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45 of the Best Diabetes Dissertation Topics

Published by Owen Ingram at January 2nd, 2023 , Revised On August 16, 2023

The prevalence of diabetes among the world’s population has been increasing steadily over the last few decades, thanks to the growing consumption of fast food and an increasingly comfortable lifestyle. With the field of diabetes evolving rapidly, it is essential to base your dissertation on a trending diabetes dissertation topic that fills a gap in research. 

Finding a perfect research topic is one of the most challenging aspects of dissertation writing in any discipline . Several resources are available to students on the internet to help them conduct research and brainstorm to develop their topic selection, but this can take a significant amount of time. So, we decided to provide a list of well-researched, unique and intriguing diabetes research topics and ideas to help you get started. 

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List of Diabetes Dissertation Topics

  • Why do people recently diagnosed with diabetes have such difficulty accepting reality and controlling their health?
  • What are the reactions of children who have recently been diagnosed with diabetes? What can be done to improve their grasp of how to treat the disease?
  • In long-term research, people getting intensive therapy for the condition had a worse quality of life. What role should health professionals have in mitigating this effect?
  • Why do so many individuals experience severe depression the months after their diagnosis despite displaying no other signs of deteriorating health?
  • Discuss some of the advantages of a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet for people with diabetes
  • Discuss the notion of diabetes in paediatrics and why it is necessary to do this research regularly.
  • Explain the current threat and difficulty of childhood obesity and diabetes, stressing some areas where parents are failing in their position as guardians to avoid the situation
  • Explain some of the difficulties that persons with diabetes have, particularly when obtaining the necessary information and medical treatment
  • Explain some of the most frequent problems that people with diabetes face, as well as how they affect the prevalence of the disease. Put out steps that can be implemented to help the problem.
  • Discuss the diabetes problem among Asian American teens
  • Even though it is a worldwide disease, particular ethnic groups are more likely to be diagnosed as a function of nutrition and culture. What can be done to improve their health literacy?
  • Explain how self-management may be beneficial in coping with diabetes, particularly for people unable to get prompt treatment for their illness
  • Discuss the possibility of better management for those with diabetes who are hospitalized
  • What current therapies have had the most influence on reducing the number of short-term problems in patients’ bodies?
  • How have various types of steroids altered the way the body responds in people with hypoglycemia more frequently than usual?
  • What effects do type 1, and type 2 diabetes have on the kidneys? How do the most widely used monitoring approaches influence this?
  • Is it true that people from specific ethnic groups are more likely to acquire heart disease or eye illness due to their diabetes diagnosis?
  • How has the new a1c test helped to reduce the detrimental consequences of diabetes on the body by detecting the condition early?
  • Explain the difficulty of uncontrolled diabetes and how it can eventually harm the kidneys and the heart
  • Discuss how the diabetic genetic strain may be handed down from generation to generation
  • What difficulties do diabetic people have while attempting to check their glucose levels and keep a balanced food plan?
  • How have some individuals with type 1 or type 2 diabetes managed to live better lives than others with the disease?
  • Is it true that eating too much sugar causes diabetes, cavities, acne, hyperactivity, and weight gain?
  • What effect does insulin treatment have on type 2 diabetes?
  • How does diabetes contribute to depression?
  • What impact does snap participation have on diabetes rates?
  • Why has the number of persons who perform blood glucose self-tests decreased? Could other variables, such as social or environmental, have contributed to this decrease?
  • Why do patients in the United States struggle to obtain the treatment they require to monitor and maintain appropriate glucose levels? Is this due to increased healthcare costs?
  • Nutrition is critical to a healthy lifestyle, yet many diabetic patients are unaware of what they should consume. Discuss
  • Why have injuries and diabetes been designated as national health priorities?
  • What factors contribute to the growing prevalence of type ii diabetes in adolescents?
  • Does socioeconomic status influence the prevalence of diabetes?
  • Alzheimer’s disease and type 2 diabetes: a critical assessment of the shared pathological traits
  • What are the effects and consequences of diabetes on peripheral blood vessels?
  • What is the link between genetic predisposition, obesity, and type 2 diabetes development?
  • Diabetes modifies the activation and repression of pro- and anti-inflammatory signalling pathways in the vascular system.
  • Understanding autoimmune diabetes through the tri-molecular complex prism
  • Does economic status influence the regional variation of diabetes caused by malnutrition?
  • What evidence is there for using traditional Chinese medicine and natural products to treat depression in people who also have diabetes?
  • Why was the qualitative method used to evaluate diabetes programs?
  • Investigate the most common symptoms of undiagnosed diabetes
  • How can artificial intelligence help diabetes patients?
  • What effect does the palaeolithic diet have on type 2 diabetes?
  • What are the most common diabetes causes and treatments?
  • What causes diabetes mellitus, and how does it affect the United Kingdom?

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341 Diabetes Essay Topics & Examples

When you write about the science behind nutrition, heart diseases, and alternative medicine, checking titles for diabetes research papers can be quite beneficial. Below, our experts have gathered original ideas and examples for the task.

🏆 Best Diabetes Essay Examples & Topics

⭐ most interesting diabetes research paper topics, ✅ simple & easy diabetes essay topics, 🎓 good research topics about diabetes, 💡 interesting topics to write about diabetes, 👍 good essay topics on diabetes, ❓ diabetes research question examples.

  • Hemoglobin A1C Test for Diabetes Higher levels of glucose appendages in the RBCs will most probably demonstrate high and unsustainable levels of blood sugars that have the capacity to occasion or worsen diabetic complications.
  • Age Influence on Physical Activity: Exercise and Diabetes Under the IV, the behavior that will be measured is the response of the participant to blood sugar levels while engaging in physical activities through exercise.
