• Awards Season
  • Big Stories
  • Pop Culture
  • Video Games
  • Celebrities

Free and Efficient Ways to Convert PDFs into Excel Sheets

Are you tired of manually typing data from PDF files into Excel sheets? Fortunately, there are several free and efficient ways to convert PDFs into Excel sheets. In this article, we will explore some of the best methods for converting PDFs into Excel and discuss their advantages and limitations.

Online Conversion Tools

One of the easiest and most convenient ways to convert a PDF into an Excel sheet is by using online conversion tools. These tools allow you to upload your PDF file and convert it into an editable Excel sheet within minutes. Some popular online conversion tools include SmallPDF, SodaPDF, and Zamzar.

The process is simple: you upload your PDF file, select the output format as Excel, and click on the convert button. The tool will then process your file and provide you with a download link for the converted Excel sheet. It’s important to note that some online tools may have file size limitations or require you to sign up for an account.

Online conversion tools are great because they are accessible from any device with an internet connection and do not require any installation or software downloads. However, the accuracy of the conversion may vary depending on the complexity of the PDF file.

Adobe Acrobat Pro

If you frequently work with PDF files and need a more robust solution for converting them into Excel sheets, Adobe Acrobat Pro is worth considering. While it is not free like online conversion tools, it offers advanced features that can greatly enhance your productivity.

With Adobe Acrobat Pro, you can directly convert a PDF file into an editable Excel sheet without compromising formatting or data integrity. It also provides options to customize the conversion settings based on your specific requirements. Additionally, Acrobat Pro allows batch processing, which means you can convert multiple files simultaneously.

Another advantage of using Adobe Acrobat Pro is its integration with other Adobe applications such as Photoshop and InDesign. This integration makes it easier to work with PDFs across different platforms and ensures consistent formatting throughout your workflow.

Open-source Software

For those who prefer open-source software, there are several options available for converting PDFs into Excel sheets. One popular open-source tool is Tabula, which is known for its simplicity and ease of use.

Tabula allows you to extract tables from PDF files and save them as CSV files, which can be easily imported into Excel. The software uses a visual interface that lets you select the specific areas of the PDF that contain tabular data. Once selected, Tabula will automatically extract the data and convert it into an editable format.

While open-source software may not have all the advanced features of commercial tools like Adobe Acrobat Pro, they are often sufficient for basic conversion needs. Additionally, being open-source means that these tools are constantly being improved and updated by a community of developers.

Converting PDFs into Excel sheets can save you time and effort when dealing with large amounts of data. Whether you choose to use online conversion tools, invest in Adobe Acrobat Pro, or opt for open-source software like Tabula, there are plenty of free and efficient methods available to suit your needs.

Before choosing a method, consider factors such as file size limitations, accuracy of conversion, customization options, and integration with other applications. By selecting the right tool for your specific requirements, you can streamline your workflow and increase productivity when working with PDFs and Excel sheets.

This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.


discussion of findings in research pdf

Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer.

To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to  upgrade your browser .

Enter the email address you signed up with and we'll email you a reset link.

  • We're Hiring!
  • Help Center

paper cover thumbnail

Writing the Discussion Section/ Results/ Findings Section of an Academic Research Study/ Thesis

by Raphael Akeyo

2021, Writing a succesful a cademic thesis

This article is a brief guidance on effective writing of academic research thesis with a focus on the results/ findings section/ chapters. It provides step by step highlights on how to present data from the field, interpretation of the findings, corroborating the findings with existing studies as well as the use of theoretical tenets to discuss the findings. The conclusions and recommendations sections are also highlighted.

Free Related PDFs

Dr Dare E Ajayi

The complexities and diversities of human nature and challenges necessitated the need to discover and identify ways to solving and meeting human and academic problem needs. The existence of problems gave rise to the the need for research. The book takes researchers and students through the latest and best research practice through the adoption of simple, adoptable and practicable research models for academic and contemporary research writing.

