Learning Design and Leadership (LDL) Program

Thesis writing – chapters 1 to 3.

Planning Tip

While you are collecting data, you may want to begin working on a few items that will need to be done in preparation for your final dissertation. This page gives you some ideas.

Revise Chapters 1 to 3

  • Review and proofread chapters 1 through 3 in detail.
  • Revise to reflect past tense. “The present study focused on…” instead of “will focus on”
  • Adjust anything that may no longer be true, such as a piece of your methodology plan that you didn’t end of implementing.
  • Fully proofread, including asking a friend, family member, or copy editor to proofread it.
  • Format your work based on the thesis office requirements .
  • Update your CGScholar version after your word version has been edited.
  • Submit your cover sheet to the thesis office for approval.
  • Submit your revised Chapters 1 to 3 for advisor approval along with a change note of what was changed since the preliminary exam.

Maintain your Checklist

Post Preliminary Exam Checklists (online form)

Prepare for Chapters 4 and 5

  • Start writing the beginning of chapter 4 that includes your actual project implementation.
  • Insert placeholder headings to begin organizing your work and where you may put things.
  • Maintain your Appendix with your final data collection instruments, images of your IRB paperwork, etc.

Key Exam-Dissertation Sequence Resources

Dissertation Resources

Process Resources

High Level & Detailed Exam-Dissertation Sequence Process PDF

Dissertation Process and Structure FAQs

Grad Coach

Dissertation Structure & Layout 101: How to structure your dissertation, thesis or research project.

By: Derek Jansen (MBA) Reviewed By: David Phair (PhD) | July 2019

So, you’ve got a decent understanding of what a dissertation is , you’ve chosen your topic and hopefully you’ve received approval for your research proposal . Awesome! Now its time to start the actual dissertation or thesis writing journey.

To craft a high-quality document, the very first thing you need to understand is dissertation structure . In this post, we’ll walk you through the generic dissertation structure and layout, step by step. We’ll start with the big picture, and then zoom into each chapter to briefly discuss the core contents. If you’re just starting out on your research journey, you should start with this post, which covers the big-picture process of how to write a dissertation or thesis .

Dissertation structure and layout - the basics

*The Caveat *

In this post, we’ll be discussing a traditional dissertation/thesis structure and layout, which is generally used for social science research across universities, whether in the US, UK, Europe or Australia. However, some universities may have small variations on this structure (extra chapters, merged chapters, slightly different ordering, etc).

So, always check with your university if they have a prescribed structure or layout that they expect you to work with. If not, it’s safe to assume the structure we’ll discuss here is suitable. And even if they do have a prescribed structure, you’ll still get value from this post as we’ll explain the core contents of each section.  

Overview: S tructuring a dissertation or thesis

  • Acknowledgements page
  • Abstract (or executive summary)
  • Table of contents , list of figures and tables
  • Chapter 1: Introduction
  • Chapter 2: Literature review
  • Chapter 3: Methodology
  • Chapter 4: Results
  • Chapter 5: Discussion
  • Chapter 6: Conclusion
  • Reference list

As I mentioned, some universities will have slight variations on this structure. For example, they want an additional “personal reflection chapter”, or they might prefer the results and discussion chapter to be merged into one. Regardless, the overarching flow will always be the same, as this flow reflects the research process , which we discussed here – i.e.:

  • The introduction chapter presents the core research question and aims .
  • The literature review chapter assesses what the current research says about this question.
  • The methodology, results and discussion chapters go about undertaking new research about this question.
  • The conclusion chapter (attempts to) answer the core research question .

In other words, the dissertation structure and layout reflect the research process of asking a well-defined question(s), investigating, and then answering the question – see below.

A dissertation's structure reflect the research process

To restate that – the structure and layout of a dissertation reflect the flow of the overall research process . This is essential to understand, as each chapter will make a lot more sense if you “get” this concept. If you’re not familiar with the research process, read this post before going further.

Right. Now that we’ve covered the big picture, let’s dive a little deeper into the details of each section and chapter. Oh and by the way, you can also grab our free dissertation/thesis template here to help speed things up.

The title page of your dissertation is the very first impression the marker will get of your work, so it pays to invest some time thinking about your title. But what makes for a good title? A strong title needs to be 3 things:

  • Succinct (not overly lengthy or verbose)
  • Specific (not vague or ambiguous)
  • Representative of the research you’re undertaking (clearly linked to your research questions)

Typically, a good title includes mention of the following:

  • The broader area of the research (i.e. the overarching topic)
  • The specific focus of your research (i.e. your specific context)
  • Indication of research design (e.g. quantitative , qualitative , or  mixed methods ).

For example:

A quantitative investigation [research design] into the antecedents of organisational trust [broader area] in the UK retail forex trading market [specific context/area of focus].

Again, some universities may have specific requirements regarding the format and structure of the title, so it’s worth double-checking expectations with your institution (if there’s no mention in the brief or study material).

Dissertations stacked up


This page provides you with an opportunity to say thank you to those who helped you along your research journey. Generally, it’s optional (and won’t count towards your marks), but it is academic best practice to include this.

So, who do you say thanks to? Well, there’s no prescribed requirements, but it’s common to mention the following people:

  • Your dissertation supervisor or committee.
  • Any professors, lecturers or academics that helped you understand the topic or methodologies.
  • Any tutors, mentors or advisors.
  • Your family and friends, especially spouse (for adult learners studying part-time).

There’s no need for lengthy rambling. Just state who you’re thankful to and for what (e.g. thank you to my supervisor, John Doe, for his endless patience and attentiveness) – be sincere. In terms of length, you should keep this to a page or less.

Abstract or executive summary

The dissertation abstract (or executive summary for some degrees) serves to provide the first-time reader (and marker or moderator) with a big-picture view of your research project. It should give them an understanding of the key insights and findings from the research, without them needing to read the rest of the report – in other words, it should be able to stand alone .

For it to stand alone, your abstract should cover the following key points (at a minimum):

  • Your research questions and aims – what key question(s) did your research aim to answer?
  • Your methodology – how did you go about investigating the topic and finding answers to your research question(s)?
  • Your findings – following your own research, what did do you discover?
  • Your conclusions – based on your findings, what conclusions did you draw? What answers did you find to your research question(s)?

So, in much the same way the dissertation structure mimics the research process, your abstract or executive summary should reflect the research process, from the initial stage of asking the original question to the final stage of answering that question.

In practical terms, it’s a good idea to write this section up last , once all your core chapters are complete. Otherwise, you’ll end up writing and rewriting this section multiple times (just wasting time). For a step by step guide on how to write a strong executive summary, check out this post .

Need a helping hand?

how to make thesis chapter 1 3

Table of contents

This section is straightforward. You’ll typically present your table of contents (TOC) first, followed by the two lists – figures and tables. I recommend that you use Microsoft Word’s automatic table of contents generator to generate your TOC. If you’re not familiar with this functionality, the video below explains it simply:

If you find that your table of contents is overly lengthy, consider removing one level of depth. Oftentimes, this can be done without detracting from the usefulness of the TOC.

