Stan A. Kuczaj III
Susan A. Siltanen
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The Effect of Human–Horse Interactions on Equine Behaviour, Physiology, and Welfare: A Scoping Review
Katherine jennifer kelly.
1 Interdisciplinary Studies, University of New Brunswick Saint John, Saint John, NB E2K 5E2, Canada; [email protected]
Laurie Anne McDuffee
2 Health Management, Atlantic Veterinary College, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada
3 Data and Research Services, Robertson Library, University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown, PE C1A 4P3, Canada; ac.iepu@sraemk
Human–horse interactions (HHIs) are an important aspect of society, especially in the equine industry. HHIs are diverse and can be focused on horses as an economic means, pleasure, or companionship for humans. As a result, the welfare of horses during these interactions, including their mental and physical health, is an important consideration. Although the physical health of horses can be readily measured during equestrian activities, their mental health is more difficult to assess. This review was conducted to evaluate what is known about the horse’s mental state during common HHI in an attempt to better understand the welfare of the horse.
Human–horse interactions (HHIs) are diverse and prominent in the equine industry. Stakeholders have an invested interest in making sure that HHIs are humane. Assessment of equine welfare goes beyond physical health and includes assessment of the emotional state of the animal. HHIs can have a permanent effect on human–horse relationships, thereby influencing welfare. Therefore, an understanding of the horse’s affective state during HHIs is necessary. A scoping review was conducted to: (1) map current practices related to the measurement of HHIs; (2) explore the known effects of HHIs on horse behaviour and physiology; and (3) clarify the connection between HHIs and equine welfare. A total of 45 articles were included in this review. Studies that used both physiological and behavioural measures of equine response to human interactions accounted for 42% of the included studies. A further 31% exclusively used physiological measures and 27% used behavioural observation. Current evidence of equine welfare during HHIs is minimal and largely based on the absence of a negative affective state during imposed interactions. Broadening the scope of methods to evaluate a positive affective state and standardization of methodology to assess these states would improve the overall understanding of the horse’s welfare during HHIs.
Horses were domesticated around 4000 B.C. and have long been valued for their important contributions towards human survival, development, and recreation [ 1 ]. Understanding the complex relationship between horses and humans has significant implications for safety, for both horse and human [ 2 , 3 , 4 ], as well as horse welfare [ 5 , 6 ].
The relationship between humans and animals is considered to be an evolving process, defined as a mutual perception that develops from mutual behaviour [ 7 ]. The relationship is developed from ongoing interactions which may have a positive or negative cumulative effect. The human–horse relationship, more specifically, is posited to benefit both species when developed through positive interactions and consistency [ 5 , 8 ]. There are many studies suggesting the benefit of human–horse interactions (HHIs) for humans, especially in regard to equine-assisted therapies (for reviews, please consult [ 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 ]); however, little is known about the effect of these interactions on the horses [ 6 , 14 ]. The lack of developmental standardization regarding the potential effect of therapy and other HHIs on animal welfare poses potential risks to both animals and humans [ 15 ].
In a systematic review on equine-assisted activities, O’Haire et al. [ 14 ] noted that no outcomes related to animal welfare were reported in identified primary studies. However, investigators argue that animal welfare is crucial to successful and ethical outcomes from human–animal interactions. As a result, the potential effect that these HHIs may have on equine welfare is unclear. This need for focused investigation on animal welfare relative to HHIs has been emphasized in the Five Domain Model [ 16 ]. This framework describes five critical areas relevant to animal welfare assessment and management: nutrition, environment, health, behaviour, and mental state.
While assessment of many aspects of animal welfare can be straightforward, assessment of an animal’s mental state is more challenging. Because horses have been domesticated and can be readily trained and habituated to withstand aversive stimuli presented during HHIs [ 17 ], behaviour alone may not be an appropriate measure of mental state. Physiological measures obtained during HHIs can help to ascertain a horse’s mental state. Horses have been historically considered farm animals where they were used as working equids. HHIs have evolved to include horses as sport animals, companions, and more recently as therapy animals. The mental state of horses may be a particularly important consideration in horses used for therapeutic interventions with humans having mental health issues such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) [ 10 ] since entrainment theory is considered to occur during such HHIs [ 18 ]. Entrainment theory describes a process of mirroring in the interaction between independent mechanisms [ 19 ], such as between the physiology of the horse and human during therapy sessions. In other words, entrainment suggests that the functioning of a human’s psychophysiology may have an effect on the health of the animal. For example, it has been suggested that the emotional state of humans may have an impact on interactions between humans and horses [ 18 , 20 ], which may have implications for animal welfare [ 21 ]. A review of HHIs in various environments where horses are considered in these various roles and what they might reveal about the welfare of the horse is therefore warranted.
The human–horse relationship is well documented in the literature by three major reviews [ 5 , 18 , 22 ]. Hausberger et al. [ 5 ] explored the state of knowledge related to the interplay of several aspects of HHIs within a variety of equine related experiences and environments. This review highlighted the relevance of human management and care on equine interactions as a means to improve the human–horse relationship. Specifically, researchers emphasized the importance of positive interactions as a means to improve future interactions and improve human safety and equine welfare. In a more recent review, Clough et al. [ 22 ] focused on the nature of the human–horse relationship in horses used specifically for pleasure riding. Despite the extensive breadth of these two reviews, it remains largely unclear how interactions with humans affect the horse. Finally, Scopa et al. [ 18 ] highlighted the mechanisms that lead HHIs to become a relationship and the role of emotional transfer between the horse and human in the development of this bond. A clear understanding of HHIs and their effect on the horse perspective of humans has significant implications for equine welfare. The interconnection between equine learning, motivation, and stress mechanisms during interactions with humans are integral to horse welfare and management [ 23 ].
This paper aims to review current practice related to the measurement of HHIs and explore the known effects of these interactions on equine physiology and welfare. Previous research has suggested that a variety of tools are used to assess HHIs [ 5 ]. This study aims to systematically detail how the effects of these interactions are measured in the equine partner, the known effects of HHIs, and explore how HHIs affect the welfare of the horse.
2. Methods and Materials
A scoping review was chosen to better understand the state of the literature on HHIs and its effect on the equine partner. Scoping reviews use structured methods for summarizing knowledge on a topic [ 24 ], particularly in topics that consist of diverse methods and disciplines [ 25 ]. Unlike other types of structured reviews, such as systematic reviews, scoping reviews allow for heterogeneity in methodological scope to identify gaps in knowledge areas [ 26 ].
The process for the current review was guided by Khalil et al.’s [ 27 ] evidence-based approach to conducting scoping reviews, using a methodology based on frameworks proposed by Arksey and O’Malley [ 28 ]; Levac, Colquhoun, and O’Brien [ 24 ]; and the Joanna Briggs Institute [ 29 ]. The development of the methodology consisted of the following five steps: (1) identify the research question(s); (2) identify relevant studies using a three-step literature search; (3) select studies using a team approach; (4) chart the data in tabular and narrative format; and (5) collate the results to identify implications for practice and research. This process, as it pertains to the current review, is described in the following five sections.
2.1. Identify the Research Question(s)
The current scoping review aimed to: (1) map current practice related to the measurement of HHIs; (2) explore the known effects of these interactions on equine behaviour and physiology; and (3) clarify the connection between HHIs and equine welfare. The following broad research questions were used to guide the present scoping review:
- How are the effects of HHIs measured in the horse?
