order to restate your thesis effectively, you'll need to do the following:
- Check Circle Reread your introduction carefully to identify your paper's main claim
- Check Circle Pay attention to the evidence you used to support your thesis throughout the essay
- Check Circle In your conclusion, reword the thesis and summarize the supporting evidence
- Check Circle Use phrases in the past tense, like "as demonstrated" and "this paper established"
Here's an example of an introduction and a conclusion paragraph, with the conclusion restating the paper's primary claim and evidence:
It is a known fact that archaic civilizations with clearly defined social classes often survived longer than those without. One anomaly is seventh-century Civilization X. Close analysis of the cultural artifacts of the Civilization X region reveals that a social system that operates on exploitation, rather than sharing, will always fail. This lack of inclusion actually leads to a society's downfall. Excavated military objects, remnants of tapestries and clay pots, and the poetry of the era all demonstrate the clash between exploitation and sharing, with the former leading to loss and the latter leading to success.
In the 600s C.E., Civilization X survived because it believed in inclusion and sharing rather than exploitation. As demonstrated, the civilization was often aware of the choice between sharing with others and taking from them. The cultural artifacts from the era, namely military items, household objects, and verbal art, all indicate that Civilization X believed sharing ensured survival for all, while taking allowed only a few to survive for a shorter time.
Step 2: Provide New and Interesting Insight
In addition to restating the thesis, a conclusion should emphasize the importance of the essay's argument by building upon it. In other words, you want to push your ideas one step beyond your thesis. One intriguing insight at the end can leave your professor pondering your paper well after they finish reading it — and that's a good sign you turned in a well-written essay.
Note that the conclusion paragraph must only mention that this new idea exists and deserves some focus in the future; it shouldn't discuss the idea in detail or try to propose a new argument.
The new insight you raise in your conclusion should ideally come from the research you already conducted. Should a new idea come to you while writing the body paragraphs, go ahead and make a note to remind you to allude to it in your conclusion.
Here are some typical starting points for these new insights:
- Check Circle A new idea that would have prompted you to redesign your thesis if you had the time
- Check Circle A new angle that would further prove your thesis
- Check Circle Evidence you found that refutes your claim but that you can justify anyway
- Check Circle A different topic to which you can apply the same thesis and/or angles
Step 3: Form a Personal Connection With the Reader
The final step when writing a conclusion paragraph is to include a small detail about yourself. This information will help you build a more intimate bond with your reader and help them remember you better. Think of this step as an opportunity to connect the academic research to your and your reader's personal lives — to forge a human bond between the lines.
Formal essay-writing typically avoids first- and second-person pronouns such as "I" and "you." There are, however, two exceptions to this rule, and these are the introduction and conclusion paragraphs.
In the conclusion, you may use first-person pronouns to attempt to establish an emotional connection with the reader.
In the introduction, you may use the words "I" or "me" just once to clarify that the essay's claim is your own. In the conclusion, you may use first-person pronouns to attempt to establish an emotional connection with the reader, as long as this connection is related in some way to the overarching claim.
Here's an example of a conclusion paragraph that uses both first- and second-person pronouns to connect the thesis statement (provided above) to the student's own perspective on stealing:
Civilization X believed that invading Civilization Y would help them survive long, hunger-inducing winters. But all people go through moments when they crave security, especially in times of scarcity. I would certainly never consider taking the belongings of a neighbor, nor, I expect, would you. Yet we must consider the Civilization X artifacts that justify "taking" as signs of more than simple bloodthirst — they are also revelations of the basic human need for security. Perhaps if we had lived during the 600s C.E., you and I would have also taken from others, even while commanding others not to take from us.
Feature Image: Ziga Plahutar / E+ / Getty Images
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Your conclusion paragraph should logically conclude your essay, just like your concluding sentences logically conclude your body paragraphs. The conclusion paragraph should begin by restating your thesis, and then you should broaden back out to a general topic. End with a closing statement. This paragraph looks like the reverse of your introduction paragraph, going from specific to general.
Restate your thesis
The first sentence of your conclusion paragraph should restate your thesis. A restated thesis expresses the same idea, but the words are different. Remember that the meaning of your thesis should not change. Compare the thesis with the restatement below.
Thesis: Exercise is essential because it improves overall physical and mental health. Restated: Due to the mental and physical health benefits of exercise, it is absolutely crucial for our bodies.
You can restate your thesis by
- changing the order of the phrases
- using synonyms (e.g., essential > crucial)
- stating main points direcly instead of implying them (or vice versa)
- using different word forms (e.g., adjective > noun)
Apply your thesis to general contexts
Connect your thesis back to the general topics you mentioned in your introduction.
Give a closing statement
Your closing statement is very similar to the concluding sentence of a body paragraph except that you will not restate your main idea at the very end of your paper. Your last sentences can be a prediction, suggestion, opinion, or question.
Exercise 1: Identify effective restated thesis statements
Read the thesis statement. Choose the best restated thesis from the options below.
Thesis: Apartment complexes should provide quiet study rooms for residents so they can study without distractions.
- Study rooms are important for students to study in.
- Apartment managers should build quiet places to study for residents.
- Now we can see that study rooms are valuable for students who live in apartments.
- It is important for apartments to provide their residents with quiet study areas.
Exercise 2: Restate a thesis
On a piece of paper, rewrite each thesis statement as you would at the beginning of a conclusion paragraph.
- In order for students to manage stress better, they need to prioritize their tasks, eat well, and get enough sleep.
- Even though Salt Lake City and Madrid may seem similar based on climate, their major religions, language, and food are distinct.
- Business owners need to make decisions that satisfy employees, customers, and investors.
- Increasing your vocabulary is easy if you try to notice new words in context, review them often, and use them as much as you can.
Exercise 3: Write a conclusion paragraph
Read the introduction paragraph and then finish writing the conclusion paragraph on a piece of paper.
Prompt: Describe how to write an essay.
Many writers feel overwhelmed when they write an essay. They are unsure of where to start or how to be successful. However, the process is very basic. There are simple steps that can simplify the process and make writing a good essay possible for anyone. In order to write an impactful essay, it is essential that writers plan, draft, and share their writing.
Exercise 4: Identify types of paragraphs.
Identify whether each paragraph is an introduction, body, or conclusion paragraph.
1. T ype of paragraph: __________________________
Touchscreen technology, wireless charging, and a better camera are the best features on the new iPhone. These qualities all encourage customers to consider buying this phone because it is easier to use, more convenient, and more useful than other models. When you start looking for your upgrade, you should ask yourself if your new phone should have these features. The new iPhone does. What are you waiting for? You won’t regret upgrading to the new iPhone.
2. Type of paragraph: __________________________
A successful restaurant requires many workers, each with specific jobs that help things run smoothly. Cooks in the kitchen skillfully prepare the food. Servers take orders, deliver meals, and ensure the customers are satisfied. The hostess greets the customers as they enter the restaurant and sets the tone for the customer’s experience. All of these people are necessary to make a restaurant successful.
3. Type of paragraph: __________________________
All year long, the scenery in Utah Valley is amazing. In the winter, the valley is covered with a blanket of snow. In the spring, the trees blossom with flowers. The summer weather beckons hikers to discover the stunning vistas in the canyons. The Rocky Mountains then take on beautiful shades of red, orange, and yellow in the fall. As each season changes, the beauty of the area is evident. While all of the seasons are stunning, the most beautiful season in Utah is the autumn.
