how to write a research paper ppt

Princeton Correspondents on Undergraduate Research

How to Make a Successful Research Presentation

Turning a research paper into a visual presentation is difficult; there are pitfalls, and navigating the path to a brief, informative presentation takes time and practice. As a TA for  GEO/WRI 201: Methods in Data Analysis & Scientific Writing this past fall, I saw how this process works from an instructor’s standpoint. I’ve presented my own research before, but helping others present theirs taught me a bit more about the process. Here are some tips I learned that may help you with your next research presentation:

More is more

In general, your presentation will always benefit from more practice, more feedback, and more revision. By practicing in front of friends, you can get comfortable with presenting your work while receiving feedback. It is hard to know how to revise your presentation if you never practice. If you are presenting to a general audience, getting feedback from someone outside of your discipline is crucial. Terms and ideas that seem intuitive to you may be completely foreign to someone else, and your well-crafted presentation could fall flat.

Less is more

Limit the scope of your presentation, the number of slides, and the text on each slide. In my experience, text works well for organizing slides, orienting the audience to key terms, and annotating important figures–not for explaining complex ideas. Having fewer slides is usually better as well. In general, about one slide per minute of presentation is an appropriate budget. Too many slides is usually a sign that your topic is too broad.

how to write a research paper ppt

Limit the scope of your presentation

Don’t present your paper. Presentations are usually around 10 min long. You will not have time to explain all of the research you did in a semester (or a year!) in such a short span of time. Instead, focus on the highlight(s). Identify a single compelling research question which your work addressed, and craft a succinct but complete narrative around it.

You will not have time to explain all of the research you did. Instead, focus on the highlights. Identify a single compelling research question which your work addressed, and craft a succinct but complete narrative around it.

Craft a compelling research narrative

After identifying the focused research question, walk your audience through your research as if it were a story. Presentations with strong narrative arcs are clear, captivating, and compelling.

  • Introduction (exposition — rising action)

Orient the audience and draw them in by demonstrating the relevance and importance of your research story with strong global motive. Provide them with the necessary vocabulary and background knowledge to understand the plot of your story. Introduce the key studies (characters) relevant in your story and build tension and conflict with scholarly and data motive. By the end of your introduction, your audience should clearly understand your research question and be dying to know how you resolve the tension built through motive.

how to write a research paper ppt

  • Methods (rising action)

The methods section should transition smoothly and logically from the introduction. Beware of presenting your methods in a boring, arc-killing, ‘this is what I did.’ Focus on the details that set your story apart from the stories other people have already told. Keep the audience interested by clearly motivating your decisions based on your original research question or the tension built in your introduction.

  • Results (climax)

Less is usually more here. Only present results which are clearly related to the focused research question you are presenting. Make sure you explain the results clearly so that your audience understands what your research found. This is the peak of tension in your narrative arc, so don’t undercut it by quickly clicking through to your discussion.

  • Discussion (falling action)

By now your audience should be dying for a satisfying resolution. Here is where you contextualize your results and begin resolving the tension between past research. Be thorough. If you have too many conflicts left unresolved, or you don’t have enough time to present all of the resolutions, you probably need to further narrow the scope of your presentation.

  • Conclusion (denouement)

Return back to your initial research question and motive, resolving any final conflicts and tying up loose ends. Leave the audience with a clear resolution of your focus research question, and use unresolved tension to set up potential sequels (i.e. further research).

Use your medium to enhance the narrative

Visual presentations should be dominated by clear, intentional graphics. Subtle animation in key moments (usually during the results or discussion) can add drama to the narrative arc and make conflict resolutions more satisfying. You are narrating a story written in images, videos, cartoons, and graphs. While your paper is mostly text, with graphics to highlight crucial points, your slides should be the opposite. Adapting to the new medium may require you to create or acquire far more graphics than you included in your paper, but it is necessary to create an engaging presentation.

The most important thing you can do for your presentation is to practice and revise. Bother your friends, your roommates, TAs–anybody who will sit down and listen to your work. Beyond that, think about presentations you have found compelling and try to incorporate some of those elements into your own. Remember you want your work to be comprehensible; you aren’t creating experts in 10 minutes. Above all, try to stay passionate about what you did and why. You put the time in, so show your audience that it’s worth it.

For more insight into research presentations, check out these past PCUR posts written by Emma and Ellie .

— Alec Getraer, Natural Sciences Correspondent

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how to write a research paper ppt

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Advanced Research Methods

  • Presenting the Research Paper
  • What Is Research?
  • Library Research
  • Writing a Research Proposal
  • Writing the Research Paper

Writing an Abstract

Oral presentation, compiling a powerpoint.

Abstract : a short statement that describes a longer work.

  • Indicate the subject.
  • Describe the purpose of the investigation.
  • Briefly discuss the method used.
  • Make a statement about the result.

Oral presentations usually introduce a discussion of a topic or research paper. A good oral presentation is focused, concise, and interesting in order to trigger a discussion.

  • Be well prepared; write a detailed outline.
  • Introduce the subject.
  • Talk about the sources and the method.
  • Indicate if there are conflicting views about the subject (conflicting views trigger discussion).
  • Make a statement about your new results (if this is your research paper).
  • Use visual aids or handouts if appropriate.

An effective PowerPoint presentation is just an aid to the presentation, not the presentation itself .

  • Be brief and concise.
  • Focus on the subject.
  • Attract attention; indicate interesting details.
  • If possible, use relevant visual illustrations (pictures, maps, charts graphs, etc.).
  • Use bullet points or numbers to structure the text.
  • Make clear statements about the essence/results of the topic/research.
  • Don't write down the whole outline of your paper and nothing else.
  • Don't write long full sentences on the slides.
  • Don't use distracting colors, patterns, pictures, decorations on the slides.
  • Don't use too complicated charts, graphs; only those that are relatively easy to understand.
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How to write a great research paper

Academic resource.

Simon Peyton Jones

This talk offers seven simple, concrete suggestions for how to improve your research papers. You may also find my talks on how to write a great research proposal  and how to give a great research talk  useful.

  • Powerpoint slides of the talk:  PDF   PPT  (you should feel free to repurpose these slides for your own use as long as you acknowledge ownership)
  • Another video of the talk (shorter: 34 mins), Cambridge Computer Lab, Spring 2013, with thanks to Neil Dodgson for the editing and production.
  • Slides translated into Arabic (Suzan Alkhodair),  Japanese (KADO Masanori), and another Japanese version
  • I have also collected a set of links to other useful material about technical writing, on the Other Resources tab

Related links

How to write a great research proposal

How to give a great research talk

Simon Peyton Jones: [email protected]

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École Polytechnique

How to Write and Publish a Scientific Paper (Project-Centered Course)

Taught in English

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Instructor: Mathis Plapp

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There are 4 modules in this course

What you will achieve:

In this project-based course, you will outline a complete scientific paper, choose an appropriate journal to which you'll submit the finished paper for publication, and prepare a checklist that will allow you to independently judge whether your paper is ready to submit. What you'll need to get started: This course is designed for students who have previous experience with academic research - you should be eager to adapt our writing and publishing advice to an existing personal project. If you just finished your graduate dissertation, just began your PhD, or are at a different stage of your academic journey or career and just want to publish your work, this course is for you. *About Project-Centered Courses: Project-Centered Courses are designed to help you complete a personally meaningful real-world project, with your instructor and a community of learners with similar goals providing guidance and suggestions along the way. By actively applying new concepts as you learn, you’ll master the course content more efficiently; you’ll also get a head start on using the skills you gain to make positive changes in your life and career. When you complete the course, you’ll have a finished project that you’ll be proud to use and share.

Understanding academia

In this section of the MOOC, you will learn what is necessary before writing a paper: the context in which the scientist is publishing. You will learn how to know your own community, through different exemples, and then we will present you how scientific journal and publication works. We will finish with a couple of ethical values that the academic world is sharing!

What's included

8 videos 4 readings 5 quizzes 2 discussion prompts

8 videos • Total 28 minutes

  • Introduction by Mathis Plapp • 1 minute • Preview module
  • Let me walk you through the course • 3 minutes
  • French version of the class • 0 minutes
  • Why is publishing important? • 3 minutes
  • "KYC": Know Your Community • 4 minutes
  • How journals work: the review process • 4 minutes
  • Presentation of scientific journals • 4 minutes
  • Ethical Guidelines • 5 minutes

4 readings • Total 40 minutes

  • Teaching team • 10 minutes
  • Breakthroughs! • 10 minutes
  • Additional contents • 10 minutes
  • Examples of guidelines • 10 minutes

5 quizzes • Total 150 minutes

  • Why is publishing important? • 30 minutes
  • Know your community • 30 minutes
  • How journals work: the review process • 30 minutes
  • Communication with the editorial board • 30 minutes
  • Ethical Guidelines and intellectual property • 30 minutes

2 discussion prompts • Total 20 minutes

  • Your thoughts • 10 minutes
  • Compatibility between paper submission and editorial board • 10 minutes

Before writing: delimiting your scientific paper

A good paper do not loose focus throughout the entirety of its form. As such, we are going to give you a more detailed view on how to delimit your paper. We are going to lead you through your paper by taking a closer look at the paper definition which will ensure you don't loose focus. Then we will explain why the literature review is important and how to actually do it. And then we will guide you with advices as to how to find the so-what of your paper! This is important as research is all about so-what!

