60 Fishing Topics & Essay Examples
Need to write a fishing essay? This industry is worth exploring! In the article below, you’ll find everything necessary to perform this challenging task.
🏆 Best Fishing Topic Ideas & Essay Examples
📌 easy fishing topics for essay, 🎣 fishing research paper topics, 👍 good fishing thesis titles, 🐠 research questions about fishing, 💯 free fishing essay topic generator.
In your fishing essay, you might want to write about its history or techniques. Another option is to focus on economics of fisheries. Below we’ve collected everything necessary for students willing to write an essay on fishing. You’ll find fishing research paper topics, questions, and fishing essay examples.
- Recreational Shark Fishing Fishing, especially recreational fishing, is considered to be one of the most famous activities all over the world: people like to spend the vast majority of their time in order to use their imagination, attract […]
- Ocean Pollution and the Fishing Industry In essence, the activities of over six billion people in the world are threatening the survival and quality of water found in the oceans, lakes and other inland water catchment areas.
- Impacts of Oil Spill on Dolphins and Fishing in Gulf of Mexico According to a study conducted along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico, it was found that the spillage led to the reduction of the food available for dolphins in the region.
- Fishing Industry in the UAE For centuries fish has been a mainstay of the diet of the people within the U.A.E.and, as a result, has brought about the creation of numerous industries which focus on harvesting, processing and delivering seafood […]
- What Impact Do Fishing Quota Regulations Have on the Fishing Industry of South Africa? Scopes of the study The author of this study has unlimited scopes besides the limitations to conduct research, for instance The researcher has opportunity to examine both negative and positive side of the fishing quota […]
- The Fishing Industry of Atlantic Canada The Northwest Atlantic rose exponentially throughout the centuries proving quite significant to most of the North Atlantic regions, especially to the Canadian population, by forming the most reliable economic backbone to the Canadians as well […]
- Recreational and Commercial Fishing, Pros and Cons Fishing is the activity of catching fish in different ways for commercial and recreational purposes. Commercial fishing is done to catch fish and sell it for profit.
- Fishing Rods: A Mathematical Model for the Placement of Line Guides on a Fishing Rod The given data is the guide number from the tip of the fishing rod and the distance from the tip of the fishing rod.
- Factortame Litigation: Conflict Over Fishing Waters Legislation The proposal seeks to understand the conflict in the application between the U. Therefore, in the U.
- The Commercial Fishing Techniques All of the techniques differently affect various spheres related to the fishing process, such as the environment, the crew’s health, the volume of the catch, and the levels of effort needed.
- Marine Research: Incorporating Into Fishing Policies The realization that the current trends in oceanic bionetwork threaten a shortage in the fundamental water-related protein source for the future population is a major reason for the changes.
- Southcentral Alaska Sport Fishing Due to the very seasonal nature of most fisheries and the lack of job reporting requirements, comparing employment in the seafood sector to other businesses is difficult.
- Analysis of Alaska Fly-Fishing Expedition Business trips are necessary because they motivate the employees after resumption to work harder and skilfully to achieve the objectives of the business. The firm must compute a plan to prevent these risks and control […]
- Fishing Boat Production in the Indian Market The strength of the American company lies in the innovative and flexible approach to creating products that withstand the tests and criticism of the target audience before entering the market.
- Foldable Boats: US Based Fishing Firm’s Culture The organization will change the foldable watercraft design as it tests the waterproof coating and paper products to determine the most suitable design for use in India.
- Aboriginal Cultural Fishing in Australia Cultural fishing practiced by indigenous people on the South coast of Australia for many years contemporarily puts them into opposition to the government due to legislation in the fishing industry.
- What Are Some Fishermen For Fishing During Adverse Weather
- What Is The Theme Of Fishing For Jasmine By John Ravenscroft
- The Impact of Project Eyes on Monitoring Illegal Fishing
- When Patience Leads to Destruction: The Curious Case of Individual Time Preferences and the Adoption of Destructive Fishing Gears
- Types Of Retailers For Fishing Products Shopping
- On the Statistical Significance of Regional Economic Impacts from Recreational Fishing Harvest Limits in Southern Alaska
- Welfare Effects Of Fishery Policies: Native American Treaty Rights And Recreational Salmon Fishing
- The Drama of Fishing Commons: Cournot-Nash Model and Cooperation
- Where the Land Meets The Sea: Integrated Sustainable Fisheries Development and Artisanal Fishing
- The Work Performance Analysis of Sea Fishing in Kolaka Regency
- The Effect Of Fluctuating Water Levels On Reservoir Fishing
- The Impact of Fishing on the Socio Economic Development of Ssi-Bukunja Sub County
- The Value of Recreational Inshore Marine Fishing
- Toward a More Complete Model of Individual Transferable Fishing Quotas: Implications of Incorporating the Processing Sector
- The Effects of Oil Drilling to the Fishing Industry and Possible Alternative Energy Sources
- Positive and Negative Aspects of the Lobster Fishing Industry in Maine
- The Decrease in the Number of Commercial Fishing-Related Deaths Under the Quota System in Alaska
- The Production of Fishing Effort and the Economic Performance of License Limitation Programs
- The Value Of Sport Fishing In The Snake River Basin Of Central Idaho
- Widespread Labor Stickiness in the New England Offshore Fishing Industry: Implications for Adjustment and Regulation
- The Art of Fishing: How to Have a Successful Fishing Trip
- Valuing a Change in a Fishing Site without Collecting Characteristics Data on All Fishing Sites: A Complete but Minimal Model
- The Opportunity Cost of Capital and Optimal Vessel Size in the Norwegian Fishing Fleet
- What You Should Know About Smallmouth Bass Fishing
- Valuing the Unmarketable: An Ecological Approach to the Externalities Estimate in Fishing Activities
- Seasonality and Cointegration in the Fishing Industry of Conrwall
- The Impact Of Fishing On The Service Of Industrialization
- Over Fishing, Problems and Solutions
- Using Qualitative Site Characteristics Data in Marine Recreational Fishing Models
- Vulnerability of Fishing Communities from Sea-Level Change: A Study of Laemsing District in Chanthaburi Province, Thailand
- Social Network Analysis of Price Dispersion in Fishing Quota Lease Markets
- Spiritual Aspects of Fishing in Hemingway’s, The Old Man and the Sea
- Using Revealed Preferences to Infer Environmental Benefits: Evidence from Recreational Fishing Licenses
- Statistical Modelling of Fishing Activities in the North Atlantic
- The Specific Handling Techniques that Must be Done When Fishing
- Optimal Harvest in an Age Structured Model with Different Fishing Selectivity
- Time for Fishing: Bargaining Power in the Baltic Swedish Cod Fishery
- Understanding Fly Fishing Targets On Flowing Water
- The Economic Value Of Marine Recreational Fishing: Applying Benefit Transfer To Marine Recreational Fisheries Statistics Survey
- Over Fishing and Other Threats to the Declining Fish Population
- The Unsustainability Of The Fishing Industry And Solutions
- Simple Adaptive Rules Describe Fishing Behaviour Better than Perfect Rationality in the US West Coast Groundfish Fishery
- Procreation, Fishing, and Hunting: Renewable Resources and Dynamic Planar Systems
- The United States Action on International Fishing Disputes
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Graduate Student Research Topics
Jason Shaffer Thesis: Comparing environmental DNA and snorkel surveys to determine the spatial distribution of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in the Smith River Basin, California Advisor: Andre Buchheister, Ph.D.
Alex Juan Thesis: Evaluating the Use of a Trojan Y Chromosome Strategy to Eradicate Invasive Sacramento Pikeminnow in the Eel River to Aid Recovery of Threatened Salmonids Advisor: Andre Buchheister, Ph.D.
Claire Stuart Thesis: Monitoring and evaluating rocky-reef marine protected areas in Northern California Advisor: Andre Buchheister, Ph.D.
