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How to Write a Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion
Published on September 6, 2022 by Tegan George and Shona McCombes. Revised on July 18, 2023.
The conclusion is the very last part of your thesis or dissertation . It should be concise and engaging, leaving your reader with a clear understanding of your main findings, as well as the answer to your research question .
In it, you should:
- Clearly state the answer to your main research question
- Summarize and reflect on your research process
- Make recommendations for future work on your thesis or dissertation topic
- Show what new knowledge you have contributed to your field
- Wrap up your thesis or dissertation
Table of contents
Discussion vs. conclusion, how long should your conclusion be, step 1: answer your research question, step 2: summarize and reflect on your research, step 3: make future recommendations, step 4: emphasize your contributions to your field, step 5: wrap up your thesis or dissertation, full conclusion example, conclusion checklist, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about conclusion sections.
While your conclusion contains similar elements to your discussion section , they are not the same thing.
Your conclusion should be shorter and more general than your discussion. Instead of repeating literature from your literature review , discussing specific research results , or interpreting your data in detail, concentrate on making broad statements that sum up the most important insights of your research.
As a rule of thumb, your conclusion should not introduce new data, interpretations, or arguments.
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Depending on whether you are writing a thesis or dissertation, your length will vary. Generally, a conclusion should make up around 5–7% of your overall word count.
An empirical scientific study will often have a short conclusion, concisely stating the main findings and recommendations for future research. A humanities dissertation topic or systematic review , on the other hand, might require more space to conclude its analysis, tying all the previous sections together in an overall argument.
Your conclusion should begin with the main question that your thesis or dissertation aimed to address. This is your final chance to show that you’ve done what you set out to do, so make sure to formulate a clear, concise answer.
- Don’t repeat a list of all the results that you already discussed
- Do synthesize them into a final takeaway that the reader will remember.
An empirical thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:
A case study –based thesis or dissertation conclusion may begin like this:
In the second example, the research aim is not directly restated, but rather added implicitly to the statement. To avoid repeating yourself, it is helpful to reformulate your aims and questions into an overall statement of what you did and how you did it.
Your conclusion is an opportunity to remind your reader why you took the approach you did, what you expected to find, and how well the results matched your expectations.
To avoid repetition , consider writing more reflectively here, rather than just writing a summary of each preceding section. Consider mentioning the effectiveness of your methodology , or perhaps any new questions or unexpected insights that arose in the process.
You can also mention any limitations of your research, but only if you haven’t already included these in the discussion. Don’t dwell on them at length, though—focus on the positives of your work.
- While x limits the generalizability of the results, this approach provides new insight into y .
- This research clearly illustrates x , but it also raises the question of y .
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You may already have made a few recommendations for future research in your discussion section, but the conclusion is a good place to elaborate and look ahead, considering the implications of your findings in both theoretical and practical terms.
- Based on these conclusions, practitioners should consider …
- To better understand the implications of these results, future studies could address …
- Further research is needed to determine the causes of/effects of/relationship between …
When making recommendations for further research, be sure not to undermine your own work. Relatedly, while future studies might confirm, build on, or enrich your conclusions, they shouldn’t be required for your argument to feel complete. Your work should stand alone on its own merits.
Just as you should avoid too much self-criticism, you should also avoid exaggerating the applicability of your research. If you’re making recommendations for policy, business, or other practical implementations, it’s generally best to frame them as “shoulds” rather than “musts.” All in all, the purpose of academic research is to inform, explain, and explore—not to demand.
Make sure your reader is left with a strong impression of what your research has contributed to the state of your field.
Some strategies to achieve this include:
- Returning to your problem statement to explain how your research helps solve the problem
- Referring back to the literature review and showing how you have addressed a gap in knowledge
- Discussing how your findings confirm or challenge an existing theory or assumption
Again, avoid simply repeating what you’ve already covered in the discussion in your conclusion. Instead, pick out the most important points and sum them up succinctly, situating your project in a broader context.
The end is near! Once you’ve finished writing your conclusion, it’s time to wrap up your thesis or dissertation with a few final steps:
- It’s a good idea to write your abstract next, while the research is still fresh in your mind.
- Next, make sure your reference list is complete and correctly formatted. To speed up the process, you can use our free APA citation generator .
- Once you’ve added any appendices , you can create a table of contents and title page .
- Finally, read through the whole document again to make sure your thesis is clearly written and free from language errors. You can proofread it yourself , ask a friend, or consider Scribbr’s proofreading and editing service .
Here is an example of how you can write your conclusion section. Notice how it includes everything mentioned above:
The current research aimed to identify acoustic speech characteristics which mark the beginning of an exacerbation in COPD patients.
The central questions for this research were as follows: 1. Which acoustic measures extracted from read speech differ between COPD speakers in stable condition and healthy speakers? 2. In what ways does the speech of COPD patients during an exacerbation differ from speech of COPD patients during stable periods?
All recordings were aligned using a script. Subsequently, they were manually annotated to indicate respiratory actions such as inhaling and exhaling. The recordings of 9 stable COPD patients reading aloud were then compared with the recordings of 5 healthy control subjects reading aloud. The results showed a significant effect of condition on the number of in- and exhalations per syllable, the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable, and the ratio of voiced and silence intervals. The number of in- and exhalations per syllable and the number of non-linguistic in- and exhalations per syllable were higher for COPD patients than for healthy controls, which confirmed both hypotheses.
However, the higher ratio of voiced and silence intervals for COPD patients compared to healthy controls was not in line with the hypotheses. This unpredicted result might have been caused by the different reading materials or recording procedures for both groups, or by a difference in reading skills. Moreover, there was a trend regarding the effect of condition on the number of syllables per breath group. The number of syllables per breath group was higher for healthy controls than for COPD patients, which was in line with the hypothesis. There was no effect of condition on pitch, intensity, center of gravity, pitch variability, speaking rate, or articulation rate.
This research has shown that the speech of COPD patients in exacerbation differs from the speech of COPD patients in stable condition. This might have potential for the detection of exacerbations. However, sustained vowels rarely occur in spontaneous speech. Therefore, the last two outcome measures might have greater potential for the detection of beginning exacerbations, but further research on the different outcome measures and their potential for the detection of exacerbations is needed due to the limitations of the current study.
I have clearly and concisely answered the main research question .
I have summarized my overall argument or key takeaways.
I have mentioned any important limitations of the research.
I have given relevant recommendations .
I have clearly explained what my research has contributed to my field.
I have not introduced any new data or arguments.
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In a thesis or dissertation, the discussion is an in-depth exploration of the results, going into detail about the meaning of your findings and citing relevant sources to put them in context.
The conclusion is more shorter and more general: it concisely answers your main research question and makes recommendations based on your overall findings.
While it may be tempting to present new arguments or evidence in your thesis or disseration conclusion , especially if you have a particularly striking argument you’d like to finish your analysis with, you shouldn’t. Theses and dissertations follow a more formal structure than this.
All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the discussion section and results section .) The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.
For a stronger dissertation conclusion , avoid including:
- Important evidence or analysis that wasn’t mentioned in the discussion section and results section
- Generic concluding phrases (e.g. “In conclusion …”)
- Weak statements that undermine your argument (e.g., “There are good points on both sides of this issue.”)
Your conclusion should leave the reader with a strong, decisive impression of your work.
The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation shouldn’t take up more than 5–7% of your overall word count.
The conclusion of your thesis or dissertation should include the following:
- A restatement of your research question
- A summary of your key arguments and/or results
- A short discussion of the implications of your research
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How to write an excellent thesis conclusion [with examples]
At this point in your writing, you have most likely finished your introduction and the body of your thesis, dissertation, or research paper . While this is a reason to celebrate, you should not underestimate the importance of your conclusion. The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable.
A good conclusion will review the key points of the thesis and explain to the reader why the information is relevant, applicable, or related to the world as a whole. Make sure to dedicate enough of your writing time to the conclusion and do not put it off until the very last minute.
This article provides an effective technique for writing a conclusion adapted from Erika Eby’s The College Student's Guide to Writing a Good Research Paper: 101 Easy Tips & Tricks to Make Your Work Stand Out .