Right, now that the “admin” sections are out of the way, its time to move on to your core chapters. These chapters are the heart of your dissertation and are where you’ll earn the marks. The first chapter is the introduction chapter – as you would expect, this is the time to introduce your research…

It’s important to understand that even though you’ve provided an overview of your research in your abstract, your introduction needs to be written as if the reader has not read that (remember, the abstract is essentially a standalone document). So, your introduction chapter needs to start from the very beginning, and should address the following questions:

  • What will you be investigating (in plain-language, big picture-level)?
  • Why is that worth investigating? How is it important to academia or business? How is it sufficiently original?
  • What are your research aims and research question(s)? Note that the research questions can sometimes be presented at the end of the literature review (next chapter).
  • What is the scope of your study? In other words, what will and won’t you cover ?
  • How will you approach your research? In other words, what methodology will you adopt?
  • How will you structure your dissertation? What are the core chapters and what will you do in each of them?

These are just the bare basic requirements for your intro chapter. Some universities will want additional bells and whistles in the intro chapter, so be sure to carefully read your brief or consult your research supervisor.

If done right, your introduction chapter will set a clear direction for the rest of your dissertation. Specifically, it will make it clear to the reader (and marker) exactly what you’ll be investigating, why that’s important, and how you’ll be going about the investigation. Conversely, if your introduction chapter leaves a first-time reader wondering what exactly you’ll be researching, you’ve still got some work to do.

Now that you’ve set a clear direction with your introduction chapter, the next step is the literature review . In this section, you will analyse the existing research (typically academic journal articles and high-quality industry publications), with a view to understanding the following questions:

  • What does the literature currently say about the topic you’re investigating?
  • Is the literature lacking or well established? Is it divided or in disagreement?
  • How does your research fit into the bigger picture?
  • How does your research contribute something original?
  • How does the methodology of previous studies help you develop your own?

Depending on the nature of your study, you may also present a conceptual framework towards the end of your literature review, which you will then test in your actual research.

Again, some universities will want you to focus on some of these areas more than others, some will have additional or fewer requirements, and so on. Therefore, as always, its important to review your brief and/or discuss with your supervisor, so that you know exactly what’s expected of your literature review chapter.

Dissertation writing

Now that you’ve investigated the current state of knowledge in your literature review chapter and are familiar with the existing key theories, models and frameworks, its time to design your own research. Enter the methodology chapter – the most “science-ey” of the chapters…

In this chapter, you need to address two critical questions:

  • Exactly HOW will you carry out your research (i.e. what is your intended research design)?
  • Exactly WHY have you chosen to do things this way (i.e. how do you justify your design)?

Remember, the dissertation part of your degree is first and foremost about developing and demonstrating research skills . Therefore, the markers want to see that you know which methods to use, can clearly articulate why you’ve chosen then, and know how to deploy them effectively.

Importantly, this chapter requires detail – don’t hold back on the specifics. State exactly what you’ll be doing, with who, when, for how long, etc. Moreover, for every design choice you make, make sure you justify it.

In practice, you will likely end up coming back to this chapter once you’ve undertaken all your data collection and analysis, and revise it based on changes you made during the analysis phase. This is perfectly fine. Its natural for you to add an additional analysis technique, scrap an old one, etc based on where your data lead you. Of course, I’m talking about small changes here – not a fundamental switch from qualitative to quantitative, which will likely send your supervisor in a spin!

You’ve now collected your data and undertaken your analysis, whether qualitative, quantitative or mixed methods. In this chapter, you’ll present the raw results of your analysis . For example, in the case of a quant study, you’ll present the demographic data, descriptive statistics, inferential statistics , etc.

Typically, Chapter 4 is simply a presentation and description of the data, not a discussion of the meaning of the data. In other words, it’s descriptive, rather than analytical – the meaning is discussed in Chapter 5. However, some universities will want you to combine chapters 4 and 5, so that you both present and interpret the meaning of the data at the same time. Check with your institution what their preference is.

Now that you’ve presented the data analysis results, its time to interpret and analyse them. In other words, its time to discuss what they mean, especially in relation to your research question(s).

What you discuss here will depend largely on your chosen methodology. For example, if you’ve gone the quantitative route, you might discuss the relationships between variables . If you’ve gone the qualitative route, you might discuss key themes and the meanings thereof. It all depends on what your research design choices were.

Most importantly, you need to discuss your results in relation to your research questions and aims, as well as the existing literature. What do the results tell you about your research questions? Are they aligned with the existing research or at odds? If so, why might this be? Dig deep into your findings and explain what the findings suggest, in plain English.

The final chapter – you’ve made it! Now that you’ve discussed your interpretation of the results, its time to bring it back to the beginning with the conclusion chapter . In other words, its time to (attempt to) answer your original research question s (from way back in chapter 1). Clearly state what your conclusions are in terms of your research questions. This might feel a bit repetitive, as you would have touched on this in the previous chapter, but its important to bring the discussion full circle and explicitly state your answer(s) to the research question(s).

Dissertation and thesis prep

Next, you’ll typically discuss the implications of your findings? In other words, you’ve answered your research questions – but what does this mean for the real world (or even for academia)? What should now be done differently, given the new insight you’ve generated?

Lastly, you should discuss the limitations of your research, as well as what this means for future research in the area. No study is perfect, especially not a Masters-level. Discuss the shortcomings of your research. Perhaps your methodology was limited, perhaps your sample size was small or not representative, etc, etc. Don’t be afraid to critique your work – the markers want to see that you can identify the limitations of your work. This is a strength, not a weakness. Be brutal!

This marks the end of your core chapters – woohoo! From here on out, it’s pretty smooth sailing.

The reference list is straightforward. It should contain a list of all resources cited in your dissertation, in the required format, e.g. APA , Harvard, etc.

It’s essential that you use reference management software for your dissertation. Do NOT try handle your referencing manually – its far too error prone. On a reference list of multiple pages, you’re going to make mistake. To this end, I suggest considering either Mendeley or Zotero. Both are free and provide a very straightforward interface to ensure that your referencing is 100% on point. I’ve included a simple how-to video for the Mendeley software (my personal favourite) below:

Some universities may ask you to include a bibliography, as opposed to a reference list. These two things are not the same . A bibliography is similar to a reference list, except that it also includes resources which informed your thinking but were not directly cited in your dissertation. So, double-check your brief and make sure you use the right one.

The very last piece of the puzzle is the appendix or set of appendices. This is where you’ll include any supporting data and evidence. Importantly, supporting is the keyword here.

Your appendices should provide additional “nice to know”, depth-adding information, which is not critical to the core analysis. Appendices should not be used as a way to cut down word count (see this post which covers how to reduce word count ). In other words, don’t place content that is critical to the core analysis here, just to save word count. You will not earn marks on any content in the appendices, so don’t try to play the system!