Gavin B. Bandy Thesis: A Technique to Calibrate eDNA Surveys for Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) Advisor: Andrew Kinziger, Ph.D.
Dylan J. Keel Thesis: Quantification of the variability of Ceratonova shasta DNA concentrations in Klamath River water samples Advisor: Andrew Kinziger, Ph.D.
Noah Angell Thesis: Describing Population Status of Redtail Surfperch and Silver Surfperch in Sandy Beach Surf Zones in Northern California Including Marine Protected Areas Advisor: Jose Marin Jarrin, Ph.D.
Sarah Moreau Thesis: Graduate Student Advisor: Jose Marin Jarrin, Ph.D.
Z Zenobia Thesis: Status of Spirinchus starksi (Night Smelt) in Northern California in 2021 Advisor: Jose Marin Jarrin, Ph.D.
Lily Olmo Thesis: Using fish to study the trophic food chain of artificial wetlands in the Arcata Marsh, CA Advisor: Jose Marin Jarrin, Ph.D.
Jacqueline Bridegum Thesis: Advisor: Mark Henderson, Ph.D.
Cory Dick Thesis: Comparing molecular methods to estimate fish stomach contents and gastric evacuation rates: Implications for measuring the impacts of predation on Central Valley Chinook salmon Advisor: Mark Henderson, Ph.D.
Katie Terhaar Thesis: Sandy Beach Surf zone Fish Communities and Marine Protected Areas in Northern California Advisor: Jose Marin Jarrin, Ph.D.
Leon Davis Thesis: Assessing abundance, presence, and length, and marine protected area effectiveness for three key rocky reef species along the Northern California Coast Advisor: Andre Buchheister, Ph.D.
Max Grezlik Thesis: Evaluating the effects of Atlantic Menhaden management and environmental change on the Northwest Atlantic Ocean Ecosystem Advisor: Andre Buchheister, Ph.D.
Doyle J. Coyne Thesis: Comparison of standard and environmental DNA methods for estimating Chinook salmon smolt abundance in the Klamath River, California Advisor: Andrew Kinziger, Ph.D.
Christopher O'Keefe Thesis: Do beaver dam analogues act as passage barriers to juvenile coho salmon and juvenile steelhead trout? Advisor: Darren Ward, Ph.D.
Roxanne Robertson Thesis: Resolving variability in size structure in an individual-based model for the North Pacific krill, Euphausia pacifica Advisor: Eric Bjorkstedt, Ph.D.
Blair M. Winnacott Thesis: Response of coastal ichthyoplankton assemblages off northern California to seasonal oceanographic and climate variability Advisor: Eric Bjorkstedt, Ph.D.
Nick Van Vleet Thesis: Effects of large wood restoration on coho salmon in a northern California watershed: a before-after-control-impact experiment Advisor: Mark Henderson, Ph.D.
Natalie Okun Thesis: Effects of large wood restoration on coho salmon in a northern California watershed: a before-after-control-impact experiment Advisor: Mark Henderson, Ph.D.
Nissa Kreidler Thesis: Species distribution models for three deep-sea coral and sponge taxa in the southern California Bight Advisor: Andre Buchheister, Ph.D.
Steven R. Fong Thesis: Spatial and temporal genetic structure of winter-run steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) returning to the Mad River, California Advisor: Andrew Kinziger, Ph.D.
Max Ramos Thesis: Recolonization potential for coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in tributaries to the Klamath River after dam removal Advisor: Darren Ward, Ph.D.
Madison Halloran Thesis: Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) dispersal and life history variations among Humboldt Bay watersheds Advisor: Darren Ward, Ph.D.
Nissa Kreidler Thesis: Species distribution models for three deep-sea coral and sponge taxa in the Southern California Bight Advisor: Mark Henderson, Ph.D.
Emerson Kanawi Thesis: Comparing environmental DNA and traditional monitoring approaches to assess the abundance of outmigrating coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in California coastal streams Advisor: Mark Henderson, Ph.D.
Chad M. Martel Thesis: Using environmental DNA and occupancy modeling to estimate rangewide metapopulation dynamics of the endangered tidewater goby eucyclogobius spp. Advisor: Andrew Kinziger, Ph.D.
Grace Ghrist Thesis: Freshwater and marine survival of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) as a function of juvenile life history Advisor: Darren Ward, Ph.D.
Laura Solinger Thesis: Spatial variability in recruitment of Chilipepper rockfish (sebastes goodei) in the California current system Advisor: Eric Bjorkstedt, Ph.D.
Chris Loomis Thesis: Density and distribution of piscivorous fishes in the Sacramento – San Joaquin Delta Advisor: Mark Henderson, Ph.D.
John Deibner-Hanson Thesis: Overwinter survival and movement of juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in relation to large woody debris and low-velocity habitat in Northern California streams Advisor: Mark Henderson, Ph.D.
Hannah Coe Thesis: Effects of longline oyster aquaculture on benthic invertebrate communities in Humboldt Bay, California Advisor: Mark Henderson, Ph.D.
Emily Chen Thesis: Contribution of juvenile estuarine residency in a bar-built estuary to recruitment of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Advisor: Mark Henderson, Ph.D.
Keith Parker Thesis: Evidence for the genetic basis and inheritance of ocean and river-maturing ecotypes of Pacific lamprey (Entosphenus tridentatus) in the Klamath River, California. Advisor: Andrew Kinziger, Ph.D.
Michael Sutter Thesis: Rangewide tidewater goby occupancy survey using environmental DNA Advisor: Andrew Kinziger, Ph.D.
Kevin Hinterman Thesis: Baseline monitoring and characterization of rocky intertidal fish communities in Northern California Advisor: Andrew Kinziger, Ph.D.
Cori Flannery Thesis: The effects of ocean acidification and reduced oxygen on the behavior and physiology of juvenile rockfish Advisor: Eric Bjorkstedt, Ph.D.
Gabriel Scheer Thesis: A population model for coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) in Freshwater Creek: Evaluating the effects of life history variation and habitat restoration Advisor: Darren Ward, Ph.D.
Justin Alvarez Thesis: Abundance, growth and predation by non-native brown trout in the Trinity River, CA Advisor: Darren Ward, Ph.D.
Ryann Whitemore Thesis: Evaluation of parameter estimation and field application of transgenerational genetic mark-recapture Advisor: Andrew Kinziger, Ph.D.
Molly Gorman Thesis: Juvenile survival and adult return as a function of freshwater rearing life history for Coho Salmon in the Klamath River basin Advisor: Darren Ward, Ph.D.
Michelle Krall Thesis: The influence of habitat characteristics on abundance and growth of juvenile Coho Salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch in constructed habitats in the middle Klamath River basin Advisor: Darren Ward, Ph.D.
Conrad Newell Thesis: Development of captive culture methods for the endangered tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi) Advisor: Andrew Kinziger, Ph.D.
Molly Schmelzle Thesis: Monitoring endangered tidewater goby using environmental DNA in water samples Advisor: Andrew Kinziger, Ph.D.
Sean Cochran Thesis: Marine survival of Coho Salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) from small coastal watersheds in Northern California Advisor: Darren Ward, Ph.D.
Jesse Wiesenfeld Thesis: Riverscape genetics identifies cryptic lineages of speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus) in the Klamath-Trinity basin Advisor: Andrew Kinziger, Ph.D.
Shari Witmore Thesis: Seasonal growth retention and movement of juvenile coho salmon in natural and constructed habitats of the mid-Klamath River Advisor: Darren Ward, Ph.D.
Christine Roddam Thesis: Residency, growth, and outmigration size of juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), across rearing locations in the Shasta River, California Advisor: Darren Ward, Ph.D.