Exercise 5: Analyze an essay
Read one of the following example essays on the following pages to complete this exercise.
- Label the introduction paragraph, the body paragraphs, and the conclusion paragraph.
- Circle the hook.
- What is the general topic of the essay?
- Underline the thesis.
- Underline each of the topic sentences.
- Do each of the topic sentences support the thesis?
- Does the conclusion paragraph start by restating the thesis?
This content is provided to you freely by BYU Open Learning Network.
Access it online or download it at https://open.byu.edu/academic_a_writing/conclusion_paragraph .
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How to Start a Conclusion Paragraph
Last Updated: June 26, 2023 Fact Checked
This article was co-authored by Emily Listmann, MA . Emily Listmann is a private tutor in San Carlos, California. She has worked as a Social Studies Teacher, Curriculum Coordinator, and an SAT Prep Teacher. She received her MA in Education from the Stanford Graduate School of Education in 2014. There are 10 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 1,045,139 times.
A conclusion paragraph is your last chance to leave your reader with a good impression. Your goal is to leave the reader feeling like they understand your argument and evidence. A great conclusion should tie all of your ideas together. You can do this by using some specific examples, reiterating key points, and editing carefully. There are several steps you can take to write a successful conclusion to any paper.
Crafting Your Conclusion Paragraph
- Make sure that your thesis is not vague. For example, don't just say, "This is a paper about the death penalty."
- Instead, try being clear and specific. You might write, "The death penalty costs America millions of dollars per year, and as such, is one of the major expenditures in our penal system. This paper will examine why the justice system in the United States needs significant reforms."
- This is also the time to make sure that your essay is organized the way you want and that you've supported your thesis with strong evidence and analysis. You can't write a successful conclusion until you've organized your essay in a way that makes sense.
- Do not just copy and paste your thesis statement. Put it in different words.
- For example, maybe your thesis statement is, "The Cold War significantly changed American foreign policy. It caused many policymakers to grow accustomed to having a defined enemy. This made for a somewhat confused foreign policy in the 1990s, after the fall of the Soviet Union." You will want to rephrase it in the conclusion.
- Try saying, "As demonstrated by looking at the foreign policy actions of President Bush and Clinton, the post-Cold War foreign policy suffered from a lack of coherent action.
- You might consider providing a useful anecdote in your conclusion. For example, if you are writing about the plight of the polar bears, offer a story about the polar bear at the San Diego Zoo.
- Try to synthesize. This means taking the analysis further than just simply summarizing your points.
- Your conclusion is a great place to not only summarize, but to draw connections. Tell your reader how your different points connect.
- For example, you can point out that the Civil War affected both the economy and politics, and that the two were intertwined.
- Make sure that you have clearly stated your argument. Your reader should not be confused about your point.
- Review your main points. Have you included all of them in your conclusion?
- Does your conclusion explain why your topic is significant? Remember, it is your last chance to convince your reader that your research is important.
- Make the importance clear. You can state, "This research is significant because it illustrates connections between 19th century literature and the feminists of today."
Starting Your Conclusion Paragraph
- Try connecting the last paragraph to the first. For example, if your introduction talked about a dog named Sam, finish your paper by referring once again to Sam.
- Linking the first and last paragraphs is a good way of ending your paper. It "bookends" your topic.
- You can also finish your essay with a quote or fact that you referenced earlier in the essay. This provides a nice sense of closure for your reader.
- Maybe you are writing a paper about the obesity epidemic in America. Your conclusion is a great place to offer some solutions.
- For example, you could say, "Clearly, there is a need for a greater focus on physical activity at a young age." Or you could say, "More research should be done to help learn to effectively treat the negative side effects of obesity."
- You can also use your conclusion to point to broader themes. For example, your paper about the Freedom Rides in 1961 could indicate some broader points about the Civil Rights movement.
- Try to avoid using a long sentence to start your conclusion. You want to grab your reader's attention and keep it.
- There is no need to say, "And so, as we have effectively demonstrated through the use of complicated evidence..." Instead, just say, "It is clear we need change."
- Try writing the first sentence of your conclusion using only one syllable words. This will enhance the drama of your paper.
- Clearly stating the importance of your argument is a good way to start your conclusion. Your reader will understand exactly what you are trying to say.
- You can say, "This research is important because it could help save the lives of animals." That is a direct, declarative statement.
- Context can help you explain why a topic is important. For example, your conclusion could begin with a statement such as, "As this essay is being written, there are blank amount of youths incarcerated in the United States."
- Avoid saying, "In conclusion". There are other, more interesting, ways to start your conclusion.
- Try saying, "As the research has demonstrated." You can also just introduce your final points by saying, "Finally..."
- You can also indicate that your reader is at the conclusion by saying, "To review..." or "We can see..."
- You can also write, "It is clear...". Try a few different options to see what works best for your particular paper.
Polishing Your Paper
- There are several words you can use to indicate that you are transitioning to the next part of your paper. You want your reader to know when you have reached your conclusion.
- In addition to saying, "In conclusion....", there are other choices you can make. For example, you would try, "Finally,..." or "As this paper demonstrates...".
- Make sure to transition between each main point. You can use words such as, "In comparison", "Next", or "A different approach" to illustrate your are shifting topics.
- Look for spelling and grammatical errors. Use spell check to help you.
- Edit for content. Read each sentence of your paper to make sure that it makes sense and helps get your point across.
- Don't be afraid to make cuts. If you find a paragraph that doesn't add to your argument, get rid of it.
- Read out loud. This is an excellent way to catch errors that you didn't notice while reading.
- Be open to constructive criticism. Don't take it personally if your friend offers some helpful pointers.
- Explain the assignment. You can say, "This paper is supposed to be an assessment of the public school system in Indiana. Are my points clear?"
- Ask your reader to pay careful attention to your conclusion. They might spot holes that you didn't see.
- Format the paper as specified. If it is supposed to be written in 12 point Times New Roman, verify that that is the font you used.
- Submit the paper as specified. If your teacher asks you to submit both an electronic copy and a hard copy, follow those instructions.
- Be flexible. Your argument may shift as you write the paper. Don't be afraid to change your conclusion. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
- Allow yourself plenty of time to write. Don't try to write your conclusion the day the paper is due. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
- Edit carefully. Thanks Helpful 0 Not Helpful 0
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- ↑ https://pressbooks.library.torontomu.ca/scholarlywriting/chapter/revising-a-thesis-statement/
- ↑ https://wts.indiana.edu/writing-guides/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement.html
- ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/conclusions/
- ↑ https://wts.indiana.edu/writing-guides/writing-conclusions.html
- ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/conclusion
- ↑ https://writingcenter.fas.harvard.edu/pages/ending-essay-conclusions
- ↑ https://www.sjsu.edu/writingcenter/docs/handouts/Conclusion%20Section%20for%20Research%20Papers.pdf
- ↑ https://writing.wisc.edu/handbook/style/transitions/
- ↑ https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/getting-feedback/
- ↑ https://plos.org/resource/how-to-write-conclusions/
About This Article
To start a conclusion paragraph, signal that you’re at the end of the essay by linking the first and final paragraphs with a quote, anecdote, or reference. For example, if you started your essay talking about a dog named Sam, then return to Sam in your conclusion. Next, rephrase your thesis to return the reader to your main idea. Then, provide a quick summary or overview of your argument. Additionally, propose a plan of action to help solve the problem. Finally, leave an impression by explaining your topic's significance. To learn how to be creative with your conclusion, keep reading! Did this summary help you? Yes No
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Essay Writing Guide
How To Write A Conclusion
Learn How to Write a Conclusion in Simple Steps
Published on: Oct 26, 2017
Last updated on: Oct 20, 2023
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The conclusion is one of the most significant parts of your essay. An effective conclusion lingers in a reader's mind long after they've finished your piece.