Time to recap…

And there you have it – the traditional dissertation structure and layout, from A-Z. To recap, the core structure for a dissertation or thesis is (typically) as follows:

  • Acknowledgments page

Most importantly, the core chapters should reflect the research process (asking, investigating and answering your research question). Moreover, the research question(s) should form the golden thread throughout your dissertation structure. Everything should revolve around the research questions, and as you’ve seen, they should form both the start point (i.e. introduction chapter) and the endpoint (i.e. conclusion chapter).

I hope this post has provided you with clarity about the traditional dissertation/thesis structure and layout. If you have any questions or comments, please leave a comment below, or feel free to get in touch with us. Also, be sure to check out the rest of the  Grad Coach Blog .

how to make thesis chapter 1 3

Psst… there’s more (for free)

This post is part of our dissertation mini-course, which covers everything you need to get started with your dissertation, thesis or research project. 

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How to structure the literature review chapter



many thanks i found it very useful

Derek Jansen

Glad to hear that, Arun. Good luck writing your dissertation.


Such clear practical logical advice. I very much needed to read this to keep me focused in stead of fretting.. Perfect now ready to start my research!


what about scientific fields like computer or engineering thesis what is the difference in the structure? thank you very much


Thanks so much this helped me a lot!

Ade Adeniyi

Very helpful and accessible. What I like most is how practical the advice is along with helpful tools/ links.

Thanks Ade!


Thank you so much sir.. It was really helpful..

You’re welcome!

Jp Raimundo

Hi! How many words maximum should contain the abstract?

Karmelia Renatee

Thank you so much 😊 Find this at the right moment

You’re most welcome. Good luck with your dissertation.


best ever benefit i got on right time thank you

Krishnan iyer

Many times Clarity and vision of destination of dissertation is what makes the difference between good ,average and great researchers the same way a great automobile driver is fast with clarity of address and Clear weather conditions .

I guess Great researcher = great ideas + knowledge + great and fast data collection and modeling + great writing + high clarity on all these

You have given immense clarity from start to end.

Alwyn Malan

Morning. Where will I write the definitions of what I’m referring to in my report?


Thank you so much Derek, I was almost lost! Thanks a tonnnn! Have a great day!

yemi Amos

Thanks ! so concise and valuable

Kgomotso Siwelane

This was very helpful. Clear and concise. I know exactly what to do now.

dauda sesay

Thank you for allowing me to go through briefly. I hope to find time to continue.

Patrick Mwathi

Really useful to me. Thanks a thousand times

Adao Bundi

Very interesting! It will definitely set me and many more for success. highly recommended.


Thank you soo much sir, for the opportunity to express my skills

mwepu Ilunga

Usefull, thanks a lot. Really clear

Chrisogonas Odhiambo

That was incredibly useful. Thanks Grad Coach Crew!


My stress level just dropped at least 15 points after watching this. Just starting my thesis for my grad program and I feel a lot more capable now! Thanks for such a clear and helpful video, Emma and the GradCoach team!


Do we need to mention the number of words the dissertation contains in the main document?

It depends on your university’s requirements, so it would be best to check with them 🙂


Such a helpful post to help me get started with structuring my masters dissertation, thank you!

Simon Le

Great video; I appreciate that helpful information

Brhane Kidane

It is so necessary or avital course


This blog is very informative for my research. Thank you


Doctoral students are required to fill out the National Research Council’s Survey of Earned Doctorates

Emmanuel Manjolo

wow this is an amazing gain in my life

Paul I Thoronka

This is so good


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how to make thesis chapter 1 3

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Your thesis is the central claim in your essay—your main insight or idea about your source or topic. Your thesis should appear early in an academic essay, followed by a logically constructed argument that supports this central claim. A strong thesis is arguable, which means a thoughtful reader could disagree with it and therefore needs your careful analysis of the evidence to understand how you arrived at this claim. You arrive at your thesis by examining and analyzing the evidence available to you, which might be text or other types of source material.

A thesis will generally respond to an analytical question or pose a solution to a problem that you have framed for your readers (and for yourself). When you frame that question or problem for your readers, you are telling them what is at stake in your argument—why your question matters and why they should care about the answer . If you can explain to your readers why a question or problem is worth addressing, then they will understand why it’s worth reading an essay that develops your thesis—and you will understand why it’s worth writing that essay.

A strong thesis will be arguable rather than descriptive , and it will be the right scope for the essay you are writing. If your thesis is descriptive, then you will not need to convince your readers of anything—you will be naming or summarizing something your readers can already see for themselves. If your thesis is too narrow, you won’t be able to explore your topic in enough depth to say something interesting about it. If your thesis is too broad, you may not be able to support it with evidence from the available sources.

When you are writing an essay for a course assignment, you should make sure you understand what type of claim you are being asked to make. Many of your assignments will be asking you to make analytical claims , which are based on interpretation of facts, data, or sources.

Some of your assignments may ask you to make normative claims. Normative claims are claims of value or evaluation rather than fact—claims about how things should be rather than how they are. A normative claim makes the case for the importance of something, the action that should be taken, or the way the world should be. When you are asked to write a policy memo, a proposal, or an essay based on your own opinion, you will be making normative claims.

Here are some examples of possible thesis statements for a student's analysis of the article “The Case Against Perfection” by Professor Michael Sandel.  

Descriptive thesis (not arguable)  

While Sandel argues that pursuing perfection through genetic engineering would decrease our sense of humility, he claims that the sense of solidarity we would lose is also important.

This thesis summarizes several points in Sandel’s argument, but it does not make a claim about how we should understand his argument. A reader who read Sandel’s argument would not also need to read an essay based on this descriptive thesis.  

Broad thesis (arguable, but difficult to support with evidence)  

Michael Sandel’s arguments about genetic engineering do not take into consideration all the relevant issues.

This is an arguable claim because it would be possible to argue against it by saying that Michael Sandel’s arguments do take all of the relevant issues into consideration. But the claim is too broad. Because the thesis does not specify which “issues” it is focused on—or why it matters if they are considered—readers won’t know what the rest of the essay will argue, and the writer won’t know what to focus on. If there is a particular issue that Sandel does not address, then a more specific version of the thesis would include that issue—hand an explanation of why it is important.  

Arguable thesis with analytical claim  

While Sandel argues persuasively that our instinct to “remake” (54) ourselves into something ever more perfect is a problem, his belief that we can always draw a line between what is medically necessary and what makes us simply “better than well” (51) is less convincing.

This is an arguable analytical claim. To argue for this claim, the essay writer will need to show how evidence from the article itself points to this interpretation. It’s also a reasonable scope for a thesis because it can be supported with evidence available in the text and is neither too broad nor too narrow.  

Arguable thesis with normative claim  

Given Sandel’s argument against genetic enhancement, we should not allow parents to decide on using Human Growth Hormone for their children.

This thesis tells us what we should do about a particular issue discussed in Sandel’s article, but it does not tell us how we should understand Sandel’s argument.  