Kathryn Crane Thesis: Environmental effects on growth of early life history stages of rockfishes (Sebastes) off Central California based on analysis of otolith growth patterns. Advisor: Eric Bjorkstedt, Ph.D.
Jennifer Hauer Thesis: Overwinter survival and growth of juvenile coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kisutch, in Freshwater, California Advisor: Darren Ward, Ph.D.
Michael Hellmair Thesis: Life history variation, genetic diversity and extinction risk in the endangered tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi) Advisor: Andrew Kinziger, Ph.D.
Melissa Reneski Thesis: Temporal genetic analyses reveal divergence of hatchery steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) via drift Advisor: Andrew Kinziger, Ph.D.
James Hearsey Thesis: Reproductive traits of sympatric spring and fall Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and their hybrids Advisor: Andrew Kinziger, Ph.D.
Fisheries Biology 1 Harpst St. Arcata, CA 95521 Phone: (707) 826-3953 [email protected]
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Fisheries articles from across Nature Portfolio
Fisheries are social, biological and geographical objects involved in producing fish for human consumption. They are usually united by a common geographical area, catch technique and/or target species, and fisheries science is the study of factors affecting catch and stock sustainability.
Latest Research and Reviews
Nursery origin of yellowfin tuna in the western Atlantic Ocean: significance of Caribbean Sea and trans-Atlantic migrants
- Jay R. Rooker
- Michelle Zapp Sluis
- R. J. David Wells
Shark teeth zinc isotope values document intrapopulation foraging differences related to ontogeny and sex
Sex- and ontogeny-related differences in diet and habitat use of endangered sand tiger sharks from Delaware Bay revealed by analysis of shark teeth zinc isotope values.
- Jeremy McCormack
- Molly Karnes
- Sora L. Kim
Artificial reefs reduce the adverse effects of mud and transport stress on behaviors of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus
- Fangyuan Hu
- Huiyan Wang
Inferring the ecology of north-Pacific albacore tuna from catch-and-effort data
- Hirotaka Ijima
- Carolina Minte-Vera
- Marko Jusup
Eye lens-derived Δ 14 C signatures validate extreme longevity in the deepwater scorpaenid blackbelly rosefish ( Helicolenus dactylopterus )
- Derek W. Chamberlin
- Zachary A. Siders
- William F. Patterson III
Contrasting life-history responses to climate variability in eastern and western North Pacific sardine populations
Using high-resolution stable isotope and microstructure analyses of otoliths, this study reveals that sardine populations in the western and eastern North Pacific have different early life metabolic and growth rates that respond contrastingly to temperature variations. These findings could explain observations of different responses in these populations to decadal-scale temperature anomalies.
- Tatsuya Sakamoto
- Motomitsu Takahashi
- Tomihiko Higuchi
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With the arrival of El Niño, prepare for stronger marine heatwaves
Record-high ocean temperatures, combined with a confluence of extreme climate and weather patterns, are pushing the world into uncharted waters. Researchers must help communities to plan how best to reduce the risks.
- Alistair J. Hobday
- Michael T. Burrows
- Thomas Wernberg
Rethinking the effect of marine heatwaves on fish
Marine heatwaves are on the rise. A surprising result from the analysis of data for fish populations in Europe and North America could change ways of thinking about the ecological consequences of such events.
- Mark R. Payne
Shark culling at a World Heritage site
- Philippe Borsa
- Martine Cornaille
- Bertrand Richer de Forges
Threatened coastal species absent from Chinese protection lists
The lack of legal protections for large coastal animals is leaving them — and their ecosystems — at risk, researchers say.
- Dyani Lewis
Fisheries subsidy reform
- Annisa Chand
Marine protected areas
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The Fisheries Conservation Lab investigates the ecology, management, and conservation of marine and estuarine fisheries. We depend on fisheries for many things including food, employment, recreational opportunities, and cultural identity, but fishing and aquaculture rank among the greatest human impacts on marine ecosystems. Finding a balance between harvest and conservation of fishery species and mitigating the impacts of fisheries on marine ecosystems will be key to sustaining productive, resilient, and biodiverse coastal and marine ecosystems for future generations.
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SERC is hiring:
Posted by Matt Ogburn on November 27, 2023
Oyster Restoration Engagement Internship (Spring 2024)
Deadline: December 8, 2023
Employment type: Full-time
Federal position?: No
Salary: $625 per week, onsite housing provided
Anticipated start date: February 2024
Duration: 12 weeks
Location: Edgewater, MD
Work model: Onsite
The Smithsonian Environmental Research Center (SERC) is seeking an Oyster Restoration Engagement intern for Spring 2024. The intern will support a community-based oyster monitoring project at SERC.
A mutually agreeable start date will be determined with the selected applicant. We anticipate a start date in February 2024. This will be an in-person internship with work taking place in Edgewater, Maryland.
This intern will work with both the SERC Public Engagement team and Fisheries Conservation Lab to develop content and support data workflows for a community-based oyster restoration monitoring project based at SERC. This will involve managing and synthesizing data, creating digital content and videos, assisting with training workshop planning and coordination, and developing an independent project related to community-based oyster monitoring. Ideally, the intern will also have the opportunity to participate in fieldwork and lab work with the Fisheries Conservation Lab.
In addition to the independent project, the intern will be broadly exposed to and participate in SERC public engagement and research activities. Responsibilities may include creating website content, working with volunteers in the field on a variety of projects, engaging with K-12 students both at SERC and in classroom settings, interacting with SERC researchers, and communicating SERC research to members of the public through direct and virtual interactions.
Qualifications and Requirements
We are seeking applicants with some (but not necessarily all) of the following:
- Experience with managing and analyzing environmental science data
- Experience or interest in learning R programming
- Experience developing videos, social media posts, and other digital communication products
- Coursework and/or experience in ecology or environmental science
- Interest and some understanding of environmental science research
- Interest in communicating science to a variety of audiences
- Ability to work independently
- Ability to work as a part of an interdisciplinary team
How to Apply
To apply, please email a resume that highlights relevant experiences to Anna Davis ( [email protected] ).
Anna Davis [email protected]
Fisheries Ecology and Conservation
Understanding the ecology of fisheries is critical to maintaining resilient, productive and biodiverse coastal and marine ecosystems. Fishing is an important sector of coastal economies, provides an important supply of food for human societies, and is an activity of great cultural and historical importance. But fisheries have also contributed to the decline of coastal and marine ecosystems through changes in biomass and community structure, disruption of food webs, and alteration of habitats. Using the Chesapeake Bay as a model system, we are addressing fisheries issues including the impacts of harvest, restoration, and conservation on populations, communities and ecosystems, habitat use, migrations and connectivity with other coastal ecosystems. To learn more about our fisheries ecology and conservation research, please visit the following webpages:
Blue Crab and the Fishery
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Impact of Derelict Fishing Gear
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Our long-term studies of fish and invertebrate communities in the Rhode River, Maryland study site offer a window in the community structure and population dynamics of fish and invertebrate communities in one of the most productive ecosystems on earth, the Chesapeake Bay. Spanning more than three decades, this research tracks seasonal, annual, and decadal variation in species composition and abundance of fishes and macro-invertebrates. Sampling methods include trawling, seining, a fish weir, benthic infauna cores, and tethering experiments. The long-term descriptive data, in combination with our experimental studies, provide an unusual database for exploring populations, communities, predator-prey relationships, impacts of fisheries, and impacts of environmental variability and climate change, and other ecological processes. To learn more about our long-term research, please follow the links below:
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Movement of Life Initiative
Many species on the planet migrate during their lifetime, using different habitats during specific life stages. What habitats are most important and why? How will climate change affect migrations? What are the benefits and costs of migration to individuals? How can we best manage fisheries for migratory species? How do migratory species affect community structure and ecological processes? To learn more about our Movement of Life Initiative research, please visit our Movement of Life Initiative webpage:
Blue Crab Spawning Migration
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SERC Acoustic Receiver Arrays
Cownose Ray Habitat Use and Migration
Welcome to the Educator Resources page-- below are a collection of lessons, web resources, and videos arranged by subject to help you quickly find resources in your interest area to create lesson plans or activities. Maryland follows the Next Generation Science Standards for K-12 science content standards. Access the Next Generation Science Standards broken down by topic at the National Science Teachers Association website.