While the thesis introduction starts out with broad statements about the topic, and then narrows it down to the thesis statement , a thesis conclusion does the same in the opposite order.
- Restate the thesis.
- Review or reiterate key points of your work.
- Explain why your work is relevant.
- Include a core take-away message for the reader.
- Restate the thesis
Tip: Don’t just copy and paste your thesis into your conclusion. Restate it in different words.
The best way to start a conclusion is simply by restating the thesis statement. That does not mean just copying and pasting it from the introduction, but putting it into different words.
You will need to change the structure and wording of it to avoid sounding repetitive. Also, be firm in your conclusion just as you were in the introduction. Try to avoid sounding apologetic by using phrases like "This paper has tried to show..."
The conclusion should address all the same parts as the thesis while making it clear that the reader has reached the end. You are telling the reader that your research is finished and what your findings are.
I have argued throughout this work that the point of critical mass for biopolitical immunity occurred during the Romantic period because of that era's unique combination of post-revolutionary politics and innovations in smallpox prevention. In particular, I demonstrated that the French Revolution and the discovery of vaccination in the 1790s triggered a reconsideration of the relationship between bodies and the state.
- Review or reiterate key points of your work
Tip: Try to reiterate points from your introduction in your thesis conclusion.
The next step is to review the main points of the thesis as a whole. Look back at the body of of your project and make a note of the key ideas. You can reword these ideas the same way you reworded your thesis statement and then incorporate that into the conclusion.
You can also repeat striking quotations or statistics, but do not use more than two. As the conclusion represents your own closing thoughts on the topic , it should mainly consist of your own words.
In addition, conclusions can contain recommendations to the reader or relevant questions that further the thesis. You should ask yourself:
- What you would ideally like to see your readers do in reaction to your paper?
- Do you want them to take a certain action or investigate further?
- Is there a bigger issue that your paper wants to draw attention to?
Also, try to reference your introduction in your conclusion. You have already taken a first step by restating your thesis. Now, check whether there are other key words, phrases or ideas that are mentioned in your introduction that fit into your conclusion. Connecting the introduction to the conclusion in this way will help readers feel satisfied.
I explored how Mary Wollstonecraft, in both her fiction and political writings, envisions an ideal medico-political state, and how other writers like William Wordsworth and Mary Shelley increasingly imagined the body politic literally, as an incorporated political collective made up of bodies whose immunity to political and medical ills was essential to a healthy state.
- Explain why your work is relevant
Tip: Make sure to explain why your thesis is relevant to your field of research.
Although you can encourage readers to question their opinions and reflect on your topic, do not leave loose ends. You should provide a sense of resolution and make sure your conclusion wraps up your argument. Make sure you explain why your thesis is relevant to your field of research and how your research intervenes within, or substantially revises, existing scholarly debates.
This project challenged conventional ideas about the relationship among Romanticism, medicine, and politics by reading the unfolding of Romantic literature and biopolitical immunity as mutual, co-productive processes. In doing so, this thesis revises the ways in which biopolitics has been theorized by insisting on the inherent connections between Romantic literature and the forms of biopower that characterize early modernity.
- A take-away for the reader
Tip: If you began your thesis with an anecdote or historical example, you may want to return to that in your conclusion.
End your conclusion with something memorable, such as:
- a call to action
- a recommendation
- a gesture towards future research
- a brief explanation of how the problem or idea you covered remains relevant
Ultimately, you want readers to feel more informed, or ready to act, as they read your conclusion.
Yet, the Romantic period is only the beginning of modern thought on immunity and biopolitics. Victorian writers, doctors, and politicians upheld the Romantic idea that a "healthy state" was a literal condition that could be achieved by combining politics and medicine, but augmented that idea through legislation and widespread public health measures. While many nineteenth-century efforts to improve citizens' health were successful, the fight against disease ultimately changed course in the twentieth century as global immunological threats such as SARS occupied public consciousness. Indeed, as subsequent public health events make apparent, biopolitical immunity persists as a viable concept for thinking about the relationship between medicine and politics in modernity.
- More resources on writing thesis conclusions
Need more advice? Read our 5 additional tips on how to write a good thesis conclusion.
- Frequently Asked Questions about writing an excellent thesis conclusion
The conclusion is the last thing that your reader will see, so it should be memorable. To write a great thesis conclusion you should:
The basic content of a conclusion is to review the main points from the paper. This part represents your own closing thoughts on the topic. It should mainly consist of the outcome of the research in your own words.
The length of the conclusion will depend on the length of the whole thesis. Usually, a conclusion should be around 5-7% of the overall word count.
End your conclusion with something memorable, such as a question, warning, or call to action. Depending on the topic, you can also end with a recommendation.
In Open Access: Theses and Dissertations you can find thousands of completed works. Take a look at any of the theses or dissertations for real-life examples of conclusions that were already approved.
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Q: How to write the conclusion of a thesis or dissertation?
Asked on 07 Nov, 2019
Like the introduction, the conclusion of a thesis should also make an impact on the reader. this is because the conclusion is the last part of your study that they will see and chances are that a good ending will make a mark on them.
Basically, a good conclusion should restate the thesis statement and highlight the key points of your work, explaining to the reader why your work is important and how it contributes to the field. Here is a format that you could follow while writing the conclusion of your thesis:
1. Restate your thesis statement. Rephrase it so that slightly different from the thesis statement presented in the introduction and does not sound repetitive.
2. Reiterate the key points of your work. To do this, go back to your thesis and extract the topic sentences of each main paragraph/argument. Rephrase these sentences and use them in your conclusion.
3. Explain the relevance and significance of your work. These should include the larger implications of your work and showcase the impact it will have on society.
4. End with a take-home message, such as a call to action or future direction.
- What is theoretical framework in thesis or dissertation writing?
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Writing Your Thesis Conclusion Section: Making the last impression count
A thesis conclusion is the final section of a master’s or a Ph.D. thesis that summarizes the main findings of the research and presents the researcher's conclusions and recommendations. This section aims to provide a concise and comprehensive overview of the research, highlighting the key contributions and significance of the study. A thesis conclusion should also address the research questions or hypotheses and explain how the findings relate to the broader field of study. Overall, a thesis conclusion serves as a critical component of the thesis, showcasing the researcher's ability to synthesize and communicate complex information effectively.
This article describes the importance of your thesis conclusion section. It covers the details on how to write a thesis conclusion section and the final steps required after you have written this section.
What is the thesis conclusion section?
It is a summary of the thesis, highlighting the importance of the thesis study and how it stands in the context of the field of research.
The conclusion section is the final part of your thesis/dissertation. It is a summary of the thesis, highlighting the importance of the thesis study and how it stands in the context of the field of research.
The discussion and conclusion sections are usually written as separate chapters. However, they may be written as a single section in some fields. If you are unsure which structure to use, ask your supervisor for guidance and check the requirements of your academic institution.
What should the thesis conclusion section include?
- An explanation of how your findings have helped to solve a problem and contributed to the knowledge in your field of research (refer back to your thesis question)
- An explanation of how your findings have contributed to a gap in knowledge (refer back to your literature review )
- A discussion of how your findings fall within existing theories or assumptions in your field of research. Do they confirm or challenge them?
- A discussion of the limitations of your thesis study (if already mentioned in the discussion section, highlight only the important limitations in the conclusion section)
- Recommendations for practical applications of your findings and future investigations (if already mentioned in the discussion section, highlight only the key recommendations in the conclusion section)
End your conclusion with something memorable, such as a question, warning, or call to action.
We cannot afford further devastating and unnecessary deaths. The training of first responders on how to deal with a nuclear accident should be implemented immediately.
What should I avoid in the conclusion section of my thesis?
- Don’t underestimate the importance of your conclusion by treating it as an afterthought. It is a crucial section of your thesis study that incorporates the key results into a final takeaway message that the reader will remember.
- Don’t exaggerate the contributions of your research. Be realistic, and link your contribution back to existing literature.
- Don’t include new data, interpretations, or arguments.