Foundational Guide to Research, Thesis and Dissertation Writing

Dr. Qais Faryadi

2019, Scientific Research Publishing: Creative Education

I have already discussed the PhD introduction and literature review in detail. In this paper, I discuss the PhD methodology, results and how to write a stunning conclusion for your thesis. The main objective of this paper is to help PhD candidates to understand what is a PhD methodology and guide them in writing a systematic and meaningful PhD methodology, results and conclusion. The methodology used in this research is a descriptive method as it deliberates and defines the various parts of PhD methodology, results and conclusion writing process and elucidates the "how to do" in a very unpretentious and understanding manner. As thus, this paper summarises the various steps of thesis methodology, results and conclusion writing to pilot the PhD students. This road map is a useful guidance especially for students of social science studies. Additionally, in this paper, methodology writing techniques , procedures and important strategies are enlightened in a simple manner. This paper adopts a "how-to approach" when discussing a variety of relevant topics such as introduction, formulation of the methodology, variables , research design process, types of sampling, data collection process, interviews, questionnaires, data analysis techniques and so on. Results and conclusions are also discussed in detail, so that PhD candidates can follow the guide clearly. This paper has 5 parts such as Introduction, Literature reviews, Methodology, Results and Conclusion. As such, I discuss Methodology, Results and Conclusion as the final assessment of the PhD thesis writing process.

PhD Thesis Writing Process: A Systematic Approach-How to Write Your Methodology, Results and Conclusion

Rey Ty , Saw Than Htut Lynn

Lessons Learned from the PhD Dissertation Writing Workshop: From Title and Introduction to Literature Review by Saw Than Htut Lynn

Abdilahi Adam Mohamoud

Writing a Successful Thesis or Dissertation [Dr.Soc]


2023, IAA Journal of Applied Sciences

Many young researchers find it difficult to write a good and quality research thesis/article because they are not prone to article writing ethics and training. Yet, a thesis/publication is often vital and paramount for career advancement, grants, academic qualifications and others. This research work described the basics and systematic steps to follow in writing a good scientific thesis/article. This research also outlined the main sections that an average thesis/article should contain, the elements that should appear in each section, the systematic approaches in writing research, the characteristics of a good thesis/article, the attributes of a good research thesis/article, qualities of a good researcher and finally the ethics guiding research.

Qualities and Characteristics of a Good Scientific Research Writing; Step-by-Step Approaches

Avinash Advani

In this study an attempt has been made to answer the questions " What are Research and its types? " What is difference between research paper and article? What is difference between project report, thesis and dissertation? A systematic literature review is undertaken giving an overview of its processes and principles. Research' is a particular type of investigation. It is impossible to do research without having a problem, which is required to be resolved, or a question, which needs to be answered but it is difficult for scholars to select and write topic, statement of purpose and thesis, so the solutions of these are given in this article. The definition and evolution of the approach are described, including the various kinds of research being used today. The research procedure and its nature have been discussed from different scholars' point of view. This article also seeks to organize the scattered knowledge at one point to get research scholars equipped with the latest knowledge. Finally, this study has revealed that research is purposeful and solution-oriented investigation which needs every step properly written. Guidelines given in this study are very clear to help the student to complete their article thesis and dissertation so researchers are advised to follow the guidelines to write quality thesis.

An Overview of Research, Research Paper and Thesis: Evidence From Literature Review

Dr. Ibrahim Suliman


Alexander Decker

11.Why not Reflect the Outcome of Your Study in an Academic Paper


N.J. Dewasiri

2019, Vidyodaya Journal of Management

Scholarly or academic writing is clear, concise, planned, coherent, and backed up by evidence. Its purpose is to aid the reader’s understanding. Hence, it consists of a formal style and tone. Further, it does not require the use of long sentences and instead uses clear and concise language with simple vocabulary. Research report writing is an integral part of academic writing. Hence, both academic and research report writing play a vital role in developing a multitude of researchers across the globe. The authors of the book entitled “A Guide to Academic Writing and Research Reports” identified such a role to develop prolific researchers amongst the student community both within and outside the university in Sri Lanka.