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Discover, create, and share more resources and educational experiences on the Smithsonian Learning Lab !
Sharks, rays, and whales
Lesson: Movement of Life Initiative: Protecting Whales Grade 3 NGSS, Computer Science Teachers Association Standards, ISTE Student Standards https://ssec.si.edu/whales
Lesson: Movement of Life Initiative: Discover What Makes Sharks Move Grade 4 NGSS https://learninglab.si.edu/collections/movement-of-life-initiative-discover-what-makes-sharks-move/74MV9mDjnp7PvG9k#r
Lesson: Sharks and Shorelines Grades 6-10 NGSS https://natureworkseverywhere.org/resources/sharks-shorelines/
Activity: Ecosystem Explorer | EARTH A New Wild Grades 5-8 NGSS https://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/5aeed659-7f0b-417f-81d9-5f2e9c...
Reading/ Video: SERC’s Shorelines Blog " Following the Movement of Life: Tagging Sharks and Rays" Grades 5-7 https://sercblog.si.edu/?p=8571
Reading/ Video: SERC’s Shorelines Blog "Tracking the Bay’s Cownose Rays" Grades 5-7 https://sercblog.si.edu/?p=6254
For more information about shark migration, check out Smithsonian's Movement of Life Initiative !
Lesson: The Blue Crab's Chesapeake Journey Grade 9-12 http://www2.vims.edu/bridge/DATA.cfm?Bridge_Location=archive1102.html
Video: SERC Scientists Video from the Smithsonian Science Education Center, “How do Scientists Track and Monitor blue Crab Populations in the Chesapeake Bay? Grades 3-8 https://ssec.si.edu/explore-smithsonian-how-do-scientists-track-and-moni...
Video: SERC Ecosystems on the Edge video by one of our scientists, called “Blue Crabs: Top Predator in Peril” Grades 3-8 https://ecosystemsontheedge.org/top-predator/
Lesson: Juvenile Oyster Disease: A Growing Problem Grade 9-12 http://www2.vims.edu/bridge/DATA.cfm?Bridge_Location=archive0103.html
Video: Determining the Resiliency of Juvenile Oysters in the Chesapeake Bay Grade 3-8
- Biodiversity & Conservation
- Biological Invasions
- Ecosystems Ecology
- Global Change
- History & Archaeology
- Watersheds & Land Use
College of Agriculture & Natural Resources Department of Fisheries and Wildlife
Graduate research areas.
Within the Department of Fisheries and Wildlife you will find faculty with diverse research interests. The focus areas below can serve as a guide for finding faculty with similar interests, but are not intended to be a complete list of the department's expertise.
Research areas within the graduate program include:
Wildlife Ecology and Management
Fisheries ecology and management, aquatic ecology and management, landscape limnology, ecological sustainability and landscape ecology.
- Human Dimensions and Policy
Ecological Genetics and Physiology
Biometry and ecological modeling.
- Spatial Ecology
Faculty Specializing in this area
General Description: emphasis on biological considerations in the management of upland and wetland ecosystems or wildlife species to meet a variety of human demands from biodiversity and endangered species management to management of game species
Wildlife Biology and Management
Population and Community Ecology
Population Analysis and Quantitative Methods
Examples of Research Areas:
Wildlife - habitat interactions
Population dynamics and modeling
Environmental or biological issues that affect wildlife in upland or wetland ecosystems
Wildlife biometry and population estimation and sampling
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Faculty Specializing in this Area
General Description: emphasis on factors influencing the productivity and dynamics of fish populations, fish communities, and fisheries to enhance management of these resources; quantitative fisheries science, particularly stock assessment; habitat, population and community modeling; and risk assessment and adaptive management
Fish Population Dynamics
Fish Habitat Management
Aquatic Food Web Management
Risk Assessment and Adaptive Management
Evaluations of the effectiveness of various management techniques (e.g., habitat manipulation, stocking) for protecting, rehabilitating, and enhancing fish populations and fisheries
Investigations of the relationship between the habitat needs of fish populations and their productivity
Environmental determinants of fish recruitment
Links among food web interactions, fish recruitment and fish production
Development and utilization of dynamic fish population and community models
Faculty Specializing in this Area
General Description: fish culture research and training programs including domestic and international projects emphasizing cold, cool, and warm water fishes; academic programs are tied closely to state, regional, federal, and international partners including the U.S. Department of Agriculture, North Central Regional Aquaculture Center, and state and federal hatchery systems
Aquaculture and Limnology
Food Science and Nutrition
Nutritional requirements and culture techniques for cool water fishes
Diet development using locally available feedstuffs
Polyploidy induction techniques
Aquaculture water quality and waste control
General Description: biological, chemical and ecological features of freshwater ecosystems, including lakes, reservoirs, streams, rivers, and wetlands; basic and applied freshwater ecology, emphasizing the intimate connection between limnology and resource management
Limnology and Stream Ecology
Wetland Plants and Algae
Fisheries Ecology and Food-web Management
Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing
Landscape ecology of aquatic ecosystems
Exotic species ecology and management
Water quality and biomonitoring
Non-point source land-use modeling
General Description: emphasizes application of ecological and evolutionary theory and principles of fisheries and wildlife management related to the conservation of species, habitat, and genetic diversity
Conservation Biology and Genetics
Population Analysis and Management
Geographic Information Systems
Evaluation of human impacts on the diversity and viability of wild populations
Landscape-level analysis and modeling of habitat quality and quantity on fisheries and wildlife populations
Identification of management units and evolutionarily significant units of conservation concern
Evaluation of the effects of non-native species on populations and ecosystems
Human Dimensions and Policy
General Description: human attitudes and behavior, conflict resolution among user groups, communication or education tools, economic impacts, interaction with policymakers
Social Science Survey Research Techniques
Qualitative Research Methods
Environmental Law and Policy
Education Program Design and Evaluation
Environmental Attitudes and Movements
Outcomes of fisheries co-management policy in developing countries
Effectiveness of environmental education and outreach
Analysis of public perceptions associated with emerging fisheries or wildlife issues
Investigations of the dynamics of wildlife recreational choice behaviors
General Description: emphasis on theory and application of modern molecular, biochemical, and electrophysiological technologies and statistical methods of analysis to examine basic and applied issues in organismal ecology, behavior, environmental adaptability, toxicology, and evolutionary history.
Conservation Genetics and Population Genetics
Chemoreception of fishes
Physiological and genetic factors in fish migratory and sexual behavior
Field and experimental approaches in behavioral ecology including defining genealogical relationships, mate selection, reproductive success, maternity and paternity
Studies of spatial population genetic structure and systematics
Molecular markers in conservation and management of vertebrate populations
General Description: emphasis on development and application of quantitative tools for estimation, hypothesis testing, and simulation, as applied to fisheries and wildlife problems. This departmental program is complimented by a strong inter-disciplinary university-wide quantitative analysis group.
Statistical Theory and Methods
Risk Assessment and Decision Analysis
GIS and Remote Sensing
Simulation modeling of wildlife-habitat relationships
Fish stock assessment methods and application
Adaptive management and decision analysis theory and applications
Metapopulation analysis and simulation
Quantitative Fisheries Research
Our lab conducts research and participates in science advisory work to improve the management of ecologically and economically valuable marine resources..
Our science contributes to the sustainability and resilience of marine resources, ecosystems, fishing communities, and the seafood industry.