- What are the known effects of HHIs on equine physiology?
- How do HHIs affect the welfare of the horse?
This is the first review, to the authors’ knowledge, that has attempted to summarize the effect of HHIs specifically on equine physiology and welfare. However, the nature of the HHIs and human–horse relationship is well documented in previous reviews [ 5 , 22 ].
2.2. Identify Relevant Studies Using a Three-Step Literature Search
A comprehensive three-step search strategy was developed by an experienced research librarian (KM) in consultation with the research team. The first step of the search strategy consisted of a search of two databases (PsycInfo and CAB Direct via EBSCOhost) to identify titles and abstracts of studies that examined the human–horse bond. The text words used in identified articles at this preliminary stage (e.g., in titles, abstracts, and keywords) were examined and used to identify additional keywords, subject headings, descriptors and related search terms. The second stage of the search strategy involved using the identified keywords to conduct a more comprehensive search of the literature. Searches for relevant articles were completed on 13 August 2019 in three electronic databases: PubMed, CAB Abstracts via the EBSCO host platform, and PsycInfo via the EBSCOhost platform. Updated searches in these same databases took place in September 2020 and June 2021. The syntax for the search strategy in each database is outlined in Table S1 .
The third step of the search strategy included a search for scientific evidence published in sources other than journals, such as peer-reviewed textbooks and publications from other sources, and evidence-based consensus expert opinion statements. The search consisted of a broad search on Google and several veterinary medicine and general databases (e.g., Open Grey) using the following keywords: “human horse bond” or “human horse relationship” or “human horse interaction”. A full list of the grey literature databases and corresponding keyword searches are available in Table S2 . Sources were screened in Google according to titles until the point of saturation (i.e., after 2 pages passed in which a link was not opened).
2.3. Selection of Studies Using a Team Approach
Citations from articles identified by the keyword searches were exported from their respective databases and imported into Rayyan QCRI, a free systematic review software that facilitates the organization and screening of articles [ 30 ].
2.3.1. Eligibility Criteria
A priori inclusion and exclusion criteria were established by the research team to guide the identification of relevant articles (see Table 1 . In accordance with the research questions, articles were only included in the current review if their primary focus involved HHIs. This “bond” has also been referred to as an interaction [ 31 ], dyad [ 32 ], and relationship [ 5 ] in the literature. Articles were required to refer directly to the human–horse interaction/bond/dyad/relationship as a main focus to be considered for inclusion in the present review and specifically examine the effect of those interactions in the horse. Therefore, articles that exclusively examined the effect of the HHIs in humans (e.g., equine-assisted therapy) were not included. Studies were included in this study if the primary objective related to the measurement or description of encounters between horses and humans. Studies that investigated the effect of an intervention whereby the presence of the human is not considered (e.g., responses to object-based novel stimuli) were not included in the present review.
Inclusion and exclusion criteria.
Articles were excluded if they did not focus specifically on the equine species (e.g., canine–human bond, etc). Articles were included if they reported primary research findings (i.e., reviews and editorials were not included) and were available as a full text in English. Finally, articles that focused on horses in developing countries, according to the United Nations’ Human Development Index (HDI) reports, were not included [ 33 ].
2.3.2. Study Selection
Articles identified in the keyword searches underwent a careful process of selection to be included in the current scoping review. The selection of articles consisted of a screening of titles and abstracts, followed by a more in-depth screening of full-text articles. Duplicate articles were identified and removed by the lead author (KK). Two reviewers (KK and a research assistant) independently conducted the first level of title and abstract screening against the established eligibility criteria. A calibration test on 50 titles and abstracts was conducted to evaluate reviewer agreement in the screening process; this resulted in a kappa statistic of 0.716 (SE = 0.100, 86.79% agreement; measure of inter-rater agreement), which was considered sufficient for further independent screening [ 34 ]. Reviewers met to discuss any discrepancies, and a third reviewer (LM) resolved any outstanding conflicts.
The second stage of study selection consisted of the retrieval of full-text articles for included titles and abstracts, which were imported into Rayyan QCRI for further evaluation and data extraction. The same two reviewers independently screened full-text articles using the same process as the one described above.
2.4. Chart the Data
The two reviewers (KK and a research assistant) independently charted (i.e., extracted) data using a data extraction form developed by the research team using Google Drive ( Table 2 ). We created columns and rows to describe the papers and their features, and piloted our spreadsheet for data extraction. Variables included: (1) information about the study; (2) methodological process; (3) description of HHIs; and (4) key findings of study. Inconsistencies in data extraction were reviewed and discussed among the members of the research team using an iterative process. Only findings related to the research questions were extracted for the purposes of this study; results that focused on the effect of HHIs on human participants were not considered.
Data extraction form.
2.5. Collate the Results
Through this scoping review, we aim to clarify any effects of HHIs on the physiology and welfare of the horse, including approaches to its measurement. Therefore, the results will be analyzed and presented in a narrative format, which will involve a qualitative thematic analysis of the results to illustrate key findings and themes. Thematic analysis is a flexible process of identifying, analyzing, and reporting patterns within a data set, providing a detailed and in-depth description of qualitative data [ 35 ]. Data analysis was completed by reading through studies, and then taking notes on first impressions. A second reading of the studies involved extracting information into a form (see Table 2 ) and creating sub-themes. Sub-themes were developed into major themes, as appropriate (see Table S3 ). Resulting themes provide an interpretation and synthesis of findings beyond the boundaries of individual studies to provide clarity on the effects of HHIs on the horse.
3.1. Selection of Included Articles
A total of 348 articles was identified by the keyword searches across three databases (PsychInfo, CAB Abstracts, and PubMed). Specifically, 245 were identified in July 2019, 58 in September 2020, and 45 in June 2021. A further 28,866 sources were identified through a structured search of other literature, including Google and various veterinary medicine sources. After removal of duplicates, 275 academic articles underwent title and abstract screening, from which 193 were excluded. This resulted in 96 academic articles that underwent full-text screening, from which another 52 were excluded. A total of 19 potentially relevant sources were identified in the other literature search; 9 underwent full text evaluation, from which 8 were excluded. The reason that only 19 sources were evaluated from thousands identified is because the lack of advanced search tools in the other literature databases meant that many identified sources were not relevant. Detailed results from each of the other literature databases used in this study can be viewed in Table S2 . The search strategy resulted in a total of 45 articles included in the current scoping review. Extracted data from articles are available in Table S4 . A Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) flow chart outlines the search results according to each stage of the decision process in Figure 1 [ 36 ].
PRISMA flow chart [ 36 ].
3.2. Article Characteristics
3.2.1. study populations.
Studies varied in the reporting of equine participants. A total of 1934 horses were used across all 45 studies, with a mean of 44 and median of 20, ranging from 3 to 339. One study, which observed three herds of undomesticated horses [ 37 ], did not report the number of equine participants.
A total of 23 studies (51.1%) reported the breed of horses used in studies. Reported breeds were described as follows: various breeds (6); Dutch warmblood horses (2); standardbred (2); thoroughbred (2); Anglo-Arabian (1); Anglo-Arabs and Welsh ponies (1); Konik polski horses (1); Hanoverian Riding Horses (1); Małopolski horses (1); multiple (Swedish warm-blood horses, Andalusian) (1); ponies and a horse (1); ponies of unregistered mixed breed (1); Welsh mares (1); and working horses (1).