However, writing a strong conclusion is a very challenging part of essay writing . Many students struggle to find the perfect ending for their essays, and their conclusions often fall flat.
So, how can you write a good conclusion?
In this blog, we'll dive into the art of writing conclusions that impress your readers. We’ll explore simple steps, helpful tips, and examples that will help you master this essential skill. So read on!
On This Page On This Page
What is the Conclusion of an Essay?
The conclusion is the last paragraph of your essay that aims to provide a sense of closure. All the ideas and arguments come together in a conclusion, reinforcing the essay's main points.
Moreover, a conclusion isn't just about summing things up. The conclusion should also connect the essay to the general context and offer suggestions, implications, or insights related to the topic.
Essentially, it is the final opportunity to make an impact and ensure that your message resonates with your audience.
How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph?
Now that you know what a conclusion aims to achieve, let’s move on to the step-by-step guide on how to start a conclusion. These steps can be applied to most types of essays , as the conclusion is an essential component in all essay types.
Here are the six steps you should follow to write powerful conclusions:
Step 1: Review and Summarize Your Main Points
Begin by revisiting the main points and arguments you've presented in your essay and provide a concise summary. This would give your reader a quick recap of the essay's key takeaways.
Step 2: Synthesize Your Arguments
Synthesize and analyze the key arguments and ideas you've put forth in your essay. Write about how they relate to each other and what point they prove and demonstrate.
Step 3: Connect to Your Thesis Statement
Connect your conclusion back to the central idea of your essay by restating your thesis statement . Highlight how your essay's content has proven or supported your thesis.
Step 4: Reflect on the Essay’s Purpose & Significance
Discuss the broader implications of your arguments. In this part of the conclusion, you can answer questions like:
- Why should the reader care about it?
- How does it relate to the larger context or real world?
- What are its implications for the reader?
Step 5: Craft a Memorable Closing Statement
End the conclusion with a memorable closing statement that leaves a lasting impression. So how to write a conclusion sentence? Your concluding statement can be anything impactful, including:
- A thought-provoking question
- A call to action
- A powerful quote
- A final insight that resonates with your readers.
Remember that your closing statement should align with the overall tone and purpose of your essay or writing. It should leave a strong, positive, and memorable impression, encouraging further contemplation or action on the topic.
Step 6: Proofread and Revise
Finally, carefully proofread and revise it for clarity, coherence, and grammatical errors. This step is necessary and essential for crafting a well-polished conclusion that leaves a positive impression.
Here’s an essay conclusion example that is written following the above steps:
Conclusion Paragraph Outline
An effective conclusion paragraph is made up of several parts that tie together to present a closure. Here is the structure of a conclusion:
Essay Conclusion Examples
You can understand conclusions better by reading some good examples. So check out these sample essay conclusions to help you craft your own impactful conclusions. The following list includes conclusion examples for different types of essays.
Argumentative Essay Conclusion Example
Persuasive Essay Conclusion Example
Good Essay Conclusion Example
Informative Essay Conclusion Example
College Essay Conclusion Example
Expository Essay Conclusion Example
Essay Conclusion Template
Apart from essay conclusion examples, here are some conclusion examples for other writing types.
Conclusion for a Research Paper Example
Conclusion for a Report Example
Conclusion for a Project Example
Tips for Writing an Effective Conclusion
To write a perfect ending, there are some tips you should keep in mind. Following the tips below can help make your conclusions engaging and impactful.
- Start with a Signpost: Use transition words to signal that you're concluding your essay. You can use transitional phrases like these:
- In conclusion
- To sum up
- In summary
- To conclude
- Emphasize Key Takeaways: Highlight the most important aspects of your work. Remind your readers of the key takeaways or arguments you've presented throughout your writing.
- Keep It Concise: Your conclusion should be to the point. Focus on reiterating your main points and providing a sense of ending to the reader
- Reflect on the "So What" Factor: Address the broader implications of your work. Explain why your topic or argument matters, both in the context of your writing and in the real world.
- End with Impact: Craft a closing statement that resonates with your readers. It should be a relevant and powerful statement that leaves a lasting impression.
Things to Avoid in a Conclusion
It's important to avoid some common pitfalls that can undermine the impact of your final words. Here are some things to avoid in a conclusion:
- Avoid Introducing New Information: Avoid introducing new ideas, arguments, or evidence in the conclusion. Focus on summarizing and reinforcing what you've already discussed in the body of the essay.
- Avoid Repetition without Clarity: Repetition of the same points without adding new insight can make your conclusion feel redundant and uninspiring. Reiterate your main points, but do so with a fresh perspective.
- Don’t Go Off-Topic: Stay on-topic in your conclusion. Avoid introducing unrelated or tangential issues that distract from your main message. Don't include unnecessary details or information that doesn't contribute to your overall message or purpose. Keep your conclusion focused and concise.
Here is an example of a bad conclusion that illustrates what your conclusion could look like if you don’t avoid these pitfalls:
This conclusion is bad because:
- It does not restate the main argument or thesis statement of the essay.
- It does not summarize the main points or evidence that support the thesis statement.
- It introduces a new, irrelevant topic in the conclusion.
A well-crafted conclusion successfully leaves an impression on your readers. It reconnects them with your thesis, underscores the significance of your work, and concludes with a memorable statement.
Remember that the conclusion is your last opportunity to resonate with your audience. So, whenever you're composing an essay, give your conclusions the attention they deserve and watch your paper stand out.
Don’t have the time you need to craft a great conclusion? Don’t worry!
Get professional essay writing help at MyPerfectWords.com . Our team of experienced essay writers can solve your writing problems with quality and timeliness.
Common Questions about Conclusions
How long should a conclusion be.
In general, a conclusion paragraph should contain 6-7 sentences and could be about 100-200 words. A conclusion should not be more than 10%-15% of the essay.
The length can vary depending on the length and complexity of your paper. Moreover, remember that the key is not its length but its ability to effectively summarize your points and provide a satisfying sense of closure.
How do I know what to include in my conclusion?
Your conclusion should reflect the main points of your writing and their implications or significance.
However, simply repeating your points is not enough. Your conclusion should also address the central question or purpose of your piece. Think about what you want your readers to remember most from your work, and emphasize those aspects in your conclusion.
Can the conclusion of an essay have a question?
Yes. Including a question in the conclusion can be good, especially if the question prompts further reflection or engages the reader's curiosity. It can leave the reader thinking and contemplating the topic long after they've finished reading.
However, it's important to ensure that the question is relevant to the essay's content and purpose. It should contribute to the overall message or theme of the essay.
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How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph (in Three Easy Steps!)