  • Human Body Organ Systems Disorders: Diabetes Diabetes is of three main types-type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. Ten percent of people that are affected by diabetes in the US have type 1 diabetes.
  • Type I Diabetes: Pathogenesis and Treatment This makes it difficult for the transfer of sugar into the cells of those suffering from type 1 diabetes due to absence of insulin.
  • Patient Voices: Type 2 Diabetes. Podcast Review Some adopt regular exercise and good diet as a measure to keep blood sugar low in order to avoid the need of taking medicines.
  • Type 2 Diabetes The two major types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Doctor: The first step in the treatment of type 2 diabetes is consumption of healthy diet.
  • Cause and Diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes Recently, it was reported that Insulin resistance is the sole factor and could play important role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • Illuminate Diabetes Event Design Finally, after these special performances, there will be distribution of fliers with information on diabetes and encouragement to get tested for diabetes and thus reach the climax of the event.
  • Obesity, Diabetes and Heart Disease Chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes and heart disease have become endemic and as such calls into question what processes can be implemented among members of the local population so as to prevent the spread […]
  • Diabetes mellitus Education and hemoglobin A1C level In relation to the identification of the diabetic population and educating them based on Wojcik et al recommendation, another study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of education on hemoglobin A1C level. The focus of […]
  • Humanistic Image of Managing Diabetes Thus, this paper’s objective is to analyze the interdisciplinary nature of the application of holistic medical treatment, to study traditional and modern methods of implementation of the mind-body medicine to diabetes, and investigate the techniques […]
  • Why Qualitative Method Was Chosen for Diabetes Program Evaluation Generally, the CDC chose to use qualitative methods in order to obtain quality and accurate information about the diabetes eradication program.
  • Micro and Macro-Cosmos in Medicine and Care Models for Prevention of Diabetes While the mentioned care models pay much attention to the microcosm of a human body, they lack precision in reflecting the specifics of the macrocosm of the environment.
  • The Effect of Physical, Social, and Health Variables on Diabetes The p-values for salary, height, weight, BMI, family history of diabetes, and family history of allergies showed the variables were related to diabetes.
  • Analysis of Program “Prevent Diabetes Live Life Well” Analysis of Live Life Well indicates that it is an effective program in the prevention and delay of type II diabetes among Australian adults because it employs both primary and secondary preventive strategies.
  • Different Types of Diabetes Found in Different Countries After inventing a new and effective instrument that could easily and quickly detect the quantity of insulin and glucose in the body, the group decided to choose a company that symbolizes the instrument.
  • Ecological Models to Deal with Diabetes in Medicine Perceived benefits The objective is to analyze the perceptions of the community members in relation to the avoidance of the risk factors.
  • Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases in Medicine The aim is to enhance the impact of this intervention on individuals and on the society at large. General Concepts and Key Elements of the Program The planned strategy is a comprehensive undertaking in the […]
  • Diabetes: Symptoms, Treatment, and Prevention As a consequence, the amount of sugar in the blood is made to rise and this cause discomfort for the affected individuals.
  • Preventing the Proliferation Diabetes As a company that deals in the provision of diabetes supplies to the general public, Salehiya Medical can be described as an institution that is well poised to assist the general public when it comes […]
  • Diet and Nutrition: European Diabetes Also, it is tough to maintain a diet regiment, and it is one of the most significant issues that are present.
  • Diabetes Mellitus’ New Treatment: Principles and Process Destruction of beta cells in the islets is the cause of a decrease in the volume of insulin released from the pancreas.
  • Diabetes Care: Leadership and Strategy Plan Secondly, it can be because the cells of the body are not responding well to insulin. As a result, it will lead to decrease of the development of diabetes.
  • Diabetes Treatment and Funding in Fulton County The allocation of the financial resources available, however, leaves much to be desired, as the programs aimed at spreading awareness concerning the threats of diabetes, as well as the factors that enhance its development, do […]
  • Education for African Americans with Type 2 Diabetes The topic of the research is the influence of education on the life and patient care of African Americans with type 2 diabetes.
  • Diabetes Disease in the USA Adults The disease has become a burden to the city of Baltimore in the state of Maryland. The city has to reallocate billions of money to control the disease.
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Differential Diagnosis The most prominent aggravating factor for the condition is obesity, and the respective alleviating factor is a healthy weight. The most reliable indicators of the diagnosis are the elevated levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and a […]
  • Socioeconomic Status and Susceptibility to Type II Diabetes According to the findings of the World Health Organization, type II diabetes affects the lives of around 8 percent of adults around the globe. What are the primary causes of type II diabetes that are […]
  • Strongyloides Stercoralis Infection and Type 2 Diabetes The main focus of this study is not to prove the possibility of the relationship between the infection and the diagnosis, but rather to explain this relationship and facilitate a discussion to see if there […]
  • Obesity and Hypertension in Type 2 Diabetes Patients We should consider the body mass as a feature that plays one of the key roles in the deterrence and treatment of type 2 diabetes.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: Pathophysiology and Treatment The primary etiologies linked to the patient’s T2DM condition include morbid obesity and family history. The genetic factors implicated in T2DM pathogenesis relate to a family history of the disease.
  • Type II Diabetes Susceptibility and Socioeconomic Status As the focus is made on the correlation between socioeconomic status and susceptibility to type II diabetes, primary search requests were the following: socioeconomic status, causes of type II diabetes, socioeconomic status and diabetes mellitus, […]
  • Stem Cell Therapy and Diabetes Medical Research This type of diabetes is less common and only occurs during the early stage when the immune system of the body attacks and destroys cells that produce insulin in the pancreas.