- Understand the influence of climate, harvest, and management on our fishery resources.
- Develop approaches to improve fisheries stock assessment and management.
- Advance the study of fish population structure and its implications for sustainable management and fishery resource resilience.
- Understand aspects of fish population biology and dynamics in relation to key factors (e.g., climate and ecosystem factors and fishing).
Lisa Kerr, Ph.D.
Associate Professor, UMaine School of Marine Sciences
Katie Lankowicz, Ph.D.
Postdoctoral Research Associate
Senior Research Associate, Vessel Safety Officer
Quantitative Research Associate
PhD Graduate Student
Our diverse skill set addresses critical ecological questions that directly apply to fisheries management..
We conduct field sampling or partner with the fishing industry to collect data on focal species (e.g. Atlantic cod, bluefin tuna). We utilize mathematical and statistical modeling to understand how fish stocks respond to climate change, fishing, and management measures (e.g. management strategy evaluation). We also conduct stock identification analysis in the lab, utilizing structural and chemical analysis of fish hard parts (e.g. otoliths) to understand the origin of the fish we catch and integrate this information into models.
- Field Sampling
- Data Collection
- Mathematical Modeling
- Stock Identification
Explore our quantitative fisheries research projects.
Northeast Climate Integrated Modeling (NCLIM)
Transforming fisheries' decision-making processes from dependent on historical observations to more a forward-looking process will require interdisciplinary research efforts that advance our knowledge and understanding …
Integrating Climate Impacts into Atlantic Bluefin Tuna Stock Assessment
Our project is examining atmospheric and oceanographic changes that may have impacted the distribution of giant bluefin tuna in the Gulf of Maine. This information …
The Open Knowledge Network to Meet Ocean Decision Challenges (OceanOKN)
Throughout history, people have been able to rely on their past experience to inform their decisions about the future. We are now entering a period …
Evaluating Alternative Harvest Control Rules for New England Groundfish
The New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC) initiated a groundfish harvest control rule review so that fishery management can be sure they are prescribing the …
Striped bass catches have declined dramatically in recent years — with landings down by 90%, according to some estimates — leaving both scientists and fishermen …
Groundfish Management Strategy Evaluation
The impacts of climate change on marine fisheries resources are increasing. Some groundfish stocks, such as Georges Bank cod, have declined to record-low biomass in …
Evaluating Age Structure, Aging Bias and Mixed Stock Composition of Atlantic Bluefin Tuna in the Northwest Atlantic
Our project sets up long-term biological sample collections to fill in life history gaps, including age structure and stock mixing. We do this by using …
Evaluating the Importance of Chub Mackerel in the Diet of Highly Migratory Species
Our project seeks to investigate the foraging ecology of marlins (blue, white, round-scale spearfish) and tunas (bigeye, yellowfin) along the East Coast to identify the …
Assessing Allocation Strategies for Fisheries Affected by Climate Change
Our project aims to develop guidance and adaptive strategies for fishery managers grappling with climate change induced allocation challenges.
Windjamming on the Warming Gulf of Maine - Eos
Bluefin Tuna Milestone
Dr. Walt Golet and his Pelagic Fisheries Lab celebrate a significant sampling milestone.
Determining Where Bluefin Tuna Come From | On The Water
Convening climate experts.
In April, GMRI scientists hosted a modeling workshop for over 30 leading climate, oceanography, socio-economic, and fisheries experts. The group convened to discuss a question …
- Research & Services
Humanity's growing demand for seafood is met in part by harvesting of wild stocks. VIMS researchers help illuminate and guide efforts to monitor, restore, and sustainably manage wild fisheries.
- Latour honored with Graves Award (May 2021) VIMS fisheries professor Rob Latour was honored during commencement weekend with the Thomas Ashley Graves, Jr. Award for sustained excellence in teaching.
- Scientific survey shows female blue crab population remains strong (May 2021) Results from the latest Winter Dredge Survey—conducted annually by VIMS and the Maryland DNR—indicate the female spawning stock remains healthy, but mixed results for abundances by age and sex may mean a lean harvest this fall.
- Virginia Game Fish Tagging Program celebrates top volunteers (April 2021) VGFTP celebrates the achievements of its top volunteers during 2020 in an online ceremony. 2020 Top Tagger Ed Shepherd has now tagged more than 83,000 fishes during his time in the program.
More stories ...
Advisory Service Reports
Vims juvenile fish survey.
- Annual Reports: Estimating Relative Juvenile Abundance of Ecologically Important Finfish and Invertebrates in the Virginia Portion of Chesapeake Bay
Five Most Recent Journal Articles
- Thanassekos, S. and A. M. Scheld, 2020. Simulating the effects of environmental and market variability on fishing industry structure. Ecological Economics, 174: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106687
- Scheld, A. M., et al., 2020. Quantifying the behavioral and economic effects of regulatory change in a recreational cobia fishery. Fisheries Research, 224: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2019.105469
- Huynh, Q. C., et al., 2020. Comparisons of mean length-based mortality estimators and age-structured models for six southeastern US stocks. Ices Journal of Marine Science, 77: 162-173. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsz191
- Hart, D. R., et al., 2020. Spillover of sea scallops from rotational closures in the Mid-Atlantic Bight (United States). Ices Journal of Marine Science, 77: 1992-2002. https://doi.org/10.1093/icesjms/fsaa099
- Goldsmith, W. M., et al., 2020. Decision-making in a mixed commercial-recreational fishery for Atlantic bluefin tuna. Marine Policy, 115: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpol.2020.103848
Read a full list of VIMS-authored journal articles related to fisheries.
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Coral Reef Fish Predictably Change With Depth, Except When People Are Present
November 28, 2023
A new study reveals that human impacts are changing our understanding of patterns in reef-fish communities across ocean depths.
New research, published in Nature Ecology & Evolution , supports the long-held understanding that reef-fish communities follow certain patterns along different depths. However, this is only true in reef areas that have historically remained free from human activity. These patterns were altered or lost at islands where humans live and where impacts like fishing and habitat loss are present. The study was led by researchers at Bangor University in the United Kingdom in close collaboration with the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center.
Recognizing patterns in reef-fish communities is important for coral-reef management. Testing these long-held understandings as conditions change through time is key to evaluating suitable management approaches.
Revisiting Our Understanding of Reef Ecosystems
One of the oldest described ecological patterns is zonation, which is the distribution of organisms across space. In bodies of water, depth zonation explains how organisms are found at specific depths due to different conditions and interactions with other organisms.
Testing whether and how these patterns are universal in nature is important for developing conservation and management strategies. If these patterns hold true in various places with different groups of organisms, we can use them as trusted guidelines in conservation planning. The ability to test the universality of depth zonation in marine organisms was limited in the past by the lack of standardized observations collected across large areas and the necessary analytical tools.
Lead author, Dr. Laura Richardson of Bangor University’s School of Ocean Sciences, explains, “Science is cumulative, building on past work. Now that we have greater computing capabilities, we should be testing these widely accepted but spatially under-validated theories at scale. Human impacts on the environment have increased to the point where these models may no longer predict current-day ecological distribution patterns. Up until recently, our ability to test these core theories was limited by a lack of spatially comprehensive data. Consistent, rigorous, and long-term monitoring from NOAA's National Coral Reef Monitoring Program made our analyses possible, revealing globally relevant insights into our ‘natural’ world under human pressures, and highlighting the critical role of well-maintained monitoring programs.”