Questions to ask about your thesis  

  • Is the thesis truly arguable? Does it speak to a genuine dilemma in the source, or would most readers automatically agree with it?  
  • Is the thesis too obvious? Again, would most or all readers agree with it without needing to see your argument?  
  • Is the thesis complex enough to require a whole essay's worth of argument?  
  • Is the thesis supportable with evidence from the text rather than with generalizations or outside research?  
  • Would anyone want to read a paper in which this thesis was developed? That is, can you explain what this paper is adding to our understanding of a problem, question, or topic?
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  • How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

How to Write a Thesis Statement | 4 Steps & Examples

Published on January 11, 2019 by Shona McCombes . Revised on August 15, 2023 by Eoghan Ryan.

A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . It usually comes near the end of your introduction .

Your thesis will look a bit different depending on the type of essay you’re writing. But the thesis statement should always clearly state the main idea you want to get across. Everything else in your essay should relate back to this idea.

You can write your thesis statement by following four simple steps:

  • Start with a question
  • Write your initial answer
  • Develop your answer
  • Refine your thesis statement

Table of contents

What is a thesis statement, placement of the thesis statement, step 1: start with a question, step 2: write your initial answer, step 3: develop your answer, step 4: refine your thesis statement, types of thesis statements, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about thesis statements.

A thesis statement summarizes the central points of your essay. It is a signpost telling the reader what the essay will argue and why.

The best thesis statements are:

  • Concise: A good thesis statement is short and sweet—don’t use more words than necessary. State your point clearly and directly in one or two sentences.
  • Contentious: Your thesis shouldn’t be a simple statement of fact that everyone already knows. A good thesis statement is a claim that requires further evidence or analysis to back it up.
  • Coherent: Everything mentioned in your thesis statement must be supported and explained in the rest of your paper.

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how to make thesis chapter 1 3

The thesis statement generally appears at the end of your essay introduction or research paper introduction .

The spread of the internet has had a world-changing effect, not least on the world of education. The use of the internet in academic contexts and among young people more generally is hotly debated. For many who did not grow up with this technology, its effects seem alarming and potentially harmful. This concern, while understandable, is misguided. The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education: the internet facilitates easier access to information, exposure to different perspectives, and a flexible learning environment for both students and teachers.

You should come up with an initial thesis, sometimes called a working thesis , early in the writing process . As soon as you’ve decided on your essay topic , you need to work out what you want to say about it—a clear thesis will give your essay direction and structure.

You might already have a question in your assignment, but if not, try to come up with your own. What would you like to find out or decide about your topic?

For example, you might ask:

After some initial research, you can formulate a tentative answer to this question. At this stage it can be simple, and it should guide the research process and writing process .

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Now you need to consider why this is your answer and how you will convince your reader to agree with you. As you read more about your topic and begin writing, your answer should get more detailed.

In your essay about the internet and education, the thesis states your position and sketches out the key arguments you’ll use to support it.

The negatives of internet use are outweighed by its many benefits for education because it facilitates easier access to information.

In your essay about braille, the thesis statement summarizes the key historical development that you’ll explain.

The invention of braille in the 19th century transformed the lives of blind people, allowing them to participate more actively in public life.

A strong thesis statement should tell the reader:

  • Why you hold this position
  • What they’ll learn from your essay
  • The key points of your argument or narrative

The final thesis statement doesn’t just state your position, but summarizes your overall argument or the entire topic you’re going to explain. To strengthen a weak thesis statement, it can help to consider the broader context of your topic.

These examples are more specific and show that you’ll explore your topic in depth.

Your thesis statement should match the goals of your essay, which vary depending on the type of essay you’re writing:

  • In an argumentative essay , your thesis statement should take a strong position. Your aim in the essay is to convince your reader of this thesis based on evidence and logical reasoning.
  • In an expository essay , you’ll aim to explain the facts of a topic or process. Your thesis statement doesn’t have to include a strong opinion in this case, but it should clearly state the central point you want to make, and mention the key elements you’ll explain.

If you want to know more about AI tools , college essays , or fallacies make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!

  • Ad hominem fallacy
  • Post hoc fallacy
  • Appeal to authority fallacy
  • False cause fallacy
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A thesis statement is a sentence that sums up the central point of your paper or essay . Everything else you write should relate to this key idea.

The thesis statement is essential in any academic essay or research paper for two main reasons:

  • It gives your writing direction and focus.
  • It gives the reader a concise summary of your main point.

Without a clear thesis statement, an essay can end up rambling and unfocused, leaving your reader unsure of exactly what you want to say.

Follow these four steps to come up with a thesis statement :

  • Ask a question about your topic .
  • Write your initial answer.
  • Develop your answer by including reasons.
  • Refine your answer, adding more detail and nuance.

The thesis statement should be placed at the end of your essay introduction .

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Thesis And Dissertation

Thesis Writing

Last updated on: Jun 10, 2023

How To Write A Thesis - A Step by Step Guide

By: Cathy A.

15 min read

Reviewed By: Rylee W.

Published on: Nov 3, 2020

Thesis Writing

Are you at the stage in your high school where you are about to start your thesis? If yes, then below, you can find a complete step-by-step guide on how you write a thesis from the introduction to its conclusion. 

Writing a thesis is different from writing an essay like an argumentative essay or an expository essay. So a good rule of thumb is that you do proper research when writing your thesis paper and be extra careful if it is your first time writing it.

Writing in college takes students to persuade others by convincing them that you have an interesting point that makes logic as well. This form of persuasion is often known as an academic argument followed by a pattern in writing that is somehow predictable.

After introducing your topic briefly, you should state your point in only one sentence. After that, summarize the complete argument that you will make in the paper afterward. 

Thesis Writing

On this Page

How to Structure a Thesis?

It is important to note that not all theses are structured in the same way. It completely depends on the discipline, location, approach, and topic on which you are going to write. 

There are different types of a thesis, such as analytical thesis, Argumentative thesis, Expository thesis, etc., and all of these follow a different structure depending upon the guidelines provided by the instructor. 

So it is essential for you to always go through the department’s guidelines and consult them with your instructor so that you don’t end up with a weak thesis.

Here is a sample structure for your thesis paper.

  • Table of Contents 
  • List of Tables and Figures
  • Introduction
  • Discussion 
  • Recommendations 
  • Acknowledgments

How to Write a Thesis Paper?

Writing a thesis and dissertation is the most important task and part of academic life. Here is how you should write and describe each part.

1. Title Page

It is the first page of your paper and contains the following things:

  • Thesis Title
  • Author’s Name 
  • Institution
  • Submission date
  • Degree program
  • Research supervisor
  • Their institutions 
  • Their email addresses

2. Abstract

It is a shortened summary of your thesis. It is written to explain the importance of the thesis in one line. A good abstract is quantitative, readable, and concise. Keep in mind the following things when writing an abstract for your paper.