6 videos 1 reading 5 quizzes 4 discussion prompts

6 videos • Total 26 minutes

  • Paper definition "KYP", Know Your Paper • 3 minutes • Preview module
  • How to: the literature review 1/2: find a good literature review • 3 minutes
  • How to: the literature review 2/2: construction of your own literature review • 6 minutes
  • How to: the research design • 3 minutes
  • How to: the gap • 4 minutes
  • Presentation of Zotero: aggregate references • 4 minutes

1 reading • Total 10 minutes

  • Books and tools • 10 minutes
  • So, what? • 30 minutes
  • Think about it • 30 minutes
  • Literature Review • 30 minutes
  • Main ideas • 30 minutes
  • The Gap? • 30 minutes

4 discussion prompts • Total 40 minutes

  • Compatibility between paper and journal • 10 minutes
  • Understanding how the literature review is structured • 10 minutes
  • Finding Useful References: Difficulties & Strategies for Success. • 10 minutes
  • Comparing different research designs on the same subject • 10 minutes

Writing the paper: things you need to know

In this part of the MOOC, you will learn how to write your paper. In a first part, we will focus on the structure of the paper, and then you will be able to see how to use bibliographical tools such as zotero. Finally you will be required to write your own abstract and to do a peer review for the abstract of the others, as in real academic life!

5 videos 2 readings 2 quizzes 1 peer review 2 discussion prompts

5 videos • Total 27 minutes

  • The structure of an academic paper • 7 minutes • Preview module
  • On writing an academic paper, preliminary tips • 6 minutes
  • How to: the bibliography • 3 minutes
  • The abstract • 6 minutes
  • Zotero: online features • 3 minutes

2 readings • Total 20 minutes

  • Important readings before writing a paper • 10 minutes
  • More detailed information on how to write your article • 10 minutes

2 quizzes • Total 60 minutes

  • Please, try by yourself • 30 minutes
  • The bibliography • 30 minutes

1 peer review • Total 60 minutes

  • Peer reviewing of an abstract • 60 minutes
  • Comparing different constructions of papers • 10 minutes
  • Discussing abstracts • 10 minutes

After the writing: the check list

After writing the paper comes the time of reading your paper a few times in order to get everything perfect.In this section you will learn how to remove a lot of mistakes you might have been writing. In the end, you will have to build your own checklist corresponding to your own problems you want to avoid. After this, your article can be submitted and will hopefully be accepted!!

5 videos 3 readings 1 peer review 1 discussion prompt

5 videos • Total 36 minutes

  • How to avoid being boring? • 5 minutes • Preview module
  • The main mistakes to look for: format • 3 minutes
  • 1. The researcher • 9 minutes
  • 2. The editor • 13 minutes
  • Constructing your checklist • 4 minutes

3 readings • Total 30 minutes

  • Avoiding mistakes • 10 minutes
  • Format and Writing Readings • 10 minutes
  • Tips • 10 minutes
  • Now it is your turn: the checking list • 60 minutes

1 discussion prompt • Total 10 minutes

  • Several content worth taking a look at • 10 minutes

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how to write a research paper ppt

École polytechnique combines research, teaching and innovation at the highest scientific and technological level worldwide to meet the challenges of the 21st century. At the forefront of French engineering schools for more than 200 years, its education promotes a culture of multidisciplinary scientific excellence, open in a strong humanist tradition.\n L’École polytechnique associe recherche, enseignement et innovation au meilleur niveau scientifique et technologique mondial pour répondre aux défis du XXIe siècle. En tête des écoles d’ingénieur françaises depuis plus de 200 ans, sa formation promeut une culture d’excellence scientifique pluridisciplinaire, ouverte dans une forte tradition humaniste.

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Reviewed on Jun 21, 2020

It was really helpful to me, I hope it will be useful to all researchers who are intensively working for publishing papers in journals. I thank all course instructors who handled the video sessions.

Reviewed on Mar 24, 2021

It's a very good course. If you don't know anything about publishing scientific papers then you will gain very amazing knowledge. All in all, it is a very good course for beginners or experts.

Reviewed on Apr 2, 2017

This course helps to understand the journey from a writing a journal to publishing it, from researcher perspective to editorial perspective. I recommend to all PhD students to take this course.


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13.1 Formatting a Research Paper

Learning objectives.

  • Identify the major components of a research paper written using American Psychological Association (APA) style.
  • Apply general APA style and formatting conventions in a research paper.

In this chapter, you will learn how to use APA style , the documentation and formatting style followed by the American Psychological Association, as well as MLA style , from the Modern Language Association. There are a few major formatting styles used in academic texts, including AMA, Chicago, and Turabian:

  • AMA (American Medical Association) for medicine, health, and biological sciences
  • APA (American Psychological Association) for education, psychology, and the social sciences
  • Chicago—a common style used in everyday publications like magazines, newspapers, and books
  • MLA (Modern Language Association) for English, literature, arts, and humanities
  • Turabian—another common style designed for its universal application across all subjects and disciplines

While all the formatting and citation styles have their own use and applications, in this chapter we focus our attention on the two styles you are most likely to use in your academic studies: APA and MLA.

If you find that the rules of proper source documentation are difficult to keep straight, you are not alone. Writing a good research paper is, in and of itself, a major intellectual challenge. Having to follow detailed citation and formatting guidelines as well may seem like just one more task to add to an already-too-long list of requirements.

Following these guidelines, however, serves several important purposes. First, it signals to your readers that your paper should be taken seriously as a student’s contribution to a given academic or professional field; it is the literary equivalent of wearing a tailored suit to a job interview. Second, it shows that you respect other people’s work enough to give them proper credit for it. Finally, it helps your reader find additional materials if he or she wishes to learn more about your topic.

Furthermore, producing a letter-perfect APA-style paper need not be burdensome. Yes, it requires careful attention to detail. However, you can simplify the process if you keep these broad guidelines in mind:

  • Work ahead whenever you can. Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” includes tips for keeping track of your sources early in the research process, which will save time later on.
  • Get it right the first time. Apply APA guidelines as you write, so you will not have much to correct during the editing stage. Again, putting in a little extra time early on can save time later.
  • Use the resources available to you. In addition to the guidelines provided in this chapter, you may wish to consult the APA website at or the Purdue University Online Writing lab at , which regularly updates its online style guidelines.

General Formatting Guidelines

This chapter provides detailed guidelines for using the citation and formatting conventions developed by the American Psychological Association, or APA. Writers in disciplines as diverse as astrophysics, biology, psychology, and education follow APA style. The major components of a paper written in APA style are listed in the following box.

These are the major components of an APA-style paper:

Body, which includes the following:

  • Headings and, if necessary, subheadings to organize the content
  • In-text citations of research sources
  • References page

All these components must be saved in one document, not as separate documents.

The title page of your paper includes the following information:

  • Title of the paper
  • Author’s name
  • Name of the institution with which the author is affiliated
  • Header at the top of the page with the paper title (in capital letters) and the page number (If the title is lengthy, you may use a shortened form of it in the header.)

List the first three elements in the order given in the previous list, centered about one third of the way down from the top of the page. Use the headers and footers tool of your word-processing program to add the header, with the title text at the left and the page number in the upper-right corner. Your title page should look like the following example.

Beyond the Hype: Evaluating Low-Carb Diets cover page

The next page of your paper provides an abstract , or brief summary of your findings. An abstract does not need to be provided in every paper, but an abstract should be used in papers that include a hypothesis. A good abstract is concise—about one hundred fifty to two hundred fifty words—and is written in an objective, impersonal style. Your writing voice will not be as apparent here as in the body of your paper. When writing the abstract, take a just-the-facts approach, and summarize your research question and your findings in a few sentences.

In Chapter 12 “Writing a Research Paper” , you read a paper written by a student named Jorge, who researched the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets. Read Jorge’s abstract. Note how it sums up the major ideas in his paper without going into excessive detail.

Beyond the Hype: Abstract

Write an abstract summarizing your paper. Briefly introduce the topic, state your findings, and sum up what conclusions you can draw from your research. Use the word count feature of your word-processing program to make sure your abstract does not exceed one hundred fifty words.

Depending on your field of study, you may sometimes write research papers that present extensive primary research, such as your own experiment or survey. In your abstract, summarize your research question and your findings, and briefly indicate how your study relates to prior research in the field.

Margins, Pagination, and Headings

APA style requirements also address specific formatting concerns, such as margins, pagination, and heading styles, within the body of the paper. Review the following APA guidelines.

Use these general guidelines to format the paper:

  • Set the top, bottom, and side margins of your paper at 1 inch.
  • Use double-spaced text throughout your paper.
  • Use a standard font, such as Times New Roman or Arial, in a legible size (10- to 12-point).
  • Use continuous pagination throughout the paper, including the title page and the references section. Page numbers appear flush right within your header.
  • Section headings and subsection headings within the body of your paper use different types of formatting depending on the level of information you are presenting. Additional details from Jorge’s paper are provided.

Cover Page

Begin formatting the final draft of your paper according to APA guidelines. You may work with an existing document or set up a new document if you choose. Include the following:

  • Your title page
  • The abstract you created in Note 13.8 “Exercise 1”
  • Correct headers and page numbers for your title page and abstract

APA style uses section headings to organize information, making it easy for the reader to follow the writer’s train of thought and to know immediately what major topics are covered. Depending on the length and complexity of the paper, its major sections may also be divided into subsections, sub-subsections, and so on. These smaller sections, in turn, use different heading styles to indicate different levels of information. In essence, you are using headings to create a hierarchy of information.

The following heading styles used in APA formatting are listed in order of greatest to least importance:

  • Section headings use centered, boldface type. Headings use title case, with important words in the heading capitalized.
  • Subsection headings use left-aligned, boldface type. Headings use title case.
  • The third level uses left-aligned, indented, boldface type. Headings use a capital letter only for the first word, and they end in a period.
  • The fourth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are boldfaced and italicized.
  • The fifth level follows the same style used for the previous level, but the headings are italicized and not boldfaced.

Visually, the hierarchy of information is organized as indicated in Table 13.1 “Section Headings” .