Book Review: A Guide to Academic Writing and Research Reports by Senior Prof. Dr. Mangala Fonseka and Dr. Athula Manawaduge

2018, Scientific Research Publishing: Creative Education

Literature writing is a skill that every PhD candidate must procure to communicate his or her research findings clearly. The main objective of this paper is to facilitate the literature writing process so that PhD candidates under- stand what PhD literature is and are able to write their PhD literature cor- rectly and scientifically. The methodology used in this research is a descrip- tive method as it deliberates and defines the various parts of literature writing process and elucidates the how to do of it in a very unpretentious and under- standing language. As thus, this paper summarizes the various steps of litera- ture writing to pilot the PhD students so that the task of PhD literature writ- ing process becomes adaptable and less discouraging. This research is a useful roadmap especially for students of the social science studies. Additionally, in this paper, literature writing techniques, procedures and important strategies are enlightened in a simple manner. This paper adopts a how-to approach when discussing a variety of relevant topics, such as literature review intro- duction, types of literature review, advantages of literature reviews, objective of literature review, literature review template, and important check lists about literature review are discussed. This paper has 5 parts, such as Intro- duction, Literature Review, Methodology, Results and Conclusion. The lit- erature review chapter is discussed in this paper. I will discuss the rest as a se- ries in the future. Keywords Thesis Writing Process, Literature Review, PhD, Social Science, Research Methodology

PhD Thesis Writing Process: A Systematic Approach—How to Write Your Literature Review

Andrew Johnson

This 7-minute mini-lecture describes the basic elements of quantitative research and qualitative research. This provides a foundation for understanding educational research.


This chapter excerpt describes the processes of writing a review of the literature for an academic article.


Marivic Sumagaysay

A manual for writers of research papers theses and dissertations depedtambayanph blogspot com

Dr. David Annan

2019, Stevejobs.education

Very often, little attention is paid to how students have to prepare and understand the processes of conducting research and mostly young scholars struggle in the early stages in the university career about what is required of them and how to present their proposal to their supervisors. Keeping this in mind, the purpose of this guidebook is to offer a critical and practical mind map introduction to research writing to assist researchers in creating an appropriate design for their research studies and to offer the simplest guide of creating a logical orientated research. The book is made using simple graphs to explain what is expected of researchers at each stage of their research writing to enable them to understand if any a missing link when conducting their research. The book is mostly content mind-map and figures to make it easier for the researcher to understand what is expected of them from the stages of their research to completion. It presents the basic tenets of methodological steps so that the researcher can become familiar with how to conduct research and what techniques to use in their choice for research writing.


Dr Saad M Butt

2016, Basics of Summarizing Research Findings

Basics of Summarizing Research Findings

Belete Bantealem Belay

Selected Topics from Research Methods and Presentation course

Alaine Reschke-Hernandez

Book Review: Writing scientific research articles: Strategy & steps

Balasubramanian Thiagarajan

2023, Otolaryngology online

This book has been authored with PhD scholars in mind. The author believes that this would be a good starting point for these scholars. The following chapters have been included: Chapters: 1. Introduction to Thesis Writing 2. Choosing a Topic and Developing a Thesis Statement 3. Conducting Literature Review 4. Methodology and Data Collection 5. Writing the Introduction and Background of Your Thesis 6. Presenting Your Findings and Analysis 7. Writing the Discussion and Conclusion of Your Thesis 8. Formatting and Structuring Your Thesis 9. Referencing and Citations 10. Defending Your Thesis: Preparing for the Viva Voce 11. Revising and Editing Your Thesis 12. Time Management and Staying on Track 13. Overcoming Writer's Block and Staying Motivated 14. Using Technology and Tools to Enhance Your Thesis Writing Process 15. Publishing Your Thesis and Next Steps. 16. Data visualization 17. Statistical tools This book also contains tips about choosing an ideal thesis topic. It also warns the student about the various pitfalls involved in choosing a research topic. The topic on referencing citations would be very useful for even a novice researcher. This book also introduces the researcher to the myriad of software tools that are available to the scholar. Using these software tools would make the life of the researcher that much easier.

From Proposal to defense: Navigating the Thesis Writing Process

Michael Evans

Introduction and Tools of Research Written Report

shardul pandya

InSITE Conference

Aim/Purpose: Identify the prerequisites, the corequisites, and the iteration processes in organizing and writing the literature review chapter of doctoral dissertations. Background: Writing the literature review chapter of doctoral dissertations presents unique challenges. Students waste a lot of time identifying material to write, and the experience is generally that of frustration and time delay. Methodology: Paper reviews literature to identify levels of information helpful for writing the literature review chapter: prerequisites, corequisites, and iteration process. Contribution: Paper identifies and explains the prerequisites, the corequisites, and iteration steps that go into organizing the reviewed literature and suggests putting them into use when starting the literature review chapter of a doctoral dissertation. Findings: Writing a doctoral dissertation literature review is long and complicated be-cause some delve into the writing without much preparation. By identifying wh...