  • Stem Cell Therapy as a Potential Cure for Diabetes The results of a specialized study by Chhabra and Brayman on the treatment of diabetes type 2, which makes 90% to 95% of the cases known globally, has shown that it is viable to treat […]
  • Cure for Diabetes: The Impossible Takes a Little Longer The synthesis of the existing information about the available options for diabetes treatment is crucial to a better understanding of the problem and the identification of the most promising routes that the further studies should […]
  • Pathophysiology of Mellitus and Insipidus Diabetes In case of diabetes mellitus, the hormone insulin is involved. Urine in the case of diabetes mellitus is of normal concentration although it is very dilute in diabetes insipidus.
  • Diabetes: Treatment Technology and Billing For instance, Kennedy, Runge, and Brown state that existing and future devices give patients an opportunity to send the gathered information to their smartphones and computers, which then can be shown to physicians and medical […]
  • Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes It is the reason Type 1 is known as juvenile diabetes, and it can affect the life of a growing child quite a bit and in many ways.
  • Future Technologies: Diabetes Treatment and Care Also, when it comes to the emotional and psychological needs of diabetic patients, these are the requirements that are beyond the capabilities of computers and robots.
  • Endocrine Disorders: Diabetes and Fibromyalgia The key difference from the previous type is that the pancreas of patients produces insulin, but the body cannot use it in a proper way.
  • Diabetes Among British Adults and Children Important to note, diabetes is one of the long-term conditions that have put the older population in the UK under the end of life care.
  • Chronic Care Model for Diabetes Patients in the UAE The purpose of this essay is to reflect on the use of the model by Mallow et al.and to evaluate the possibility of applying the same approach to review the implementation of mHealth to improve […]
  • Diabetes Patients’ Long-Term Care and Life Quality Since insulin resistance can be lowered through weight reduction which, in turn, decreases the severity of the condition, it is also often incorporated into the long-term care of patients with Type 2 diabetes.
  • Artificial Intelligence for Diabetes: Project Experiences At the end of this reflective practice report, I plan to recognize my strengths and weaknesses in terms of team-working on the project about AI in diabetic retinopathy detection and want to determine my future […]
  • Diabetes Care Advice by Food and Drug Administration This paper aims to discuss FDA recommendations, the role of money in health care, and the significance of family involvement in diagnosing and treating diabetes along with the laboratory studies and tests currently available and […]
  • Diabetes Investigation in Space Flight Research Collaboration with the Chinese space station program is a good way to facilitate experiments and research that were conducted as part of other space programs.
  • Diabetes in the US: Cost Effectiveness Analysis The paper is devoted to the investigation of the central features of the cost-effectiveness analysis on the background of the suggested case revolving around diabetes among the population of the USA.
  • Diabetes Mellitus and Problems at Work As such, the purpose of this essay is to identify and address the particular factors that would have to be considered in the course of an evaluation of Ms.G.’s work capabilities.
  • Clinical Studies of Diabetes Mellitus The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of group medical visits compared to individual medical visits on HbA1c levels among African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • Perception of Diabetes in the Hispanic Population Diabetes is also defined as one of the leading causes of death among the citizens of the United States. Despite the possibility to create certain measurements of this nursing research project, it is also required […]
  • Diabetes Pain Questionnaire and Patient Feedback Over time and depending on the severity of a particular case of diabetes, a form of nerve damage called neuropathy can actually occur resulting in either chronic pain in the toes, arms, legs, feet, or […]
  • Diabetes: Disease Control and Investigation The second type of diabetes is Type 2 diabetes. This is a condition that leads to the development of type 1 diabetes.
  • Diabetes Awareness Program and Strategic Planning One of the major strengths of the program will be a decrease in the development of the disorder as people will be able to pay close attention to their lifestyle, their health, and possible symptoms.
  • Transition from Pediatric to Adult Diabetes Care Such a project should help to clarify the evaluations and assessments to be performed in the future to improve the transition process and meet the needs and expectations of the patients and their families.
  • Diabetes Treatment and Care Chwastiak et al.state that the collaborative care model is a better option for patients with schizophrenia and diabetes when compared to usual care.
  • Diabetes Management Plan: Diagnosis and Development The purpose of this paper is to analyze the provided subjective and objective information to diagnose and develop a management plan for the patient in the case study.
  • Diabetes as Community Health Issue in the Bronx The community of the Bronx is diverse, and people living in the area have many health-related issues that need to be addressed. The prevalence of the Black population in the Bronx is higher than that […]
  • Ambition Diabetes and Diet on Macbeths’ Example The man kills his kinsman, Duncan, because he wants to be a king but understands that he is suspected of this crime.
  • Cardiovascular Care in Type 2 Diabetes Patients The cardiovascular benefits of GLP-1 receptor agonists can be identified in order to support more T2DM patients and make it easier for them to achieve their potential.
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Bronx Project for Social Change The present paper will discuss the contribution of the project to social justice and social change, as well as the health scholar-practitioners’ role in promoting positive change in healthcare.
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Bronx: Evidence-Based Practice A program that promotes health through dietary change should address the socioeconomic specificities of communities in the Bronx by offering educational classes that provide affordable alternatives to unhealthy but cheap foods.
  • Type 2 Diabetes From Cultural and Genetic Aspects Adults in the age range from 45 to 64 years are one of the most affected populations because the possibility of developing type 2 diabetes increases significantly after the age of 45.
  • Type 2 Diabetes in the Afro-American Bronx Community Currently, the problem of type 2 diabetes is considered to be an epidemic in the United States, and this issue has a significant impact on the African American community of the Bronx.
  • Type 2 Diabetes as a Public Health Issue In recent years, a steady increase in the incidence and prevalence of diabetes is observed in almost all countries of the world.
  • Diabetes in Australia: Analysis Australia is one of the countries where the rates of diabetes are among the highest, with the number of patients having reached 159,000,000 in 2017 and continuing to grow at an alarming 15% rate.