Written by Scribendi
If you've ever seen or read about a great lawyer (or watched a great actor play a great lawyer) in action, you know that a key element in winning a case is the closing argument.
The same goes for the concluding paragraph in a piece of writing.
The conclusion is your last opportunity to persuade your reader that the information you just imparted is significant. This is particularly important because a reader will typically remember the conclusion paragraph more vividly than the beginning of your paper. (Thank you, recency bias !)
Luckily, we've crafted a foolproof, three-step method to show you how to write a conclusion. Let's dive in!
Step 1: Anchor It
A good conclusion paragraph begins by transitioning your message from the body of your paper to the conclusion and anchoring it to your thesis statement .
A transitional phrase should be used in the opening of your conclusion; consider using a phrase like "it is clear," "it is evident," or "overall." Similarly, a lawyer might begin their closing argument with a line like "without a doubt." This sentence will set the tone for the rest of the concluding argument.
Rephrasing your main point to establish your conclusion and tie all your arguments together is an effective way to kick off the paragraph and begin to bring your thought process full circle for your reader.
Step 2: Prove It
Every good lawyer's closing argument is presented with intent and persuasion. Lawyers explain why their evidence is superior to that of the opposing council and why the judge or jury should consider their arguments when arriving at a verdict. This is what your conclusion paragraph should also achieve.
Your conclusion is the big finish to your paper. Be careful not to repeat your introduction or main ideas verbatim. Instead, you want to summarize your evidence while reminding the reader why it is significant in the context of your paper.
In the courtroom, once the closing argument has begun, a lawyer will try to persuade the jury to consider all of the valid points they presented throughout the case and why that evidence matters—similarly, you should explain to your reader why they should care about what you said in your paper.
To begin this process, review the main points you made within your paper. Create a summary of each point as well as the significant contributions each makes to your argument. Next, concisely present each summary in a sentence or two for the reader.
Think of it this way—if a lawyer's client has an alibi supported by their employer and colleagues that they were at work when a particular crime took place, the lawyer might summarize this finding as follows:
The alibi provided by my client's employer and colleagues indicates that there were no plausible means by which my client could have left the office, robbed the bank, and made it back to their desk without being noticed. The time required to travel between these locations is too significant for this to be possible; no person could have successfully accomplished this task without their absence being noted.
Use transitional phrases to move from one idea to the next. Consider how each point works in tandem with the others to arrive at the conclusion you have drawn—or want the reader to draw—from your work.
If our hypothetical accused has an alibi, an eyewitness description of the actual culprit, and no DNA evidence placing them at the scene of the crime, then a seamless summary of these facts using this advice may read as follows:
The alibi provided by my client's employer and colleagues indicates that there were no plausible means by which my client could have left the office, robbed the bank, and made it back to their desk without being noticed. The time required to travel between these locations is too significant for this to be possible; no person could have successfully accomplished this task without their absence being noted. Furthermore, a key witness stated that the perpetrator of this crime was a Caucasian male with blonde hair and a tall frame. My client is not only female but also stands at a height of only 5'2"; this is a clear indication that my client's appearance does not align with the eyewitness's account of the true culprit's appearance. These key description discrepancies are only furthered by the lack of DNA evidence produced by the prosecution.
As you can see here, each idea supports one overall theme and provides evidence that leads to a verdict or a conclusion (i.e., innocence). This evidence is used to persuade the target audience (in this case [pun intended], the jury). Similarly, your conclusion should present evidence to convince your reader to agree with your main argument.
In the final sentence(s) of your conclusion paragraph, you need to bring your desired conclusion to light. Leave the reader feeling as though your evidence is, without a doubt, valid. Accordingly, the lawyer of the hypothetical client accused of bank robbery may read a closing sentence similar to the following:
Not only has the prosecution failed to produce any substantially valid evidence against my client, but the evidence that has been presented in this court further supports my client's innocence. Therefore, we ask the jury to render a verdict of not guilty.
Step 3: Close It (Flawlessly)
If you were undergoing the trial of a lifetime, you would want your lawyer's closing statements to be delivered flawlessly and without hesitation. The same is true for your conclusion paragraph. To be persuasive and convincing, it needs to be logical, coherent, and grammatically correct.
Once you have written the first draft of your conclusion paragraph, take a moment to reread it. Ensure that you have indicated a transition from the body of your paper to your conclusion and that the key elements of your paper are anchored on your overall argument.
Make adjustments to your statements to ensure that they are concise, accurately reflect your intention, and explicitly provide the evidence required to support your claims. Furthermore, check that you did not introduce any new major ideas (these should all be discussed in the main body of your work).
Then, ask a friend or—better yet—a professional essay editor to edit your paper. This step may seem inconsequential; however, the most minor details and adjustments can truly empower and sculpt an argument.
How many shows or movies have you watched more than once? You may have observed that each time you rewatch certain scenes, you notice inconsistencies and inaccuracies. Editing a paper is no different. The editing process ensures that your ideas are clear of all ambiguities and errors and polishes your conclusion paragraph into a beautifully articulated reflection on your work as a whole.
Here’s an Example
If the thesis of your paper indicated that businesses would be more profitable if they adopted a four-day workweek to ensure higher employee engagement, then your concluding paragraph might be structured and written as follows using our foolproof, three-step method to writing a great conclusion paragraph.
It is clear that a four-day work week is beneficial for both businesses and employees.
When an employee has a healthy work–life balance, they are more likely to be engaged when they are at work. As a result of this heightened engagement, the business can operate more efficiently, thus generating higher profits. Furthermore, if an employee is engaged, they are less likely to leave their organization, and instances of absenteeism will decrease. This will lower both hiring and turnover costs as well as benefit plan costs.
Close It (Flawlessly)
Although this business structure may require operational adjustments and potential increases in short-term costs, the long-term benefits are indisputable.
Using our three-step method, you, too, can learn how to write a conclusion paragraph. Just remember: practice makes perfect! No lawyer becomes great overnight, and the same goes for great writers.
Here's a handy graphic describing each step involved in writing a great conclusion paragraph. Feel free to download, save, and print it at your convenience.
Image source: stevanovicigor/elements.envato.com
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Writing a Research Paper Conclusion | Step-by-Step Guide
Published on October 30, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on April 13, 2023.
- Restate the problem statement addressed in the paper
- Summarize your overall arguments or findings
- Suggest the key takeaways from your paper
The content of the conclusion varies depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or constructs an argument through engagement with sources .
Table of contents
Step 1: restate the problem, step 2: sum up the paper, step 3: discuss the implications, research paper conclusion examples, frequently asked questions about research paper conclusions.
The first task of your conclusion is to remind the reader of your research problem . You will have discussed this problem in depth throughout the body, but now the point is to zoom back out from the details to the bigger picture.
While you are restating a problem you’ve already introduced, you should avoid phrasing it identically to how it appeared in the introduction . Ideally, you’ll find a novel way to circle back to the problem from the more detailed ideas discussed in the body.
For example, an argumentative paper advocating new measures to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture might restate its problem as follows:
Meanwhile, an empirical paper studying the relationship of Instagram use with body image issues might present its problem like this:
“In conclusion …”
Avoid starting your conclusion with phrases like “In conclusion” or “To conclude,” as this can come across as too obvious and make your writing seem unsophisticated. The content and placement of your conclusion should make its function clear without the need for additional signposting.