- Don’t restate the results. Instead, incorporate the key findings into a final takeaway message for the reader.
- Avoid phrases like “To conclude…” or “In conclusion….” if the conclusion section is a chapter that is separate from the discussion. Your reader knows which section they are looking over.
Writing a great thesis conclusion section
When writing your thesis conclusion, consider what you would like the reader to remember if this was the only section of your thesis they read.
The thesis conclusion section must be able to stand alone as a separate entity from the other sections of your study. When writing your thesis conclusion, consider what you would like the reader to remember if this was the only section of your thesis they read. Thesis examiners often look at the abstract, introduction, and conclusion sections to gain an overall impression of your thesis study before delving into the other sections.
A great thesis conclusion section leaves the reader with a clear understanding of the main argument or discovery that resulted from your thesis study. It reminds them why you chose your particular approach, what you expected to find, and whether the findings met your expectations.
It is essential to highlight the relevance of your thesis study in the conclusion section so that the readers will be engaged and perhaps consider taking up one of your recommendations or collaborating with you on further research in your field of study.
The Sciences domain usually includes quantitative research, while the Humanities and Social Sciences(HSS) domain usually includes qualitative research. Therefore, the structure of the conclusion section is slightly different for each area.
Steps to writing a thesis conclusion section in the Sciences domain
- Restate and answer your thesis question
By evaluating the response to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster in 2011, we demonstrated that there was an insufficient number of adequately trained first responders.
- Summarize your findings .
This study demonstrates that ABC affects DEF but raises fundamental questions about the role of GHI.
- Explain or suggest the reasons for your thesis findings.
The significant relationship observed between ABC and JKL (p < 0.001) could be due to the synergistic effect of MNO on JKL.
- Explain the contributions of your study to the field.
This is the first report of Species X in Central Africa. Prior to this, Species X has only been observed in Northern Africa.
- Explain the limitations of your study.
Because the response rate to our questionnaire was only 19%, the significance of our findings may not be generalizable to the general population.
- Mention recommendations for practical applications and further research.
Further large-scale studies are suggested to confirm the association between ABC and JKL.
Steps to writing a thesis conclusion section in the HSS domain
- Restate the study purpose and findings.
This research aimed to…
- Summarize the relationship with previous research.
These findings concurred with those of...
- Discuss the limitations of your study/anticipation of criticism.
I have only addressed the role of… It must be stressed that I deliberately did not…
- Discuss problems that occurred when performing your research.
We were unable to e-mail the questionnaire to all of the selected participants because some of the addresses no longer existed.
- Mention the implications of your findings.
Our findings suggest that ABC may be a vital contributor to DEF.
- Make recommendations according to your study findings.
Future research into ABC is essential to confirm…
- Mention the contribution of your research to the field of study.
These findings provide an alternative theory to that proposed by…
- Give an autobiographical reflection.
While undertaking this research, I gained valuable insight into… This thesis study has prompted me to…
If you didn’t mention the limitations of your study in the discussion section , they must be included in the conclusion section. When discussing your study limitations, first identify them, then explain their impact on your study, and finally suggest how they could be addressed in future investigations. These three steps will help you to demonstrate the weaknesses of your study without undermining the value and integrity of your research.
Examples of study limitations: sample size, differences in methods used for data collection or analysis, study type (e.g., retrospective vs. prospective), inclusion/exclusion criteria of the study population, and effects of confounders Example study limitation statement: This was a single-institution study, and the results may not be generalizable to populations in rural areas…
Recommendations arising from your study findings
If you didn’t mention recommendations arising from your study findings in the discussion section of your thesis study, they must be included in the conclusion section. Don’t exaggerate the contributions or significance of your findings.
Recommendations should consider the relevance of your findings for further investigations or how your findings could be extended to other academic or real-world settings and practices. This could include:
- Addressing questions related to your study that remain unanswered
Because the cause of the association remains unelucidated, this should be the topic of future studies
- Suggesting a logical progression of your research using concrete ideas
Building on our findings that the number of staff trained to respond to a nuclear accident was inadequate, we suggest developing and rolling out a compulsory training program for all first responders.
- Suggesting future work based on the study limitations that you have identified
Future studies using a larger sample size from multiple sites are recommended to confirm the generalizability of our findings
Final steps after completing your thesis conclusion
- Write your thesis abstract. This is the ideal time to do so because you have just summarized the key points of your research in the conclusion section so that the information will be fresh in your mind.
- Complete and format the reference list .
- Add an acknowledgments section thanking those who helped you (e.g., your supervisor, co-supervisors, and academic and support staff). Also, mention all organizations that provided funding for your thesis study and include the grant number, if applicable.
- Add any appendices.
- Add a list of abbreviations.
- Some institutions may require a list of figures and tables. Add this in if required.
- Create the table of contents .
- Create the title page. Check with your institution what elements are required and how the title page should be formatted.
- Some institutions require a declaration by the candidate stating that the work is original and that all sources have been cited. Check with your institution for specific requirements.
- Consider adding a dedication statement. For example, you may want to thank your spouse for their support.
- Proofread and edit your thesis. For professional thesis editing and thesis proofreading services, visit Enago Thesis Editing for more information.
A thesis is the most important document you will write during your academic studies. For professional thesis editing and thesis proofreading services , visit Enago Thesis Editing for more information.
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Have you answered the thesis question clearly and concisely?
Have you summarized the overall argument of the key message?
Have you mentioned the limitations of your thesis study?
Have you given recommendations for the next steps and future investigations?
Have you clearly explained how your research contributes to or addresses a gap in the knowledge of your subject area?
What are the differences between the discussion and conclusion sections in a thesis? +
The discussion section mentions specific results and interprets them in depth. On the other hand, the conclusion section makes general statements that summarize the most important insights stemming from your thesis study.
What is the recommended length of the thesis conclusion section? +
The thesis conclusion should be shorter than the discussion section. It typically comprises 5%–7% of the overall word count.
How does the introduction link to the conclusion section in a thesis? +
The introduction section poses the thesis question and explains the background to the problem. The conclusion section answers the thesis question by summarizing the topic and the research findings.
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How to Write a Dissertation or Thesis Conclusion: Guide & Examples
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A dissertation conclusion serves as the final chapter and is often the last thing the reader will see. It should provide a concise summary of the research project, including the research questions or hypotheses, the methods used to conduct the research, and the key findings and conclusions. The conclusion section should also discuss the implications of the research, including its significance for the field and any practical applications of the findings.
Are you a PhD, doctorate, or bachelor student looking forward to writing your dissertation/thesis conclusion and don't know where to start? Stop worrying — help is here. Continue reading this blog post to gain an idea on how to write a conclusion for a thesis or dissertation. In this article, we will discuss what a dissertation conclusion is, its length, and what it should include. Our dissertation services also provided examples, and explained some typical mistakes you have to avoid.
What Is a Dissertation Conclusion?
So, what is a thesis conclusion? It is a concluding chapter in a dissertation or thesis paper. It is the last section of an academic work, carefully written to summarize the information discussed in a document and offer readers insight into what the research has achieved. Your dissertation or thesis conclusion should be well-drafted as it is a reference point that people will remember most. The purpose of dissertation conclusion is to give those reading a sense of closure and reiterate any critical issues discussed. Each conclusion for dissertation should be concise, clear, and definitive. Also, its aim is to offer recommendations for further investigation as well as give readers an understanding of the dissertation discussion chapter .
Thesis or Dissertation Conclusion Length
The conclusion of a thesis or a dissertation is a long chapter — not one single sentence but a whole page or more. Generally, it should be 5–7% of the overall word count. The length of a thesis or dissertation conclusion chapter depends on several factors, such as your academic field, research topic , and stated number of pages. However, it can vary depending on other circumstances. Indeed, you should always refer to each set of your university guidelines for writing conclusions. It's important to note that this section ought not to introduce any new information and be a summary of the research findings. Also, every dissertation conclusion must not be too long as it can distract from other aspects of your thesis. Make sure that you provide a balanced summary and avoid repeating yourself. Lastly, it has to be long enough to discuss its implications for future studies.