  • Diabetes in Urban Cities of United States Diabetes mellitus is one of the common metabolic disorders affecting many citizens in the United States and across the globe. Another possible explanation for the increasing levels of diabetes in urban areas is the absence […]
  • Obesity: Epidemiology and Health Consequences By understanding the well-known factors such as physical activity and diet, and less examined factors such as neighbourhood environment, one can explore the impact of obesity on society and health and develop strategies to prevent […]
  • Latent Autoimmune Adult Diabetes LADA is latent autoimmune diabetes in adults, the symptoms and initial course of which are consistent with the clinical picture of diabetes 2, but the etiology is closer to diabetes 1.
  • Diabetes Education for African American Women The present paper aims to identify health promotion and disease prevention issues specific to the selected group and develop a plan of teaching for these females.
  • Nursing Leadership in Diabetes Management This requires enhanced care on the part of the nursing staff, which, in turn, necessitates effective nursing leadership and active participation of nurses decision-making for the prevention and management of diabetes.
  • Diabetes Mellitus and Health Determinants The complexity of diabetes mellitus lies in the fact that the determinants of the condition are wide, especially given the family history component contributing to the increased risks.
  • Type 2 Diabetes and Drug Treatments After type 2 diabetes is detected, the drug therapy can start with Metformin, a medication that lowers glucose production and increases the sensitivity of the body to insulin.
  • Side Effects of Metformin in Diabetes Treatment The purpose of this paper is to explore the use of various databases, knowledge, and wisdom to perform and interpret research.
  • Diabetes Impact on Cardiovascular and Nervous Systems Diabetes is one of the commonest conditions affecting many people in different parts of the world. The first type is also called “juvenile diabetes” and it occurs when the body of an individual is incapable […]
  • Improving Comprehensive Care for Patients With Diabetes Next, the results of the tests will be turned into HbA1c control measure, and patients will be further separated into a number of categories.
  • Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus The onset of diabetes insipidus is caused by the dysfunctional hypothalamic-pituitary system, while diabetes mellitus is connected to issues with the endocrine pancreas.
  • Diabetes Self-Management: Relationships & Expectations In their study, Purcell and Cutchen indicated three types of interventions to assess the needs of African Americans for managing diabetes, including the role of a person, family, and support groups or neighborhoods.
  • Cultural Empowerment. Diabetes in Afro-Americans In general, cultural empowerment through positive, existential, and negative beliefs is a good opportunity to understand the cultural anthropology of health and medicine.
  • Type 2 Diabetes and Geriatric Evidence-Based Care The prognosis, or prediction, the template is used by nurses to determine the dynamic pattern of treatment and potential complications of the patient’s condition.
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Geriatric Patients The traditional model of healthcare failed to provide accessible treatment of diabetes to vulnerable elderly patients due to the shortage of endocrinologists and the high cost of the services.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Project Results Dissemination While the international community agrees that clinicians are to be provided with the best available evidence to deliver high-quality care, the means of transferring the knowledge to front-line employees remains a matter of discussion.
  • Diabetes and Health Promotion Concepts The list of determinants and their relation to the disease is as follows: Income and social status: Treatment of diabetes requires time and money to treat properly.
  • Type 2 Diabetes: Nursing Change Project The former have to take time away from their other patients, and the latter have to travel to the clinic and wait to be assessed.
  • “Experiences of Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Starting Insulin Therapy” by Phillips The title is accurate enough since it describes the diagnostic area of focus, the stage at which patients are, and the fact that the study means to be no more than descriptive.
  • Diabetes Prevention in Chinese Elderly in Hunan The source is therefore essential for pointing out the fact that elderly patients in rural areas do not have sufficient resources and education necessary to ensure the effective management of diabetes.
  • Health, Culture, and Identity as Diabetes Treatment Factors The goal is to overview diabetes among the African American population with available statistics and implications for health and describe the population’s cultural identity using the PEN-3 model in the study of Purcell and Cutchen.
  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Case The physical examination revealed that the facial muscles are paralyzed from the right side of the face. A dependable test in terms of revealing low functioning of the thyroid gland is the determination of TSH […]
  • Diabetes Type 2 in Children: Causes and Effects Diabetes type 2 is a disease that occurs when the body does not respond to insulin normally, leading to the rise of a sugar level.
  • Diabetes Self-Management: Evidence-Based Nursing The article by Seley and Weinger, improving diabetes self management attempts to address the possible barriers to patient education and the role of the nurse in assisting the patient to manage diabetes.
  • Is There Anu Cure For Diabetes? It is characterized by inappropriately high blood sugar which is the result of either low level of the hormone insulin or of abnormal resistance to insulin’s effects. The cure for this diabetes type is the […]
  • Depression and Diabetes Association in Adults The primary goal of their research was to study the association of depression and diabetes with some risk factors, including smoking and obesity in adults in the following racial and ethnic groups: American Indians and […]
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Symptoms, Types, Effects Insulin is the hormone that controls the levels of glucose in the blood, and when the pancreas releases it, immediately the high levels are controlled, like after a meal.
  • Panax Ginseng for Diabetes Treatment The main objective of the research is to compare the effectiveness of the herb with western medicines in the treatment of diabetes by investigating the right dosage.
  • A Clinical-Based Study of Young Adults Who Have Diabetes Research data indicates most victims believe that diabetes mellitus also known as type 2 diabetes is greatly caused by the presence of the disease in the family history, high intake of food rich in sugar […]
  • Stranahan on Diabetes Impairs Hippocampal Function The increasing prevalence of diabetes mellitus due to the sedentary lifestyles and high-calorie diets of the modern world and enhanced longevity is significant in that the risks of depression, dementia and cognitive decline is heightened.
  • Diabetes: Discussion of the Disease There are also millions of people who are suffering of pre diabetes a condition in which the blood sugar level is higher than normal but not as high as in patients of diabetes.