Putting Patterns to the Test
The team of researchers used 5,525 fish surveys collected by the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program to confirm the depth-zonation model in coral reefs. These surveys were conducted on nearshore reefs in depths of 1–30 meters across 35 U.S.-affiliated islands in the Pacific. These islands spanned a large range of environmental and human-driven conditions, including:
- Hawai‘i (including the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument)
- Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands
- American Samoa
- Pacific Remote Islands Area
“This study emphasizes the importance of the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program and how critical the long-term, sustained monitoring of our nation’s coral reefs is. This work would not have been possible without these datasets,” shared Dr. Tye Kindinger, a research marine biologist with the science center and National Coral Reef Monitoring Program Fisheries lead in the Pacific.
“By using the same methods to survey across such impressive scales in both space and time, we’re able to compare reefs across a broad range of ocean conditions, human impacts, and management actions. Those gradients are key to disentangling which factors have the greatest influence on the resilience of reef communities in the Pacific, and the breadth of each gradient the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program captures in its surveys is what makes the program truly unprecedented.”
The research team used the dataset to characterize how reef-fish communities vary across depths. They then tested if these patterns were different in unpopulated versus populated locations.
“Monitoring reefs in remote locations that are difficult to access is another core strength of the National Coral Reef Monitoring Program,“ said Dr. Kindinger. “Those reefs provide un-fished benchmarks for what natural reef-fish populations look like, and serve as references against which managed populations can be compared.”
Humans Disrupt Natural Patterns of Fish
Biomass is a measure of the total weight of fish, which can be higher where fish are more abundant or where there are larger-sized individuals. In the absence of local human populations, the scientists found support for the depth-zonation model across reef-fish communities across the Pacific.
- The types of fish that eat other fish or plankton increase in biomass at deeper depths, whereas seaweed-eating fish decrease in biomass with depth
- As expected, these observed fish patterns corresponded with the availability of each type of consumer’s food supply, which also varied across depth
Among inhabited islands, these clear patterns of fish biomass changing with depth were greatly reduced or entirely absent.
- Fish biomass does not noticeably vary across the entire 30-meter range in depth, and is lower overall compared to fish biomass at uninhabited islands
- This suggests that human impacts on reefs, such as habitat loss or fishing, can disrupt our understanding of connections between fish and their surrounding reef environment, making the patterns in their distribution difficult to predict
Limits of Old Ideas in Changing Seas
This study provides evidence that the ecological theory of depth zonation in reef-fish communities is indeed applicable across an expansive range of coral reefs in the Pacific. However, it also suggests that this long-held concept about natural systems may no longer be valid with increased human impacts.
Dr. Richardson concludes, “This leads to more questions, both about the usefulness of models which represent a world less impacted by human activity, and about how to quantify or model our impact on the natural environment. Now is the time to thoroughly reassess our scientific understanding of the natural world, which increasingly will need to incorporate human impacts."
Oceanic whitetip sharks: a plan for recovery.
National Fish Habitat Partnership’s 2023 Waters to Watch Projects Feature Coastal Habitats
NOAA Announces Confirmed Large Whale Entanglement Numbers in 2021
Last updated by Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center on November 28, 2023
A Look at the Vast Waters and Rich Diversity of Marine Life in the U.S. Pacific Islands
NOAA Fisheries Cancels Remaining Hawaiian Islands Surveys for 2020
- Frontiers in Genetics
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Fisheries and Aquaculture Genetics
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About this Research Topic
Fisheries and aquaculture genetics refers to the application of genetic principles and methods to fisheries and aquaculture biology and their management including seafood safety. This approach uses putatively neutral markers such as allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and microsatellites, as well as the recent ...
Keywords : Taxonomy and DNA barcoding, Molecular markers, Phylogenetic relationships, Evolutionary history, Genetic diversity, Population structure, Stock identification, Kinship analysis, Marker Assisted Selection
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Research Papers/Topics in Fisheries
Assessment of the security of coastal fishing operations in ghana from the perspectives of safety, poverty and catches.
ABSTRACT The study was conducted in four fish landing sampling stations along the southern coastline of Ghana, namely: Vodzah and Denu (both in the Volta Region) as well as Jamestown and Tema (both in the Greater Accra Region) from June, 2014 to January, 2015. The purpose of the study was to assess the security of coastal fishing operations in Ghana from three main perspectives, namely safety, poverty and fish catches. Data was obtained from both primary sources (field data) and grey literat...
Causes and Trends in Shoreline Change in The Western Region of Ghana
ABSTRACT Shoreline change is an issue of concern to most coastal managers because the coastal zone is home to over 60% of the world’s population. In Ghana, shoreline change has been associated with loss of economic lands and properties. Previous researches have shown that the Ghana coastline is eroding at variable rates; the Eastern and Central Zones are receding while the Western zone is thought of as stable. This opinion, however, contrasts field observations and interview with local coa...
Assessing The Efficiency of Two Improved Lesser Known Kilns and Their Effect On the Quality and Shelf Life of Smoked Fish in Ghana
CHAPTER ONE 1.0 GENERAL INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background Fish and fisheries products serve as significant sources of food and incomes for numerous people, particularly those from developing countries (FAO, 2018). Fish is highly nutritious, containing approximately 70-84% water; 15-24% protein; 0.1-22% fat; 1-2%, minerals; 0.5% calcium; 0.25% phosphorus; and 0.1% vitamins A, D, B and C (Abraha, et al., 2018). Consumption of fish and fisheries products has been known to reduce the risks of cardio...
Effects Of Broodstock Sex Pairing Ratios And Resting Periods Of The Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) On Fry Production
ABSTRACT The Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) forms about 80% of farmed fish in Ghana. However, the unavailability of its seed all year round for culture is a major constraint. This study evaluated the effects of varying male to female broodstock pairing ratios of 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3 with resting intervals of 0, 3 and 7 days on fry production performance of the Akosombo strain of the Nile tilapia at the Ashaiman Aquaculture Demonstration Centre, Ghana. Nine (9) treatments we...
Impacts of Pollution on the Feeding, Bioturbation and Biomass of the Fiddler Crab, Uca annulipes (H. Milne Edwards) in Gazi and Mikindani Mangroves, Kenya.
ABSTRACT Marine pollution is one of the main anthropogenic factors identified globally to affect the estuarine and coastal ecosystems. One of the recipients of pollutants is the mangroves since they are intercepting between land and ocean. In recent years, the mangrove forests have been proposed for use as natural wastewater treatment wetlands. This is based on research findings conducted in countries like China. However, before promoting the use of natural mangrove as pollution buffers, the ...
Characterization And Control Of Pathogenic Parasites In Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus Linnaeus 1758) In Fish-Farming Systems In Bungoma County, Kenya
ABSTRACT In Kenya, fish farming has been expanding in recent years, with Government support through financial and input subsidies to small scale farmers. The sub sector generates a variety of benefits such as food and nutrition and develops trade. However, the sub sector faces the challenges of fish diseases, given that the fish production facilities support high-density living conditions that are favorable for spread of parasitic diseases. Besides, when fish that is infected is consumed by h...
Effects Of Probiotics On Growth, Flesh Quality And Hematoimmunological Status Of Cultured Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis Niloticus) In Kirinyaga County, Kenya
ABSTRACT Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) culture in Kenya is mainly conducted in low input ponds where supplementary feed is given alongside pond fertilization. Excess nutrients in the culture water in form of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) may make the culture environment susceptible to invasion by disease-causing microorganisms. In the recent past, probiotics have received much attention as a new strategy in fish health management and have been documented to improve fish growth p...
Hydro-Biology And Fish Production Of The Black Volta Near The Bui Dam During The Pre- And Post-Impoundment Periods
ABSTRACT The hydro-biology of the Black Volta near the Bui dam were studied in relation to fish production as measured by catch per unit effort (CPUE) during the pre- and post-impoundment periods between February 2011 and December 2012. The primary objective was to assess the ecological impacts of the dam on the hydro-biological factors and fish production and provide data for monitoring the hydro-biology and fisheries of the Bui reservoir. Two sampling stations at Bui and Bamboi were select...