What to Include in the Conclusion of a Dissertation or Thesis?
Writing a thesis conclusion can be challenging, but every student needs to understand how to create it, as this is one of the most critical parts of your Ph.D. work. Below is the list of things every dissertation conclusion structure should include:
- Summary of the major findings of your research Summarize the main points discussed in your work.
- Implications of your research Discuss your study's implications for future research and academic fields. Doing this here is essential to indicate an author's transparency and willingness to accept the flaws of their report.
- Recommendations for further study Provide suggestions for the next investigation if needed.
- Reviewing any limitations and weaknesses of the research process and findings It is an integral part of dissertation conclusions as it allows authors to reflect on the process.
- Evaluation or analysis of your findings Analyze your research findings and provide an assessment.
- Conclusion statement Provide a specific conclusion that summarizes your thesis or dissertation.
Hopefully, these tips on writing a conclusion chapter for your thesis or dissertation will help you finish your work confidently. All these components should be present when writing a conclusion for thesis or dissertation. Additionally, ensure that you do not repeat yourself. Lastly, keep your length appropriate and based on your university guidelines.
How to Write a Dissertation Conclusion Chapter?
When writing this chapter, you should ensure its content is clear and concise. Equipping yourself with some knowledge of how to write a conclusion for a dissertation or thesis is imperative, as it will help you keep your piece organized, logical, and interesting. This chapter is the last part of your work that your professors or readers will read, and it should make a lasting impression on them. Below is a step-by-step instruction on how to write a dissertation conclusion section.
1. Restate Your Research Question and Answer It
While writing a dissertation conclusion, your first step is to restate the research question offered in your dissertation introduction and reveal the answer. It is essential to do this in your conclusion in thesis or dissertation because it helps readers be aware of every primary point you were trying to achieve in writing. In addition, restating available research questions in your conclusion in a dissertation or thesis will also make people understand the significance of your inquiry. In other words, it should remind people of the original purpose of writing. Provide further insights into a topic when answering each research question. In addition, responses must be related to your dissertation results section and offer evidence for any conclusions you made in your study. When writing a dissertation conclusion chapter, you ought to be able to give a meaningful response to the study question that adds value to your work. Keeping replies short, concise, and clear will help you to avoid writing irrelevant content. Below is an example of how to start a dissertation conclusion:
In conclusion, this research has successfully answered the primary research question: how does gender discrimination impact job satisfaction in the workplace? The study determined that gender discrimination directly impacts job satisfaction and can make employees feel demoralized, undervalued, and frustrated. Furthermore, employers must create policies and initiatives promoting workplace inclusion and equality. It can help employees feel valued, respected, and satisfied.
2. Summarize Key Points
The next element in your conclusion section is summarizing the main points of your dissertation. In this section, students need to reflect on their study and mention critical findings and the methodology's effectiveness. Straightforwardly compose your summary and ensure you use your own words to write a conclusion in a dissertation. Avoid copying and pasting sentences from other parts of your work to evade plagiarism and repetition. In concluding a dissertation, each written summary should include findings, results, data, and additional relevant literature. The following is an example of how to summarize a dissertation:
The study aimed to research the effects of gender discrimination on job satisfaction in the workplace. A survey was conducted on 106 participants across different industries using qualitative and quantitative research methods, allowing data collection from employees. Findings revealed that gender discrimination has a direct impact and can lead to feeling demoralized, undervalued, and frustrated. On the other hand, the research found that inclusivity and equality initiatives can help employees feel better about their job roles. Therefore, it is essential that organizations take adequate steps to create a more inclusive and equitable workstation.
3. Explain Why Your Study Is Valuable
After summarizing your key points, the next step to writing a dissertation conclusion is to explain why your research was valuable. Here you should provide readers with an additional perspective of the study to better understand the importance of your study. When it's time to write a conclusion to a thesis paper or dissertation, you must explain what makes it worthwhile to any academic or scientific community. It can include topics such as answering a critical research question, using unique methods to explore an issue, or discovering something new about an existing topic. You should note that you have to provide further recommendations to help improve the research. Composing a dissertation conclusion shows how your work has impacted the field of study, either in progress or resolving an existing problem. It is essential to demonstrate how your study contributes to future studies and influences society or policymaking. Doing this is crucial in your dissertation conclusion chapter as it shows readers the importance of research in that field and validates what you have achieved throughout your investigation. Also, explaining some study implications to society will help people understand why this topic is valuable and relevant. Below you can find an example of how to write contributions in a dissertation conclusion:
The research discussed in this work demonstrates that gender discrimination directly impacts job satisfaction in the workplace. The results of this study have several implications for society, most notably for employers, to create policies and initiatives to promote workplace inclusion. In addition, it's valuable to organizations to help them make more equitable and inclusive offices, to academics to inform their research on diversity and inclusivity, and to policymakers to develop initiatives to reduce gender discrimination in places of work. The research provides valuable insight to inform future studies on this topic and serves to highlight the need to create policies to protect employees from gender discrimination better.
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4. Mention the Limitations of Your Study
When writing a thesis or dissertation conclusion, mentioning your study's limitations is imperative. It includes discussing any issues you encountered in collecting data, constraints that limited your research, and specific parameters. Citing these shortcomings can help provide insight into why certain elements may not be included in your work and explain any discrepancies your readers might have noticed and, hence, missing in your conclusion chapter. Additionally, writing about any drawbacks can deliver an opportunity to offer further suggestions for future studies and make recommendations on how best to address these uncovered issues. In concluding a dissertation, constraints should not be seen as unfavorable but rather as an additional chance to deliver more understanding of your investigation. Limitations in a thesis conclusion example can look as follows:
The study is subject to some limitations, such as small sample size and limited scope of data collection. Moreover, due to time constraints, this research did not address some potential implications of gender discrimination in other areas, such as pay, career development, and career advancement. Future studies could further explore these topics in more depth to gain a more comprehensive understanding of their effects on job satisfaction.
When writing about identified limitations of the research, you demonstrate to readers that you considered critical shortcomings and that you are aware of available potential issues. That will provide insight into addressing these limitations and help display your researching and writing credibility.
5. Offer Recommendations Based on Implications
Including recommendations is an integral part of writing every conclusion of a dissertation. In this section, you can provide insight into how to address any issues you have uncovered in your study and make suggestions for future research. When including recommendations, you should first give an overview of the implications of your research and then link it to how you may deal with them. A bachelor conclusion ought to consist of advice for students to guide their future writing. Offer insights for further investigation based on data results and analysis of literature review . Below is an example of how to write dissertation conclusion recommendations:
The research discussed in this study provides several implications for employers, academics, and policymakers. For employers, the results of this study suggest that they should create policies and initiatives to promote workplace inclusion and diversity. Academics can use these findings to inform their research on gender discrimination in the workplace, and policymakers can develop initiatives to reduce it. Furthermore, future studies should explore other potential implications of gender discrimination in the workplace, such as pay, career development, and career advancement. Doing so would provide a more comprehensive understanding of the issue and potential solutions.
6. Conclude Your Dissertation with a Summary
The end of conclusion final chapter will close with a summary of the study. Wrapping up your dissertation or thesis conclusions is an excellent way to leave long-lasting impressions on your readers and ensure they remember all critical points of your research. You should summarize key points from previous sections and how they contribute to your overall context. When writing the conclusion chapter of a dissertation, the summary should be brief but comprehensive. Moreover, these findings can offer an innovative perspective on how to conclude a thesis or a dissertation. It provides comprehensive insights into outcomes and their relevance in today's world. Here is how to wrap up a conclusion of a dissertation example:
Overall, the findings from this research suggest that gender discrimination in the workplace has adverse effects on job satisfaction. Such discrimination often takes the form of unequal pay, career development opportunities, and access to promotions. Employers should take action to create policies that promote workplace inclusion and diversity to address this problem. Additionally, academics and policymakers should further explore the implications of gender discrimination in the workplace and develop initiatives to reduce it. The research provides a valuable starting point for understanding this complex issue and offers insight into potential solutions.