Table 13.1 Section Headings

A college research paper may not use all the heading levels shown in Table 13.1 “Section Headings” , but you are likely to encounter them in academic journal articles that use APA style. For a brief paper, you may find that level 1 headings suffice. Longer or more complex papers may need level 2 headings or other lower-level headings to organize information clearly. Use your outline to craft your major section headings and determine whether any subtopics are substantial enough to require additional levels of headings.

Working with the document you developed in Note 13.11 “Exercise 2” , begin setting up the heading structure of the final draft of your research paper according to APA guidelines. Include your title and at least two to three major section headings, and follow the formatting guidelines provided above. If your major sections should be broken into subsections, add those headings as well. Use your outline to help you.

Because Jorge used only level 1 headings, his Exercise 3 would look like the following:

Citation Guidelines

In-text citations.

Throughout the body of your paper, include a citation whenever you quote or paraphrase material from your research sources. As you learned in Chapter 11 “Writing from Research: What Will I Learn?” , the purpose of citations is twofold: to give credit to others for their ideas and to allow your reader to follow up and learn more about the topic if desired. Your in-text citations provide basic information about your source; each source you cite will have a longer entry in the references section that provides more detailed information.

In-text citations must provide the name of the author or authors and the year the source was published. (When a given source does not list an individual author, you may provide the source title or the name of the organization that published the material instead.) When directly quoting a source, it is also required that you include the page number where the quote appears in your citation.

This information may be included within the sentence or in a parenthetical reference at the end of the sentence, as in these examples.

Epstein (2010) points out that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (p. 137).

Here, the writer names the source author when introducing the quote and provides the publication date in parentheses after the author’s name. The page number appears in parentheses after the closing quotation marks and before the period that ends the sentence.

Addiction researchers caution that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (Epstein, 2010, p. 137).

Here, the writer provides a parenthetical citation at the end of the sentence that includes the author’s name, the year of publication, and the page number separated by commas. Again, the parenthetical citation is placed after the closing quotation marks and before the period at the end of the sentence.

As noted in the book Junk Food, Junk Science (Epstein, 2010, p. 137), “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive.”

Here, the writer chose to mention the source title in the sentence (an optional piece of information to include) and followed the title with a parenthetical citation. Note that the parenthetical citation is placed before the comma that signals the end of the introductory phrase.

David Epstein’s book Junk Food, Junk Science (2010) pointed out that “junk food cannot be considered addictive in the same way that we think of psychoactive drugs as addictive” (p. 137).

Another variation is to introduce the author and the source title in your sentence and include the publication date and page number in parentheses within the sentence or at the end of the sentence. As long as you have included the essential information, you can choose the option that works best for that particular sentence and source.

Citing a book with a single author is usually a straightforward task. Of course, your research may require that you cite many other types of sources, such as books or articles with more than one author or sources with no individual author listed. You may also need to cite sources available in both print and online and nonprint sources, such as websites and personal interviews. Chapter 13 “APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting” , Section 13.2 “Citing and Referencing Techniques” and Section 13.3 “Creating a References Section” provide extensive guidelines for citing a variety of source types.

Writing at Work

APA is just one of several different styles with its own guidelines for documentation, formatting, and language usage. Depending on your field of interest, you may be exposed to additional styles, such as the following:

  • MLA style. Determined by the Modern Languages Association and used for papers in literature, languages, and other disciplines in the humanities.
  • Chicago style. Outlined in the Chicago Manual of Style and sometimes used for papers in the humanities and the sciences; many professional organizations use this style for publications as well.
  • Associated Press (AP) style. Used by professional journalists.

References List

The brief citations included in the body of your paper correspond to the more detailed citations provided at the end of the paper in the references section. In-text citations provide basic information—the author’s name, the publication date, and the page number if necessary—while the references section provides more extensive bibliographical information. Again, this information allows your reader to follow up on the sources you cited and do additional reading about the topic if desired.

The specific format of entries in the list of references varies slightly for different source types, but the entries generally include the following information:

  • The name(s) of the author(s) or institution that wrote the source
  • The year of publication and, where applicable, the exact date of publication
  • The full title of the source
  • For books, the city of publication
  • For articles or essays, the name of the periodical or book in which the article or essay appears
  • For magazine and journal articles, the volume number, issue number, and pages where the article appears
  • For sources on the web, the URL where the source is located

The references page is double spaced and lists entries in alphabetical order by the author’s last name. If an entry continues for more than one line, the second line and each subsequent line are indented five spaces. Review the following example. ( Chapter 13 “APA and MLA Documentation and Formatting” , Section 13.3 “Creating a References Section” provides extensive guidelines for formatting reference entries for different types of sources.)

References Section

In APA style, book and article titles are formatted in sentence case, not title case. Sentence case means that only the first word is capitalized, along with any proper nouns.

Key Takeaways

  • Following proper citation and formatting guidelines helps writers ensure that their work will be taken seriously, give proper credit to other authors for their work, and provide valuable information to readers.
  • Working ahead and taking care to cite sources correctly the first time are ways writers can save time during the editing stage of writing a research paper.
  • APA papers usually include an abstract that concisely summarizes the paper.
  • APA papers use a specific headings structure to provide a clear hierarchy of information.
  • In APA papers, in-text citations usually include the name(s) of the author(s) and the year of publication.
  • In-text citations correspond to entries in the references section, which provide detailed bibliographical information about a source.

Writing for Success Copyright © 2015 by University of Minnesota is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License , except where otherwise noted.

how to write a research paper ppt

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How to write a research paper ppt.

To create your research thesis presentation, you have to write it first in the doc version. We recommend starting slides after you’ve collected and structured enough data and findings. You will get tired of changing slides all the time. If you lack time or skills, you can order PowerPoint presentation services .

Text features of the research paper presentation ppt:

  • You have to focus on salient points to deliver valuable data while being on time.
  • You should express gratitude to the organizers and audience at the end.
  • The presentation states the importance/impact of your study (answers ‘so what’ question).
  • It includes not only your findings but also related and credible quotes.
  • It must show your results instead of talking about the literature.
  • It should not include more than two objectives.

Design features of the research paper presentation:

  • A typical research presentation takes up to 15 minutes (better 10).
  • A presentation has to include no more than 25 slides.
  • Do not throw paragraphs on slides and add less than 50 words per slide.
  • Do not display more than two images per slide; add image titles and animation.
  • Do not use fancy font styles less than 30pt: use Times New Roman, Arial, or Calibri 48pt.
  • Use consistent and neutral colors and avoid text overlaying images.
  • Do not use multiple-style bullets.
  • Use keywords rather than paragraphs.
  • Be consistent in animation and use the ‘one by one’ animation option.
  • Do not clutter text and organize it according to its relativity.

Research Paper Presentation Outline or Slides to Include

Students and teachers use research papers to share facts, disclose evidence, and present findings interpreted in their own manner. To keep peers’ interest, you have to include only relevant slides and stick to the point.

Examples of slides to include in your research paper ppt:

  • Self-introduction (name, affiliation, country);
  • Study title;
  • Purpose statement;
  • Scope and limitation;
  • Research design and methodology;
  • Research gap;
  • Study significance;
  • Literature review;
  • Theoretical framework;
  • Study objectivity;
  • Research questions;
  • Hypothesis;
  • Questionnaire detail;
  • Conclusion;
  • Recommendations.

It is not a strict outline, and you can omit some slides or add them in another sequence. The point is to add concise slides that reveal your study and deliver its significance due to each slide supplementing the next one and vice versa. And it depends on you how many slides you need to demonstrate it.

How to Present a Research Paper?

Presentation skills can be your superpower in the research argument delivery. Despite the audience type and size, your task is to defend your thesis and fill your peers with confidence. Indeed, people remember how you make them feel, not your words. Review these paper presentation tips and techniques to deliver a killer research presentation.

Know Your Audience

Sometimes, you will change for your audience, and it’s OK. If you want to be heard and accepted, you have to consider people’s backgrounds, interests, or even the average age. Therefore, discover and analyze who your audience is and the exact information they need before the presentation. Using the right terminology and knowledge level will set a connection between you and people because the worst thing you can do is to present to people who hear your subject first. Nobody likes to feel stupid, so always think about who will be in the room.

Tell a Story

After you’ve defined your audience, the next task is to make your research a story with structure. People will not remember figures or words as strong as they can remember the story with a typical story structure. If you can adjust your research paper slides to a necessary outline, you will attract the audience and make them remember you. If you doubt slides design, never hesitate to get a professional look or PowerPoint redesign from the agency.

Follow the next simple story structure:

  • AND: include background with statements so that people understand what you’re saying.
  • BUT: add the biggest possible and emotional problem statement your research is solving.
  • THEREFORE: provide relief and present a solution to the problem you’ve set up.

Those are elementary steps to telling a story that flows. Besides, they will help you not to get lost or muddled up about your presentation with plenty of research data.

Energy Structure

If you want to capture their attention immediately, you have to practice and find a balance between a noisy man that erases any boundaries and a static person without emotions. You have to demonstrate your interest in the research and, thus, engage people till the presentation ends. An emotional and impactful statement is what people will remember, not the table you’ve designed for 5 hours for the research paper writing ppt part.

As we’ve mentioned, people will remember not what you’ve said but how you’ve made them feel. Therefore, you have to both develop your slides and inject the necessary mind-thinking into your process of creating the research presentation. A creative story and attractive slides always increase the impactfulness of what you’re saying.

If you need help with slide design, get in touch with our agency and receive custom and unique research paper slides for any subject.

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Home Blog Presentation Ideas How to Create and Deliver a Research Presentation

How to Create and Deliver a Research Presentation

Cover for Research Presentation Guide

Every research endeavor ends up with the communication of its findings. Graduate-level research culminates in a thesis defense , while many academic and scientific disciplines are published in peer-reviewed journals. In a business context, PowerPoint research presentation is the default format for reporting the findings to stakeholders.