A total of 16 studies reported the age of equine participants. A total of 3 studies categorized horses as foals and a further 9 reported horses as adults. Specific ages were reported in 10 of the 16 studies: 16 to 18 months (1); 5 to 13 years old (1); 2 to 24 years old (1); 6 to 13 years old (1); 8 to 20 years old (1); 22 years old; and 4 to 28 years old, with 2 studies reporting averages (i.e., means) of 7.4 years old (SD = 3.4); 14 years old (SD = 6.98); and 17.3 years old (SD = 5.7). A total of 16 studies reported on the sex of equine participants, described as follows: geldings and mares (7); geldings (2); geldings, mares, and stallions (2); colts and fillies (2); broodmares and stallions (1); females and geldings (1); and females and males (1).
3.2.2. Nature of HHIs
Horses interacted with humans in a variety of ways in the included studies. Handling was observed in 21 studies (46.6%), followed by riding in 11 studies (24.4%). A total of 4 studies described an interaction that did not involve physical contact between horses and humans (e.g., observation of behaviour in proximity to a human). Another 4 studies examined a combination of riding and handling interactions. A total of 3 studies investigated handling and grooming, 1 focused on riding, and 1 on training, exclusively.
3.2.3. Publication Years of Papers
All 45 papers in the current review were published between the years 2002 and 2021. The greatest number of papers were published in 2018 (n = 8), followed by 5 each in 2017 and 2020. Only 1 paper was published before the year 2008.
Included papers were published across a range of journals in veterinary health and medicine. Over a third (35.5%, n = 16) of papers were published in Applied Animal Behaviour Science and 5 papers were published by Animals , followed by three papers in Physiology & Behavior . A total of 2 papers each were published by the following seven journals: Animal Cognition; Animal Science Journal; Behavioural Processes; Bulletin of University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine; Frontiers in Veterinary Science ; Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science; Society & Animals; and The Veterinary Journal . Finally, 1 paper was published in each of the following seven journals: Applied Animal Science; Anthrozoos; Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute; Early Child Development and Care; Journal of Equine Veterinary Science; Journal of Veterinary Behavior; and Journal of Veterinary Research.
3.2.4. Description of Studies
Both physiological and behavioural measures of horse response to human interactions were reported in 42.2% (n = 19) of studies; a further 31.1% (n = 14) exclusively used physiological measures and 26.6% (n = 12) used qualitative measures (i.e., behavioural observation). Only six papers described studies that included a control group or condition [ 38 , 39 , 40 , 41 , 42 , 43 ].
3.2.5. Country of Study
All 45 papers were published in English and available in full-text, though were conducted across 11 different countries. A total of 8 studies were conducted in France, followed by 6 each in Italy and Poland, 5 in Canada, and 4 in the United Kingdom. A total of 3 studies were conducted in the Netherlands and Sweden, and 2 in Japan, Romania, and the United States. Finally, 1 study was conducted in each of the following four countries: Australia, Germany, New Zealand, and Thailand.
3.3. Measurement of HHIs in the Horse
3.3.1. physiological measures.
Approximately three quarters of the studies in the present review used physiological measurements to explore the effect of the HHIs. Heart rate (HR) data was obtained in 27 studies [ 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 , 51 , 52 , 53 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 57 , 58 ]. Of these studies, 23 used the Polar HR monitor on horses alone, while 2 studies used the Polar HR monitor on horses and humans [ 38 , 45 ]. A total of 2 studies used a portable electrocardiogram (ECG) for collecting HR data [ 51 , 59 ] from horses. Of studies that collected HR data, 11 reported HR alone [ 37 , 38 , 40 , 42 , 44 , 45 , 49 , 50 , 54 , 55 , 56 , 60 ] and 9 reported HR and heart rate variability (HRV) measures [ 39 , 43 , 47 , 48 , 52 , 53 , 57 , 58 , 59 , 61 , 62 , 63 , 64 ].
Cortisol data was obtained in 9 studies [ 41 , 43 , 51 , 61 , 63 , 64 , 65 , 66 , 67 ]. A total of 4 studies collected blood samples [ 41 , 51 , 61 , 65 ] and 5 collected saliva samples [ 43 , 63 , 64 , 66 , 67 ] for measurements of cortisol concentrations. Finally, 3 studies collected other measurements including eye temperature [ 46 , 57 ], core temperature [ 45 ], plasma lactate concentrations [ 65 , 68 ], plasma β endorphin [ 65 ], adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) concentrations [ 61 , 65 ], and muscle tone [ 66 ].
3.3.2. Behavioural Measures
Two thirds of the studies in this review used behavioural observation measures to explore the effect of human interactions on the horse. Observations of equine behaviour consisted of direct observation in 19 studies (42.2%) [ 42 , 44 , 47 , 49 , 52 , 53 , 56 , 60 , 61 , 69 , 70 , 71 , 72 , 73 , 74 , 75 , 76 , 77 , 78 ], and remaining studies (n = 12) used video analysis [ 38 , 39 , 40 , 48 , 50 , 62 , 63 , 64 , 68 , 79 , 80 , 81 ].
Likert scales were used to describe equine behaviour in eight studies [ 40 , 47 , 48 , 49 , 64 , 68 , 76 , 79 ]. A total of 2 studies adapted scales described in the literature [ 47 , 68 ]. Only 1 study [ 76 ] developed a qualitative behaviour rating scale that originally consisted of 36 qualitative expressions and were narrowed down to 13 descriptions of horse behaviour by focus groups with horse professionals. Similarly, Minero et al. [ 76 ] used qualitative behavioural assessment with veterinarian observers to investigate the response of foals to unfamiliar humans. Development of descriptors for likert ratings was also described in Birke and Hockenhull [ 45 ]’s study on pairings with familiar and unfamiliar humans. External observers were asked to view video recordings of human–horse dyads and describe interactions in their own words. Transcripts were used to develop a word map, from which researchers used the four most frequent words (tension, cooperativeness, trust, and attention) to generate likert scales for a second panel of observers. Only 1 study used a self-reported survey, completed by horse owners, to understand HHIs [ 73 ].
Ethograms were explicitly described in 9 studies [ 38 , 39 , 42 , 48 , 50 , 52 , 53 , 58 , 61 , 72 , 75 ]. Blokhuis et al. [ 38 ] used an ethogram of observational behaviours related to horse discomfort, such as head-toss and rear, in connection to the position of the rider’s seat. Similarly, Mendonca [ 52 ] developed an ethogram to measure horses’ emotional state, consisting of the physical movements of horses (i.e., ears pinned, lateral head movement), vocal expressions (i.e., snorts), and defecation. Finally, Thorbergson et al. [ 42 ] developed a list of 32 horse behaviours that were separated into three groups (agitated, relaxed, and ambiguous) based on previous research. Coding of equine behaviour was described in other studies, often created for the purpose of the study [ 44 , 63 ]. Standardized behavioural tests were used in many of the studies in the current review. In many cases, these tests (e.g., motionless person test) were adapted to each individual study (e.g., [ 59 , 62 , 69 , 70 , 71 , 74 ]). For more information on the standardized tests used in studies, see 4.4.1 below.