  • An abstract should be written in a way that will explain the importance of your paper. 
  • It should end in 400 words approximately, i.e., 1-2 paragraphs
  • Generally, it does not contain citations
  • It should not repeat the information in the title
  • Use numbers when needed
  • Be explicit
  • Your abstract should contain the answer to a specific question or questions such as why does it matter? What did you learn? 

What are the methods that you will use? What are the significant implications? Etc.

3. Table of Contents

All parts of the thesis should be included in the section of the table of contents.

It contains:

  • Headings and subheadings with page number
  • Indent subheadings

You can see in the diagram; it will look something like this


4. List of Tables and Figures

If you have a lot of tables and figures in your paper. Then you should item them all in a list of numbers.

  • List page numbers for all the tables/figures.
  • Add a short title for each table/figure.

5. Introduction

In this part of your paper, you set the topic's purpose, relevance and eventually tell the reader what to expect in the paper. 

It is impossible for you to write a good introduction if you don't know what the body of your paper says. It is a good approach to write the introduction after completing the rest of your paper. 

Make sure to add the hook statement at the start of your introductory paragraph. It will motivate the reader to read the entire document.

The introduction must have the following things:

  • Describe the research topic 
  • Define the scope
  • Write the statement problem that indicates why the study was undertaken. But do not repeat the abstract.
  • Narrow down the paper’s focus
  • Discuss the existing research paper and show how your paper is relevant to solve the problem that is discussed in the paper
  • State your question and research paper’s objective
  • Overview of the structure of the thesis paper
  • A verbal road map to guide the reader

A good thesis introduction is very important because this section will decide the fate of your thesis paper. Divide this section into logical sections by using subheads. You can also explore our step-by-step guide to write a good thesis introduction. 

After the introduction, comes the thesis statement. It is an important part of a thesis paper.

For a strong thesis statement, it should be specific and usually found somewhere in the first paragraph of the thesis paper. 

A great thesis statement is one that should only cover what is being discussed in the paper with the help of specific evidence. 

The method section explains how you have conducted the whole research. This will let the users check the paper's validity. 

This section contains the following things:

  • Type of research (qualitative, experimental, ethnographic, quantitative)
  • Overall approach
  • When and where the research is conducted
  • Methods used in the paper to analyze the data
  • Tools used in the paper
  • Obstacles that you may have faced while conducting the research
  • Justification or evaluation of your research

The purpose of this section is to report your findings and to convince the readers that your approach is the best one to answer the questions of your research. 

Similarly, the methods section should answer the following questions:

  • Will the methods be used to easily replicate the study?
  • Can another researcher easily find and reoccupy the samples?
  • Is there enough information being provided?
  • Is the data and information in the public domain?
  • Can anyone replicate the laboratory or statistical analysis?

Now it's the part where you report the actual statements of your research. It includes tables, graphs, and statistics. 

  • Show information on a range of varieties.
  • Include the negative results along with the positive.
  • Layout the complete case, present the required details 
  • Draw the inferences and add their own explanations
  • Show results in segments 
  • Show key results at the start of the paragraph in clear sentences. 
  • Break your results into logical sections by using subheadings

8. Discussion

This section is a brief essay. It is the point where you will have to explore the true meaning and the implication of your findings related to the questions of your research paper. 

You should interpret the results in detail and discuss whether it successfully meets the expectations or not. 

Start with a few sentences and summarize the most important results. It should be a brief essay in itself. 

The discussion should also refer to scholarly work to emphasize how your findings fit the knowledge already existing.

9. Conclusion

It should answer the research questions in a precise manner. This should be written in a way that will leave the user with a clear understanding of the main argument of the paper. 

Generalize the strongest statement that you have made in your paper. Also, include the wider implications of your work.

Go back to the problem and describe the conclusion with the help of your findings and summarize new interpretations and insights that you gathered from the present work. 

Nevertheless, avoid repeating the exact information from the abstract, introduction, or discussion.

10. Recommendations

  • Include in your paper when it is appropriate
  • Action to solve the particular problem
  • Add further research to fill in gaps
  • Direct the reader for future investigations

11. Acknowledgements

Anyone who helped you in the process. 

  • Technically (include supplies, materials )
  • Financially (travel grant, departmental support, etc.)
  • Intellectually (advice, assistance)

12. Reference

Add the details of all the sources that you have mentioned in your paper. It is sometimes known as a bibliography or works cited list. 

  • Cite all the concepts, ideas, data that does not belong to you
  • Cite a single author by its surname followed by the publication date

For example: 

...according to Byrne (2000)

  • Cite the references for double authors by their surname with the publication date

Alex and Byrne (2000)

  • Avoid using footnotes
  • List down all the references in alphabetical order
  • Put the initials of the authors behind their last names, e.g., Pfirman, S.L.

13. Appendices

Documents used in your paper that generally do not fit the main body of your thesis paper can be included as Appendices. Keep in mind the following elements:

  • Include all the data in the appendix
  • Reference materials are not available
  • Tables and Calculations
  • Include a key article
  • Include a list of additional materials
  • List of equipment used for an analysis

Note that figures and tables with captions should be mentioned in the text and not in this section unless they are more than 1-2 pages in length. 

Once done, revise the final draft and make sure that you submit it on time.

How Long Should a Thesis Paper Be?

Wondering how long a thesis should be?

Well, the goal should be to add all the necessary information in the paper to describe the work and its supporting arguments. 

Try to avoid unnecessary and irrelevant details. For repeated information, use tables. 

Although the length of the thesis paper varies, the average length is 40 pages long. 

This total word count includes all of the text and the list of references in the paper but it does not include appendices. 

You should not take these instructions seriously. If you are a student, it is important for you to ask your instructor about the project guidelines early on. 

What To Look for In a Thesis?

We are in search of critical analysis. We will gather evidence that will allow us to make judgments and interpret the findings. All your findings should clearly display the topic’s main context. You must cite the relevant literature. 

A solid thesis paper should be a well-reasoned argument from questions to relevant findings to its implications. It should be clearly written and must follow the order mentioned below.

Order of Writing

Order might differ in different types of thesis, but this is the basic ordering that you can follow. 

1. Firstly, you need to organize your paper logically before you begin writing

2. Write down your figures to support your argument

3. Define the paper sections

  • Observations
  • Analysis of conclusion

4. Outline its main elements

  • Sections 
  • Subsections

5. Start writing in paragraphs, sentences, and words.

Editing and Proofreading

  • Make sure that all the sections in your paper are in the correct place.
  • It should be well written.
  • Leave time for editing and proofreading it.
  • Refine your thesis and make sure there are spelling and grammatical mistakes.

It is important for you to make time to write and revise drafts before focusing on typos, grammar, and language mistakes. 

Thesis Sample

Below you can find a format and sample of the thesis that you can check to clearly understand each and everything about thesis writing. However, we don't recommend you copy the work.



Get Professional Help!

Though you can find all the important steps to write a thesis. But keep in mind writing a thesis requires a lot of hard work as it is quite different from other academic writings. 

Students usually get stuck in the process and eventually look for any thesis writing services to help them out.