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Having zoomed back in on the problem, it’s time to summarize how the body of the paper went about addressing it, and what conclusions this approach led to.
Depending on the nature of your research paper, this might mean restating your thesis and arguments, or summarizing your overall findings.
Argumentative paper: Restate your thesis and arguments
In an argumentative paper, you will have presented a thesis statement in your introduction, expressing the overall claim your paper argues for. In the conclusion, you should restate the thesis and show how it has been developed through the body of the paper.
Briefly summarize the key arguments made in the body, showing how each of them contributes to proving your thesis. You may also mention any counterarguments you addressed, emphasizing why your thesis holds up against them, particularly if your argument is a controversial one.
Don’t go into the details of your evidence or present new ideas; focus on outlining in broad strokes the argument you have made.
Empirical paper: Summarize your findings
In an empirical paper, this is the time to summarize your key findings. Don’t go into great detail here (you will have presented your in-depth results and discussion already), but do clearly express the answers to the research questions you investigated.
Describe your main findings, even if they weren’t necessarily the ones you expected or hoped for, and explain the overall conclusion they led you to.
Having summed up your key arguments or findings, the conclusion ends by considering the broader implications of your research. This means expressing the key takeaways, practical or theoretical, from your paper—often in the form of a call for action or suggestions for future research.
Argumentative paper: Strong closing statement
An argumentative paper generally ends with a strong closing statement. In the case of a practical argument, make a call for action: What actions do you think should be taken by the people or organizations concerned in response to your argument?
If your topic is more theoretical and unsuitable for a call for action, your closing statement should express the significance of your argument—for example, in proposing a new understanding of a topic or laying the groundwork for future research.
Empirical paper: Future research directions
In a more empirical paper, you can close by either making recommendations for practice (for example, in clinical or policy papers), or suggesting directions for future research.
Whatever the scope of your own research, there will always be room for further investigation of related topics, and you’ll often discover new questions and problems during the research process .
Finish your paper on a forward-looking note by suggesting how you or other researchers might build on this topic in the future and address any limitations of the current paper.
Full examples of research paper conclusions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.
- Argumentative paper
- Empirical paper
While the role of cattle in climate change is by now common knowledge, countries like the Netherlands continually fail to confront this issue with the urgency it deserves. The evidence is clear: To create a truly futureproof agricultural sector, Dutch farmers must be incentivized to transition from livestock farming to sustainable vegetable farming. As well as dramatically lowering emissions, plant-based agriculture, if approached in the right way, can produce more food with less land, providing opportunities for nature regeneration areas that will themselves contribute to climate targets. Although this approach would have economic ramifications, from a long-term perspective, it would represent a significant step towards a more sustainable and resilient national economy. Transitioning to sustainable vegetable farming will make the Netherlands greener and healthier, setting an example for other European governments. Farmers, policymakers, and consumers must focus on the future, not just on their own short-term interests, and work to implement this transition now.
As social media becomes increasingly central to young people’s everyday lives, it is important to understand how different platforms affect their developing self-conception. By testing the effect of daily Instagram use among teenage girls, this study established that highly visual social media does indeed have a significant effect on body image concerns, with a strong correlation between the amount of time spent on the platform and participants’ self-reported dissatisfaction with their appearance. However, the strength of this effect was moderated by pre-test self-esteem ratings: Participants with higher self-esteem were less likely to experience an increase in body image concerns after using Instagram. This suggests that, while Instagram does impact body image, it is also important to consider the wider social and psychological context in which this usage occurs: Teenagers who are already predisposed to self-esteem issues may be at greater risk of experiencing negative effects. Future research into Instagram and other highly visual social media should focus on establishing a clearer picture of how self-esteem and related constructs influence young people’s experiences of these platforms. Furthermore, while this experiment measured Instagram usage in terms of time spent on the platform, observational studies are required to gain more insight into different patterns of usage—to investigate, for instance, whether active posting is associated with different effects than passive consumption of social media content.
If you’re unsure about the conclusion, it can be helpful to ask a friend or fellow student to read your conclusion and summarize the main takeaways.
- Do they understand from your conclusion what your research was about?
- Are they able to summarize the implications of your findings?
- Can they answer your research question based on your conclusion?
You can also get an expert to proofread and feedback your paper with a paper editing service .
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The conclusion of a research paper has several key elements you should make sure to include:
- A restatement of the research problem
- A summary of your key arguments and/or findings
- A short discussion of the implications of your research
No, it’s not appropriate to present new arguments or evidence in the conclusion . While you might be tempted to save a striking argument for last, research papers follow a more formal structure than this.
All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the results and discussion sections if you are following a scientific structure). The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.
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17 Essay Conclusion Examples (Copy and Paste)
Essay conclusions are not just extra filler. They are important because they tie together your arguments, then give you the chance to forcefully drive your point home.
In an argumentative essay, it’s important to restate the thesis statement and key for and against arguments. For a descriptive essay, restate your key points to demonstrate your depth of knowledge and understanding, and capacity to deeply analyze a topic.
Below are a range of copy-and-paste essay conclusions with gaps for you to fill-in your topic and key arguments. Browse through for one you like (there are 17 for argumentative, expository, compare and contrast, and critical essays). Once you’ve found one you like, copy it and add-in the key points to make it your own.
P.S If you don’t know the difference between the types of essays, start with my article on the differences between argumentative and expository essays .
Video: How to Write a Conclusion
I’ve previously produced this video (below) on how to write a conclusion. It follows the 5 C’s method ( you can read about it in this post ), which doesn’t perfectly match each of the below copy-and-paste conclusion examples, but the principles are similar, and can help you to write your own strong conclusion:
Essay Conclusion Examples
1. argumentative essay conclusions.
The arguments presented in this essay demonstrate the significant importance of _____________. While there are some strong counterarguments, such as ____________, it remains clear that the benefits/merits of _____________ far outweigh the potential downsides. The evidence presented throughout the essay strongly support _____________. In the coming years, _____________ will be increasingly important. Therefore, continual advocacy for the position presented in this essay will be necessary, especially due to its significant implications for _____________.
Version 1 Filled-In
The arguments presented in this essay demonstrate the significant importance of fighting climate change. While there are some strong counterarguments, such as the claim that it is too late to stop catastrophic change, it remains clear that the merits of taking drastic action far outweigh the potential downsides. The evidence presented throughout the essay strongly support the claim that we can at least mitigate the worst effects. In the coming years, intergovernmental worldwide agreements will be increasingly important. Therefore, continual advocacy for the position presented in this essay will be necessary, especially due to its significant implications for humankind.
As this essay has shown, it is clear that the debate surrounding _____________ is multifaceted and highly complex. While there are strong arguments opposing the position that _____________, there remains overwhelming evidence to support the claim that _____________. A careful analysis of the empirical evidence suggests that _____________ not only leads to ____________, but it may also be a necessity for _____________. Moving forward, _____________ should be a priority for all stakeholders involved, as it promises a better future for _____________. The focus should now shift towards how best to integrate _____________ more effectively into society.
Version 2 Filled-In
As this essay has shown, it is clear that the debate surrounding climate change is multifaceted and highly complex. While there are strong arguments opposing the position that we should fight climate change, there remains overwhelming evidence to support the claim that action can mitigate the worst effects. A careful analysis of the empirical evidence suggests that strong action not only leads to better economic outcomes in the long term, but it may also be a necessity for preventing climate-related deaths. Moving forward, carbon emission mitigation should be a priority for all stakeholders involved, as it promises a better future for all. The focus should now shift towards how best to integrate smart climate policies more effectively into society.