3.4. Findings from Thematic Analysis
The thematic analysis is presented in an Excel spreadsheet in Table S3 . All 39 papers were classified into six major themes:
- Standardized Behavioural Tests
- Incongruent Behavioural and Physiological Responses
- Horse Emotional State and Response
- Background and Experiences of Human Participants
- Human–Horse Relationship and the “Buffering” Effect
- Equine Welfare
3.4.1. Theme 1: Standardized Behavioural Tests
Repetition of HHI tests were observed across many studies in the current review. The voluntary animal approach test was used in three studies [ 69 , 70 , 71 ]. In this test, the latency time in seconds for a horse to approach a human who is standing still outside of its box is recorded. Similarly, the motionless person test assesses whether a horse approaches either a familiar or unfamiliar human who is standing still at a distance from the horse. The motionless person test was used in six studies [ 49 , 50 , 54 , 62 , 74 , 80 ]; two of these studies tested the effect of both familiar and unfamiliar humans [ 49 , 50 ].
The forced animal approach test was used in eight studies [ 49 , 50 , 69 , 70 , 71 , 74 , 76 , 77 ]; this test examined horse response to a human that approaches the horses. Similarly, the avoidance tests, which assesses the proximity that a human can reach to an equine before the animal moves away, was used in four studies [ 59 , 69 , 70 , 76 ]. Finally, the novel object tests, which assesses equine response to an unfamiliar or new object, was used in two studies [ 49 , 56 ].
3.4.2. Theme 2: Incongruent Behavioural and Physiological Responses
Inconsistency between measures of equine behaviour and physiological response was noted in three studies [ 47 , 48 , 57 ]. Janczarek et al. [ 47 ] exposed horses to human physical contact over a six day period, where contact consisted of stroking different body regions (head, neck, trunk, front limbs, and hind limbs). Strokes were associated with greater excitability, as identified by increases in HR and HRV (r = 0.53, p < 0.05 during head strokes); however, behavioural changes (observations based on a scale of horse attitude), were not noted in relation to this physical contact. Stroking different regions of the horses’ bodies led to different physiological responses, depending on individual preferences.
In contrast to these findings, Konig von Borstel et al. [ 48 ], observed that human interaction with horses (i.e., riding and leading) had a stronger effect on behavioural change, specifically reactivity and emotionality, than on HR and HRV. Finally, when horses were ridden through novel obstacles, Squibb et al. [ 57 ] noticed that physiological indicators of stress (i.e., heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), and eye temperature) were not associated with compliance. The researchers suggest that horses’ observable behaviour did not appear to reflect their psychological and physiological response to stress.
3.4.3. Theme 3: Horse Emotional State and Response
The relationship between horses and humans and its effect on horse emotional regulation was a focus of multiple studies in this review [ 39 , 55 , 58 , 69 , 70 ]. Studies varied widely in their approach to measuring the emotional state of horses. While HR [ 49 , 50 , 54 ] and HRV [ 47 , 48 , 59 ] were used to measure emotional reactivity, most studies used both physiological and behavioural measures [ 47 , 48 , 49 , 50 ]. Only three studies [ 72 , 73 , 78 ] examined behavioural measures alone; specifically, whether frequency of snorts [ 78 ], horse muscle tension and posture [ 73 ], and other observable behaviours [ 72 ] correlated to the horses’ emotional state.
Although HR and HRV were often used to determine horse emotional reactivity [ 54 ], the validity and reliability of physiological measures for reactivity was contested by one study [ 50 ]. Lansade and Bouissou [ 50 ] observed that HR did not correlate with previously supported behavioural indicators of reactivity and was not reliable over time; the researchers argue that HR is too sensitive and non-specific due to external influences beyond the experimenter’s control (e.g., noises or visual stimuli).
The connection between physical touch of the horse and emotional reactivity was examined in three studies [ 47 , 49 , 59 ]. Janczarek et al. [ 47 ] observed that stroking was associated with greater excitability in horses, as identified by an increase in HR and HRV. Stroking different bodily regions led to different physiological responses, which researchers believe correspond to individual horses’ preferences; this finding was also observed by Kozak et al. [ 49 ]. Similarly, grooming led to lower HRV in Scopa et al. [ 59 ].
A sub-theme related to components of horse temperament was observed in three studies [ 48 , 49 , 50 ]. Kozak et al. [ 49 ] noted that emotional reactivity appears to be a trait consisting of multiple variables rather than one indicator of horse temperament. Fear reactivity to interaction with humans was found to be a key and stable component of horse temperament in one study [ 48 ], and a potentially stable “reactivity-to-humans” trait was observed in another [ 50 ].
Equine stress as a measure of reactivity to humans represented another sub-theme related to horse emotional state and regulation. Similar to studies examining emotional reactivity, most studies attributed change in physiological measures to observations of stress in the equine. These measures included HR and/or HRV [ 40 , 42 , 44 , 57 , 61 , 62 ], cortisol levels [ 41 , 65 ], and core eye temperature [ 57 ]. Familiarity with humans was shown in some studies to influence the stress response in horses [ 44 ]; specifically, horses demonstrated lower stress responses to familiar than to unfamiliar humans [ 59 ]. However, this was not substantiated in all studies [ 75 ].
3.4.4. Theme 4: Background and Experiences of Human Participants
The majority of studies described adult human participants; however, eight papers described studies with more specific human populations. Children and youth were used in five studies [ 44 , 61 , 65 , 66 , 67 ], four of which included children with complex health care needs [ 61 , 65 , 66 , 67 ], and one with at-risk adolescents [ 44 ]. One study [ 51 ] described veterans diagnosed with post traumatic stress disorder, and another [ 40 ] examined the influence of patients with psychological and physical challenges.
The humans used in studies had various levels of experience with horses. Twelve studies used experienced handlers [ 46 , 58 , 59 , 60 , 72 , 79 , 81 ], riders [ 38 , 45 , 68 , 78 ] and/or trainers [ 55 ]. Five studies used novices, specifically children and adolescents [ 44 , 61 , 65 , 66 , 67 ]. Three studies examined the influence of humans with a variety of experience with horses [ 41 , 53 , 54 ]. Approximately half of the included studies (n = 25, 55.5%) did not provide a description of the experience level of human participants.
3.4.5. Theme 5: Human–Horse Relationship and the “Buffering” Effect
Many studies in the current review referred to the potential of a “buffering” effect where the presence of a human was observed to result in diminished horse reactivity [ 58 ] and facilitated habituation [ 82 ]. In studies where detailed observations and descriptions of the relationship between horses and humans was provided, horses paired with familiar humans were observed to have a strong human–horse relationships evidenced by working together in a coordinated manner [ 79 ]. Conversely, unfamiliar humans led to detrimental observations of behavioural measures [ 79 ] of the human–horse bond.
Studies using objective behavioral and physiological measures to evaluate the effect of humans on horses during HHIs also suggest a “buffering” effect [ 46 , 58 ] when humans were present, but this was not dependent on the human being familiar to the horse. Similarly, Hartman et al. [ 60 ] did not observe a change in equine behaviour, specifically ease of handling, as a function of handler familiarity.
The perception of humans in general [ 70 ] and exposure over time [ 56 , 62 ] also appears to play a key role in the development of the human–horse relationship. In a study examining interactions between at-risk adolescents and horses in a therapy setting, Arrazol and Merkies [ 44 ] noted that human emotional and mental difficulties appeared to influence the horses’ perception of humans; however, over time, horses demonstrated improved social bonds to humans, suggesting that familiarity and exposure plays a key role in developing a strong human–horse bond [ 63 , 70 ]. Similarly, Visser et al. [ 58 ] noted an increase in heart rate and decrease in heart rate variability, which was more pronounced in untrained horses, suggesting a buffering of emotional reactivity when horses had previous experience with a handler/human.