So if you too are wondering “who can write my essay ?”, here is the good news!

5StarEssays.com can help you out with this. Our thesis writer can help you write a solid MS thesis. Simply, get in touch with our representative and avail services right away. 

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the most important part of a thesis.

An abstract is the most important part of both a thesis and dissertation. It is a short section, and usually, it is no longer than one to two paragraphs.

Cathy A.

Literature, Marketing

Cathy has been been working as an author on our platform for over five years now. She has a Masters degree in mass communication and is well-versed in the art of writing. Cathy is a professional who takes her work seriously and is widely appreciated by clients for her excellent writing skills.

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Step-by-Step Guide on How to Structure a Thesis

thesis structure example

At some point in your academic pursuit, you must have done some form of academic writing. Therefore, writing a thesis should not be entirely new to you if you pursue a master’s and possibly a doctorate. However, writing a thesis is not as easy as it sounds. It takes more than just your time, commitment, energy, and willpower to finish it; you also have to make your claims or solutions succinct enough concerning the problem(s) you are addressing.

All these may seem like a daunting and complex process to you, especially if you have no clue about thesis structure, organization, or parts of a thesis paper. However, it does not have to be an agonizing process if you have a clear picture of the structure of a thesis paper. Luckily, you are reading this post; it will guide you to structure a thesis paper.

Deciding On the Thesis Structure to Follow

All thesis papers are not structured the same; there are many thesis paper formats. The structure of thesis papers is usually dictated by factors such as; the form your research takes, your location, discipline, topic, approach, and of course, the way your professor wants it.

The order of sections may also determine how to structure a thesis paper. For example, some colleges will recommend that your discussion come before your conclusion, and others may want the conclusion before discussion and many others. But, if you are confused about the thesis structure format to use, you can always look for a thesis structure template related to your work, check your department’s guidelines or consult with your professor.

A Good Thesis Structure Example You Can Follow

Regardless of how a thesis paper is structured in your institution, location, or discipline, all these have in common a basic thesis structure. You should, however, bear in mind that this thesis structure example may be different from a master thesis structure in some cases. The basic structure of a thesis paper contains the following:

1.     Preliminary Pages

Whenever you open any book, you are bound to come across a couple of pages before the book’s main content(s). This is the same for a thesis paper, too; preliminary pages are to start the structure of a thesis paper.

The preliminary pages consist of a title page, acknowledgments (optional), abstract (a summary of your work usually written last after your main work has been completed), table of contents, list of figures and tables, list of abbreviations (optional), and glossary (optional).

2.     Introduction

The next part of the thesis paper is the introduction. In this part, you are expected to communicate clearly and engagingly what to expect in the thesis paper. Your thesis organization introduction should contain the following:

  • Background of the study – which establishes your topic with relevant information and importance to the society
  • A thesis statement structure that will best explain to your readers the problem your thesis wants to solve
  • Your research aims and objectives
  • The significance of your research – how your findings will be important to society.

3.     The main work

The main work is an important part of thesis papers. In this section, you get to communicate to the readers the actual work you have done while taking them through the process that made you arrive at your results.

The main work includes the following, divided into different chapters; the literature review, methodology, research results, summary, and conclusion.

  • The Literature Review

This is the most voluminous part of a thesis paper. This is because it shows a literature review about the problem you are addressing while displaying how thorough your understanding of the problem is.

A good literature review should critically evaluate and analyze sources, draw connections between them and identify the gaps between what is being contained in these sources (literature gap). At this point, you can now project your research as a solution to an unresolved problem.

  • Methodology

This section gives your readers a description of how you conducted your research. It also contains information like the research design, population, area, sampling procedure, tools and materials used, method of data analysis, and many others.

This part of the thesis paper aims to report the research process accurately. Therefore, you should structure this section in the best way to achieve this concerning your discipline.

  • Research Results and Discussion

These are usually grouped into two different sections. The section for results should report all the results of your research. The section for discussion should also thoroughly explain the meaning and implications of your results to your research concept.

  • Summary, Conclusion, and Recommendations

These sections are usually the last parts of the main work of a thesis paper. As such, they should leave the reader with a clear understanding of the knowledge your paper has contributed while suggesting recommendations.

4.     Reference and Appendices

These two sections are usually the last parts of a thesis paper. In the reference section, you must include all the sources you have mentioned in your work. It must also follow a constant referencing style dictated by your discipline, institution, or supervisor.

The appendix section should contain reference materials and data you may not deem fit to be included in the main work.

Final words

Writing a thesis does not have to be an agonizing process, especially if you follow the structure of a thesis paper given above. However, you can contact our professional thesis writers if you are still confused and need a thesis structure template or want your thesis paper done well.

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How to Write Your Dissertation Chapter 3?

Jason Burrey

Table of Contents

In this article, we are going to discuss dissertation chapter 3 , as many students consider it to be the most challenging section to write and for a good reason.

How to Write Your Dissertation Chapter 3

The body of the dissertation research papers is divided into different chapters and sections. The standard dissertation structure may vary from discipline to discipline, but it typically includes sections like:

  • Introduction
  • Literature review
  • Methodology

Each part of the dissertation should have a central idea, which is introduced and argued.

We will provide you with a concise and in-depth overview of chapter 3 methodology to help you get started.

What is dissertation chapter 3 about?

Chapter 3 dissertation outlines specific methods chosen by a writer to research a problem. It’s essential to provide enough information so that an experienced researcher could replicate the study.

You need to explain what techniques were used for data collection and provide an analysis of results to answer your college research paper question. Besides, you need to explain the chosen methods and justify them, describe the research setting, and give a detailed explanation of how you applied those methods in your study.

… How you do that?

  • Start with a clear explanation of approaches used for solving the problem.
  • Describe all the components of methodology in detail.
  • Describe all methods and tell how you used them in your study. Clarify why each particular technique would be the best choice for answering your research question.

Below is the basic outline you can use as a template when writing dissertation methodology section.

How to write AP government chapter 3 outline?

Looking for AP Government chapter 3 outline which provides a college-level introduction to the structure and function of the US government and politics? Keep in mind that it’s not the same thing as a typical outline of the methodology section in your final paper.

Example of outline for chapter 3

  • Introduction , stating the purpose of the part, introducing the methods, and outlining the section’s organization.
  • Research questions , hypothesis, and variables.
  • Research design – describe the investigation approach and justify specific chosen methods, citing relevant literature.
  • Study setting – describe the role of the researcher in gathering data.
  • Study participants and data sources – explain criteria and strategies used when selecting participants and describe systems used for collecting and storing information.
  • Procedures and instruments – demonstrate methods and state each step for performing the study in detail.
  • Data analysis – discuss statistical tools and methods applied to analyze information and measures to increase validity.
  • Summary of the key points.

What is chapter 3 methodology?

When reporting about their new studies, scholars always have to answer 2 main questions:

  • How was the latest information gathered or generated?
  • Which specific techniques and procedures were utilized when analyzing data?