Writing Doctoral Dissertation Literature Review: Identifying the Prerequisites, Corequisites and the Iterative Process for Writing the Literature

Karin Sandqvist

This guide is an introduction to one way to write scientific reports, the way we have been using and taught to our students in Teacher Education Programmes and Child and Youth Studies. It include ...

Writing a Thesis : A Guide for Scientific Reports

Vincentas Lamanauskas

2021, Problems of Education in the 21st Century

Writing a scientific article does not end with a description of the summarized results. Conclusions and implications remain a crucial part of the article. The previous papers portrayed the most important aspects of the title, summary (Lamanauskas, 2019a), accurate introduction (Lamanauskas, 2019b) and research methodology (Lamanauskas, 2020a) of the article and discussed the features of the presented results (Lamanauskas, 2020b). Discussion is also accepted as an equally important structural part of the scientific article (particularly in the case of describing an experimental / empirical study). Thus, this section summarizes the results of the conducted study. However, this piece of writing is not intended to provide all possible options for discussion and drawing conclusions due to the fact that the specificity of article preparation varies in each field of science. In addition, it depends on the requirements set by scientific / research journals (or other publications) and publishing policy. Therefore, this editorial more concentrates on the general aspects of preparing the above mentioned parts of the article.


Anuradha Iddagoda

2022, Roczniki Kulturoznawcze

Mangala Fonseka and Athula Manawaduge. A Guide to Academic Writing and Research Reports, Nugegogda 2019

Notchie Angeles

Analyzing Research Articles: A Guide for Readers and Writers 1

Nicoleta Gabor

A guide for writing scholarly articles or reviews for the A guide for writing scholarly articles or reviews for the Educational Research Review Introduction

Jacinta Browne

2014, Ultrasound

Getting started with research “Writing-up the results of your research”

د. عبد الناصر محمد علي نقيب الرضامي

my Ph.D Thesis

Introduction, Post-positivist approaches to research, Sourcing information for your thesis.

Writing your thesis

Bozhena Tikhonova

Version November 2010 1 Academic Writing – Initial information

IJAR Indexing

Nowadays many University students in Tanzania are facing challenges in writing their research reports, be it in government or private Universities. Specifically, students encounter problems in writing and formulating background of the study, statement of the problem, study objectives, literature review and research methodology. Their failure in these preceding chapters, leads to failure in data analysis and presentation, hence shortfalls in discussion and conclusion chapters. Methodologically, the article reviewed some scholarly studies conducted in Tanzania to substantiate the problem and indicate examples on how best the research reports can be written. Apart from narrations given, the article indicates examples with the aim of helping both junior and senior researchers to organize well their research reports in a manner of aligning ideas and chapters within the report. The article will as well help both undergraduate and postgraduate students whose programmes require researches in fulfillment of the requirement, for the award of their particular degrees.


This is an excerpt from my book, 'Academic Writing: Process and Product' published by Rowman and Littlefield. Here I describe how to evaluation qualitative and quantitative research.


This book aims to guide researchers, academicians and PhD candidates especially Social Science Researchers on how todo research systematically. Research is a premeditated investigation using scientific methodology (quantitative, qualitative,) to solve a serious problem (not ordinary problem), thus creating additional (new) knowledge. Research is also regarded as an inquiry of reality about something by testing a hypothesis, answering questions, generating new queries, finding solutions, and creating new knowledge. This book guides you how to effectively structure your research from the proposal till VIVA presentation. Although research designs may differ from one discipline to another, a general road map should include the following: Ø Topic of research Ø Research problem, questions and hypotheses Ø Review of current literature Ø Theoretical framework or methodology experimental, observation and so Ø Data collection and testing if any Ø Data analysis Ø Results Ø Discussions and Applications Ø Conclusion Ø References