Training experience may also have an important influence on the human–horse relationship, as observed in two studies [ 55 , 71 ]. Negative reinforcement [ 55 ] and traditional handling exercises, as opposed to natural horsemanship [ 71 ], were specifically found to negatively impact the human–horse relationship. These experiences, which resulted in a poor bond with humans, has led to concerns regarding safety and handling [ 76 ]. The generalizability of these findings, however, is not clear. In a study investigating the impact of stressful physical contact (i.e., grooming and handling) on the human–horse bond, Gorecka-Bruzda et al. [ 62 ] did not observe an impact on the human–horse bond if these experiences took place during the pre-weaning stage.
Some studies have shown the possibility that the presence of a human can moderate the horse’s emotional response to various stimuli. Munsters et al. [ 68 ] observed a decrease in the heart rate of horses used for police riot work, to which they attributed to mean that the rider was able to mitigate the horses’ fear response. The importance of a good horse-rider match in reducing stress in ridden horses has also been demonstrated [ 53 ]. Furthermore, a behavioural observation of horses that were ridden and led showed that leading resulted in lower behavioural reactions, which was interpreted to mean that a handler on the ground may have a stronger influence on horses’ behaviour than when mounted [ 46 ].
3.4.6. Theme 6: Equine Welfare
The welfare of horses was the focal point of many studies in the current review. The effect of therapeutic sessions on equine participants was examined in four studies where welfare was assessed through stress levels [ 51 , 61 , 65 , 66 ]. Three of these studies [ 51 , 61 , 66 ] did not observe changes in cortisol concentration or HR in horses used for therapy sessions, suggesting that therapy may not be a stressful event for horses. One study [ 65 ] noted a higher stress response, as indicated by cortisol levels, in horses ridden by children with psycho-motor disabilities than healthy children. One explanation for these findings is that the training horses receive to become therapy horses may impact horse perception and emotional regulation, in effect influencing behavioural and physiological responses to stimuli [ 52 ]. Modifying horse perception to novel stimuli and regulating the behavioural and physiological response may require repeated exposure to a new environment, such as the therapeutic setting [ 44 ]. However, exposing horses to environments beyond the scope of their specific training, which may induce fear or require aggressive training techniques during exposure, should be avoided as this may have negative consequences for their overall welfare [ 52 , 68 ].
Handling techniques used by humans in other types of human horse interactions were identified as an important component of equine welfare. Costa et al. [ 69 ] noted through direct observations of horse behaviour that horses cared for in a “sub-optimal” environment demonstrated adverse behaviours (e.g., avoidance and aggression) towards all humans. Poor treatment by humans was also associated with unwanted behaviours in other studies [ 77 ]; for example, poor handling is associated with horse behaviours, including fear of humans as a function of greater arousal and aggressive behaviours (rτ = 0.6, p < 0.05). [ 76 ]. Moreover, positive versus negative reinforcement is associated with horse emotional reactivity [ 55 ]. Specifically, Sankey et al. [ 55 ] noted that positive reinforcement was observed to lead to increased, long-term interest in humans, whereas negative reinforcement led to increases in emotional reactivity as indicated by increases in HR and avoidance of human contact.
This scoping review aimed to explore how the effects of HHIs are measured in the horse and the known effects of these interactions on equine physiology and welfare. A total of 45 articles from eleven different countries were identified by the search strategy. Nearly all of the articles, with the exception of one, were published after the year 2008 when Hausberger et al. [ 5 ] published their seminal review on the human–horse relationship. Studies included a total of 1934 equine participants of diverse breeds, backgrounds, and ages. Interactions between humans and horses primarily consisted of handling (46.6%) and riding (24.4%). Remaining HHIs included a combination of riding and handling (8.9%), no physical contact (8.9%), handling and grooming (6.7), riding (2.2%), and training (2.2%). Measures of these interactions included behavioural observation and physiological measures, including HR, HRV, cortisol (blood and saliva), muscle tension, eye temperature, core temperature, plasma lactate concentrations, plasma β endorphin, and adrenocorticotropic hormone concentrations. Nearly half (42.2%) of the included studies used both behavioural observation and physiological measures in the assessment of HHIs. A further 26.6% only used behavioural observation and 31.1% exclusively used physiological measures.
This review sought to identify the various ways that interactions between horses and humans are measured. Various practices of assessment and measurement of HHIs have been identified in the literature. In a previous review investigating the nature of HHIs, Hausberger et al. [ 5 ] noted that measurements of interactions fell into three categories: (1) observation (i.e., ratings of equine behaviour and/or personality); (2) behavioural tests and measures (i.e., standardized assessments and/or scores of reactivity); and (3) physiological measures (e.g., HR, HRV, and salivary and blood cortisol samples) [ 5 ]. This diversity in measurement of HHIs was also observed in the current study, whereby studies exclusively used behavioural or physiological measures, or a combination of observed or standardized behavioural assessment with physiological measures. Importantly, the majority of articles identified in this review (69%) were published since the previous review by Hausberger et al. [ 5 ] thus providing an update on the literature in this field.
More general reviews on human–animal interactions reveal the use of questionnaires, consisting of self-reports or subjective reporting by others [ 31 , 83 , 84 ]. The use of subjective reports was only observed in one study in the current review [ 73 ]. The ultimate goal of such assessments in determining the affective state of the animal and indicating whether the interaction is indeed positive, can be difficult to ascertain as it is based on the human perspective. The use of objective physiological measures provide an unbiased perspective that apparently represent the state of the horse. HHIs observed in the current review included led, ridden, and unrestrained interactions. Therefore, some interactions were imposed upon the horse, during which time behaviors and physiological measures were obtained to assess the horse’s “affective state”. With unrestrained, voluntary interactions, the horse had a choice to interact or not; however, behavioral observations were recorded without physiological measures for some of these interactions. In the reviewed studies, equine focused measurements included both behavioral and physiological measures yet only a few papers measured both during all types of interactions (see Table S4 for more information); this finding is supported by previous investigations [ 22 ].
This scoping review sought to provide an overview of current practices related to the measurement of HHIs and explore effects of these interactions on horse behaviour, physiology, and welfare. Due to limited research on the topic, the present synthesis covered a wide range of equine and human populations, allowing for learnings across different contexts. This may also be a limitation of the present study. The heterogeneity in equine participant breed, age, and use, may have contributed to the diversity in findings, which likely affect the generalizability of findings from this review. Moreover, unlike systematic reviews, scoping reviews do not assess the methodological rigor or quality of primary studies. Instead, they rely on the critical appraisal and interpretation of results in each of the assessed studies.
Despite our rigorous approach to article identification and evaluation, it is possible that some relevant articles may have been missed. More specifically, although every effort was made to capture articles that describe HHIs, it is unlikely that every relevant article was identified by the database search strategies. For example, the addition of the search terms “gelding” and “filly” may have led to the identification of additional papers. Moreover, interactions within the sport literature may have been inadvertedly missed due to a lack of specified keywords (e.g., polo). Finally, given the extensive use of horses across various settings, it is likely that some articles in the non-academic databases may not have been documented in this review.