There are loads of different techniques and procedures you can choose to investigate a particular research problem.

Remember: choosing appropriate methodology is critical to the success of any study.

If you select an unreliable technique, it will produce inaccurate results during the interpretation of your findings. That’s not the outcome you want.

There are two groups of primary data collection methods: qualitative and quantitative.

Qualitative research techniques don’t involve any mathematical calculations and numbers.

They are strongly connected with emotions, words, feelings, sounds. Qualitative study ensures in-depth investigation and a greater level of problem understanding.

The qualitative investigation includes interviews, case studies, role-playing, games, observations, focus groups, and questionnaires with open-ended questions.

Quantitative techniques for data collection and analysis are based on mathematical calculations in a variety of forms and statistics.

They include methods of correlation and regression, questionnaires with close-ended questions, median, mode, and mean and procedures.

These procedures are cheaper to apply than qualitative ones. They require less time for implementation. They are highly standardized and, as a result, scientists can easily compare findings.

Wondering which approach to choose to cover your investigation question? It depends on the research area and specific objectives.

Few thoughts on chapter 3 thesis

In chapter 3 thesis, which is written in the same way as methodology part of a dissertation, you discuss how you performed the study in great detail. It usually includes the same elements and has a similar structure.

You can use the outline example of this section for a dissertation but you should take into account that its structure should illustrate the research approach and design of your specific study.

That’s why you should be careful and include only relevant elements into your methodology section.

As you see, dissertation chapter 3 is a very significant part of the lengthy academic paper students write to get their degrees.

It should be written like a recipe so that anyone could adopt your techniques and replicate your investigation.

It requires strong analytical and critical thinking skills, dedication, and many hours of reading and writing.

It’s essential to choose the right approach to selecting and explaining investigation techniques.

We hope that this quick guide will help you create an impressive methodology section of your final academic project.

Not feeling like writing your dissertation chapter 3? How about handing it to a pro? Few clicks, brief instructions, and you’re free. Come on, our writers strive to help you out!

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Introducing Research project chapters – How to write chapters 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 introductions in a thesis and dissertation

  • October 28, 2022
  • Posted by: IGBAJI U.C.
  • Category: Academic Writing Guide

Introducing Research project chapters

Every research project, thesis or dissertation is organised in chapters. Research project chapters range from 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, 6 or 7 depending on the school, department and study level.

Content Outline

An introduction is the first section of a research project , an essay, or a book. It is a section that set the tone for the entire project as it gives a reader an insight into the essence of the project. Every research paper requires context, which is the foundation on which the research is based so that readers can comprehend why it was created.

Thus, it introduces the reader to what the research is about. A research project generically consists of five chapters. Thus, here you will discover how to compose an introduction of the various chapters that make up a research project.

A chapter is a separate section of a research report or thesis that must be read as such. Chapter introductions serve a similar orienting purpose as they expose the reader to the chapter’s foci, goals, technique, and argument, as well as any other pertinent reader information.

You will need to compose an introduction chapter while writing a thesis . The introduction of every research thesis or dissertation is crucial since it is the first part the supervisor or examiner will read, thus making a strong first impression is crucial.

How to write chapters 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 introductions in a thesis and dissertation

Introducing chapter one (1) research project, thesis or dissertation.

Chapter one is the first chapter of a research project . It is often titled “Introduction” because it introduces the entire project and the scope of the project. In addition to providing a foundation for other chapters, it provides a framework for their construction.

When writing the introduction of your research project, you should ensure giving a broad overview of the topic you are writing on and then narrow it down to a particular context or aspects of the topic that your research will focus on.

You should also make effort at providing a brief clarification of the key terms of the project while eliciting an understanding of why your research is worthwhile. However, the following tips can help you introduce your chapter appropriately:

  • Provide background information on the title of your project
  • Make reference to vital findings of previous studies
  • Specify your study objectives and questions
  • State the rationale for your study
  • State the scope of your study

Although the introduction of your chapter does not have a word limit unless specified, it must be written in a clear and concise manner. However, it is quite tricky writing the introduction of your project, thus, it is mostly recommended that you write your introduction last to ensure that all the necessary information is captured.

Introducing Chapter Two (2) Research Project, Thesis or Dissertation

Chapter two of a research project is often tagged literature review”. The chapter basically provides a review of scholarly studies related to the topic you are researching on. The essence of this chapter is to identify a gap in the literature on your topic of research .

However, introducing this chapter in research projects has not been a common practice among scholars. But this does not take away the necessity of doing so. Generically, chapter two of a research project contains three major sections. These are conceptual literature, theoretical literature, and empirical literature. Thus, when introducing this chapter, is necessary you highlight the various sections as contained in the main body of the review.

Chapter two (2) Introduction Sample:

This is the second chapter of this study. The goal of this chapter is to provide of review of conceptual, theoretical, and empirical literature in the topic area in order to identify gaps in the existing literature. The chapter concludes by providing a summary of the literature review and with a clear statement of the study gap and how the present study intends to occupy the gap .

Introducing Chapter three (3) Research Project, Thesis or Dissertation

The Third chapter of a research project, thesis, or dissertation is often tagged research methodology . It is a chapter where a researcher offers a description of the various methods he intends to adopt in ensuring that the research questions are addressed and the research objectives met.

Although there is no generic way of writing this chapter, there are some sections which are very important to include in your research methodology. These are sections that describe your research design, the population of the study, your sample and sample selection technique, the method of data collection , and the method of data analysis .

Thus, when introducing this chapter you have to give the reader a rundown of the content of the chapter and why it is necessary. A typical example of how to do this is presented below.

Chapter three (3) Introduction Sample:

This is the third chapter of this study. It contains a description of the different methods adopted by the researcher in order to address the research question and achieve the research objectives. The chapter provides a detailed description of the research design, research population, sample and sampling technique, method of data collection, and method of data analysis.

By doing this, a reader will be able to know what the chapter is all about and the scope of the chapter.

Introducing Chapter Four (4) Research Project, Thesis or Dissertation

This is the fourth chapter of a research project. Although the title of this chapter varies greatly, is a chapter that is generically used to present the study analysis. Thus, it is often tagged as “data presentation, analysis, and discussions” or “analysis and result”.

Whichever way, the goal of this chapter is to present and discuss the result of the various analyses carried out in the study. Thus, when introducing this chapter you should try to ensure that you tell the reader what the chapter is meant for.

Chapter four (4) Introduction Sample:

This is the fourth chapter of this study. The chapter presents the results and findings of the various methods of analysis adopted in ensuring that the study data are properly analyzed in order to ensure that the objectives of the study are achieved. The presentation of the study findings is done according to the study objectives stated in the first chapter of the study. The chapter also presents a discussion of the study findings in relation to similar past studies in the topic area.

By doing this you have the research and insight into the content of the chapter. Thus, whetting his/her appetite to delve in fully to see what you have done and how they have been able to address the research question and objectives.