  • Current Dietary for the Treatment of Diabetes Diabetes patients present with very different management problems and unraveling the specific factors which are contributing to the individual’s difficulty controlling weight and cholesterol and insulin level, and which of these factors it is feasible […]
  • Diabetes: Encapsulation to Treat a Disease Therefore, the objective of this description was to propose a study for treating diabetes with special emphasis on islet cell encapsulation and the related aspects of tissue engineering.
  • Modern Diabetes Treatment Tools Diabetes technologies, historically divided into blood glucose level measurement and insulin delivery instrumentalities, are the terms to describe all kinds of devices and software that help patients with diabetes to control their glycemic level, prevent […]
  • Canagliflozin and Cardiovascular and Renal Events in Type 2 Diabetes: Medical Terminology Definition Vascular is another term that can be found in the article as a separate word and as a part of a word.
  • Dubai Diabetes… We Care: Leaflet Review Using the Flesh formula, it can be concluded that the leaflet has a good level of readability, but it can be improved in case it is shorter because a few sections of it are better […]
  • Managing Type 2 Diabetes Patients’ Blood Sugar Prior to and After Surgical Procedures This paper reviews the literature on the management of blood sugar levels in patients with type 2 diabetes before and after surgery.
  • Type 1 Diabetes: Using Glucose Monitoring in Treatment Type 1 diabetes refers to a chronic condition when the pancreas fails to produce insulin, thus hindering the transfer of glucose from the blood to cells.
  • Interpretation of the Diabetes Interview Transcript Therefore, the analysis and interpretation of the interview transcript of a patient with type 1 diabetes would highlight their perceptions and the capacity to undertake self-management strategies.
  • Indigenous and Torres Strait Population and Diabetes Before any conclusions regarding its efficacy can be made, this paper will present a discussion on Type 2 diabetes, the socioeconomic factors that influence the Indigenous population, the Social Determinants of Health, the Chronic Care […]
  • The Type 2 Diabetes Prevention: Lifestyle Choices Since the patient has indicated that she does not have enough time and moral power to facilitate a change in her physical activity and dietary choices, an educational program can be a good option for […]
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Revealing the Diagnosis The patient exhibited the classic indications of type 2 diabetes, namely, polyphagia, polydipsia, and polyuria that have been occurring for the last 3 months. The patient had a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes, obesity, a […]
  • Type 2 Diabetes Treatment Analysis That is why this assignment will comment on type 2 diabetes’ effect on morbidities, life expectancy, health care cost, and how it is necessary to address this disease.
  • Children With Type 1 Diabetes in Clinical Practice The study is presented in the context of T1D current treatment procedures, and behavioral aspects of care for these children. Previous research findings concerning the population of young children with T1D are reviewed in the […]
  • High Risk of Developing Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus The primary goal of the teaching is the changes in participants’ behavioral patterns and lifestyle to reduce the risks for comorbidities and complications that might follow from the mismanagement of diabetes mellitus.
  • Physical Activity in Managing Type-2 Diabetes These studies, medical professionals, and health organizations worldwide include physical activity as a primary recommendation for the prevention and management of type-2 diabetes.
  • The Diagnosis of Diabetes in Older Adults and Adolescents This vague description and the lack of a coherent disease prevention plan contributed to the feeling of uncertainty. Therefore, it is vital to implement programs that address the needs of youth with type 1 diabetes.
  • Glycemic Control in Individuals With Type 2 Diabetes The introduction is comprehensive in content and begins by explaining the basis of the study due to the significant levels of depression encountered in the diabetic population of the United States.
  • The Relationship of Type 2 Diabetes and Depression Type 2 diabetes is generally recognized as an imbalance between insulin sensitivity and beta cell function We have chosen a rural area in Wisconsin where we can focus our study and select a group of […]
  • Diabetes Type II Disease in the Community NIDDM is due to the insensitivity of the glucose-sensing mechanism of the beta cells, and in obese patients, there is a decrease in the number of insulin receptors on the cell membrane of muscle and […]
  • Diabetes Mellitus Effects on Periodontal Disease 1 Anatomy of the tooth The tooth is embedded in and attached to the alveolar process of the mandible. However, the damage of the periodontal ligaments in PD, may lead to the expansion of the […]
  • Gestational Diabetes: Child Bearing Experience Insulin resistance in GDM is likely to be the result of a combination of lifestyle factors and the insulin-desensitizing effect of chorionic gonadotrophins.
  • Health Promotion: Diabetes Mellitus and Comorbidities This offers a unique challenge in the management of diabetes and other chronic diseases; the fragmented healthcare system that is geared towards management of short-term medical emergencies often is not well prepared for the patient […]
  • Gestational Diabetes: American Diabetes Association Publishers It is of importance to note that, the diagnosis of gestational diabetes includes the consumption of a cautiously considered diet; having a lot of exercises, upholding a vigorous pregnancy weight, observing glucose levels and dairy […]
  • Impact of Diabetes on Healthcare Diabetes has become a major health problem in the United States and other parts of the world in recent times owing to the changing trends in the predisposing factors.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Management in the Elderly Diabetes mellitus is a health complication involving an increase in the concentration in the concentration of blood sugar either due to a failure by cells to effectively respond to the production of insulin in the […]
  • Diabetes Prevention Measures in the Republic of the Marshall Islands The connection between the guiding principles developed in the program and the outcomes of the research is vague, given that these guidelines represent the answer to the question of how information can be used.
  • Qualitative Research in Diabetes Management in Elderly Patient To achieve the research aim, which is to find out the causes of diabetes among elderly people, the researcher will have to organize the research team.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 or Non-Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus A small percentage of these individuals suffer from both types of the disorder while about 54 million people show blood sugar levels that are indicative of pre-diabetes.