4.2. Gaps and Recommendations for Future Research
This scoping review supports previous findings related to HHIs that current evidence and measurement practices in the literature are varied and heterogeneous [ 22 ]. To date, there appears to be little consensus regarding reliable and valid measures of horse emotional state and reaction to human interaction. The science of human–animal interaction is often criticized for lack of methodological rigor and use of standardized tools [ 5 , 31 , 83 ] and its subsequent influence on animal welfare [ 83 ]. Significant heterogeneity was observed between studies examining the effect of HHIs on horses, reflecting similar reviews on the topic [ 22 ]. This finding indicates a need for standardization in measurement and reporting to improve understanding on the impact of HHIs on the horse. To determine the effect of various human interactions on equine behaviour, physiology, and welfare, further research employing standardized assessment and objective inquiry are required. Based on this review, several gaps in the literature have been identified that need to be addressed.
Many of the studies in the current review attempted to measure stress and concluded that lack of stress, based on physiological and behavioural indicators, was an indication of good welfare during human horse interactions. Although this is one component of welfare, positive experiences perceived by the animal are also an important aspect of animal welfare [ 85 ]. Therefore, more robust evaluations of welfare, including measurements of the horse’s affective state during human horse interactions, are warranted. This was also the recommendation in reviews by Hall et al. [ 6 ] and Merkies [ 17 ]. A more comprehensive evaluation will likely require the combined use of current methods along with addition of new methods; for example, through the continued use of physiological and behavioural measures of stress along with measures that assess a broader aspect of horse affective states. These could include ethograms with affiliative behaviors [ 86 ] and physiological measures of hormones of well-being such as oxytocin and serotonin [ 87 ]. Studies using a cognitive bias approach also show promise toward understanding animal emotion [ 88 ]. An emphasis on methods that use both behavioural and physiological measures is necessary since behavioural responses to the environment can be suppressed. Horses with passive coping styles [ 89 ] and horses who are well trained [ 17 ] may not readily show behaviours indicative of stress or aversion, while physiological measures continue to indicate sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stimulation. Further understanding of current methods is also important. Cortisol concentrations can reflect arousal and excitement as well physical activity. HRV measures, which reflect the parasympathetic and sympathetic aspects of the autonomic nervous system, are complex and require further knowledge including an understanding of nonlinear measures. Continued analysis of the relationship between behaviours and physiological measures of the equine affective state may lead to clear biomarkers for measurements of stress and well-being [ 90 ]. An improved ability to assess the horse’s emotional state during HHIs will require an expansion in the use and understanding of current research methods and discovery and implementation of new methods. Although this may be a difficult task, it will be critical in truly assessing horse welfare during horse human interactions and proposing future improvements towards equine welfare in the equine industry.
Ensuring the welfare of horses during HHIs is vital to promoting positive and safe relationships between humans and horses across various settings. This scoping review illustrates the diverse nature of HHIs and their measurement within the literature. Current evidence of equine welfare during HHIs is minimal and requires further investigation. For example, the assessment of equine welfare goes beyond the physical state of a horse and includes the emotional state of the animal; standardized approaches to measuring these aspects of welfare within the horse is needed to advance understanding of how interactions with humans impacts equine welfare. Moreover, current literature evaluating the emotional state of horses largely focuses on the absence of a negative affective state. Broadening the existing scope of methods to evaluate a positive affective state would improve the overall understanding of the horse’s welfare during HHIs.
Research is essential to continue to advance our understanding of negative and positive affective states of horses, including the measurement and recognition of such emotional states; such research can continue to be used to inform policy makers in the equine industry. The practical application of knowledge gained through research needs to be addressed. Changes are apparent in the perception of animals by humans in the 21st century. An emphasis on animals as companions and promotion of the human animal bond (HAB) is leading to positive changes in for animals in society. While stakeholders in the companion animal industry are emphasizing the importance of the HAB, stakeholders in the equine industry lag behind. Because horses do not live in the house with humans, they are not often considered a family member. However, promotion of horses as companions, rather than simply a mechanism for fun, may improve the attention to welfare [ 91 ]. Many equestrians genuinely want a positive relationship with their horse [ 79 ]. Therefore, informing horse owners, trainers, and coaches that every HHI has a considerable effect in the enhancement or declination of the HAB could influence their behaviour. Providing equestrians with tools to measure the emotional state of the horse during various interactions will also be essential for better attention to welfare. To this end, future aims in research should also include development and implementation of methods that can be used by equine stakeholders, and leaders in the field of equine health and welfare should be early adopters in promoting the HAB with equestrians and horses.
The authors would like to acknowledge the contribution of Hailey Arsenault for her assistance in completing inter-rater evaluation of articles in this review.
The following are available online at https://www.mdpi.com/article/10.3390/ani11102782/s1 , Table S1: Syntax for keyword search, Table S2: Grey literature search results, Table S3: Thematic analysis categorization, Table S4: Data extraction full results.
Conceptualization, L.A.M.; methodology, K.J.K., K.M.; software, K.J.K., K.M.; validation, K.J.K., K.M.; formal analysis, K.J.K.; investigation, K.J.K.; resources, K.M.; data curation, K.J.K., K.M.; writing—original draft preparation, K.J.K.; writing—review and editing, L.A.M.; visualization, K.J.K.; supervision, L.A.M.; project administration, K.J.K. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.
This research received no external funding.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of interest.
The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
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Share in equine behaviour research.
By Mark Andrews
Those who care for horses are encouraged to take part in a worldwide study of equine behaviour.
“The increase in popularity of having a horse as a recreational companion has stimulated a diversity of opinions as to what constitutes normal and abnormal equine behaviour, and what defines effective and humane training,” says Paul McGreevy, Professor of Animal Welfare and Behaviour at the University of Sydney, in a letter to the Veterinary Record , the official journal of the British Veterinary Association.
To explore the influence of training and management on horse behaviour, Professor McGreevy and his research team have launched the Equine Behaviour Assessment and Research Questionnaire (E-BARQ), a global database of horse behaviour.
He explains that the non-profit project allows the equine community throughout the world to donate their observational data and gain unique benefits in return.
The research aims to reveal information on how training and management affects behaviour and how, in turn, behaviour affects horse welfare.
Horse owners will be able to compare their horse’s behaviour with that of other horses around the world. E-BARQs “share and compare” graphs will reveal attributes such as trainability, rideability, handling, compliance, boldness, and human social confidence.
E-BARQ is open to all horse owners/handlers, regardless of their horses’ breed, height, or age, and provides users with a free dashboard to store their horses’ results and track their progress.
Participants will gain an insight into where their horses are performing well and where they may need help. They will also be able to monitor their horse’s progress over time by returning to their E-BARQ dashboard every six months and re-taking the questionnaire, updating their scores.
E-BARQ can be accessed at e-barq.com .
Printed with permission of Mark Andrews, Equine Science Update.
This article was originally published in the Early Summer 2020 issue of Canadian Horse Journal.
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Research Methods in Equine Science…
…by Nancy / from the United States / MSc Equine Science / 3rd Year
I am eagerly preparing for my last module which will help me proceed with my research project. I am taking the free course, “Research Methods and Statistics” to help me prepare for the “real” class “Research Methods in Equine Science”. I have thoroughly enjoyed each and every subject/topic that Edinburgh has presented to me in each module. This makes it difficult to choose what area of equine research to focus on for my dissertation. I have so many ideas and questions, swirling around in my mind, that I would love to be able to investigate them all.