Thesis & Dissertation Conclusion Examples
Before writing a thesis or dissertation conclusion, you are encouraged to check at least two examples. These instances can provide insights on effectively linking your key findings with possible implications for future studies. In addition, you may use these examples as guides to writing your dissertation conclusions. Attached below is a thesis conclusion example sample.
Thesis paper conclusion example
Dissertation conclusion example
Mistakes to Avoid When Writing Dissertation Conclusions
Mistakes are inevitable when writing conclusions in a dissertation, but you can avoid them through careful proofreading and editing. Including new information or data in your dissertation or thesis conclusion chapter is one such mistake. The chapter should only incorporate information or data already mentioned and discussed in other preceding body paragraphs. How not to write a dissertation conclusion can be seen in complex language, lengthy sentences, and confusing grammar. In addition, one should evade making unsubstantiated claims or generalizations not supported by research findings. Shun writing phrases or any argument considered jargon. Lastly, ensuring that the conclusion chapter in a dissertation answers the research question and that you have provided sufficient evidence to support your conclusions is essential. Therefore, we simply recommend that you review and proofread it before submission. Following these tips mentioned above and examples of dissertation or thesis conclusions should help you write effectively.
Dissertation/ Thesis Dissertation Conclusion Writing Checklist
Writing a conclusion to a thesis paper or dissertation can be daunting because there is a lot of pressure to ensure you wrap up all the key points and tie together any loose ends. Checklists are helpful guides. The reason is that they provide practical tips on how to write dissertation conclusions by breaking each writing process down into manageable steps. Below is a checklist of important things you should keep in mind and follow when writing any conclusion:
- checkbox There is a summary of the research objectives and findings.
- checkbox I have covered research implications for a broader field.
- checkbox I have offered study limitations and how to address them in future exploration.
- checkbox I have provided recommendations for further research and applications of the findings.
- checkbox I have made a summary of all main points from the discussion section.
- checkbox I have explained why I chose that particular field for examination.
- checkbox My main conclusions are stated.
- checkbox I have proofread and edited my work after completion.
Final Thoughts on Dissertation Conclusion
The article discussed how to write the conclusion of a dissertation or thesis writing. It has outlined some critical steps and provided a checklist that you can use as a practical guide. Reasonable inferences require clear objectives, knowing the appropriate structure, addressing any limitations within your work, summarizing key points, providing recommendations for further research, and citing sources appropriately. Also, we offered some samples of how to write a thesis conclusion example. Following these steps will ensure that you conclude your dissertation or thesis writing successfully. Finally, proofread and edit your writing to provide high-quality outcome. All these tips will help you in writing a thesis or dissertation conclusion chapter that is effective and comprehensive.
Keep in mind that our expert writers are always here to support you! They can assist in preparing any section of your study. While we are assisting you with writing, you are relaxing your mind or focusing on other important tasks!
FAQ About How to Write a Conclusion to a Thesis or Dissertation
1. how to write a good thesis conclusion.
When writing every thesis conclusion, it's essential to focus on summarizing the key points, providing implications to that broader field, addressing any limitations, and making recommendations for further study. Additionally, it should be concise, clear, logical, and coherent. Finally, it's crucial to proofread and edit it to ensure its high quality.
2. How to start a dissertation conclusion?
Beginning each dissertation's concluding chapter is best done by restating the research question, as it provides the link between your introduction, research objectives, and conclusion. That allows an individual to transition smoothly into summarizing all main points from the discussion. For you to start a dissertation conclusion chapter effectively, it is essential to understand the purpose of writing it in the first place.
4. What is the difference between discussion and conclusion?
The difference between a discussion and a conclusion is in the depth of exploration. A discussion is a detailed assessment of the results, while a conclusion is shorter and more general. The discussion section will usually include a detailed analysis of the data collected, while the conclusion section will often provide an overview of the key points and implications. Additionally, this part will offer recommendations for further research.
3. Can I add new data in a conclusion of the dissertation?
No, including new data in the conclusion of a dissertation is not advisable. This section should summarize the research objectives, findings, and implications. Adding new data would not be appropriate as it may create confusion or inconsistency throughout your research. Conversely, it is prudent to summarize every content your work addresses.
5. How to end a thesis or a dissertation?
The end of a dissertation or a thesis should be memorable and end on a high note. One way to accomplish this is by including something unforgettable, such as a question, warning, or call to action. It will give every reader something to think about and engage in further discussion.
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The conclusion is the final part of your thesis or graduation research (such as your portfolio/professional product). In the conclusion, you summarize your research and answer the research questions that were central to your thesis. A conclusion is usually descriptive and observational. The explanation and interpretation of the results of your research is addressed in the discussion.
Writing your conclusion
It is not intended in your conclusion to raise new issues that you have not addressed in your thesis! The conclusion of your thesis is a descriptive summary of your research: there is no room for new information.
Make a good and continuous story in which you give a closing conclusion of your research and answer your research question. Do not literally write down the question and answer! Keep it descriptive: the conclusion is not the place to explain and interpret.
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What are tips for writing a good conclusion for your thesis?
- Save writing your conclusion until the end. Then you have a good overview of your entire research and its results. In your conclusion, you normally do not write new results or limitations, which you save for the discussion.
- Make sure the conclusion of your thesis is a good flowing story with a clear line. It is not intended to be a summary in the form of a list of separate points.
- Also, make sure you use the correct verb tenses for your conclusion. The present continuous tense (I read, I work) is used for facts and findings that you bring forward. For example: “Notary office Y must adjust its model act. The current act no longer meets the new requirements.”
- You use the present perfect tense (I have read, I have worked) to refer to your research and its results. For example: “This research looked at the model act of notary office Y. It was found that the model act no longer meets the new requirements.”
What are some example sentences you can use for the conclusion of your thesis research?
Next steps: discussion and recommendations
After the conclusion of your thesis, you will move on to the following sections: the discussion and recommendations.
If you would like to see an example of a conclusion to gain more inspiration, visit our page with thesis and dissertation examples , where you can see how other students have written their conclusions.
With the above tips, you can start writing a beautiful conclusion for your thesis or graduation research. Topscriptie wishes you much success in writing your conclusion and finishing your studies!
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How To Write The Conclusion Chapter
The what, why & how explained simply (with examples).
By: Jenna Crossley (PhD Cand). Reviewed By: Dr. Eunice Rautenbach | September 2021
So, you’ve wrapped up your results and discussion chapters, and you’re finally on the home stretch – the conclusion chapter . In this post, we’ll discuss everything you need to know to craft a high-quality conclusion chapter for your dissertation or thesis project.
Overview: Dissertation Conclusion Chapter
- What the thesis/dissertation conclusion chapter is
- What to include in your conclusion chapter
- How to structure and write up your conclusion chapter
- A few tips to help you ace the chapter
What exactly is the conclusion chapter?
The conclusion chapter is typically the final major chapter of a dissertation or thesis. As such, it serves as a concluding summary of your research findings and wraps up the document. While some publications such as journal articles and research reports combine the discussion and conclusion sections, these are typically separate chapters in a dissertation or thesis. As always, be sure to check what your university’s structural preference is before you start writing up these chapters.
So, what’s the difference between the discussion and the conclusion chapter?
Well, the two chapters are quite similar , as they both discuss the key findings of the study. However, the conclusion chapter is typically more general and high-level in nature. In your discussion chapter, you’ll typically discuss the intricate details of your study, but in your conclusion chapter, you’ll take a broader perspective, reporting on the main research outcomes and how these addressed your research aim (or aims) .
A core function of the conclusion chapter is to synthesise all major points covered in your study and to tell the reader what they should take away from your work. Basically, you need to tell them what you found , why it’s valuable , how it can be applied , and what further research can be done.
Whatever you do, don’t just copy and paste what you’ve written in your discussion chapter! The conclusion chapter should not be a simple rehash of the discussion chapter. While the two chapters are similar, they have distinctly different functions.
What should I include in the conclusion chapter?