Everything You Need to Know About PhD Thesis Writing

Dhirawit Pinyonatthagarn


Dr. Ajare oloruntoba

book is compiled to simplify the requirement to academic writing both in the undergraduate and postgraduate level of academic terrain (field). Academic writing require students to work together and bring various output of diversified researches to achieve the required and needful writing which is globally accepted. As fore-thought, this book is primarily an asset for non-English speaking academia who just resume undergraduate or postgraduate studying. It is very essential because it helps develop the intuitive arts of substantial writing skills. Each chapter of this book handles specific stages of academic writing in a simplified understandable form and readable for students or academia as they undergo researches, findings. It also build their will for quality academic interfaces and exchange of ideas within the circle of qualitative discussion. This book is intended to enhance academia writing qualities and also improve the value of academic writing. Academic writing? This question is a lead to this book achievement. It basically the writing for your university courses. Academic writing comes in different forms: the essay, paper, research paper, term paper, argumentative paper, analysis paper, informative essay, position paper, but all of these gives the same end result. I wish to appreciate heartily the various reference materials made available online and various author materials with journals used in achieving this academic manual.

discussion of findings in research pdf

Nathan Hamlitsch

The necessities for building a thesis statement

Leo Andrew B . Diego

2024, DepEd

Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trademarks, etc.) included in this module are owned by their respective copyright holders. Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them.


Zahra Shahsavar

This study set out to identify postgraduates' problems in writing their theses literature review section. We adopted the exploratory sequential mixed method design. In the quantitative part, we applied descriptive analysis to evaluate 40 completed master theses based on the Akindele's (2008) guideline. In the qualitative part, 10 postgraduate students took part voluntarily in semi-structured interviews. To analysis the interview data, the raters applied Braun and Clarke's (2006) thematic analysis. The results indicate that most students, even proficient ones were not able to synthesize, critique, or explain the literature in their writing. They mainly focused on summarizing other researchers' findings and interpretations. Other problems dealt with lack of sufficient knowledge and time to complete their literature review, and the deliberate dereliction of some supervisors and professors who do not fulfil their obligations to provide the students with sufficient information about writing it. Solving these problems can not only change students' negative feelings and experiences in writing their literature review section but also enhance students' motivation to write any pieces of writing effectively.

Postgraduate students' difficulties in writing their theses literature review Zahra Shahsavar & Haniyeh Kourepaz | Postgraduate students' difficulties in writing their theses literature review

Ponsian P R O T Ntui


Dazelle Anne Lizada

Review Your Thesis or Dissertation Review Your Thesis or Dissertation

2018, Scientific Research Publishing: Creative Education.

Thesis writing is a skill that every PhD candidate must acquire to convey his or her research findings clearly. The main objective of this paper is to facili- tate the thesis writing process so that PhD candidates understand what a PhD thesis is and can write their thesis correctly and scientifically. The methodol- ogy used in this research was descriptive as it discusses and describes the var- ious parts of thesis writing process and explains how to do it in a very simple and understanding language. As thus, this article outlines the various steps of thesis writing to guide the PhD candidate so that the task of PhD thesis writ- ing becomes manageable and less daunting. This research is a useful roadmap especially for students of the social sciences studies. Further, in this paper, research procedure and thesis writing strategies are explained in a simple manner. This paper adopts a how-to approach when discussing a variety of relevant topics, such as thesis introduction, types of introductions, introduc- tion statements, problem statement, research questions, hypothesis and con- tributions of the study. This paper has 5 parts: Introduction, Literature Re- view, Methodology, Results and Conclusion. The introduction chapter is dis- cussed in this paper. I will discuss the rest as a series in the future.

PhD Thesis Writing Process: A Systematic Approach—How to Write Your Introduction

Lawrence Rudner

How To Write a Scholarly Research Report. ERIC/AE Digest

2020, Problems of Education in the 21st Century

The presentation of research results is definitely an important part of any scientific article. On the one hand, the findings of the conducted research should be explained in as much detail as possible, whereas on the other, the obtained results must be clear, understandable and relevant. The previous editorials analysed the elements of a scientific article such as the title and summary (Lamanauskas, 2019a), introduction (Lamanauskas, 2019b) and the description of methodology (Lamanauskas, 2020). This editorial briefly discusses the optimal presentation of research results treated as one of the most interesting stages in preparing a scientific article and requires effort, intensive work and creativity. Alternatively, both methodology and research results (empirical research in particular) are considered the most important parts of a manuscript (Fox & Jennings, 2014). As expected, many important points related to the description of research results are given in APA 7th. ed. (2019), and therefore are not intended to be discussed in detail. Although APA standards are widespread, other criteria are also admitted by scientific community and focus in this editorial is more oriented on the practical subjects of academic writing and the most common mistakes.