Condensing months of work into a few slides can prove to be challenging. It requires particular skills to create and deliver a research presentation that promotes informed decisions and drives long-term projects forward.

Table of Contents

What is a Research Presentation

Key slides for creating a research presentation, tips when delivering a research presentation, how to present sources in a research presentation, recommended templates to create a research presentation.

A research presentation is the communication of research findings, typically delivered to an audience of peers, colleagues, students, or professionals. In the academe, it is meant to showcase the importance of the research paper , state the findings and the analysis of those findings, and seek feedback that could further the research.

The presentation of research becomes even more critical in the business world as the insights derived from it are the basis of strategic decisions of organizations. Information from this type of report can aid companies in maximizing the sales and profit of their business. Major projects such as research and development (R&D) in a new field, the launch of a new product or service, or even corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives will require the presentation of research findings to prove their feasibility.

Market research and technical research are examples of business-type research presentations you will commonly encounter.

In this article, we’ve compiled all the essential tips, including some examples and templates, to get you started with creating and delivering a stellar research presentation tailored specifically for the business context.

Various research suggests that the average attention span of adults during presentations is around 20 minutes, with a notable drop in an engagement at the 10-minute mark . Beyond that, you might see your audience doing other things.

How can you avoid such a mistake? The answer lies in the adage “keep it simple, stupid” or KISS. We don’t mean dumbing down your content but rather presenting it in a way that is easily digestible and accessible to your audience. One way you can do this is by organizing your research presentation using a clear structure.

Here are the slides you should prioritize when creating your research presentation PowerPoint.

1.  Title Page

The title page is the first thing your audience will see during your presentation, so put extra effort into it to make an impression. Of course, writing presentation titles and title pages will vary depending on the type of presentation you are to deliver. In the case of a research presentation, you want a formal and academic-sounding one. It should include:

  • The full title of the report
  • The date of the report
  • The name of the researchers or department in charge of the report
  • The name of the organization for which the presentation is intended

When writing the title of your research presentation, it should reflect the topic and objective of the report. Focus only on the subject and avoid adding redundant phrases like “A research on” or “A study on.” However, you may use phrases like “Market Analysis” or “Feasibility Study” because they help identify the purpose of the presentation. Doing so also serves a long-term purpose for the filing and later retrieving of the document.

Here’s a sample title page for a hypothetical market research presentation from Gillette .

Title slide in a Research Presentation

2. Executive Summary Slide

The executive summary marks the beginning of the body of the presentation, briefly summarizing the key discussion points of the research. Specifically, the summary may state the following:

  • The purpose of the investigation and its significance within the organization’s goals
  • The methods used for the investigation
  • The major findings of the investigation
  • The conclusions and recommendations after the investigation

Although the executive summary encompasses the entry of the research presentation, it should not dive into all the details of the work on which the findings, conclusions, and recommendations were based. Creating the executive summary requires a focus on clarity and brevity, especially when translating it to a PowerPoint document where space is limited.

Each point should be presented in a clear and visually engaging manner to capture the audience’s attention and set the stage for the rest of the presentation. Use visuals, bullet points, and minimal text to convey information efficiently.

Executive Summary slide in a Research Presentation

3. Introduction/ Project Description Slides

In this section, your goal is to provide your audience with the information that will help them understand the details of the presentation. Provide a detailed description of the project, including its goals, objectives, scope, and methods for gathering and analyzing data.

You want to answer these fundamental questions:

  • What specific questions are you trying to answer, problems you aim to solve, or opportunities you seek to explore?
  • Why is this project important, and what prompted it?
  • What are the boundaries of your research or initiative? 
  • How were the data gathered?

Important: The introduction should exclude specific findings, conclusions, and recommendations.

Action Evaluation Matrix in a Research Presentation

4. Data Presentation and Analyses Slides

This is the longest section of a research presentation, as you’ll present the data you’ve gathered and provide a thorough analysis of that data to draw meaningful conclusions. The format and components of this section can vary widely, tailored to the specific nature of your research.

For example, if you are doing market research, you may include the market potential estimate, competitor analysis, and pricing analysis. These elements will help your organization determine the actual viability of a market opportunity.

Visual aids like charts, graphs, tables, and diagrams are potent tools to convey your key findings effectively. These materials may be numbered and sequenced (Figure 1, Figure 2, and so forth), accompanied by text to make sense of the insights.

Data and Analysis slide in a Research Presentation

5. Conclusions

The conclusion of a research presentation is where you pull together the ideas derived from your data presentation and analyses in light of the purpose of the research. For example, if the objective is to assess the market of a new product, the conclusion should determine the requirements of the market in question and tell whether there is a product-market fit.

Designing your conclusion slide should be straightforward and focused on conveying the key takeaways from your research. Keep the text concise and to the point. Present it in bullet points or numbered lists to make the content easily scannable.

Conclusion Slide in a Research Presentation

6. Recommendations

The findings of your research might reveal elements that may not align with your initial vision or expectations. These deviations are addressed in the recommendations section of your presentation, which outlines the best course of action based on the result of the research.

What emerging markets should we target next? Do we need to rethink our pricing strategies? Which professionals should we hire for this special project? — these are some of the questions that may arise when coming up with this part of the research.

Recommendations may be combined with the conclusion, but presenting them separately to reinforce their urgency. In the end, the decision-makers in the organization or your clients will make the final call on whether to accept or decline the recommendations.

Recommendations slide in Research Presentation

7. Questions Slide

Members of your audience are not involved in carrying out your research activity, which means there’s a lot they don’t know about its details. By offering an opportunity for questions, you can invite them to bridge that gap, seek clarification, and engage in a dialogue that enhances their understanding.

If your research is more business-oriented, facilitating a question and answer after your presentation becomes imperative as it’s your final appeal to encourage buy-in for your recommendations.

A simple “Ask us anything” slide can indicate that you are ready to accept questions.

1. Focus on the Most Important Findings

The truth about presenting research findings is that your audience doesn’t need to know everything. Instead, they should receive a distilled, clear, and meaningful overview that focuses on the most critical aspects.

You will likely have to squeeze in the oral presentation of your research into a 10 to 20-minute presentation, so you have to make the most out of the time given to you. In the presentation, don’t soak in the less important elements like historical backgrounds. Decision-makers might even ask you to skip these portions and focus on sharing the findings.

2. Do Not Read Word-per-word

Reading word-for-word from your presentation slides intensifies the danger of losing your audience’s interest. Its effect can be detrimental, especially if the purpose of your research presentation is to gain approval from the audience. So, how can you avoid this mistake?

  • Make a conscious design decision to keep the text on your slides minimal. Your slides should serve as visual cues to guide your presentation.
  • Structure your presentation as a narrative or story. Stories are more engaging and memorable than dry, factual information.
  • Prepare speaker notes with the key points of your research. Glance at it when needed.
  • Engage with the audience by maintaining eye contact and asking rhetorical questions.

3. Don’t Go Without Handouts

Handouts are paper copies of your presentation slides that you distribute to your audience. They typically contain the summary of your key points, but they may also provide supplementary information supporting data presented through tables and graphs.

The purpose of distributing presentation handouts is to easily retain the key points you presented as they become good references in the future. Distributing handouts in advance allows your audience to review the material and come prepared with questions or points for discussion during the presentation.

4. Actively Listen

An equally important skill that a presenter must possess aside from speaking is the ability to listen. We are not just talking about listening to what the audience is saying but also considering their reactions and nonverbal cues. If you sense disinterest or confusion, you can adapt your approach on the fly to re-engage them.

For example, if some members of your audience are exchanging glances, they may be skeptical of the research findings you are presenting. This is the best time to reassure them of the validity of your data and provide a concise overview of how it came to be. You may also encourage them to seek clarification.

5. Be Confident

Anxiety can strike before a presentation – it’s a common reaction whenever someone has to speak in front of others. If you can’t eliminate your stress, try to manage it.

People hate public speaking not because they simply hate it. Most of the time, it arises from one’s belief in themselves. You don’t have to take our word for it. Take Maslow’s theory that says a threat to one’s self-esteem is a source of distress among an individual.

Now, how can you master this feeling? You’ve spent a lot of time on your research, so there is no question about your topic knowledge. Perhaps you just need to rehearse your research presentation. If you know what you will say and how to say it, you will gain confidence in presenting your work.

All sources you use in creating your research presentation should be given proper credit. The APA Style is the most widely used citation style in formal research.

In-text citation

Add references within the text of your presentation slide by giving the author’s last name, year of publication, and page number (if applicable) in parentheses after direct quotations or paraphrased materials. As in:

The alarming rate at which global temperatures rise directly impacts biodiversity (Smith, 2020, p. 27).

If the author’s name and year of publication are mentioned in the text, add only the page number in parentheses after the quotations or paraphrased materials. As in:

According to Smith (2020), the alarming rate at which global temperatures rise directly impacts biodiversity (p. 27).

Image citation

All images from the web, including photos, graphs, and tables, used in your slides should be credited using the format below.

Creator’s Last Name, First Name. “Title of Image.” Website Name, Day Mo. Year, URL. Accessed Day Mo. Year.

Work cited page

A work cited page or reference list should follow after the last slide of your presentation. The list should be alphabetized by the author’s last name and initials followed by the year of publication, the title of the book or article, the place of publication, and the publisher. As in:

Smith, J. A. (2020). Climate Change and Biodiversity: A Comprehensive Study. New York, NY: ABC Publications.