To understand what needs to go into your conclusion chapter, it’s useful to understand what the chapter needs to achieve. In general, a good dissertation conclusion chapter should achieve the following:
- Summarise the key findings of the study
- Explicitly answer the research question(s) and address the research aims
- Inform the reader of the study’s main contributions
- Discuss any limitations or weaknesses of the study
- Present recommendations for future research
Therefore, your conclusion chapter needs to cover these core components. Importantly, you need to be careful not to include any new findings or data points. Your conclusion chapter should be based purely on data and analysis findings that you’ve already presented in the earlier chapters. If there’s a new point you want to introduce, you’ll need to go back to your results and discussion chapters to weave the foundation in there.
In many cases, readers will jump from the introduction chapter directly to the conclusions chapter to get a quick overview of the study’s purpose and key findings. Therefore, when you write up your conclusion chapter, it’s useful to assume that the reader hasn’t consumed the inner chapters of your dissertation or thesis. In other words, craft your conclusion chapter such that there’s a strong connection and smooth flow between the introduction and conclusion chapters, even though they’re on opposite ends of your document.
Need a helping hand?
How to write the conclusion chapter
Now that you have a clearer view of what the conclusion chapter is about, let’s break down the structure of this chapter so that you can get writing. Keep in mind that this is merely a typical structure – it’s not set in stone or universal. Some universities will prefer that you cover some of these points in the discussion chapter , or that you cover the points at different levels in different chapters.
Step 1: Craft a brief introduction section
As with all chapters in your dissertation or thesis, the conclusions chapter needs to start with a brief introduction. In this introductory section, you’ll want to tell the reader what they can expect to find in the chapter, and in what order . Here’s an example of what this might look like:
This chapter will conclude the study by summarising the key research findings in relation to the research aims and questions and discussing the value and contribution thereof. It will also review the limitations of the study and propose opportunities for future research.
Importantly, the objective here is just to give the reader a taste of what’s to come (a roadmap of sorts), not a summary of the chapter. So, keep it short and sweet – a paragraph or two should be ample.
Step 2: Discuss the overall findings in relation to the research aims
The next step in writing your conclusions chapter is to discuss the overall findings of your study , as they relate to the research aims and research questions . You would have likely covered similar ground in the discussion chapter, so it’s important to zoom out a little bit here and focus on the broader findings – specifically, how these help address the research aims .
In practical terms, it’s useful to start this section by reminding your reader of your research aims and research questions, so that the findings are well contextualised. In this section, phrases such as, “This study aimed to…” and “the results indicate that…” will likely come in handy. For example, you could say something like the following:
This study aimed to investigate the feeding habits of the naked mole-rat. The results indicate that naked mole rats feed on underground roots and tubers. Further findings show that these creatures eat only a part of the plant, leaving essential parts to ensure long-term food stability.
Be careful not to make overly bold claims here. Avoid claims such as “this study proves that” or “the findings disprove existing the existing theory”. It’s seldom the case that a single study can prove or disprove something. Typically, this is achieved by a broader body of research, not a single study – especially not a dissertation or thesis which will inherently have significant and limitations. We’ll discuss those limitations a little later.
Step 3: Discuss how your study contributes to the field
Next, you’ll need to discuss how your research has contributed to the field – both in terms of theory and practice . This involves talking about what you achieved in your study, highlighting why this is important and valuable, and how it can be used or applied.
In this section you’ll want to:
- Mention any research outputs created as a result of your study (e.g., articles, publications, etc.)
- Inform the reader on just how your research solves your research problem , and why that matters
- Reflect on gaps in the existing research and discuss how your study contributes towards addressing these gaps
- Discuss your study in relation to relevant theories . For example, does it confirm these theories or constructively challenge them?
- Discuss how your research findings can be applied in the real world . For example, what specific actions can practitioners take, based on your findings?
Be careful to strike a careful balance between being firm but humble in your arguments here. It’s unlikely that your one study will fundamentally change paradigms or shake up the discipline, so making claims to this effect will be frowned upon . At the same time though, you need to present your arguments with confidence, firmly asserting the contribution your research has made, however small that contribution may be. Simply put, you need to keep it balanced .
Step 4: Reflect on the limitations of your study
Now that you’ve pumped your research up, the next step is to critically reflect on the limitations and potential shortcomings of your study. You may have already covered this in the discussion chapter, depending on your university’s structural preferences, so be careful not to repeat yourself unnecessarily.
There are many potential limitations that can apply to any given study. Some common ones include:
- Sampling issues that reduce the generalisability of the findings (e.g., non-probability sampling )
- Insufficient sample size (e.g., not getting enough survey responses ) or limited data access
- Low-resolution data collection or analysis techniques
- Researcher bias or lack of experience
- Lack of access to research equipment
- Time constraints that limit the methodology (e.g. cross-sectional vs longitudinal time horizon)
- Budget constraints that limit various aspects of the study
Discussing the limitations of your research may feel self-defeating (no one wants to highlight their weaknesses, right), but it’s a critical component of high-quality research. It’s important to appreciate that all studies have limitations (even well-funded studies by expert researchers) – therefore acknowledging these limitations adds credibility to your research by showing that you understand the limitations of your research design .
That being said, keep an eye on your wording and make sure that you don’t undermine your research . It’s important to strike a balance between recognising the limitations, but also highlighting the value of your research despite those limitations. Show the reader that you understand the limitations, that these were justified given your constraints, and that you know how they can be improved upon – this will get you marks.
Next, you’ll need to make recommendations for future studies. This will largely be built on the limitations you just discussed. For example, if one of your study’s weaknesses was related to a specific data collection or analysis method, you can make a recommendation that future researchers undertake similar research using a more sophisticated method.
Another potential source of future research recommendations is any data points or analysis findings that were interesting or surprising , but not directly related to your study’s research aims and research questions. So, if you observed anything that “stood out” in your analysis, but you didn’t explore it in your discussion (due to a lack of relevance to your research aims), you can earmark that for further exploration in this section.
Essentially, this section is an opportunity to outline how other researchers can build on your study to take the research further and help develop the body of knowledge. So, think carefully about the new questions that your study has raised, and clearly outline these for future researchers to pick up on.
Step 6: Wrap up with a closing summary
Quick tips for a top-notch conclusion chapter
Now that we’ve covered the what , why and how of the conclusion chapter, here are some quick tips and suggestions to help you craft a rock-solid conclusion.
- Don’t ramble . The conclusion chapter usually consumes 5-7% of the total word count (although this will vary between universities), so you need to be concise. Edit this chapter thoroughly with a focus on brevity and clarity.
- Be very careful about the claims you make in terms of your study’s contribution. Nothing will make the marker’s eyes roll back faster than exaggerated or unfounded claims. Be humble but firm in your claim-making.
- Use clear and simple language that can be easily understood by an intelligent layman. Remember that not every reader will be an expert in your field, so it’s important to make your writing accessible. Bear in mind that no one knows your research better than you do, so it’s important to spell things out clearly for readers.
Hopefully, this post has given you some direction and confidence to take on the conclusion chapter of your dissertation or thesis with confidence. If you’re still feeling a little shaky and need a helping hand, consider booking a free initial consultation with a friendly Grad Coach to discuss how we can help you with hands-on, private coaching.
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- How to Write a Thesis Conclusion
Discussion vs. Conclusion
Answer the research question of your thesis, restate and summarize your work, make recommendations, list and emphasize your contribution, end your thesis, thesis conclusion example.
Students have to complete different writing assignments, and some of them are utterly complex. Every assignment has the central idea or problem, which is supposed to be discussed and analyzed during the entire work. It’s called a thesis statement. The main objective of the statement is to explain to readers what is discussed and why it’s so important. Finally, a researcher must complete a thesis conclusion. This informative guide provides useful prompts and knowledge about how to achieve a positive result.
In most cases, students are puzzled with thesis statements of such complex assignments as a dissertation, case study, and similar ones. However, simpler projects may cause some trouble as well. Many students cannot write a good conclusion and require some help. If you’re confused by this task, just contact our academic service and we will professional thesis writing help . Using the assistance of a professional writing company, you’ll overcome any impediments related to your academic writing.