In reflecting on my past courses, I wouldn’t have predicted that, Equine Reproduction ended up being my favorite module. I was hesitant to take that course as my areas of interest were always geared toward equine physiology and orthopedics. I thought I wouldn’t do well in the class due to not having a huge equine breeding background. However I found the topic fascinating and ended up learning so much more than I anticipated…I hated to see the module come to an end! I’m glad I took the opportunity to investigate a topic that was somewhat out of my comfort zone.
At the other end of the spectrum… I was very interested in taking Equine Nutrition and was not disappointed in the course. All instructors were very informative and approachable, especially when help was needed setting up caloric calculations, nutrient requirement equations and equine dietary analysis. During my studies at Edinburgh I have always had good staff support. All questions have been answered promptly. I ended up taking five modules in a row (having begun my studies in January 2015) and this resulted in me not having to take Equine Orthopedics. I was a little disappointed but was thrilled to be able to take the orthopedics class as an auditor. The research papers, books and lectures were very interesting and useful… I highly recommend taking advantage of this service Edinburgh offers for that “one” module you don’t have to fully participate in with assessments. I also highly recommend especially for “equestrians and drivers” to take the Equitation Science module. I took Equine Behavior and Welfare as a precursor to Equitation Science. The research available and the tutors were extremely enlightening. These two modules complimented one another, giving me good training strategies. A wonderful website on the topic is at http://www.equitationscience.com .
Well I better go ride some horses and of course clean some stalls! Today is the first day of Spring which for me signals that the Kentucky Derby is a little over 6 weeks away. Warmer weather and more time in the saddle is on the way! Enjoy your day!
Posted by stories
3rd October 2019
Demystifying Online Degrees…
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Equine Studies Research
Recent research – bsc (hons) equine studies.
The effect of rider weight on stride length and temperature of the horse’s back – Anna Nicholas, Lorna Cameron and Sarah Loveday Lovell
This study investigated the impact of rider weight ratio to horse weight on stride kinematics and under saddle temperature in the ridden horse. Varied rider – horse weight ratios were tested and findings suggested that a rider weight exceeding those tested was required to induce observable changes in stride kinematics. Further study would be required to further inform welfare friendly management of working horses.
Advancing Equine Science Excellence (AESE) Increasing participation in Equestrianism (IPiE) collaborative project – Hana Wilson, Sarah Nottingham, Lorna Cameron and Sarah Loveday Lovell
As part of a nationwide project supported by the British Equestrian Federation (BEF) two students investigated barriers to participation in equestrian sports in a range of potential and lapsed riders. The findings from this project have been included in a larger research project which will be published in due course. View further information
A study of diet management practices and their effect on the digestive health of the part stabled leisure horse – Tina Sharp, Lorna Cameron and Katy Robson
Part stabled horses were monitored in a longitudinal study to establish foraging habits, forage consumption time and resulting faecal pH. Finding showed that horses finishing their forage ration earlier in the overnight period had consistently lower faecal pH the subsequent morning. A significant negative correlation was established between time spent overnight with no forage access and subsequent faecal pH. Whilst these findings were limited by the effect of extraneous variable, it suggests that further study in the area is warranted.
Recent Research – BSc (Hons) Equine Science
Sparsholt and Dodson & Horrell research at the British Society of Animal Science (BSAS) Conference, University of Chester
Leigh Niles, current MSc EBPT student and BSc (Hons) Equine Science graduate presented her research at the BSAS Conference. Completed through the Dodson & Horrell Sparsholt Bursary, the project established ingestive behaviour using novel forages, finding significant differences in preference and consumption time, suggesting inclusion of these mixes could impact feeding rate dependent on needs of the individual horse.
Is there a difference in pH levels within faecal matter between horses fed on hay and haylage? – Cameo Pike, Lorna Cameron, Natalie Stones and Katy Robson
Faecal pH was measured from a range of horse kept on a mixed system of overnight stabling and limited daytime grazing access with similar concentrate rations with forage provision of either hay or haylage. All horses had a similar workload, management system and daily routine, varying only in type of forage provided. Significant differences were observed in faecal pH between the groups the haylage fed groups showing a significantly lower faecal pH consistently. These results suggest that further study is warranted to establish the implications of these findings.
Standing and riding asymmetry in the horse rider – Vicky Edge, Lorna Cameron and Katy Robson
A range of riders submitted to morphological and biomechanical measurements both on and off the horse. A significant association was established between standing, walking and riding asymmetry in the leisure rider. Implications for coaching the rider may include the need to influence asymmetry in off – horse coaching or fitness rather than solely whilst riding.
Ongoing Collaborative Projects
Sparsholt College Equine students are involved in a range of collaborative research projects in this academic year. Research with the Breast Health Research Group of the Department of Sport and Exercise Science at the University of Portsmouth involves MSc Equine Behaviour, Performance & Training students investigating breast biomechanics in female horse riders, breast health issues in the general female riding population and muscle activation in the horse rider utilising the riding simulator at Quob Stables , Hampshire.
Burbage, J. and Cameron, L.J. An investigation into the prevalence and impact of breast pain, bra issues and breast size on female horse riders. Journal of Sports Sciences
BSc (Hons) Equine Science student, Leigh Niles, was awarded the Dodson & Horrell Sparsholt Research Bursary and is investigating chewing and bite rates in novel forage blends utilising horses from the Sparsholt College Equine Centre .
BSc (Hons) Equine Studies student Emma Sluter, has also utilised her summer job at Meon Valley Stud to investigate training responses in Thoroughbred yearlings being prepared for sale, continuing an established research link.
FdSc Equine Studies students are involved in a project for Steri-7 investigating the effectiveness of different concentrations of disinfectant wash on bacterial proliferation in horse clothing which several students intend to build upon for their year 3 dissertation when they “top-up” to BSc (Hons) Equine Studies next academic year.
For a third year, Sparsholt College students are also involved in a nationwide project for Advancing Equine Science Excellence (AESE) , a committee of the British Equestrian Federation (BEF) . This year’s study is the Equine End of Life (EEoL) project and is supported by World Horse Welfare (WHW) and The Donkey Sanctuary (TDS) . It investigates the issues surrounding the most difficult decisions that horse and donkey owners have to make and is attempting to identify what effective support charitable organisations can provide to help improve the welfare of the nation’s equids.
BSc (Hons) Equine Science and Equine Studies dissertation titles
- Would understanding the equine industry’s perception of Equine Dystonia allow a more targeted approach for promoting awareness?
- Does the inclusion to the horse’s diet of specific carbohydrate blends (prebiotics) influence the coefficient of apparent digestibility, and improve hind gut health as measured by faecal pH, and any behavioural observations.
- Effect of DHA on Sleep and Recumbency in the Horse.
- Starch intake, hind gut wellbeing and onset of aberrant behaviour.
- The cooling down rates of working riding school horses.
- The effectiveness of Pet Remedy on the stereotypical vices and behaviours of stabled horses.
- Motor lateralisation – Is it hereditary in Thoroughbred racehorses?
- Does human interaction cause stress in domesticated donkeys?
- The effects of a body protector upon rider asymmetry.
- Straw and nutritionally improved straw as a partial forage replacer.
- The effects an Equi-Cube has upon the rider’s rectus abdominal muscles.
- The Influence of Video Feedback on the Canter Transition according to Riders Perception.