When citing a document from a website, add the source URL after the title of the book or article instead of the place of publication and the publisher. As in:

Smith, J. A. (2020). Climate Change and Biodiversity: A Comprehensive Study. Retrieved from

1. Research Project Presentation PowerPoint Template

how to write a research paper ppt

A slide deck containing 18 different slides intended to take off the weight of how to make a research presentation. With tons of visual aids, presenters can reference existing research on similar projects to this one – or link another research presentation example – provide an accurate data analysis, disclose the methodology used, and much more.

Use This Template

2. Research Presentation Scientific Method Diagram PowerPoint Template

how to write a research paper ppt

Whenever you intend to raise questions, expose the methodology you used for your research, or even suggest a scientific method approach for future analysis, this circular wheel diagram is a perfect fit for any presentation study.

Customize all of its elements to suit the demands of your presentation in just minutes.

3. Thesis Research Presentation PowerPoint Template

Layout of Results in Charts

If your research presentation project belongs to academia, then this is the slide deck to pair that presentation. With a formal aesthetic and minimalistic style, this research presentation template focuses only on exposing your information as clearly as possible.

Use its included bar charts and graphs to introduce data, change the background of each slide to suit the topic of your presentation, and customize each of its elements to meet the requirements of your project with ease.

4. Animated Research Cards PowerPoint Template

how to write a research paper ppt

Visualize ideas and their connection points with the help of this research card template for PowerPoint. This slide deck, for example, can help speakers talk about alternative concepts to what they are currently managing and its possible outcomes, among different other usages this versatile PPT template has. Zoom Animation effects make a smooth transition between cards (or ideas).

5. Research Presentation Slide Deck for PowerPoint

how to write a research paper ppt

With a distinctive professional style, this research presentation PPT template helps business professionals and academics alike to introduce the findings of their work to team members or investors.

By accessing this template, you get the following slides:

  • Introduction
  • Problem Statement
  • Research Questions
  • Conceptual Research Framework (Concepts, Theories, Actors, & Constructs)
  • Study design and methods
  • Population & Sampling
  • Data Collection
  • Data Analysis

Check it out today and craft a powerful research presentation out of it!

A successful research presentation in business is not just about presenting data; it’s about persuasion to take meaningful action. It’s the bridge that connects your research efforts to the strategic initiatives of your organization. To embark on this journey successfully, planning your presentation thoroughly is paramount, from designing your PowerPoint to the delivery.

Take a look and get inspiration from the sample research presentation slides above, put our tips to heart, and transform your research findings into a compelling call to action.

how to write a research paper ppt

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how to write a research paper ppt

  • December 1, 2022
  • Academic Advice

How To Write a Research Paper: The Ultimate Guide 

UOTP Marketing

UOTP Marketing

Regardless of the degree or program, you enroll in, writing research papers is inevitable. The process can seem daunting due to the time and effort it takes. But with the proper approach, you’ll make it. 

This article will guide you on how to write a research paper perfectly, including how to write a thesis statement for a research paper, how to write a conclusion for a research paper, etc. More specifically, there are nine steps you need to follow to pave the way to a successfully written research paper.

But before that, let’s learn what a research paper is.

What Is a Research Paper?

A research paper can be considered an extended version of an essay. The research paper aims to present your interpretation, argument, or evaluation. In contrast to essays, research papers are more complex and require deep research on a particular matter. Research papers are characterized by the inclusivity of the presentation of other scientists’ opinions.

A research paper is more than a summary, collection of other sources, or literature review. At its core, the research paper analyzes and argues your point of view, further backed up by other studies. 

Completing a research paper is a challenging task. But, with our help, you can start and build your way to a good end. Let’s get started!

How To Write a Research Paper

Writing a research paper sounds easy; you pick the topic, develop your argument, research what other studies have said, and conclude it. Those are the general rules. But writing a successful research paper requires you to be more attentive, consistent, and detailed. 

The following steps will guide you through a more detailed process of writing a research paper. 

Get familiar with the assignment

Writing a research paper takes more than just listening to the instruction while your professor explains. Because many students are not cautious enough to carefully listen and analyze every given step, they end up with a poorly graded assignment or, in the worst case, even fail. 

Spend some time reading every instruction, and when in doubt, ask questions! Professors are always open to answering any questions you might have.

Choose a topic for your research paper

Deciding on a topic is usually time-consuming since there are so many topics available. If you need help deciding on a topic, think about what you are passionate about, but always remember to stay within the lines of the instructions. When choosing a topic, keep the following in mind:

  • Choose a topic relevant to the length of the paper: If your professor has instructed a longer paper than usual, keep your topic broad, for example, “Internships.” On the other hand, if it’s shorter, try to narrow your topic to something more specific such as “Internship’s impact on interpersonal skills.”
  • Consider topics that allow you to discuss or analyze rather than summarize: If you’re writing anything literature related, focus on how, for example, a particular scene leads to a specific theme. Avoid choosing a topic that plainly describes scenes or characters. 
  • Find a topic with many previous studies available: Since research papers mainly focus on your research, you must ensure plenty of studies can support your arguments.

Do the research and take notes

Now it’s time to research what different scholars have written about the topic. Since this step requires a lot of reading and comprehension, it’s crucial to know how to read scholarly articles effectively and efficiently. The pieces you will go through will be lengthy, and sometimes only a few parts within those papers will be helpful. That’s why it is essential to skim and scan. 

Secondly, find reliable sources. Visit sites such as Google Scholar, and focus on peer-reviewed articles since they contain information that has been reviewed and evaluated. 

Next, keep track of what you have read so far. It’s vital to save everything you have read and consider influential in one place. Instead of going back and forth between different sites, you can have everything in one place. You can bookmark the sources or link those sources to a document. That will save you valuable time when you start writing. 

And remember: always stay focused and within your topic area.

Formulate your thesis statement

Research until you reach your own opinion or argument on the topic, otherwise known as a thesis statement. A thesis statement is an introductory statement that puts forward your explanation or point within the paper. When formulating a thesis statement, remember the following:

  • Don’t be vague.
  • Make a strong statement.
  • Make it arguable.

Checking in with your professor after you have developed a clear, persuasive thesis statement can be helpful. Ask them whether they agree your thesis statement is the right one. And if you get a positive answer, you’re ready for the next step.

Create an outline for your research paper


Even if it’s not required by your instructor, creating an outline will help you greatly in the long run. A structure will simplify the writing process, regardless of length or complexity. It should contain detailed information for the arrangement of each paragraph and identify the smaller components per each paragraph in order, such as the introductory sentence and the supporting evidence. 

The outline will create a visual board and help you define what to include and where. And most importantly, in this part, you can identify possible mistakes and not have them in your drafts.

Write your first draft

And now you’ve made it to the real deal. The work you’ve done till this point matters a lot. If you succeed in having a good topic, a strong thesis with backup evidence, and an already structured paper, half of the job is already done—you just have to fill in the blanks at this point. 

As you first start writing, remember that this is the first draft. Trust your memory and avoid going between sources and your paper. This way, you can prevent plagiarism and be original instead. Start with the introduction and the body, and work through a conclusion.


Introductions to research papers are always unique. It is the part where you set up the topic and hook your reader. Additionally, you must provide background to the existing research, position your approach, and put forward the thesis statement. Furthermore, you need to explain why your topic deserves immediate attention.

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An introduction highlights all you’ve gathered from your research. While it may seem fine to write the introduction first, we suggest you focus on the body of the paper first. Then you’ll find it simple to build a clear summary.

This is the longest part of the research paper. You are required to support your thesis and build the argument, followed by citations and analysis.

Place the paragraphs in a logical arrangement so each key point flows naturally to the next one. Similarly, organize the sentences in each paragraph in an organic structure. If you have carefully arranged your notes and created an outline, your thoughts will automatically fall into place when you write your draft.

After introducing your topic and arguing your points, the conclusion will bring everything together. Focus on developing a stimulating and informative conclusion. Make it possible for readers to understand it independently from the rest of the paper.

These are some of the suggestions that will lead to a well-written conclusion:

  • Provide a clear summary 
  • Emphasize issues raised and possible solutions

Write your second draft

Usually, the first draft is followed by a second one. However, before proceeding with the process, highlight the errors and points you would prefer to avoid including in the final draft. With the help of a second draft, you will be able to notice mistakes and create a definitive outline for the final draft. Furthermore, you can communicate your ideas more clearly and effectively by creating multiple drafts.

Cite sources and prepare a bibliography

Citations are what characterize the research paper. The importance of citations lies in reliability: citing sources will make your writing more reliable. But how do you cite correctly? The problem is that there is more than just a set of rules. If your professor has set no rules, you can ask them. After being given the right instructions on what citation style to use, do plenty of research and make sure to cite correctly. 

Edit, edit, and edit some more


Now it’s time to strive for perfection. Start editing with a fresh perspective. Firstly, focus on the content. It would be beneficial to create a checklist you can follow. You can produce a list that follows the instructions of your professor. If everything checks right, you can submit it. Otherwise, you’ll need to work toward perfecting the paper. Here are some things you need to check: 

  • Are you within the lines of the assignment?
  • Have you achieved the right length? 
  • Do sentences communicate your ideas? 
  • Is the supporting evidence conducted correctly?

It is also crucial to edit for grammar. Plenty of online tools, such as Grammarly and Hemingway Editor, can help you during the process. You can also ask your peers to check it after you’ve done your part. Their fresh perspective will pick up on many things you might have missed.

The Bottom Line

Writing a research paper is one of the essential parts of academics. The process might seem straightforward, but there are many steps you should carefully follow. And remember: always stay on track with your progress; otherwise, you will get lost in tasks. 

We hope by the time you have read this guide, you’ve been able to pick up the essential parts. But if you haven’t, you can go through it again.

Share it with your friends!

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As you have probably already noticed, in academia it all comes down to the way research is brought to daylight. A scientist will never be considered a true scientist if he or she is not seen as such by his/her own community. In other words, having good research is hardly enough to be successful in a science career; you have to learn how to share it, as much as you can and as efficiently as you can.