  • Diabetes: The Advantages and Disadvantages of Point of Care Testing It is important to first define the meaning of diabetes and point of care testing before determining the advantages and limitations of point of care testing.
  • Diabetes in Australia and Saudi Arabia Most importantly, the essay begins with a background analysis of diabetes prevalence in Australia and Middle East as well as the Pathophysiology of the disease.
  • Community Health Promotion: The Fight Against Diabetes in a Community Setting Applying principles of community-based health promotion it is important to focus on Type 2 diabetes and the people that are prone to acquiring this medical condition.
  • Enhancing Foot Care Practices in Patients With Diabetes The content of the article describes how comprehensive education of patients on management of diabetes mellitus and foot care practices are central in the prevention of diabetic foot and amputation of lower limbs.
  • Supportive Intervention in the Control of Diabetes Mellitus The Seventh Global Conference on Health Promotion revealed three concepts of health promotion and prevention, which are pertinent to this discussion.
  • Social, Behavioral, and Psychosocial Causes of Diseases: Type 2 Diabetes Since glucose in the body is derived from the foods that are converted and stored in the liver, it is important the social eating habits of most individuals be controlled to regulate body weight; indeed, […]
  • Diabetes Type II: Hormonal Mechanism and Intracellular Effects of Insulin The body resisting the impact of insulin as well as producing less insulin to maintain normal glucose levels characterizes the condition.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type 2: The Family Genetic History This paper aims at analyzing family genetic history of a family, evaluating the impact of the family history on an adult participant’s health and planning a future wellness change to promote the wellness of the […]
  • Diabetes Management: Diagnostics and Treatment To address the prevalence of diabetes, the government, members of the public, and the physicians must work together to find and implement appropriate measures to end the consequences of the diseases.
  • Diabetes Management: How Lifestyle, Daily Routine Affect Blood Sugar Diabetes leads to the development of illnesses that affect the vigor and day-to-day activities of patients. In order to improve the management of diabetes, it is important to educate patients on effective management practices.
  • Health Nursing and Managing Diabetes The practice will equip more patients with the best ideas and initiatives to deal with diabetes. The completed study will provide the best practices and evidence-based ideas to help patients with diabetes type II.
  • Childhood Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has continued to increase among children suffering from obesity. There has been a significant increase in the number of children suffering from T2DM.
  • Impact of Diabetes on the United Arab Emirates’ Economy Hence, the assessment of the direct costs and indirect costs illustrates the impact of diabetes on the economy of the UAE.
  • Obesity and Diabetes: The Enemies Within In modern sedentary life, there is sufficient food hence the gene poses a shortcoming as it predisposes people to the development of obesity and diabetes.
  • The Treatment and Management of Diabetes These clinical trials confirmed that nutrition and lifestyle interventions play a central role in the treatment and management of diabetes; type I and type II diabetes mellitus.
  • Critical Analysis of Policy for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Australia The Australian government has come with the following policies to respond to diabetes mellitus type 2, putting in mind the demographic, social and cultural needs of the indigenous communities.
  • Diabetes Management and Evidence-Based Practice Diabetes is a state of glucose intolerance that requires the management of blood glucose. Good glycemic control ensures that the level of glucose in a diabetic patient is maintained at levels similar to that of […]
  • Alcohol Interaction With Medication: Type 2 Diabetes EM is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and the doctor advises him to take the prescribed drugs, but to keep of alcohol, due to its negative reactionary effects with medications.
  • Fats and Proteins in Relation to Type 2 Diabetes Diabetes type 2 is a chronic condition that alters metabolism of blood sugar in the body of an individual. Insensitivity to insulin is the main cause of diabetes type 2.
  • Prince Georges County Community Health Concern: Diabetes As indicated in the results of the 2010 United States Census, the Prince Georges County hosts a population of 863,420. The City of Lauderdale has a predominant population of the African American, Hispanic, and the […]
  • Diabetes Mellitus and HFSON Conceptual Framework The characteristics and symptoms of diabetes mellitus include loss of vision, weight loss, and thirst. The classification of diabetes includes type 1, 2, and gestational diabetes mellitus.
  • Rates Diabetes Between Hispanics Males and Females An increase in the period that one spends in the US correlates with the chances of developing the disease. In this context, all the levels would be used to address the high prevalence rates of […]
  • Hispanics Are More Susceptible to Diabetes That Non-Hispanics This trend is persistent to date, and is the reason behind the prevalence of diabetes among Hispanics. The condition of the environments in which Hispanics live also adds increases their susceptibility to diabetes.
  • Community Health Advocacy Project: Hispanics With Diabetes Statistics clearly show that age, gender, socio-economic status, and weight management are some of the key factors that affect the distribution of type-2 diabetes amongst the Hispanics.
  • Community Health Advocacy Project: Diabetes Among Hispanics It will be important to evaluate the performance of the intervention plan in order to determine how appropriate it is in addressing the identified problem.
  • Diabetes II: Reduction in the Incidence The main purpose of this study is to determine the relevance of change in lifestyle as a way of fighting type II diabetes.
  • Counseling and Education Session in Type II Diabetes Patients will be educated about the glycemic index and its effect on their blood sugar Patients will learn to count their carbohydrates. Patients will set up their goal and the timeframe to achieve it.
  • Treating of Diabetes in Adults Researchers focus on the development of a management approach that not only influences the effective management of the disorder but a strategy that also reduces the cost of managing the disorder.
  • Diabetes, Functions of Insulin, and Preventive Practices The article is very informative and it gives the reader enough information to understand diabetes’ definition and its effects on the body.
  • Managing Diabetes Through Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering refers to the alteration of genetic make-up of an organism through the use of techniques to introduce a new DNA or eliminate a given hereditable material. What is the role of genetic engineering […]
  • Diabetes as a Chronic Condition What are the common causes of diabetes? H1: Many people are aware of diabetes, its susceptibility, causes, and preventive measures.