Introducing Chapter Five (5) Research Project, Thesis or Dissertation

This is the final chapter of your research project. It is often tagged “summary of findings or study, conclusion and recommendation”. This is the chapter where you summarize your study by giving s rundown of what you did in prior chapters.

Based on this, you draw the conclusion (s) regarding what you discovered in the study and then make recommendations. Thus, when introducing this chapter you should try and ensure that you give the reader an insight into what the chapter is all about.

Chapter five (5) Introduction Sample

This is the final chapter of the study. The chapter provides a summary of the study, a conclusion, and a recommendation based on the study findings presented in the fourth chapter of the study.

However, while summarizing the study, you have to clearly restate the title of your research, your objective, the method you adopted, and your findings. Also, your conclusion and recommendation should be strictly based on your study findings.

Things to note while introducing chapters in a Research Project, thesis and dissertation

Capture the reader’s interest -introducing research project chapters.

When writing a chapter opening, you must first grab the reader’s interest with a discussion of a larger subject related to your study. Use research, statistics, and quotations from worldwide or national professional groups, governmental organizations, or prominent writers on the study’s issue to enhance impact.

The employment of a hook is another approach to pique the reader’s attention. A hook is a sentence or combination of lines that grab the reader’s attention and piques their interest in the essay’s substance. A fascinating hook may be used in any type of writing.

Furthermore, there are a number of techniques to pique a reader’s interest, ranging from making a bold, aggressive declaration to offering a provocative inquiry.

Give an overview of your research topic -Introducing Research project chapters

Your talk should then begin by delving further into the issue’s larger features before focusing on your research’s specific topic. When doing this, it’s a good idea to pretend the reader has no prior knowledge of the subject. As a result, terminology must be defined and explained, based on significant studies.

Alternatively, if you are dissatisfied with current definitions after reading relevant material for the literature review chapter, draw on these to create your own (but make sure this has been done).

Detail how your research is going to make a contribution -Introducing Research project chapters

You must sell your study subject suggestion by outlining the major reasons why the research will contribute significantly to the present body of knowledge. This may be done by presenting a gap or restriction in existing research and then illustrating how your study will fill that gap or constraint.

Explain what your interest is in the topic -Introducing Research project chapters

After that, you must explain why you choose the issue for yourself. These might be related to prior studies, employment, or experiences. Make a list of the broad research questions and issues that pique your attention.

Make a list of your passions that you may use as a starting point. Following that, you should be able to summarize your interests in a sentence, or at most a paragraph. What contribution will your study make to the field?

List your research objectives -Introducing Research project chapters

In each chapter of your academic writing , you must state the goal you want to attain. What do you hope to accomplish at the conclusion of each chapter? This will let readers get a head start on the chapter’s topic. The precise definition of each chapter’s aims and objectives is one of the most crucial components of a thesis, dissertation, or research paper .

This is because the breadth, depth, and direction of the chapter will ultimately be determined by your goals and objectives. With your aims stating what is to be accomplished and your objectives suggesting how it will be accomplished, a successful set of aims and objectives will provide your study emphasis and clarity to your reader.

Give a forthcoming chapter overview -Introducing Research project chapters

The introduction concludes with a summary of the remaining chapters of the thesis. The remaining sections can be placed in any order as long as they are in a logical order. Discuss the other chapters briefly. Make your writing enjoyable to read.

Make connections between the current chapter and the next chapters you will be working on. This will give the readers a foreknowledge of what your research intends to achieve.

Chapter writing discusses many sorts of hooks and how the writer should choose the one that best meets the paper’s aim. The chapter illustrates how a background section may be a beneficial supplement to the introduction, but it also warns that its content, focus, and length are all dependent on the writer’s assessment of its contribution to the paper’s persuasiveness.

It illustrates how the Reader’s Introduction should have all of the parts in the Writer’s Introduction, as well as a hook and a background section. The chapter discusses many sorts of hooks and how the writer should choose the one that best meets the paper’s aim.

Conclusion -Introducing Research project chapters

Introducing the various chapters of a research project is similar to the generic way of writing an introduction because they all perform the same function which is to give a reader an insight into what the chapter is all about. Although, in some cases, the content structure of research projects of most institutions or as prescribed by the project supervisor may or not permit the inclusion of an introduction of each chapter of the project.

But when not clearly specified by the content structure or project guideline you can make effort at introducing each chapter of your research project as you proceed. Also, try ensuring that you introduce each chapter in a precise and brief manner as a long or bulky introduction may discourage readers from reading your project.

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Writing guide.

Purdue University Graduate School


DNA sequence design requires the ability to identify possible tertiary structural defects, secondary structure disruptions, and self-complimentary stretches that will disallow your complimentary strands to come together to form the desired duplex design. However, there is a need for those self-complimentary stretches, especially when designed with the intent for this to homo-oligomerize into the desired building block. With the programmability of nucleic acid hybridization, there is an expanding field wherein this specific, self-complimentary design feature can give new possibility of fine-tuning DNA self-assembly (Chapter 1) or overcome a previously thought limit of DNA ligation (Chapter 2).

The first chapter will closely look at the branched kissing loop interaction. This interaction was studied as a homo-polymerizable DNA building block that is topologically closed. As such, this paranemic motif has increased stability due to the Watson-Crick base pairing being “protected” by a 3-base adenine branch which close the loop of the sticky-end, meaning no free ends in the binding region. With this, herein we report that the intended higher-level structure could influence the lower-level building block formation. In DNA nanotechnology, this could mean the final higher-level structure would allow for fine-tuning as this would dictate the building blocks that fill in the defected parts of the higher-level structure.

The second chapter looks at the more finite than broad picture. Whilst the first chapter focusses on the impact the microscale has on the nanoscale through a homo-polymerizable design, the second chapter focusses on the ability to break barriers with homo-polymerizable design. In this chapter, we prove that with our splint strand design, when improved with a hairpin loop on the terminal ends, we can ligate DNA strands enzymatically as short as 16 nucleotides with an efficiency of 97% at high concentrations (100 uM). These hairpins allow for a stable, robust splint strand as they are a self-complimentary region which will maintain its shape throughout the process of joining together the 5’ and 3’ ends of the target strand.

Overall, this dissertation hopes to prove that homo-polymerizable DNA sequence designs are helping expand upon the DNA nanotechnology toolbox by introducing new possibilities for nanoscale design, as well as push past previously held boundaries through necessary added stability afforded by the self-complimentary strands.

Experimental and Computational Studies of Ligated 3D DNA Crystals

Directorate for Engineering

Collaborative Research: FTE: Medium: Three Dimensional Algorithmic Assembly and Information Storage

Directorate for Computer & Information Science & Engineering

Degree Type

  • Doctor of Philosophy

Campus location

  • West Lafayette

Advisor/Supervisor/Committee Chair

Additional committee member 2, additional committee member 3, additional committee member 4, usage metrics.

  • Analytical chemistry not elsewhere classified
  • Macromolecular materials
  • Nanochemistry
  • Structure and dynamics of materials

CC BY 4.0



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