Abstracts are powerful tools to generate interest about your research among your target audience. Apart from providing a complete and general overview of your scientific project, with meaningful statements and an engaging discourse, it is possible to create high levels of expectation in those who you want to impress. If you think your manuscript is lacking this extra linguistic spark to win over more and more interested groups, consider text editing services by Elsevier. Our professionals know how to adapt content to the desired output format, with special focus on the logic and flow of information. This way, you will be able to create a proper impression on your target audience without having to worry that the main scientific message in the manuscript is altered or distorted.

After completely drafted, a scientific manuscript may have several output formats. Generally, a researcher’s first step is to submit their research for publication in a journal of reference in their field of study. In this way they can perpetuate their own work and hope to be referenced in other articles, hopefully in highly ranked publications by renowned experts. Other ways of sharing scientific knowledge can be through public presentations, posters, participations in debates and conferences, etc. Every one of these forms – and many more outlets – will add visibility to your research and ultimately to you, as a scientist.

However, for all of these, you need to persuade someone – it could be a publisher, a sponsor, an event promoter, or a conference organizer – that you and your work bring something new and relevant to this project. That is where an abstract comes into play, and because there are so many ways to present a paper, there are also many ways to let your audience know about what you have to offer.

Find out the difference between abstract and conclusion .

Writing an Abstract for Research Paper Presentation

All types of abstracts are similar in their structure and main aspects:

  • It must be short – Normally abstracts aren’t longer than 250/300 words. Presentation abstracts can be even shorter because a lot of the information will come across orally and through visual aids that cannot be displayed in this type of document. Newcomers often struggle to summarize their papers into a single paragraph, but the one thing you need to keep in mind is to capture the absolute essence of your research and create curiosity and excitement around it.
  • It must stand on its own – Most of the time, an abstract is all a conference organizer will read about your research before he or she decides whether your presence adds value to the conference or event. Avoid bringing up other authors, or research that is not your own, and keep focused on the topic you want to explore in your presentation. Also, do not include or mention visual content in your paper.
  • Use a well-defined structure – Using a basic but efficient structure will help you keep a well-organized abstract. On the one hand, the reader will feel guided throughout the text; on the other hand, it is also useful for authors to divide information and choose key points, thus keeping their abstracts clear and professional. A possible and frequently used structure could be: Introduction + Title + Problem statement + Approach + Results + Conclusion(s) . Note that just like many publishers, conference organizers also have their own submission guidelines. Before sketching your own abstract, check with the organization if you need to follow any special structure.

So, what makes a paper presentation abstract any different?

  • A (super) engaging title – An abstract title must be always appealing, but for a conference or event that is even more true. Remember that your audience is making a personal effort – concerning time and money – to attend a certain event. A strong, impactful and engaging title might be just what you need to convince people that it will be worth it to attend your presentation.
  • Adjust the scope of your research – Your presentation will be almost certainly included in an event with a broader theme. Make sure you describe your paper from an angle that puts your research in a central and/or relevant position, always taking the conference’s theme into account.
  • Pay special attention to context – You will be looking at your audience in the eye. It is important that the people who want to see you can relate their own work with yours. In the case of a conference presentation, or any other public presentation, we recommend that you get to know your audience. If necessary/or possible, narrow the context of your work a little more, in order to come closer to your groups of interest and the global reality surrounding the event.

The importance of an abstract in a research paper

An abstract has two very important functions:

Indexation – The amount of scientific information produced every day is overwhelming. That is why databases all over the world use abstracts to index scientific papers. A well written abstract, and the right selection of keywords, are all you need for your work to be found among millions of others.

Selection – As mentioned before, abstracts are mainly very concise descriptions of a paper. designed to help people make a quick decision if it is of their interest or not. They should be written in direct and clear language, but also be compelling enough to engage possible readers and interested researchers to follow your work.

The difference between abstract and conclusion

  • Manuscript Preparation

The difference between abstract and conclusion

Data Availability Statement

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  • How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

How to Write a Research Proposal | Examples & Templates

Published on October 12, 2022 by Shona McCombes and Tegan George. Revised on June 13, 2023.

Structure of a research proposal

A research proposal describes what you will investigate, why it’s important, and how you will conduct your research.

The format of a research proposal varies between fields, but most proposals will contain at least these elements:


Literature review.

  • Research design

Reference list

While the sections may vary, the overall objective is always the same. A research proposal serves as a blueprint and guide for your research plan, helping you get organized and feel confident in the path forward you choose to take.

Table of contents

Research proposal purpose, research proposal examples, research design and methods, contribution to knowledge, research schedule, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about research proposals.

Academics often have to write research proposals to get funding for their projects. As a student, you might have to write a research proposal as part of a grad school application , or prior to starting your thesis or dissertation .

In addition to helping you figure out what your research can look like, a proposal can also serve to demonstrate why your project is worth pursuing to a funder, educational institution, or supervisor.

Research proposal length

The length of a research proposal can vary quite a bit. A bachelor’s or master’s thesis proposal can be just a few pages, while proposals for PhD dissertations or research funding are usually much longer and more detailed. Your supervisor can help you determine the best length for your work.

One trick to get started is to think of your proposal’s structure as a shorter version of your thesis or dissertation , only without the results , conclusion and discussion sections.

Download our research proposal template

Prevent plagiarism. Run a free check.

Writing a research proposal can be quite challenging, but a good starting point could be to look at some examples. We’ve included a few for you below.

  • Example research proposal #1: “A Conceptual Framework for Scheduling Constraint Management”
  • Example research proposal #2: “Medical Students as Mediators of Change in Tobacco Use”

Like your dissertation or thesis, the proposal will usually have a title page that includes:

  • The proposed title of your project
  • Your supervisor’s name
  • Your institution and department

The first part of your proposal is the initial pitch for your project. Make sure it succinctly explains what you want to do and why.

Your introduction should:

  • Introduce your topic
  • Give necessary background and context
  • Outline your  problem statement  and research questions

To guide your introduction , include information about:

  • Who could have an interest in the topic (e.g., scientists, policymakers)
  • How much is already known about the topic
  • What is missing from this current knowledge
  • What new insights your research will contribute
  • Why you believe this research is worth doing

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As you get started, it’s important to demonstrate that you’re familiar with the most important research on your topic. A strong literature review  shows your reader that your project has a solid foundation in existing knowledge or theory. It also shows that you’re not simply repeating what other people have already done or said, but rather using existing research as a jumping-off point for your own.

In this section, share exactly how your project will contribute to ongoing conversations in the field by:

  • Comparing and contrasting the main theories, methods, and debates
  • Examining the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches
  • Explaining how will you build on, challenge, or synthesize prior scholarship

Following the literature review, restate your main  objectives . This brings the focus back to your own project. Next, your research design or methodology section will describe your overall approach, and the practical steps you will take to answer your research questions.

To finish your proposal on a strong note, explore the potential implications of your research for your field. Emphasize again what you aim to contribute and why it matters.

For example, your results might have implications for:

  • Improving best practices
  • Informing policymaking decisions
  • Strengthening a theory or model
  • Challenging popular or scientific beliefs
  • Creating a basis for future research

Last but not least, your research proposal must include correct citations for every source you have used, compiled in a reference list . To create citations quickly and easily, you can use our free APA citation generator .

Some institutions or funders require a detailed timeline of the project, asking you to forecast what you will do at each stage and how long it may take. While not always required, be sure to check the requirements of your project.

Here’s an example schedule to help you get started. You can also download a template at the button below.

Download our research schedule template

If you are applying for research funding, chances are you will have to include a detailed budget. This shows your estimates of how much each part of your project will cost.

Make sure to check what type of costs the funding body will agree to cover. For each item, include:

  • Cost : exactly how much money do you need?
  • Justification : why is this cost necessary to complete the research?
  • Source : how did you calculate the amount?

To determine your budget, think about:

  • Travel costs : do you need to go somewhere to collect your data? How will you get there, and how much time will you need? What will you do there (e.g., interviews, archival research)?
  • Materials : do you need access to any tools or technologies?
  • Help : do you need to hire any research assistants for the project? What will they do, and how much will you pay them?

If you want to know more about the research process , methodology , research bias , or statistics , make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples.


  • Sampling methods
  • Simple random sampling
  • Stratified sampling
  • Cluster sampling
  • Likert scales
  • Reproducibility


  • Null hypothesis
  • Statistical power
  • Probability distribution
  • Effect size
  • Poisson distribution

Research bias

  • Optimism bias
  • Cognitive bias
  • Implicit bias
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Anchoring bias
  • Explicit bias

Once you’ve decided on your research objectives , you need to explain them in your paper, at the end of your problem statement .

Keep your research objectives clear and concise, and use appropriate verbs to accurately convey the work that you will carry out for each one.

I will compare …

A research aim is a broad statement indicating the general purpose of your research project. It should appear in your introduction at the end of your problem statement , before your research objectives.

Research objectives are more specific than your research aim. They indicate the specific ways you’ll address the overarching aim.

A PhD, which is short for philosophiae doctor (doctor of philosophy in Latin), is the highest university degree that can be obtained. In a PhD, students spend 3–5 years writing a dissertation , which aims to make a significant, original contribution to current knowledge.

A PhD is intended to prepare students for a career as a researcher, whether that be in academia, the public sector, or the private sector.

A master’s is a 1- or 2-year graduate degree that can prepare you for a variety of careers.

All master’s involve graduate-level coursework. Some are research-intensive and intend to prepare students for further study in a PhD; these usually require their students to write a master’s thesis . Others focus on professional training for a specific career.

Critical thinking refers to the ability to evaluate information and to be aware of biases or assumptions, including your own.