Nutritional Composition Of Wild And Hormone Sex Reversed Nile Tilapia(Oreochromis Niloticus)
ABSTRACT The study was conducted to evaluate the nutritional composition through analysis of wild and hormone treated Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The fifteen samples of each wild and sex reversed were measured. The mean weight of wild species samples were (225.9 ± 19.9 g), while sex reversed samples were (169.9±46.3 g) with, significant difference (𝑝 < 0.05). The result of chemical composition presented was as mean percentage to moisture, Fat, Crude protein and Ash all which c...
Impact Of Fish Introduction In Al Rahad Turda - North Kordofan - On Local Communities Development
Abstract The present study was conducted at Al Rahad Turda North Kordofan State. The main target of this study was to investigate the impact of fish introduction in Al Rahad turda on the development of the local community mainly the impact on the fisher men and fishing activity, the impact on market mediators and fish marketing and to study the impact on fish consumption .For data collection three questionnaires were designed for fishermen, market mediators and final consumers. Descriptive a...
The Role of Fisheries' Marketing Extension on Development of Nile Fisheries' Production and Marketing Case study of Fishermen and Merchants in Almorda Market – Omdurman Locality – Khartoum St
Abstract The purpose of the study was to study the role of fisheries' marketing extention on development of nile fisheries' production and marketing for fishermen and merchants in Almorda fish market in Omdurman Locality in Khartoum State. To achieve this purpose adescriptive analytical approach was used to collect the field data. And A systemic random sampling approach was used to select a sample size of 100 Respondents (50 fishermen and 50 merchant( in Almorda Fish Market in Khartoum State...
Some Fisheries Biological Aspects For Two Fish Species In Khashm El. Girba Reservoir
Abstract The data used in This study was collected from Khashum El Girba during the period (November 2016 to December 2017) to show the variation in the total landings for major fish species, to estimate the length - weight relationships O. niloticus and L. niloticus with the condition factor and to indicate the spawning seasons of O. niloticus and L. niloticus depending on the (b) values from the length - weight Relationships . The Total landings during study period show the highest landing...
Quality Attributes, Minerals and VitaminsContents Of FishPatties
ABSTRACT This study was conducted to assess the effect of fish species and water environment on chemical, physical, mineral, vitamin and organoleptic properties of fish patties Malpetrauselectriccus(A) and Tetradonfahaka(B), which were usedin the study. Samples were collected from three different water environments River Nile, White Nile and Blue Nile. After collected the fresh fish patties were formulated as two groups(A and B) . The chemical analysis showed that, the protein, moisture, ash...
Fish Nutrition and the Economic Way to Feed Fish
BACKGROUND The aim of most farmers has always been to 1 maximize their gains and break even within the shortest possible period. However, no healthy animal can develop optimally without being adequately well fed. Fish are normally fed collectively without special monitoring of individual fish feeding behaviour or agility. Thus, it must be ensured that an adequate quantity of feed is served periodically without (much) wastage. Feed may be served based on an estimated fish biomass (total body w...
Assessment of Mineral Composition of Molluscan Shells in South-Eastern Nigeria
Standard methods of analysis were used to determine the mineral and nutrient content of the molluscan shells. The mean and variance of each nutrient were determined. The shells contained high percentage of calcium of 12.35 to 15.07% (13.90±0,26) sodium 0.10 to 1.55% (0.705±0,16) magnesium 0.10 to 1.02% (0.44±0.009) phosphorus 0.18 to 0.63 (0.35±0.005) potassium 0.003 to 0.021% (0.012±0.002). The molluscan shells also has large proportions of crude protein with values of 1.49-3.76% (2.32...
Projects, thesis, seminars, research papers, termpapers topics in Fisheries. Fisheries projects, thesis, seminars and termpapers topic and materials
Land use planning, effect of different energy source on the nutritional composition and acceptability of clarias gariepinus, assessment of the ecological and human health implications of heavy metals and microbial load content of the ankobra river, ghana, toxicity of dizensate (glyphosate herbicide) on clarias gariepinus fingerlings, aspects of the biology and length-based assessment of the chub mackerel scomber colias (scombridae) stock off the coast of ghana, studies on abundance of jellyfish in beach seine landings along the coast of greater accra region of ghana, assessment of vulnerability of assets and livelihoods to climate variability for adaptation planning in a coastal community in ghana, stock assessment and aspects of reproduction of trichiurus lepturus and lutjanus fulgens in ghanaian waters, investigating pathological agents associated with the rusty-brown spots on farmed nile tilapia (oreochromis niloticus linnaeus, 1758) in ghana, observations on the benthic macroinvertebrate and fish communities of the kakum estuary wetland in ghana, observations on the benthic macroinvertebrate and fish communities of the kakum estuary wetland in ghana., population dynamics and reproductive studies of three commercially important sparid species from ghanaian waters.
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What we know about unauthorized immigrants living in the u.s..
The unauthorized immigrant population in the United States reached 10.5 million in 2021, according to new Pew Research Center estimates. That was a modest increase over 2019 but nearly identical to 2017.
The number of unauthorized immigrants living in the U.S. in 2021 remained below its peak of 12.2 million in 2007. It was about the same size as in 2004 and lower than every year from 2005 to 2015.
The new estimates do not reflect changes that have occurred since apprehensions and expulsions of migrants along the U.S.-Mexico border started increasing in March 2021 . Migrant encounters at the border have since reached historic highs .
Pew Research Center undertook this research to understand ongoing changes in the size and characteristics of the unauthorized immigrant population in the United States. The Center has published estimates of the U.S. unauthorized immigrant population for more than two decades. The estimates presented in this research are the Center’s latest, adding new and updated annual estimates for 2017 through 2021.
Center estimates of the unauthorized immigrant population use a “residual method.” It is similar to methods used by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Office of Immigration Statistics and nongovernmental organizations, including the Center for Migration Studies and the Migration Policy Institute . Those organizations’ estimates are generally consistent with ours. Our estimates also align with official U.S. data sources, including birth records, school enrollment figures and tax data, as well as Mexican censuses and surveys.
Our “residual” method for estimating the nation’s unauthorized immigrant population includes these steps:
- Estimate the total number of immigrants living in the country in a particular year using data from U.S. censuses and government surveys such as the American Community Survey and the Current Population Survey.
- Estimate the number of immigrants living in the U.S. legally using official counts of immigrant and refugee admissions together with other demographic data (for example, death and out-migration rates).
- Subtract our estimate of lawful immigrants from our estimate of the total immigrant population . This provides an initial estimate of the unauthorized immigrant population .
Our final estimate of the U.S. unauthorized immigrant population, as well as estimates for lawful immigrants, includes an upward adjustment. We do this because censuses and surveys tend to miss some people . Undercounts for immigrants, especially unauthorized immigrants, tend to be higher than for other groups. (Our 1990 estimate comes from work by Robert Warren and John Robert Warren; details can be found here .)
The term “unauthorized immigrant” reflects standard and customary usage by many academic researchers and policy analysts. The U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Office of Immigration Statistics also generally uses it. The term means the same thing as undocumented immigrants, illegal immigrants and illegal aliens.
For more details on how we produced our estimates, read the Methodology section of our November 2018 report on unauthorized immigrants.
The unauthorized immigrant population includes any immigrants not in the following groups:
- Immigrants admitted for lawful residence (i.e., green card admissions)
- People admitted formally as refugees
- People granted asylum
- Former unauthorized immigrants granted legal residence under the 1985 Immigration Reform and Control Act
- Immigrants admitted under any of categories 1-4 who have become naturalized U.S. citizens
- Individuals admitted as lawful temporary residents under specific visa categories
Read the Methodology section of our November 2018 report on unauthorized immigrants for more details.
Pew Research Center’s estimate of unauthorized immigrants includes more than 2 million immigrants who have temporary permission to be in the United States. (Some also have permission to work in the country.) These immigrants account for about 20% of our national estimate of 10.5 million unauthorized immigrants for 2021.