First of all, we’d like to clarify the difference between discussion and conclusion. Many people mess up these terms and think they are the same. It’s not so, and their difference is quite obvious.
A discussion in a research paper is a review of the main argument or hypothesis. It highlights the analysis of the main problem in great detail. It frequently involves methods and data used in finding the answers. It compares your approach with the methods of other researchers. This is a reflection of the course of the experiment.
A conclusion is quite a different approach. It briefly summarizes the entire paper. It’s supposed to restate the abstract in dissertation , all the problems, findings, and results once again using other words. It should create a strong impression to underline the most important finding of the research.
When you write a thesis conclusion , you can achieve success if you plainly answer the main question of your project. It should be done in the main body of the assignment. The place differs, depending on the assignment type. If it’s a standard essay, provide the answer in any of the three body paragraphs. If it’s a dissertation or a research paper, answer in the section called “Discussion.”
The location really depends on the type of scientific project you are working on. Make sure you understand the main question using an in-depth analysis. Study the main problem from different angles to realize all the advantages and disadvantages. The response must be straight to the point. If you discuss modern problems in education, you cannot write about problems in any other industry. At times, it’s useful to read some samples to understand how to answer the research question properly.
The main objective of the conclusion in any scientific paper is to restate and summarize the entire work. It’s necessary to connect your abstract to the final chapter of your writing. It already contains the major insight and tells your readers what you’ll discuss. However, it doesn’t have the final result. It must be clearly revealed in your conclusion. The most important recommendation we give is to highlight some two-three points, which clearly answer the main question of your project. Explain:
- What was studied?
- What was the result?
- Why is it so important?
Here are a few helpful prompts:
- Your conclusion shouldn’t be more than five sentences.
- Address your final thoughts directly to your readers.
- Avoid clichés and generalizations.
- Don’t apologize.
- Proofread and analyze.
- Use different words.
Another stage of concluding your thesis is to make several recommendations. Other people would like to read how your research contributes to solving the issue. You should provide 2-7 recommendations. Each must be specific and connected to your conclusions. You may give research limitations examples , explain how to avoid possible drawbacks, recommend more effective methods, etc.
It’s important to give a track of your contribution to the project you’ve written. Mention the new knowledge you’ve added to the development of the argument. Explain how a concrete insight or recommendation has helped to solve the problem.
The final step is to end your thesis. It must be proofread and improved. Analyze your project from the first chapter to the last one. Check your grammar, be concise and logical, address directly to your audience.
Using our smart prompts, you’ll have a perfect thesis conclusion. In case you cannot handle it properly, consider online support. If you intend to use professional writing assistance, do in-depth research. Obligatorily verify the legitimate status of the writing platform and read customers’ reviews. Once you find out how it works and know that the chosen platform is trustworthy, you can hire a professional writer to manage your thesis conclusion.
Conclusion The notion of a modern-day work environment that exhibits deeply rooted cultural and structural barriers for women in STEM is generally rejected in this study, although some bias is still evident today. Motivating factors for women in STEM mirror motivating factors for any worker. One exception is the emphasis on, and the inconsistency of, descriptors placed on growth or advancement opportunities, suggesting that growth opportunities are still a barrier today. If the STEM workforce is vital to the United States as a nation, where the STEM workforce is only 13% female for engineering and 26% female for science, technology, and math (NSF, 2012), society still has work to do to help build and retain the STEM workforce. There is no data in this study or others that suggests that the workplaces for STEM professionals have consistent policies, cultures, and values for the individual. If the U.S. workplace is not consistently creating an environment where women in STEM professions are motivated throughout their career journeys, and laws are not equipping women to balance both work and families, then there is still work to do to advance the United States in the global race in science, engineering, technology, and math. The results of this study suggested that there are five themes related to motivating factors for women who have stayed in STEM professions long-term: (a) interest in STEM is the constant as individual needs and priorities change, (b) direct manager influence on development is critical, (c) performance-based workplace policies and culture are continuously sought, (d) moving towards a no-bias workplace remains important, and (e) the career growth path at life’s crossroads remains a challenge. For the first, career fit is essential in relation to an individual’s interest. For women in STEM, a career with challenge is key. Family priorities were emphasized as high priority individual needs, particularly when just starting to have a family. Direct managers were consistently cited as a key to staying motivated, particularly as direct managers were seen as the gateway to new challenges and growth opportunities. A fair workplace has a foundation of performance-based policies and culture. Both are expected in the workplace of today and the future. The no-bias workplace directly relates to helping foster a good reputation. This perhaps is recognition of the opposite of a hostile workplace being a workplace where a women’s credibility is not readily undermined. Continuous career challenge at life’s crossroads is a reference to several dimensions related to career growth. The women in this study emphatically voiced their interest in being challenged and wanting to continuously grow. While the attitudes that the women expressed as they shared their career experiences were positive, it was somewhat disturbing to hear the energy focused in the career growth and development opportunities. The participants in this study presented themselves as competent, experienced women, who genuinely loved their work, who spoke of their managers with high regard and who generally viewed their compensation as satisfactory. Yet, the participants had such varying descriptors about how they felt about their growth opportunities throughout their careers. Some used the word sacrifice to describe a growth opportunity, referring to those opportunities that were lateral or part-time. Participants saw these positions as an opportunity to stay in STEM, but at a cost to their career in STEM. Some described growth opportunities as promotions. The words that women used when describing how they felt about promotions included an emphasis on being valued. If companies want to motivate women in STEM, career growth paths have to be modernized so that all growth opportunities result in the employee feeling like their careers are being invested in. If women learn new skills as part of lateral and part-time work, options they take to balance family priorities, and they are not justly considered for promotional opportunities, then the workplace has a built-in de-motivator for women. In STEM professions, where the workers are knowledge workers, not industrial age workers, treating any growth opportunity as anything other than an investment is not only archaic, it is potentially discriminatory. The hostile environment may not be as evident on the surface since overt discrimination that used to plague the STEM workplace is largely a practice of the past. The ownership for career advancement is primarily on the individual, which is not necessarily wrong. If the individual is also a caretaker, he or she has to choose between a career track that offers them promotions and rewards for their advancing skills and a career track that offers them lateral moves or part-time work in exchange for their advancing skills. Advancing skills are advancing skills. The results of this study suggested that women in STEM are motivated to be challenged continuously and motivated to grow. Hopefully, the workplace will soon start to recognize growth through a non-biased lens. Hopefully, in future studies, no mention of bias will be referenced by women in STEM at any point in their journey. Until then, opportunities for the workplace and government to help remove bias remain.
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How to Write a Thesis Conclusion
- 4-minute read
- 28th January 2022
A thesis paper (or dissertation ) is often the culmination of your time as a student , and it can be a major undertaking. While it may feel like a relief once you’ve completed the rest of your thesis, don’t underestimate the importance of the conclusion! As this will be the last thing your reader sees, it needs to be memorable, and it needs to leave your reader with a clear understanding of your main deduction or argument.
Typically, a thesis conclusion will review what you found, why it’s valuable, how it can be applied, and what further research can be done. Keep in mind, though, you should review your university’s or program’s guidelines, as the requirements for a conclusion are not universal.
1. Restate Your Thesis
You should start your conclusion by restating your thesis. Include all of the factors you stated in your introduction while making it clear to the reader that they have reached the end of your paper. To avoid repetition, use a different sentence structure and wording.
2. Analyze Your Key Ideas
Next, highlight the key ideas presented throughout the body of your thesis. You should analyze how your main points link together and how they relate to your main argument.
If there are any prominent quotations or statistics worth repeating, you can include them in your conclusion, but don’t overdo it! The conclusion should discuss your own thoughts, so limit the amount of cited information you include.
3. Discuss the Relevance
Make sure you explain how your thesis is relevant to the field of research. Consider how the research can be built upon, whether it confirms or challenges other relevant theories, and whether your findings can be applied in the real world.
4. Consider Any Limitations
Another critical component is the discussion of the limitations or shortcomings that exist in your research. For example, there could have been time constraints that limited your methodology, sampling issues that reduced the generalizability of your findings, or budget constraints that limited any aspect of the study.