Like information literacy , it involves evaluating arguments, identifying and solving problems in an objective and systematic way, and clearly communicating your ideas.

The best way to remember the difference between a research plan and a research proposal is that they have fundamentally different audiences. A research plan helps you, the researcher, organize your thoughts. On the other hand, a dissertation proposal or research proposal aims to convince others (e.g., a supervisor, a funding body, or a dissertation committee) that your research topic is relevant and worthy of being conducted.

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How to make a PowerPoint presentation from a research paper?

How to make a PowerPoint presentation from a research paper?

Academic presentations could be based on research in progress, unfinished work or the full drafts of a research paper. An academic presentation is a sort of like an advertisement for the paper than an attempt to present all the information in the paper. You need to focus on what is important, highlighting the bold outcomes and results is the key here. The below format is a very basic design showing you how to make a PowerPoint presentation from a research paper:

  • Introduction (1 slide)
  • Research Questions/Hypotheses (1 slide)
  • Literature Review/Theory (1 slide)
  • Methods & Data Collection (1 slide)
  • Data Presentation/Findings (3-5 slides)
  • Conclusion (1 slide)

PowerPoint presentation from a research paper

Obviously, this is just a general guideline. It is however important that you focus on your findings, future implication of your work and limitation since it is the potential for future research. During a presentation method and data collection sections should be kept short. Though, this all depends on the nature of the work.

To create a presentation from a full-length paper or article, you can pull out the most important parts of the article, based on the above list or based on the subheadings in your own article.

For the introduction, you can use the same compelling introduction you use in your paper. In the PowerPoint presentation, it is a good idea to find a picture that describes the aim of your research. Visuals are considered very effective tools for keeping the audience interested and for conveying a point.

Your next slide should contain your research questions mentioned in your introduction as well.

Then, spend no more than a minute contextualizing your research questions and project within the literature. Don’t make the mistake of spending too much time reviewing what others have written about your topic. You just want to illustrate the fact that your work contributes to existing research in the field. People don’t come to conferences to hear literature reviews, they want new information and mind-blowing findings. They want to see the real implications of the findings to the global challenges at hand.   The concrete practical solutions.

Think about the questions people might have such as: what data set did you use? How many interviews did you carry out? How many months of participant observation did you complete? What is the timeframe for the data? The geographical observations. Give just enough information to validate your findings for the methodology section.

You should be able to go through all of the above in the first five minutes so that you can spend as much of your time as possible sharing the rich detail of your own data and analyses. If you have ethnographic data, you can tell one story from the field for each point you want to make. For statistical data, you can present a table with findings for each finding you wish to highlight. For interview data, you can use one interview quotes for each theme you plan to highlight.

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As you make each slide, remember to put a few words as possible on each slide, and place an image on each slide to convey your points visually.


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writing a research paper

Writing a Research Paper

Jan 06, 2020

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Writing a Research Paper. What is a research paper?. definition. A substantial piece of academic writing, usually done as a requirement for a class, in which the author does independent research into a topic and writes a description of the findings of that research.

  • research paper
  • bibliographical information
  • research papers
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Presentation Transcript

What is a research paper?

definition • A substantial piece of academic writing, usually done as a requirement for a class, in which the author does independent research into a topic and writes a description of the findings of that research. • A formal written report that includes research findings and a student's own ideas. • Research papers are all about organizing your ideas in a linear, understandable format. • A research paper is a report summarizing the answers to the research questions you generated from the sources you gathered information from. Then presenting the work in research paper format.

A narrative is • A narrative tells about a personal experience, a research paper give information about a topic, and an argument tried to persuade reader to feel a certain way about a topic. Narrative does not incorporate research, a research paper does and include and argument.

How do I write a research paper?

Step 1. Choose a Topic Choose a topic which interests and challenges you. Your attitude towards the topic may well determine the amount of effort and enthusiasm you put into your research. Focus on a limited aspect - narrow it down from Religion to World Religion to Buddhism. Obtain teacher approval for your topic before embarking on full-scale research. Select a subject you can manage. Avoid subjects that are too technical, learned, or specialized. Avoid topics that have only a very narrow range of source materials. A Research Guide for Research Students

Step 2. Find Information Surf the net • Pay attention to domain name extensions (.edu, .gov, .org) as these tend to be more reliable. Be selective of .com sites. Learn how to evaluate sites critically and to search effectively on the Internet. Check out print materials at the library • Almanacs, atlases, encyclopedias, guides, reports, government publications Read and evaluate, bookmark, print out, photocopy and take notes of relevant information. As you gather your resources, jot down full bibliographical information (author, title, place of publication, publisher, date of publication, page numbers, URLs, creation or modification dates on Web pages and your date of access) on work sheet, printout, or enter the information on your computer. Remember that an article without bibliographical information is useless since you cannot cite its source. A Research Guide for Research Students

Career Information Sources • Finding the Right Career • O’Net • Ohio Means Jobs • Occupational Outlook Handbook • Career Guide to Industries • Employment Projections • Best Careers

Step 3. State Your Thesis • Do some critical thinking and write your thesis statement down in one sentence. Your thesis statement is like a declaration of your belief. The main portion of your essay will consist of arguments to support and defend this belief. • With the skills and abilities I exhibit, the medical field is the career path I am interested in pursing. A Research Guide for Research Students

Step 4. Make a Tentative Outline • The purpose of an outline is to help you think through your topic carefully and organize it logically before you start writing. Include an Introduction, a Body, and a Conclusion. Make the first outline tentative. • Introduction Share your thesis and purpose clearly. What is the chief reason for the paper? Explain briefly the major points and why readers should be interested in your topic. • Body Present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the rule of 3 – find three supporting arguments for each position. • Conclusion Restate your thesis, summarize your arguments, and explain why you have come to this particular conclusion. A Research Guide for Research Students

Example of an outline • INTRODUCTION – Brief comment leading into subject matter - Thesis statement on Shakespeare • BODY - Shakespeare's Early Life, Marriage, Works, Later Year • Early life in Stratford • Shakespeare's family • Shakespeare's father • Shakespeare's mother • Shakespeare's marriage • Life of Anne Hathaway • Reference in Shakespeare's Poems • Shakespeare's works • Plays • Tragedies • Hamlet • Romeo and Juliet • Comedies • The Tempest • Much Ado About Nothing • Histories • King John • Richard III • Henry VIII • Sonnets • Other poems • Shakespeare's Later Years • Last two plays • Retired to Stratford • Death • Burial • Epitaph on his tombstone • CONCLUSION • Analytical summary • Shakespeare's early life • Shakespeare's works • Shakespeare's later years • Thesis reworded • Concluding statement A Research Guide for Research Students

Step 5. Organize Your Notes Organize, analyze, synthesize, sort and digest the information gathered to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights and research finding to others. This is the most important stage in writing a research paper. Include only relevant and understandable information. Make sure you have used your own words and has been carefully noted. Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used to avoid plagiarism. Jot down detailed bibliographical information and it ready for your Works Cited page. A Research Guide for Research Students

What is plagiarism?

plagiarism simply means… A piece of writing that has been copied from someone else and is presented as being your own work; to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as one's own; to use (another's production) without crediting the source; to commit literary theft; to present as new and original idea or product derived from an existing source. In other words, plagiarism is an act of fraud. It involves both stealing someone else's work and lying about it afterward. All of the following are considered plagiarism: • turning in someone else's work as your own • copying words or ideas from someone else without giving credit • failing to put a quotation in quotation marks • giving incorrect information about the source of a quotation • changing words but copying the sentence structure of a source without giving credit • copying so many words or ideas from a source that it makes up the majority of your work, whether you give credit or not Most cases of plagiarism can be avoided, however, by citing sources. Simply acknowledging that certain material has been borrowed, and providing your audience with the information necessary to find that source, is usually enough to prevent plagiarism.

What is MLA style?

definition MLA stands for Modern Language Association, and it is the standard format for research and term papers. MLA format includes specific rules for quoting authors, called citations. It also allows for documenting source authors within the text of your research paper, called parenthetical citations. There is also a specific format for creating a Works Cited page, which is sometimes called a bibliography.  Writers who properly use MLA also build their credibility by demonstrating accountability to their source material. Most importantly, the use of MLA style can protect writers from accusations of plagiarism, which is the purposeful or accidental un-credited use of source material by other writers. If you are asked to use MLA format, be sure to consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (7th edition). MLA Formatting

MLA General Guidelines • Type your paper on a computer and print it out on standard, white 8.5 x 11-inch paper. • Double-space the text of your paper, and use a legible font (e.g. Times New Roman). Whatever font you choose, MLA recommends that the regular and italics type styles contrast enough that they are recognizable one from another. The font size should be 12 pt. • Leave only one space after periods or other punctuation marks. • Set the margins of your document to 1 inch on all sides. • Indent the first line of paragraphs one half-inch from the left margin. MLA recommends that you use the Tab key. • Create a header that numbers all pages consecutively in the upper right-hand corner, one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. • Use italics throughout your essay for the titles of longer works and, only when absolutely necessary, providing emphasis. • If you have any endnotes, include them on a separate page before your Works Cited page. Entitle the section Notes (centered, unformatted). MLA Formatting

First Page of Your Paper MLA Format • Do not make a title page for your paper unless specifically requested. • In the upper left-hand corner of the first page, list your name, your instructor's name, the course, and the date. Again, be sure to use double-spaced text. • Double space again and center the title. Do not underline, italicize, or place your title in quotation marks; write the title in Title Case (standard capitalization), not in all capital letters. • Use quotation marks and/or italics when referring to other works in your title, just as you would in your text: Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas as Morality Play; Human Weariness in "After Apple Picking" • Double space between the title and the first line of the text. • Create a header in the upper right-hand corner that includes your last name, followed by a space with a page number; number all pages consecutively with Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, 4, etc.), one-half inch from the top and flush with the right margin. (Note: Your instructor or other readers may ask that you omit last name/page number header on your first page. Always follow instructor guidelines.) MLA Formatting