- Objective measurements pre and post spinal manipulation
MSc Equine Behaviour, Performance & Training research project titles
The negative image of Horse racing investigated through the gender prism
- Gender Influence on Elite performance
- The effect of breast support on vertical breast displacement and incidences of exercise induced breast pain across equine simulator gaits in female riders over the age of 40
- Investigating riders’ perceptions of the rider/coach relationship
- A retrospective study: Behavioural changes pre diagnosis of Equine Grass Sickness
- Does Rider ability affect rein tension and eye temperature of the horse?
- Asymmetry in Animal Based Professions
- Effect of a core fitness programme on rider position and trunk surface electromyographical parameters
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7 August 2017
The Student’s Horse: a Horse-themed Dissertation
Georgie’s finally finished her exams, but the fun doesn’t end there! Here she explains how she’s spending her summer off with Sheamus, as well as looking ahead to her dissertation.
Hi, it’s me again!
Another month has gone by. I’m not-so-broken, exam free and looking forward to enjoying the summer I have left!
Truth be told it has gone very quickly – in between revision and finalising plans for my dissertation (more on that later) I’ve spent some weekends volunteering for British Eventing doing a bit of dressage writing.
I’m lucky enough to live 15 minutes from Keysoe Equestrian Centre, so I’ve kept my head in the game by writing for their BE event and their BYRDS regional competition.
I also took a trip to Buckminster Park to write there – dare I say it I would love a run here, if and when we get back out eventing next season. The rolling hills would certainly take the wind out of Sheamus and his excitable ways!
How is Sheamus?
Speaking of His Royal Highness, as I’m now a little more mobile I’ve been able to do a little more round the yard, but I’m sadly, not yet fixed enough to ride.
Saying this, I can confirm that mucking out is rather enjoyable (it’s still a novelty at the moment).
Much to his dismay, he hasn’t got out of work that easily and lungeing and long reining has been on the cards recently.
With the help of a few varied pole exercises, Sheamus was definitely worked hard. A tell-tale sign was when he actually ‘woah-ed’ on command.
More novelties, this time for Sheamus, as a treat for working hard he had a short-hand graze, without his muzzle on – did he take a breath between mouthfuls? Of course, he didn’t.
Rooting for a friend
Last weekend I went to Chilham Horse Trials to support a friend and her horse who were competing in the BE80(T).
It was good fun, I’d never been to Chilham before as it’s just a little too far when Sheamus is at home.
During my season of doing nothing competition-wise, I’ve made sure I walk plenty of courses and really swot up on what to practice when I finally ride again – especially if I want to give a couple of BE90s a go next summer (big bubblewrap-padded brave pants will be required).
Soaked at Chilham Horse Trials! Note the raincoat AND sunglasses (I was hopeful)
Juggling horses in the name of research
So… the dissertation.
After already completing my undergraduate dissertation, which was a systematic review of previous research (it’s as exciting as it sounds) I was rather looking forward to planning a study where I would collect my own data first-hand.
Once planned and confirmed, I quickly realised that for my study to be viable and stand a chance of being taken seriously I would have to be measuring a lot of horses.
By horses, I mean their feet. By a lot of horses, I mean getting on for 100.
I will be looking at a lot of different angles and measurements and then hopefully confirm or disprove some current theories to do with balance and how forelimb angles may affect the horse throughout their lives.
So here’s to an August full of measuring horse feet and hopefully collecting some interesting data.
Place your bets on if I’ll ever want to look at a foot again after this month.
Getting Recovaberry out on the circuit
Poor Recovaberry (aptly named under circumstances) hasn’t had a cross country run this season due to us being out of action (and him arriving exactly 10 days post-pelvis-breaking-fiasco).
If any of my eventing friends or anyone who’ll be riding at Horseheath fancies giving Recovaberry a spin, let me know and we’ll strap him on for the ride. He even sports a very fetching red and gold cape!
Until next time when my term at university is close to starting and I’m whole heartedly determined to be writing about my first ride back, I hope you all have a lovely August!
As always love and good health, Georgie x
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Equine graduate Natalie gallops to dissertation recognition
A university centre myerscough equine graduate’s research has been recognised after made the final of a national competition..
Natalie Owen's dissertation has made the finals of the BETA (British Equestrian Trade Association) Equine Thesis of the Year. This competition features the best dissertation from each equine college in the country, which are then assessed by a panel of leading researchers and industry representatives. The top four are then selected to compete in the finals.
23-year-old graduated in the summer with a BSc (Hons) in Equine Science. Her project investigated how owners of horses judge quality of life for their animals, introducing the idea that ‘normalisation’ of stabling has led to an assumption that a lifestyle of confinement can allow good equine welfare.
Natalie’s project was voted for by her fellow students to represent Myerscough in the prestigious competition, where her work was chosen by an esteemed panel of scientific and industry experts as one of the four best dissertations countrywide. Twelve academic institutions each entered one undergraduate thesis.
She will now be called to present to a second round of judges, along with members of the public and academic community, at the De Vere Staverton Estate Hotel, in Northamptonshire, on Sunday 28 th October. The winner and runner-up will then be announced and presented with their awards and cash prizes.
Charlotte Brigden is Assistant Head of H.E Equine at University Centre Myerscough, said: ‘’Congratulations to Natalie on this incredible achievement.
‘’Natalie gave a truly outstanding performance throughout her degree, achieving amongst the highest exam and assignment grades recalled within the equine programme.
‘’As well as this competition, her dissertation has already been accepted at the Alltech-Hartpury Conference, which was held earlier this year.
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Dissertation Ideas... ! HELP !
- Thread starter Melbettson
- Start date 12 May 2016
- 12 May 2016
Hi, I am not entirely sure the subject of what entices people to choose the stallions they do is entirely dissertation material. Supplements, on the other hand, is a good one. You could be really clever and ask if manufacturers are leading trends or responding to trends - e.g. Biotin. There are plenty of studies to show biotin improves hoof wall thickness and there are plenty of studies that show it does absolutely nothing at all. Research goes back, oo, 35 years. So why do the Barefoot Brigade all think they need to feed it in copious amounts? Why has the popularity of herbal supplements risen? Obviously, you'll need to pose these questions better and formulate your hypothesis, but I for one would be interested in the supplements conundrum. And you have 10000s of peer reviewed papers to draw from.
thank you ! I am going with the supplements idea
I agree, I think your supplement idea is an interesting one.
I don't see much of an argument there. Just a load of data, which may or may not be interesting. So, how are you going to get the data? Unlikely manufacturers will give you sales figures, although they might. Asking people to remember what they used to give is likely to give pretty unreliable data.... I would go away and think of something more focused which REALLY interests you and see how you can build a paper around that. I think the stallion idea has more legs (perhaps even a fifth one..sorry) but what sort of stallions are you thinking of? You could get quite good data and build a helpful picture for breeders of what makes the owners send their mares...more human psychology I guess.
spookypony said: Agree with some others: what field is your dissertation in? I have to say I despair whenever it's the time of year for all the half-baked surveys with half-digested social science methodology to make their appearances on the forum... The stallion idea or the supplements one could also be a more historical one, based on archival research rather than surveys. E.g., for the supplements, you could look through loads of old issues of Horse and Hound to see what supplements are advertised, by whom, whom they appear to be targeting, using what sort of arguments/hooks...that could be very interesting! H&H was first published in 1884, apparently, so you could get a proper research paper out of it. You might start with the same issue in every year, and then expand...this could be really fun, and you'd get to look at loads of old issues and see how times have changed. Click to expand...
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