Although these immigrants have permission to be in the country, they could be subject to deportation if government policy changes. Other organizations and the federal government also include these immigrants in their estimates of the U.S. unauthorized immigrant population.
Immigrants can receive temporary permission to be in the U.S. through the following ways:
Temporary Protected Status (TPS)
In 2021, there were about 500,000 unauthorized immigrants with Temporary Protected Status . This status provides protection from removal or deportation to individuals who cannot safely return to their country because of civil unrest, violence or natural disaster.
Deferred Enforced Departure (DED) is a similar program that grants protection from removal. The number of immigrants with DED is much smaller than the number with TPS.
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA)
Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals is a program that offers protection from deportation to individuals who were brought to the U.S. as children before June 15, 2007. As of the end of 2021, there were slightly more than 600,000 DACA beneficiaries , largely immigrants from Mexico.
Individuals who have applied for asylum but are awaiting a ruling are not legal residents yet but cannot be deported. There are two types of asylum claims, defensive and affirmative .
Defensive asylum applications are generally filed by individuals facing deportation or removal from the U.S. These are processed by the Department of Justice’s Executive Office for Immigration Review. At the end of 2021, there were almost 600,000 applications pending.
Affirmative asylum claims are made by individuals already in the U.S. who are not in the process of being deported or removed. These claims are handled by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security’s Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). At the end of 2021, more than 400,000 applications for affirmative asylum were pending, some covering more than one applicant.
Here are key findings about how the U.S. unauthorized immigrant population changed from 2017 to 2021:
- The most common country of birth for unauthorized immigrants is Mexico. However, the population of unauthorized immigrants from Mexico dropped by 900,000 from 2017 to 2021 , to 4.1 million.
- There were increases in unauthorized immigrants from nearly every other region of the world – Central America, the Caribbean, South America, Asia, Europe and sub-Saharan Africa.
- Among U.S. states, only Florida and Washington saw increases to their unauthorized immigrant populations , while California and Nevada saw decreases. In all other states, unauthorized immigrant populations were unchanged.
- 4.6% of U.S. workers in 2021 were unauthorized immigrants , virtually identical to the share in 2017.
Trends in the U.S. immigrant population
The U.S. foreign-born population was 14.1% of the nation’s population in 2021. That was very slightly higher than in the last five years but below the record high of 14.8% in 1890.
As of 2021, the nation’s 10.5 million unauthorized immigrants represented about 3% of the total U.S. population and 22% of the foreign-born population. These shares were among the lowest since the 1990s.
Between 2007 and 2021, the unauthorized immigrant population decreased by 1.75 million, or 14%.
Meanwhile, the lawful immigrant population grew by more than 8 million, a 29% increase, and the number of naturalized U.S. citizens grew by 49%. In 2021, naturalized citizens accounted for about half (49%) of all immigrants in the country.
Where unauthorized immigrants come from
Unauthorized immigrants living in the U.S. come from many parts of the world, with Mexico being the most common origin country.
The origin countries for unauthorized immigrants have changed since the population peaked in 2007, before the Great Recession slowed immigration. Here are some highlights of those changes:
The number of unauthorized immigrants from Mexico living in the U.S. (4.1 million in 2021) was the lowest since the 1990s. Mexico accounted for 39% of the nation’s unauthorized immigrants in 2021, by far the smallest share on record .
The decrease in unauthorized immigrants from Mexico reflects several factors:
- A broader decline in migration from Mexico to the U.S.
- Mexican immigrants to the U.S. continuing to return to Mexico
- Expanded opportunities for lawful immigration from Mexico and other countries, especially for temporary agricultural workers.
The rest of the world
The total number of unauthorized immigrants in the U.S. from countries other than Mexico has grown rapidly. In 2021, this population was 6.4 million, up by 900,000 from 2017.
Almost every region in the world had a notable increase in the number of unauthorized immigrants in the U.S. from 2007 to 2021. The largest increases were from Central America (240,000) and South and East Asia (180,000).
After Mexico, the countries of origin with the largest unauthorized immigrant populations in the U.S. in 2021 were:
- El Salvador (800,000)
- India (725,000)
- Guatemala (700,000)
- Honduras (525,000)
India, Guatemala and Honduras all saw increases from 2017.
The Northern Triangle
Three Central American countries – El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala – together represented 2.0 million unauthorized immigrants in the U.S. in 2021, or almost 20% of the total. The unauthorized immigrant population from the Northern Triangle grew by about 250,000 from 2017 and about 700,000 from 2007.
Other origin countries
Venezuela was the country of birth for 190,000 U.S. unauthorized immigrants in 2021. This population saw particularly fast growth, from 130,000 in 2017 and 55,000 in 2007.
Among countries with the largest numbers of U.S. unauthorized immigrants, India, Brazil, Canada and former Soviet Union countries all experienced growth from 2017 to 2021.
Some origin countries with significant unauthorized immigrant populations showed no change, notably China (375,000) and the Dominican Republic (230,000).
Detailed table: Unauthorized immigrant population by region and selected country of birth (and margins of error), 1990-2021 (Excel)
U.S. states of residence of unauthorized immigrants
The unauthorized immigrant population in most U.S. states stayed steady from 2017 to 2021. However, four states saw significant changes:
- Florida (+80,000)
- Washington (+60,000)
- California (-150,000)
- Nevada (-25,000)
States with the most unauthorized immigrants
The six states with the largest unauthorized immigrant populations in 2021 were:
- California (1.9 million)
- Texas (1.6 million)
- Florida (900,000)
- New York (600,000)
- New Jersey (450,000)
- Illinois (400,000)
These states have consistently had the most unauthorized immigrants since 1990 and earlier .
At the same time, the unauthorized immigrant population has become less geographically concentrated. In 2021, these six states were home to 56% of the nation’s unauthorized immigrants, down from 80% in 1990.
Detailed table: Unauthorized immigrant population for states (and margins of error), 1990-2021 (Excel)
Detailed table: Unauthorized immigrants and characteristics for states, 2021 (Excel)
Unauthorized immigrants in the labor force
The share of unauthorized immigrants in the U.S. workforce was slightly less than 5% in 2021, compared with 3% of the total U.S. population.
Demographics help explain the difference: The unauthorized immigrant population includes relatively few children or elderly adults, groups that tend not to be in the labor force.
Overall, about 7.8 million unauthorized immigrants were in the U.S. labor force in 2021. That was up slightly from 2019 but smaller than every year from 2007 through 2015.
Detailed table: Unauthorized immigrants in the labor force for states, 2021 (Excel)
Here are some additional findings about unauthorized immigrants as a share of the workforce nationwide and in certain states:
- Since 2003, unauthorized immigrants have made up 4.4% to 5.4% of all U.S. workers, a relatively narrow range.
- Fewer than 1% of workers in Maine, Montana, Vermont and West Virginia in 2021 were unauthorized immigrants.
- Nevada (9%) and Texas (8%) had the highest shares of unauthorized immigrants in the workforce.
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Key facts about the changing U.S. unauthorized immigrant population
Americans broadly support legal status for immigrants brought to the u.s. illegally as children, path to legal status for the unauthorized is top immigration policy goal for hispanics in u.s., 5 facts about unauthorized immigration in europe, how european and u.s. unauthorized immigrant populations compare, most popular.
About Pew Research Center Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan fact tank that informs the public about the issues, attitudes and trends shaping the world. It conducts public opinion polling, demographic research, media content analysis and other empirical social science research. Pew Research Center does not take policy positions. It is a subsidiary of The Pew Charitable Trusts .
November 26, 2023
This article has been reviewed according to Science X's editorial process and policies . Editors have highlighted the following attributes while ensuring the content's credibility:
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