Yu-Hsiu (Hugo) Lee (李育修)

Mini Workshop Handouts for academic and research writing

Althea Amor Galdo


Dwi A S T U T I W A H Y U Nurhayati

2022, CV.Haura Utama

Research is an activity of researching or testing something to solve a problem or find something new. Research is a form of data collection activity obtained through field research, then used to answer problems. Can be used as a solution in solving problems. Research is also conducted to discover new knowledge. The research includes scientific work based on systematic data analysis. Research is useful for developing knowledge in a particular field. In addition, research is a form of problemsolving. Through research, can develop science. This book is not a complete edition to cover all research. There are many flaws in this book. Therefore, criticism and suggestions will be gladly accepted.

Problems & TIPS for Writing Scientific Works


  •   We're Hiring!
  •   Help Center
  • Find new research papers in:
  • Health Sciences
  • Earth Sciences
  • Cognitive Science
  • Mathematics
  • Computer Science
  • Academia ©2023


  1. (PDF) Writing the Discussion Section/ Results/ Findings Section of an

    discussion of findings in research pdf

  2. (PDF) Clinical trials

    discussion of findings in research pdf


    discussion of findings in research pdf

  4. Example Of Discussion In Research Paper

    discussion of findings in research pdf


    discussion of findings in research pdf


    discussion of findings in research pdf


  1. Is Archaeology Really a Science? Graham Hancock Discusses

  2. Secrets To Finding High-Impact Research Topics (I NEVER Revealed These Before)

  3. ACE 745: Research Report (IUP)

  4. Professional Insights In Choosing A Research Topic

  5. Panel: Insights from a meta review of artificial intelligence in education research



  1. The Ultimate Guide to Finding and Installing Free PDFs

    Are you looking for free PDFs to use for your business or personal projects? If so, you’ve come to the right place. This guide will provide you with all the information you need to find and install free PDFs quickly and easily.

  2. Free and Efficient Ways to Convert PDFs into Excel Sheets

    Are you tired of manually typing data from PDF files into Excel sheets? Fortunately, there are several free and efficient ways to convert PDFs into Excel sheets. In this article, we will explore some of the best methods for converting PDFs ...

  3. How Do You Write a Discussion Paper?

    A discussion paper presents and discusses in depth the issues that surround a specific topic. When writing a discussion paper, you must include thorough discussion of both sides of the topic being debated, reliable research and evidence reg...

  4. 7.1 Discussion of research findings

    This section of the Research Gateway shows you how to discuss the results that you have found in relation to both your research questions and existing.

  5. Discussion Section for Research Papers

    The discussion section is one of the final parts of a research paper, in which an author describes, analyzes, and interprets their findings.


    The research findings confirmed that numerous of these impeders are also eminent in the failure of strategy implementation in the South African hotel industry.

  7. (PDF) Writing the Discussion Section: Describing the Significance of

    PDF | The Discussion section is an important part of the research manuscript that allows the authors to showcase the study. It is used to interpret the.

  8. How to Write an Effective Discussion

    PDF | Explaining the meaning of the results to the reader is the purpose of the discussion section of a research paper ... research findings. In

  9. Chapter 4 Research Findings and Discussion

    Chapter 4 Research Findings and Discussion. This chapter presents the results of my analysis. The first section describes the basic information derived from

  10. Writing the Discussion Section/ Results/ Findings ...

    This article is a brief guidance on effective writing of academic research thesis with a focus on the results/ findings section/ chapters.

  11. chapter 4: findings and discussion

    Thematic content analysis is the method most suited to the aims of this research study, which involved eliciting and analyzing the narratives of ESL students

  12. Chapter IV Findings and Discussions

    The one of research problem is about the general themes of studies related to the use of Webquest as a learning media in English Language teaching. It is


    The data was analyzed in order to draw conclusion about the objective of the study. Researcher described the findings in this chapter into three parts. They.

  14. Quality of literature review and discussion of findings in selected

    Of interest in this paper is using literature to discuss research findings, and answer the following.