Based upon the preponderance of evidence, it is evident that _____________ holds the potential to significantly alter/improve _____________. The counterarguments, while noteworthy, fail to diminish the compelling case for _____________. Following an examination of both sides of the argument, it has become clear that _____________ presents the most effective solution/approach to _____________. Consequently, it is imperative that society acknowledge the value of _____________ for developing a better _____________. Failing to address this topic could lead to negative outcomes, including _____________.
Version 3 Filled-In
Based upon the preponderance of evidence, it is evident that addressing climate change holds the potential to significantly improve the future of society. The counterarguments, while noteworthy, fail to diminish the compelling case for immediate climate action. Following an examination of both sides of the argument, it has become clear that widespread and urgent social action presents the most effective solution to this pressing problem. Consequently, it is imperative that society acknowledge the value of taking immediate action for developing a better environment for future generations. Failing to address this topic could lead to negative outcomes, including more extreme climate events and greater economic externalities.
See Also: Examples of Counterarguments
On the balance of evidence, there is an overwhelming case for _____________. While the counterarguments offer valid points that are worth examining, they do not outweigh or overcome the argument that _____________. An evaluation of both perspectives on this topic concludes that _____________ is the most sufficient option for _____________. The implications of embracing _____________ do not only have immediate benefits, but they also pave the way for a more _____________. Therefore, the solution of _____________ should be actively pursued by _____________.
Version 4 Filled-In
On the balance of evidence, there is an overwhelming case for immediate tax-based action to mitigate the effects of climate change. While the counterarguments offer valid points that are worth examining, they do not outweigh or overcome the argument that action is urgently necessary. An evaluation of both perspectives on this topic concludes that taking societal-wide action is the most sufficient option for achieving the best results. The implications of embracing a society-wide approach like a carbon tax do not only have immediate benefits, but they also pave the way for a more healthy future. Therefore, the solution of a carbon tax or equivalent policy should be actively pursued by governments.
2. Expository Essay Conclusions
Overall, it is evident that _____________ plays a crucial role in _____________. The analysis presented in this essay demonstrates the clear impact of _____________ on _____________. By understanding the key facts about _____________, practitioners/society are better equipped to navigate _____________. Moving forward, further exploration of _____________ will yield additional insights and information about _____________. As such, _____________ should remain a focal point for further discussions and studies on _____________.
Overall, it is evident that social media plays a crucial role in harming teenagers’ mental health. The analysis presented in this essay demonstrates the clear impact of social media on young people. By understanding the key facts about the ways social media cause young people to experience body dysmorphia, teachers and parents are better equipped to help young people navigate online spaces. Moving forward, further exploration of the ways social media cause harm will yield additional insights and information about how it can be more sufficiently regulated. As such, the effects of social media on youth should remain a focal point for further discussions and studies on youth mental health.
To conclude, this essay has explored the multi-faceted aspects of _____________. Through a careful examination of _____________, this essay has illuminated its significant influence on _____________. This understanding allows society to appreciate the idea that _____________. As research continues to emerge, the importance of _____________ will only continue to grow. Therefore, an understanding of _____________ is not merely desirable, but imperative for _____________.
To conclude, this essay has explored the multi-faceted aspects of globalization. Through a careful examination of globalization, this essay has illuminated its significant influence on the economy, cultures, and society. This understanding allows society to appreciate the idea that globalization has both positive and negative effects. As research continues to emerge, the importance of studying globalization will only continue to grow. Therefore, an understanding of globalization’s effects is not merely desirable, but imperative for judging whether it is good or bad.
Reflecting on the discussion, it is clear that _____________ serves a pivotal role in _____________. By delving into the intricacies of _____________, we have gained valuable insights into its impact and significance. This knowledge will undoubtedly serve as a guiding principle in _____________. Moving forward, it is paramount to remain open to further explorations and studies on _____________. In this way, our understanding and appreciation of _____________ can only deepen and expand.
Reflecting on the discussion, it is clear that mass media serves a pivotal role in shaping public opinion. By delving into the intricacies of mass media, we have gained valuable insights into its impact and significance. This knowledge will undoubtedly serve as a guiding principle in shaping the media landscape. Moving forward, it is paramount to remain open to further explorations and studies on how mass media impacts society. In this way, our understanding and appreciation of mass media’s impacts can only deepen and expand.
In conclusion, this essay has shed light on the importance of _____________ in the context of _____________. The evidence and analysis provided underscore the profound effect _____________ has on _____________. The knowledge gained from exploring _____________ will undoubtedly contribute to more informed and effective decisions in _____________. As we continue to progress, the significance of understanding _____________ will remain paramount. Hence, we should strive to deepen our knowledge of _____________ to better navigate and influence _____________.
In conclusion, this essay has shed light on the importance of bedside manner in the context of nursing. The evidence and analysis provided underscore the profound effect compassionate bedside manner has on patient outcome. The knowledge gained from exploring nurses’ bedside manner will undoubtedly contribute to more informed and effective decisions in nursing practice. As we continue to progress, the significance of understanding nurses’ bedside manner will remain paramount. Hence, we should strive to deepen our knowledge of this topic to better navigate and influence patient outcomes.
3. Compare and Contrast Essay Conclusion
While both _____________ and _____________ have similarities such as _____________, they also have some very important differences in areas like _____________. Through this comparative analysis, a broader understanding of _____________ and _____________ has been attained. The choice between the two will largely depend on _____________. For example, as highlighted in the essay, ____________. Despite their differences, both _____________ and _____________ have value in different situations.
While both macrosociology and microsociology have similarities such as their foci on how society is structured, they also have some very important differences in areas like their differing approaches to research methodologies. Through this comparative analysis, a broader understanding of macrosociology and microsociology has been attained. The choice between the two will largely depend on the researcher’s perspective on how society works. For example, as highlighted in the essay, microsociology is much more concerned with individuals’ experiences while macrosociology is more concerned with social structures. Despite their differences, both macrosociology and microsociology have value in different situations.
It is clear that _____________ and _____________, while seeming to be different, have shared characteristics in _____________. On the other hand, their contrasts in _____________ shed light on their unique features. The analysis provides a more nuanced comprehension of these subjects. In choosing between the two, consideration should be given to _____________. Despite their disparities, it’s crucial to acknowledge the importance of both when it comes to _____________.
It is clear that behaviorism and consructivism, while seeming to be different, have shared characteristics in their foci on knowledge acquisition over time. On the other hand, their contrasts in ideas about the role of experience in learning shed light on their unique features. The analysis provides a more nuanced comprehension of these subjects. In choosing between the two, consideration should be given to which approach works best in which situation. Despite their disparities, it’s crucial to acknowledge the importance of both when it comes to student education.
Reflecting on the points discussed, it’s evident that _____________ and _____________ share similarities such as _____________, while also demonstrating unique differences, particularly in _____________. The preference for one over the other would typically depend on factors such as _____________. Yet, regardless of their distinctions, both _____________ and _____________ play integral roles in their respective areas, significantly contributing to _____________.