  • Epidemiological Problem: Diabetes in Illinois In this paper, the focus is on the evaluation of diabetes in Cook County in the State of Illinois. The following is a graph representing the diabetes trends in the Cook County as compared to […]
  • Diabetes and Obesity in The United Arab Emirates As illustrated in Figure 1, by the year 2014 diabetes and obesity rates in the GCC countries have exceeded the ones in the USA. The pancreas is gland in the upper part of the abdomen […]
  • Educational Strategies for Diabetes to Patients The educational strategy needs to be two-sided, implying that not only the patients, but also the nurses, dietitians, and health-care professionals need to be educated on how to communicate with the patients in simple terms, […]
  • Holistic Image in Prevention of Diabetes The holistic approach implies the use of a set of strategies to prevent the development of the disorder. As far as the lifestyle-related strategies are concerned, it is necessary to note that one of the […]
  • Holistic Approach to Man’s Health: Diabetes Prevention The analysis of the options and limits related to applying the holistic approach to prevention of diabetes reveals that the number of people suffering from this disease can reduce if people are aware of the […]
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Prominent Metabolic Disorder
  • Gestational Diabetes in a Pregnant Woman
  • Psychosocial Implications of Diabetes Management
  • Diabetes as the Scourge of the 21st Century: Locating the Solution
  • Coronary Heart Disease Aggravated by Type 2 Diabetes and Age
  • Nursing Care Development Plan for Diabetes and Hypertension
  • Nursing Care For the Patient With Diabetes
  • Nursing Diagnosis: Type 1 Diabetes & Hypertension
  • Healthy People Project: Personal Review About Diabetes
  • 52-Year-Old Female Patient With Type II Diabetes
  • Health and Wellness: Stress, Diabetes and Tobacco Related Problems
  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus – NSW, Australia
  • The Benefits of Sharing Knowledge About Diabetes With Physicians
  • Necrotizing Fasciitis: Pathophysiology, Role of Diabetes
  • Health Service Management of Diabetes
  • Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Review
  • The Scientific Method of Understanding if Coffee Can Impact Diabetes
  • Enhancing Health Literacy for People With Type 2 Diabetes
  • Using Exenatide as Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults
  • Synthesizing the Data From Relative Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes
  • The Connection Between Diabetes and Consuming Red Meat
  • Reinforcing Nutrition in Schools to Reduce Diabetes and Childhood Obesity
  • Diabetes: Diagnosis and Related Prevention & Treatment Measures
  • Clinical Trial of Diabetes Mellitus
  • Type 2 Diabetes Analysis
  • How to Manage Type 2 Diabetes
  • Diabetes: Diagnosis and Treatment
  • Adult-Onset Type 2 Diabetes: Patient’s Profile
  • Hypertension and Antihypertensive Therapy and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
  • Childhood Obesity, Diabetes and Heart Problems
  • The Problem of Diabetes Among African Americans
  • Leadership in Diabetes Management
  • Diabetes Evidence-Based Project: Disseminating Results
  • Patient with Ataxia and Diabetes Mellitus
  • Type 2 Diabetes Management in Gulf Countries
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Pathophysiologic Processes
  • Juvenile Diabetes: Demographics, Statistics and Risk Factors
  • Health Issues of Heart Failure and Pediatric Diabetes
  • The Role of Telenursing in the Management of Diabetes Type 1
  • Diabetes Risk Assessment
  • Imperial Diabetes Center Field Study
  • A Study of Juvenile Type 1 Diabetes in the Northwest of England
  • The Nature of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
  • Diabetes Insipidus: Disease Process With Implications for Healthcare Professionals
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type II: A Case of a Female Adult Patient
  • Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus
  • Nursing Plan for the Patient with Diabetes Type 2, HTN, and CAD
  • Diabetes Type 2 from Management Viewpoint
  • Communication Challenges Between Nurses and Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
  • The Minority Diabetes Initiative Act’s Analysis
  • Diabetes Problem at Country Walk Community: Intervention and Evaluation
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Types, Causes, Presentation, Treatment, and Examination
  • Current Recommendations for the Glycemic Control in Diabetes
  • Pregnant Women with Type I Diabetes: COVID-19 Disease Management
  • Diabetes and Hypertension Avoiding Recommendations
  • Living with a Chronic Disease: Diabetes and Asthma
  • Global and Societal Implications of the Diabetes Epidemic
  • Nutrition and Physical Activity for Children With a Diabetes
  • “Medical Nutrition Therapy: A Key to Diabetes Management and Prevention” Article Analysis
  • Diabetes in Saudi Arabia
  • What to Know About Diabetes?
  • Diabetes: Epidemiologic Study Design
  • Diabetes Issues: Insulin Price and Unaffordability
  • Addressing the Needs of Hispanic Patients With Diabetes
  • Parental Intervention on Self-Management of an Adolescent With Diabetes
  • Pathogenesis and Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension
  • Diabetes: Epidemiological Analysis
  • Diabetes and Its Economic Effect on Healthcare
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and a Healthy Lifestyle Relationship
  • Relation Between Diabetes And Nutrition
  • Diabetes and Medical Intervention
  • Insulin Effects in a Diabetes Person
  • Summary of Type 2 Diabetes: A Pharmacologic Update
  • Teaching Experience: Diabetes Prevention
  • Diabetes Prevention in the United States
  • Diabetes: Vulnerability, Resilience, and Care
  • Type 2 Diabetes and Its Treatment
  • Type 2 Diabetes: A Pharmacologic Update
  • Type 1 Diabetes: Recommendations for Alternative Drug Treatments
  • Pre-diabetes and Urinary Incontinence
  • The Relationship Between Diabetes and COVID-19
  • Depression in Diabetes Patients
  • Diabetes Mellitus as Leading Cause of Disability
  • Intervention Methods for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
  • Diabetes Management: Case Study
  • The Centers for Diabetes’ Risks Assessment
  • Diets to Prevent Heart Disease, Cancer, and Diabetes
  • Video Consultations Between Patients and Clinicians in Diabetes, Cancer, and Heart Failure Services
  • Person-Centered Strategy of Diabetes and Dementia Care
  • The Trend of the Higher Prevalence of Diabetes
  • Diabetes Disease of the First and Second Types
  • “Diabetes Prevention in U.S. Hispanic Adults” by McCurley et al.