It’s important to recognize that all research has limitations without undermining your own work. Take the opportunity to highlight the value of your research despite any limitations you may have faced.
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5. Make Recommendations for Future Research
Providing recommendations for future research allows you to emphasize that your ideas remain relevant in your field. You can build off the limitations by recommending how future research could tackle those problems. Also, consider whether you came across any surprising data that might not have been directly related to your study but could benefit from further exploration. Suggest what other researchers could do next to contribute to and further develop the body of knowledge in your field.
6. End with a Closing Summary
You should finish your conclusion with a brief closing summary highlighting the key takeaways. To leave a lasting impact, you might consider closing with a question, call to action, or recommendation for your reader.
● Your conclusion will typically be about 5–7% of the total word count of your thesis. It’s important to plan ahead so that you don’t have to go back and reduce the word count elsewhere to make space.
● Use clear and concise language to stay on topic and keep your writing accessible to all your readers by making it comprehensible, whether or not they’re experts in your field.
● Since your conclusion is the last impression of your thesis, make sure you leave enough time to give it proper consideration.
Proofreading & Editing
Perhaps one of the most important steps in writing an impactful thesis conclusion is to make sure it’s clear, concise, and free of errors. It’s easy to overlook mistakes in your own writing, so having someone else take a look at it is a great idea. We have expert editors on hand 24 hours a day to help with all of your academic writing needs. Upload a free trial document today to learn more!
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Thesis Conclusion: Making Your Research Paper Outstanding
A thesis conclusion summarizes your dissertation and highlights the scope for further research. Learn what it is and how to write it.
Imagine yourself in a cooking competition and you made a delightful gourmet dish, all your efforts blended in with the spices and the aroma spreading around the kitchen. You beam with pride that you made the best dish of your life but fail to recognize that you haven’t presented it well and your opponents win the competition. It’s because in the end, not only the dish, even the presentation matters for you to stand out from the crowd.
A thesis conclusion is something similar to that where a researcher summarizes his work and puts in references for future studies. It is the ending note or a type of presentation, like our above example, that is really important as this distinguishes an average research paper from an outstanding one.
In this article, we are going to learn about the thesis conclusion , how to write it, examples of a good thesis conclusion, and things to avoid while writing one.
What exactly is meant by Thesis Conclusion?
A thesis conclusion, which summarizes the findings and offers suggestions for further research, is an important part of a research report. It is a chance for the author to make an impact on the reader and highlight the importance of their research.
The most important facts should be highlighted in a well-structured, succinct conclusion. Along with addressing the study’s shortcomings and outlining its wider implications, the thesis conclusion should also offer doable and realistic recommendations for further research.
Good conclusions avoid typical errors including overgeneralizing, repeating information and introducing new information. They should be distinct and clear in their writing, utilize powerful and persuasive language, and make the conclusion stand out.
Though writing a thesis conclusion is a daunting task, it is an essential part of your research as the conclusion is where you bring together all the fine threads of research work that you did for your paper, and presenting it in a unique yet simple manner is where the challenge lies. Therefore, it is important for every researcher to know the prominence of a thesis conclusion and how to write an effective one.
How long should a Thesis Conclusion be?
The length of a thesis conclusion can vary from researcher to researcher but basically, it depends on the discipline, the detailed requirements of the written thesis, and the content that has to be included in order to make it stand apart. However, as a general guideline, a thesis conclusion should be about 5-10% of the total word count of the thesis. For example, if your thesis is 10,000 words long, your conclusion should be around 500-1000 words.
It’s important to keep in mind that the conclusion should be crisp and should solely focus on summarizing and interpreting the key findings and contributions of the research rather than focusing on the word count and extending it unnecessarily.
It’s also essential to check with your academic supervisor or department chief to know the guidelines that are being followed at your University to see if they have specific requirements or recommendations for the length of the conclusion.
Things to Avoid in the Thesis Conclusion
When writing a thesis conclusion, it’s important to avoid certain mistakes that one may tend to make which can impact your overall work. Here are some things to avoid in your thesis conclusion:
Don’t introduce new information that hasn’t been discussed in the main body of your thesis. The conclusion should summarize and reiterate the main points of your thesis, not introduce new ones.
Avoid making statements that can’t be backed up with evidence from your research. Your conclusion should be based on the findings and analysis presented in your thesis.
Be specific in your conclusions and avoid making broad generalizations that aren’t supported by your research. Your conclusion should reflect the nuances and complexities of your research.
Avoid Personal Opinions
Your thesis should be based on the objectives of the research and its analysis, so avoid injecting your personal opinions into the conclusion.
Don’t apologize for any shortcomings or limitations of your research. Instead, focus on the strengths and contributions of your work.
While it’s important to summarize your key findings and conclusions, avoid simply repeating what you’ve already said in the main body of your thesis. Instead, highlight the main takeaways and implications of your research.
Make sure your conclusions are clear and unambiguous. Avoid using vague or imprecise language that can be interpreted in different ways.
6 Steps to Write an Effective Thesis
Composing a thesis conclusion is an essential step in the research process. It should include a final assessment of your work and a summary of the key aspects of your research. The procedures for writing a thesis conclusion are as follows:
- Restate the thesis: Reinforce your thesis at the beginning of your conclusion. This will serve to remind your reader of the key point or inquiry you were trying to answer.
- Summarize your research points: Briefly summarize your research’s primary ideas by writing a few phrases. The main conclusions, findings, or justifications from your thesis should be included here.
- Interpreting the outcomes: In light of your research question and thesis statement, interpret the findings of your study. Describe what your study adds to the field and its consequences.
- Discuss the study limitations: Distinguish any limitations you may be aware of. Recognize any problems or restrictions in your research and offer solutions for future research.
- Make suggestions: Based on your findings, suggest more research or policy implications. Describe how your research can advance the industry and impact daily practice.
- Finish with a powerful statement: Make a strong remark at the end of your conclusion to highlight the importance of your study. This can be a concluding thought or a call to action that leaves an impact on your reader.
Examples of Thesis Conclusion:
Here are a few examples of thesis conclusions to help give you an idea of what they might look like:
In conclusion, our study has shown that there is a direct link between physical activity and better mental health in people. The findings suggest that regular exercise can enhance general well-being by easing the symptoms of anxiety and despair. However, much more research is needed in this area to understand the mechanisms underlying this link completely. Future research should concentrate on examining the long-term impact of physical activity on mental health and creating efficient treatments for those with mental health problems.
To summarize, this thesis investigated the connection between teenage females’ use of social media and body image dissatisfaction. The results indicate that being exposed to idealized photos on social media may have a negative effect on one’s perception of one’s physique, resulting in higher degrees of discontent and lower levels of self-esteem. It’s crucial to remember that social media can also be a potent instrument for encouraging a good perception of one’s body and self-acceptance. Future studies should concentrate on discovering efficient social media marketing tactics that will encourage body positivity and lessen detrimental effects on body image.
In conclusion, this study determined whether mindfulness-based therapies could help college students with their stress and anxiety symptoms. The findings imply that mindfulness training can be useful for this population’s stress management and mental health enhancement. Future research should concentrate on examining the long-term impacts of mindfulness instruction and coming up with solutions to increase the accessibility of these interventions for individuals who need them.
These are some of the examples of thesis conclusions made using the steps mentioned above. These examples help you frame an appropriate thesis conclusion and present it in a way that justifies the research.
On an endnote, crafting a thesis conclusion includes giving your research findings serious thought, reflecting critically on your own work, and summarizing your main ideas in a clear, straightforward manner. These components will help you create an engaging conclusion that will leave a long-lasting impression on your reader.
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About Sowjanya Pedada
Sowjanya is a passionate writer and an avid reader. She holds MBA in Agribusiness Management and now is working as a content writer. She loves to play with words and hopes to make a difference in the world through her writings. Apart from writing, she is interested in reading fiction novels and doing craftwork. She also loves to travel and explore different cuisines and spend time with her family and friends.