Reflecting on the points discussed, it’s evident that red and orange share similarities such as the fact they are both ‘hot colors’, while also demonstrating unique differences, particularly in their social meaning (red meaning danger and orange warmth). The preference for one over the other would typically depend on factors such as personal taste. Yet, regardless of their distinctions, both red and orange play integral roles in their respective areas, significantly contributing to color theory.
Ultimately, the comparison and contrast of _____________ and _____________ have revealed intriguing similarities and notable differences. Differences such as _____________ give deeper insights into their unique and shared qualities. When it comes to choosing between them, _____________ will likely be a deciding factor. Despite these differences, it is important to remember that both _____________ and _____________ hold significant value within the context of _____________, and each contributes to _____________ in its own unique way.
Ultimately, the comparison and contrast of driving and flying have revealed intriguing similarities and notable differences. Differences such as their differing speed to destination give deeper insights into their unique and shared qualities. When it comes to choosing between them, urgency to arrive at the destination will likely be a deciding factor. Despite these differences, it is important to remember that both driving and flying hold significant value within the context of air transit, and each contributes to facilitating movement in its own unique way.
See Here for More Compare and Contrast Essay Examples
4. Critical Essay Conclusion
In conclusion, the analysis of _____________ has unveiled critical aspects related to _____________. While there are strengths in _____________, its limitations are equally telling. This critique provides a more informed perspective on _____________, revealing that there is much more beneath the surface. Moving forward, the understanding of _____________ should evolve, considering both its merits and flaws.
In conclusion, the analysis of flow theory has unveiled critical aspects related to motivation and focus. While there are strengths in achieving a flow state, its limitations are equally telling. This critique provides a more informed perspective on how humans achieve motivation, revealing that there is much more beneath the surface. Moving forward, the understanding of flow theory of motivation should evolve, considering both its merits and flaws.
To conclude, this critical examination of _____________ sheds light on its multi-dimensional nature. While _____________ presents notable advantages, it is not without its drawbacks. This in-depth critique offers a comprehensive understanding of _____________. Therefore, future engagements with _____________ should involve a balanced consideration of its strengths and weaknesses.
To conclude, this critical examination of postmodern art sheds light on its multi-dimensional nature. While postmodernism presents notable advantages, it is not without its drawbacks. This in-depth critique offers a comprehensive understanding of how it has contributed to the arts over the past 50 years. Therefore, future engagements with postmodern art should involve a balanced consideration of its strengths and weaknesses.
Upon reflection, the critique of _____________ uncovers profound insights into its underlying intricacies. Despite its positive aspects such as ________, it’s impossible to overlook its shortcomings. This analysis provides a nuanced understanding of _____________, highlighting the necessity for a balanced approach in future interactions. Indeed, both the strengths and weaknesses of _____________ should be taken into account when considering ____________.
Upon reflection, the critique of marxism uncovers profound insights into its underlying intricacies. Despite its positive aspects such as its ability to critique exploitation of labor, it’s impossible to overlook its shortcomings. This analysis provides a nuanced understanding of marxism’s harmful effects when used as an economic theory, highlighting the necessity for a balanced approach in future interactions. Indeed, both the strengths and weaknesses of marxism should be taken into account when considering the use of its ideas in real life.
Ultimately, this critique of _____________ offers a detailed look into its advantages and disadvantages. The strengths of _____________ such as __________ are significant, yet its limitations such as _________ are not insignificant. This balanced analysis not only offers a deeper understanding of _____________ but also underscores the importance of critical evaluation. Hence, it’s crucial that future discussions around _____________ continue to embrace this balanced approach.
Ultimately, this critique of artificial intelligence offers a detailed look into its advantages and disadvantages. The strengths of artificial intelligence, such as its ability to improve productivity are significant, yet its limitations such as the possibility of mass job losses are not insignificant. This balanced analysis not only offers a deeper understanding of artificial intelligence but also underscores the importance of critical evaluation. Hence, it’s crucial that future discussions around the regulation of artificial intelligence continue to embrace this balanced approach.
This article promised 17 essay conclusions, and this one you are reading now is the twenty-first. This last conclusion demonstrates that the very best essay conclusions are written uniquely, from scratch, in order to perfectly cater the conclusion to the topic. A good conclusion will tie together all the key points you made in your essay and forcefully drive home the importance or relevance of your argument, thesis statement, or simply your topic so the reader is left with one strong final point to ponder.
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Conclusion Paragraph | How To Write A Conclusion Paragraph with Examples
When writing an essay, there are a variety of things that should be taken into consideration and one of those things is the conclusion paragraph. In this article, we are going to be looking at what a conclusion paragraph is and how you can write a good one. We are also going to be looking at some examples of strong conclusion paragraphs as a way of gaining a further understanding of their function.
Table of Contents
What Is A Conclusion Paragraph?
In essay terms, a conclusion paragraph is one which is used to sum up and bring to a conclusion, all of the ideas that have been discussed during the body of the essay. The conclusion paragraph can be used to demonstrate to the audience that the goal you set out to achieve has been accomplished. It can also show the reader that you have proven your thesis statement .
There are certain things that you should keep in mind when writing a conclusion paragraph. Let’s move on and take a look at these in some more detail.
How To Write A Conclusion Paragraph
Tips for writing a conclusion paragraph.
When writing your conclusion paragraph there are certain rules you should follow. For example, there are certain things that should be included in a conclusion paragraph. The idea is to sum up what has been talked about in the essay . You might follow these tips to help you along.
- Refer back to your introduction paragraph to guide you in writing your conclusion. For example, if in your introduction you stated ‘Australia is the best country for a holiday as there are so many things to do’ , you might begin your conclusion with similar information such as ‘There are a lot of things to do in Australia and this is what makes it the best country for a holiday.’
- You should also recall information from each of your body paragraphs and summarise this in the conclusion. If you detailed three things to do in Australia this should be reflected in your conclusion, perhaps by using a sentence such as ‘ The Great Barrier Reef , Ayers Rock and Bondi beach are all major attractions for anyone travelling to Australia.’
- It is also important to give the reader something to consider once they have finished the essay. You might write something along the lines of the following: ‘Have you ever thought about what you would like to see in Australia?’
- The conclusion paragraph should flow and bring the piece of writing to a close smoothly and concisely.
- You can think of the conclusion as being the polar opposite of the introduction, an introduction will begin general and move into being specific whereas the conclusion starts off with a specific point and goes into a more general ending.
- The closing sentence of your conclusion should give your readers a sense that the essay has achieved what it set out to accomplish and that they are glad they have read the essay or have come away with some additional knowledge.
- Your conclusion should refer back to the thesis statement which you included in your introduction, however, if you want to write a truly catchy essay, you should not repeat it word for word in your conclusion. A better way to refer back to it would be to reword it slightly.
- In order to bring the audience full circle, it is important to refer back to the themes that were mentioned in your introduction.
Things To Avoid In A Conclusion
There are certain things that should be avoided when writing a conclusion paragraph. Let’s take a look at these now.
- You should never bring up new information in the conclusion paragraph. This is a place for exclusively summing up the ideas that have been talked about. If a new idea comes to mind when writing the conclusion, you should create a body paragraph for this information.
- Data and statistics should not be included in the conclusion, these should be kept to the body.
- Never use the thesis statement for the first time during the conclusion paragraph.