In-Text Citations: Author-Page Style • MLA format follows the author-page method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the page number(s) from which the quotation or paraphrase is taken must appear in the text, and a complete reference should appear on your Works Cited page. The author's name may appear either in the sentence itself or in parentheses following the quotation or paraphrase, but the page number(s) should always appear in the parentheses, not in the text of your sentence. For example: Wordsworth stated that Romantic poetry was marked by a "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (263). Romantic poetry is characterized by the "spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings" (Wordsworth 263). • Both citations in the examples above, (263) and (Wordsworth 263), tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth. If readers want more information about this source, they can turn to the Works Cited page, where, under the name of Wordsworth, they would find the following information: Wordsworth, William. Lyrical Ballads. London: Oxford U.P., 1967. Print. MLA Formatting

Basic Rules Works Cited Page • Begin your Works Cited page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. It should have the same one-inch margins and last name, page number header as the rest of your paper. • Label the page Works Cited (do not italicize the words Works Cited or put them in quotation marks) and center the words Works Cited at the top of the page. • Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces between entries. • Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations five spaces so that you create a hanging indent. • List page numbers of sources efficiently, when needed. If you refer to a journal article that appeared on pages 225 through 250, list the page numbers on your Works Cited page as 225-50. MLA Formatting

Step 6. Write Your First Draft Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use. Find a technique that suits you. • Use note cards or sheets of lined paper. Mark each card with your outline code (IB2a). Then put all cards in order. • If using a word processor, create filenames that match your outline codes to easily cut and past as you type your paper. A Research Guide for Research Students

Step 7. Revise Your Outline & Draft Read your paper for content errors, check facts, arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Reorganize outline if necessary. CHECKLIST ONE: 1.Is my thesis statement concise and clear? 2. Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything? 3. Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence? 4. Are all sources properly cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing? 5. Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments? 6. Have I made my intentions and points clear in the essay? A Research Guide for Research Students Re-read your paper for grammatical errors. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus as needed. Do a spell check. Correct all errors that you can spot and improve the overall quality of the paper to the best of your ability. Get someone else to read it over. Sometimes a second pair of eyes can see mistakes that you missed. CHECKLIST TWO: 1. Did I begin each paragraph with a proper topic sentence? 2. Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples? 3. Any run-on or unfinished sentences? 4. Any unnecessary or repetitious words? 5. Varying lengths of sentences? 6. Does one paragraph or idea flow smoothly into the next? 7. Any spelling or grammatical errors? 8. Quotes accurate in source, spelling, and punctuation? 9. Are all my citations accurate and in correct format? 10. Did I avoid using contractions? Use "cannot" instead of "can't", "do not" instead of "don't"? 11. Did I use third person as much as possible? Avoid using phrases such as "I think", "I guess", "I suppose“ 12. Have I made my points clear and interesting but remained objective? 13. Did I leave a sense of completion for my reader(s) at the end of the paper?

Step 8. Type Final Paper All formal reports or essays should be typewritten and printed. Read the assignment sheet again to be sure that you understand fully what is expected of you, and that your essay meets the requirements as specified by your teacher. Know how your essay will be evaluated, compare to the rubric. Proofread final paper carefully for spelling, punctuation, missing or duplicated words. Make the effort to ensure that your final paper is clean, tidy, neat, and attractive. Aim to have your final paper ready a day or two before the deadline. A Research Guide for Research Students

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The Manila Times

The Manila Times

Writing the research script: Data Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

Posted: November 8, 2023 | Last updated: November 8, 2023

Part 4 of a series

CHAPTER 3 has been written! Sans errors in terminology, syntax, tenses and spelling, you have successfully described how you went through conducting your research. Standard English has become a part of you, a habit! You are ready to write Chapter 4.

Topics in Chapter 4. Like all other chapters, begin Chapter 4 with a brief recount of your investigation — its aims, objectives and the dates you collected data. If your data are quantitative, cite, too, your hypotheses. Describe the approaches you employed to collect data and the data analysis. Use the past tense. Your analysis of data is the heart of your investigation. Present your analysis for each variable according to your research statements as outlined in the schematic diagram — both qualitative and quantitative analyses. Relate how these findings connect to the outcomes of studies synthesized in your Chapter 2, Review of Literature. Along with your analysis of each set of data, discuss the implications, limitations and challenges of your study. Your data analysis is quantitative, including the outcomes of your hypotheses. ( ) Conclude your chapter by restating the research questions and synthesizing how the results connect to the literature review. Explain why your findings are significant — what they mean for the field as a whole.

What quantitative and qualitative data are. This section clarifies and reminds you of the two methods of data collection: "quanti" and "quali." Quantitative data collection deals with gathering numerical data. These are analyzed using statistical methods. Quantitative data are used "to test or confirm theories and assumptions." They are used "to establish generalizable facts about a topic." Systematic data collection and analysis could test a hypothesis. Quantitative research can be experimental, quasi-experimental, descriptive or correlational. Given enough data and details, quantitative data collection could replicate or verify a study. Quantitative data collection could be drawn from surveys, using paper, kiosks, mobile, or online questionnaires with close-ended questions. Data would be numerical. The analysis would "uncover patterns, trends, and correlations that provide valuable insights," which would enrich your study. [Qualitative vs. Quantitative Research | Differences, Examples & Methods ( )] Based on the evidence, your study would fill in knowledge gaps. A second type of data collection is from exploring ideas. This would be qualitative. Your data collection would draw from interviews, surveys, focus groups, observations, and documentation review. Your data are expressed in words, not numbers. Given the use of the same themes in qualitative data collection, replicating research using qualitative data cannot be objective. Use "findings" for qualitative data analysis and "results" for quantitative.

Quantitative and qualitative data analysis. The method of analyzing quantitative data differs from that of qualitative data. Since quantitative data is numerical, data analysis is in numbers and could be presented in figures, graphs, charts and/or tables. For data analysis, use simple mathematics or more appropriate statistics such as descriptive and inferential statistics to "discover commonalities or patterns." Use applications such as Excel, SPSS, or R to calculate "Average scores (means), the number of times a particular answer was given, the correlation or causation between two or more variables, and the reliability and validity of the results." Qualitative data analysis is not as easy as when dealing with quantitative data. Have enough insight to analyze/examine textual material, images, videos, and the meaning of words, phrases and actions/behaviors of your research respondents to identify thematic results of your data. Having a good dose of social science and psychology would enable you to determine the social context of what is communicated to you by your research respondents.

Constructing Chapter 4. Structuring the content of Chapter 4 may vary across universities, depending on the research design, the methodology and the research data, whether quantitative or qualitative. However, there are common characteristics of this chapter's structure and content. As with all the earlier chapters, you begin the chapter with a summary introduction. State the purpose of your research the research questions, and if quantitative, state the hypotheses. Follow these with a description of your data collection procedures. State the sample size. Summarize the demographics of the sample, and if data is concise, use a table format to explain, as called for, the age, gender, or relevant related information on the population. Otherwise, the table is included as an Appendix and referred to in the narrative of Chapter 4 (American Psychological Association, 2001). Follow this with a description of the sampling method, the instruments you employed, and the data analysis techniques you used.

From here, sequence the findings/results presentation based on your research statements and hypotheses. If quantitative, present the results in tables, figures, charts, or graphs, with the appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics used. ( chapter-4-dissertation/) Explain what they mean for the field as a whole. As our source suggests, describe in detail any patterns or trends in the data collected. Discuss how those patterns or trends may relate to the existing literature in the field or could potentially lead to further research questions in the future. If qualitative, your analysis would come up with different themes to answer your research questions. To do this, you would need more detailed instructions. Whether quantitative or qualitative, for each research question, state why your findings are significant.

Takeaways. As emphasized ( ), do not include any new information or analysis in writing Chapter 4. Make it appealing to readers. Conclude with a concise review of what the research revolves around, with special emphasis on the outcomes and recommendations derived from the study.

Next Thursday, Nov. 16, 2023: Writing Chapter 5.

Teresita Tanhueco-Tumapon, PhD, one of the Philippines' most accomplished educators and experts on higher education institutional management, studied at top universities in the Philippines, Germany, Britain and Japan. She held top academic positions at Xavier University, the Ateneo de Cagayan; was presidential appointee after EDSA 1986 to normalize campus operations in state institutions; and served 17 years after that as SUC president. She is an Internationalization Office consultant and professorial lecturer at Liceo de Cagayan University. Awards include the CHEd Lifetime Professional Achievement Award, the British Council Valuable Services Recognition Award, the Federal Republic of Germany Order of Merit, and the Department of Education award for her initiatives as a pioneer member of the Philippine Teacher Education Council.

[email protected]

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    How to Write a Research Paper | PPT 1 of 47 How to Write a Research Paper Feb. 9, 2014 • 282 likes • 128,825 views Download Now Download to read offline Education Technology This is a PDF copy. Jamaica Olazo Layout Artist @La Salle University - Tingog Campus Press Organization | WMSU Instructor | ZSSPAA Inc. Division Journalism Facilitator

  2. How to Make a PowerPoint Presentation of Your Research Paper

    Use visual and verbal clues to highlight where you are in the presentation. Where does your research fit in? You should know of work related to your research, but you don't have to cite every example. In addition, keep references in your presentation to the end, or in the handout.


    First draft Identify two or three important findings emerging from the experiments. Make them the central theme of the article. Note good and bad writing styles in the literature. Some are simple and easy to follow, some are just too complex. Note the readership of the journal that you are considering to publish your work

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