- Do not write a conclusion that does not follow the tone or theme of the rest of the essay. It should tie in with what has already been said and how it has been said.
How To Start A Conclusion
There are specific terms which should be used when starting your conclusion paragraph. These transition words and phrases, known as conclusion transition words can help you to bring together all of your ideas and thoughts in one neat and concise sentence. Some of these phrases might be as follows:
- In conclusion
- By and Large
- To summarise
- On the whole
- In the final analysis
Examples Of A Conclusion Paragraph
Now that we are aware of how to write a good conclusion paragraph, we are going to take a look at some examples as a way of gaining a further understanding of what should be included. The first example is taken from an argumentative essay.
To conclude, the writers had said that the vegetarian diet led to the less small all cause type of mortality, and a couple of declines in cause specific mortality. Coupled with the Eshel paper, the study should have proven that the vegetarian diet is a lot more safe for everyone.
The next example is one taken from an essay based on the subject of why Ross did not deserve Rachael on Friends.
Even though viewers had always expected that Ross and Rachael would reunite at the end of the Friends series, the fact is that Ross did not deserve her as a girlfriend. As we seen at the beginning of the series, he was unfaithful to her after they had been together for more than a year, and he did not wish to admit his wrongdoings once they attempted to get back together after breaking up the first time. On top of this, Ross was extremely demanding and jealous as a partner, shouting at Rachael in the presence of their friends on many occasions. Finally, and most importantly, he had an awful reaction when she told him that she was pregnant after the wedding of Monica and Chandler, which made him undesirable as a partner for either her or any other character within the show. This conclusion is even more apparent when we view the show years after it ended, now that we have a better understanding of the rights of women and of domestic abuse in romantic relationships.
Your conclusion paragraph should include three main points: a reference back to the thesis statement, a summary of the information discussed and something to get the reader to think. There are certain ways you can write a conclusion paragraph and a variety of conclusion transition words that can help link your ideas to one another.
Conclusion Paragraph | Image
How to Write a Conclusion Paragraph | Video
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My Davidson | A Student Blog Student-to-Student: Advice from Davidson College Students on the College Essay
Current Davidson College students share their tips and tricks for navigating and writing the college essay.
About the Authors
This piece was written by Senior Fellows in Davidson College's Office of Admission & Financial Aid; Zaynab Abuhakema ’24, Nathanael Bagonza ’24, Chloe Boissy Stauffer ’24, Kelsey Chase ’24, Amanda Fuenzalida ’24, Olivia Howard ’24 (she/her), Ann Nishida ’24, Lilly Sirover ’24, Samuel Waithira ’24 and Ruby Zhou ’24.
Learn more about them below.
Zaynab Abuhakema ’24 (she/her) is a physics major and theatre minor from Summerville, South Carolina.
“Just be honest! We want to know more about YOU and why you can see yourself at Davidson. Tell us about your passions in the way that makes the most sense to you. Have someone read over it if you want, but don’t worry too much about the technical part. Just show us who you are the best way you can on a page.”
Nathanael Bagonza ’24 (he/him) is an English major from Haverhill, Massachusetts.
“Don’t worry about if your writing is ‘great’ or not; rather, be intentional in ensuring that your essays demonstrate who you are and what you are passionate about! I ended up becoming an English major writing a collection of essays for my senior honors thesis, but what made my application essays work from day one was telling stories that really spoke to my true, authentic self.”
Chloe Boissy Stauffer ’24 (she/her) is an environmental studies and political science double major from Lake Atitlan, Guatemala.
“A couple pages of writing will never capture your whole story- admissions counselors understand this. In order to communicate an accurate snapshot of who you are, try thinking of one hobby, one accomplishment, or one interaction that you think best reflects your overall skill set and worldview. By using one or two examples to ‘anchor’ your story, you can frame your personality, backstory and values. Whatever you write, make sure it’s authentic to who you are because that’s who we want to get to know.”
Kelsey Chase ’24 (she/her) is a political science major from Concord, New Hampshire.
“I read a lot of Common App essays during my college process, not because I wanted to study them or compare them to my own, but because I genuinely thought they were fascinating to read. This helped me realize that it’s helpful to think about writing the essays for a peer rather than an admissions officer. Don’t worry about what you think the admissions officers want to hear; rather, write an essay that you think would help potential friends understand you at your core. I would also advise against your parents or adults taking too much editorial control over your essay — you want your essay to sound like you, which is someone who’s 17 or 18 years old, not a professional. It can definitely be helpful to have someone read over it just to catch grammar mistakes or awkward phrasing, but what matters most is that you feel like it really conveys something important about who you are.”
Amanda Fuenzalida ’24 (she/her) is a biology major from Naples, Florida and Santiago, Chile.
“When I think about the personal essay, I always think about growth, because that is what life is, a continuous growing process. And at 17–18 years, you do not have to have everything figured out or have decided what you want to for the rest of your life. But what you can do well is reflect on the experiences that have made you the person you are at this very moment. And thinking about this personal statement, I would think maybe what are key major parts of my life that have shaped me to be who I am, that make you proud of yourself. Reading back your essay, you should feel that sense of pride, that this essay reflects the person you (not anyone else) are proud you have become.”
Olivia Howard ’24 (she/her) is a biology and German Studies double major from Dacula, Georgia.
“I do not consider writing to be my strong suit, and I remember the dread and fear I had when I was writing my college essays. Essays are intimidating, and you might feel lost trying to fit your story into the limits that are set. My advice to you is to be patient with yourself and allow who you are to come through on the page. Do not over stress about having the most complex grammar and sentence structure, but rather focus on writing what matters to you. It is okay to not be an award-winning writer who uses metaphors and various literary devices. A lot of times it is better to tell your story in a simple way rather than using flowery language and fluff that does not get your point across.”
Ann Nishida ’24 (she/her) is a biology major and music minor from Ridgewood, New Jersey.
“The focus is on you . The essay portion is a chance for the admission counselors to see a side of you that a transcript or test score won’t fully represent. A good starting point in discovering your unique qualities may be to ask yourself Why ? Why am I passionate about certain activities, why do I interact with my environment in a certain way, why do I want to go to Davidson, etc. Good luck!”
Lilly Sirover ’24 (she/her) is a biology major and public health minor on the premedicine track from Haddonfield, New Jersey.
“As someone who prefers speaking over writing, I highly recommend using a voice recording app to talk through your essay ideas as you begin the writing process. Talking through your unique strengths, challenges you have navigated, a personal experience that changed your perspective, a topic that you are endlessly curious about, or something else personal to you allows your story to develop naturally.”
Samuel Waithira ’24 (he/him) is an economics major and applied mathematics minor from Nairobi, Kenya.
“Be genuine with every aspect of your application. Do not try to mold your application into what you believe the college wants. When you present your true self, you build trust with the admissions team, showing that you have confidence in who you are. Remember that each applicant is unique, and colleges are often looking for a diverse student body. By being genuine, you can showcase your individuality and the qualities that set you apart from other applicants.”
Ruby Zhou ’24 (she/her) is an English major on the predental track from Houston, Texas.
“Start writing. I have a tendency to procrastinate whenever I have a daunting task looming over me, and I just need to start writing or I’ll never get it done. The writing might sound horrible and you might feel embarrassed, but if you think about it, the earlier you start, the more time you have to change “bad” writing to something beautiful.”
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