  • The Impact of Vegan and Vegetarian Diets on Diabetes
  • Nursing: Self-Management of Type II Diabetes
  • Analysis of Diabetes and Its Huge Effects
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Adolescents
  • Diabetes and Allergies: A Statistical Check
  • An Advocacy Tool for Diabetes Care in the US
  • Improving Adherence to Diabetes Treatment in Primary Care Settings
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Minorities: Research Questions
  • Ethics of Type 2 Diabetes Prevalence in Minorities
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Minorities from Cultural Perspective
  • Mobile App for Improved Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes
  • “The Diabetes Online Community” by Litchman et al.
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Preventive Measures
  • Diabetes Risk Assessment and Prevention
  • Health Education for Female African Americans With Diabetes
  • Type 2 Diabetes Prescriptions and Interventions
  • Diabetes: Statistics, Disparities, Therapies
  • PDSA in Diabetes Prevention
  • Case Study of Patient with DKA and Diabetes Mellitus
  • Healthy Lifestyle Interventions in Comorbid Asthma and Diabetes
  • Diabetes Mellitus Care Coordination
  • Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support Program
  • Latino People and Type 2 Diabetes
  • Disease Management for Diabetes Mellitus
  • Diabetes Tracker Device and Its Advantages
  • Diabetes Interventions in Children
  • Type 2 Diabetes Health Issue and Exercise
  • Exploring Glucose Tolerance and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
  • Control of LDL Cholesterol Levels in Patients, Gestational Diabetes Mellitus
  • A Healthcare Issue of Diabetes Mellitus
  • Diabetes Mellitus in Young Adults
  • Diabetes Mellitus (DM) Disorder Case Study Analysis
  • Diabetes in Adults in Oxfordshire
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Causes and Health Challenges
  • Evidence Synthesis Assignment: Prevention of Diabetes and Its Complications
  • Diabetes Prevention as a Change Project
  • Diabetes Mellitus as Problem in US Healthcare
  • Type 2 Diabetes in Hispanic Americans
  • The Diabetes Prevention Articles by Ford and Mathe
  • A Type 2 Diabetes Quantitative Article Critique
  • A Diabetes Quantitative Article Analysis
  • Type 2 Diabetes: Prevention and Education
  • Uncontrolled Type 2 Diabetes and Depression Treatment
  • The Prevention of Diabetes and Its Consequences on the Population
  • Obesity and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2
  • Communicating the Issue of Diabetes
  • The Aboriginal Diabetes Initiative in Canada
  • Epidemiology of Diabetes and Forecasted Trends
  • Type 2 Diabetes’ Impact on Australian Society
  • Diabetes: Types and Management
  • Diabetes: Symptoms and Risk Factors
  • Human Service for Diabetes in Late Adulthood
  • Diagnosing Patient with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes
  • Diabetes Mellitus: Treatment Methods
  • Health Equity Regarding Type 2 Diabetes
  • Hereditary Diabetes Prevention With Lifestyle Modification
  • Barriers to Engagement in Collaborative Care Treatment of Uncontrolled Diabetes
  • Diabetes: Risk Factors and Effects
  • Epidemiology: Type II Diabetes in Hispanic Americans
  • Why Injury and Diabetes Have Been Identified as National Health Priority?
  • What Factors Are Involved in the Increasing Prevalence of Type II Diabetes in Adolescents?
  • Does the Socioeconomic Position Determine the Incidence of Diabetes?
  • What Are the Four Types of Diabetes?
  • How Fat and Obesity Cause Diabetes?
  • How Exercise Affects Type 2 Diabetes?
  • How Does the Treatment With Insulin Affect Type 2 Diabetes?
  • How Diabetes Does Cause Depression?
  • Does Diabetes Prevention Pay For Itself?
  • How Does Snap Participation Affect Rates of Diabetes?
  • Does Overeating Sugar Cause Diabetes, Cavities, Acne, Hyperactivity and Make You Fat?
  • Why Diabetes Mellitus and How It Affects the United States?
  • Does Alcohol Decrease the Risk of Diabetes?
  • How Does a Person With Diabetes Feel?
  • Does Periodontal Inflammation Affect Type 1 Diabetes in Childhood and Adolescence?
  • How Can the Paleolithic Diet Control Type 2 Diabetes?
  • How Does Insulin Help Diabetes Be Controlled?
  • Does Economic Status Matter for the Regional Variation of Malnutrition-Related Diabetes?
  • How Can Artificial Intelligence Technology Be Used to Treat Diabetes?
  • What Are the Main Causes and Treatments of Diabetes?
  • What Evidence Exists for Treatments Depression With Comorbid Diabetes Using Traditional Chinese Medicine and Natural Products?
  • Why Was Qualitative Method Chosen for Diabetes Program Evaluation?
  • What Are the Three Types of Diabetes?
  • How Does Poverty Affect Diabetes?
  • What Is the Leading Cause of Diabetes?
  • How Is Diabetes Diagnosed?
  • What Are the Main Symptoms of Diabetes?
  • How Diabetes Adversely Affects Your Body?
  • What Are the Most Common Symptoms of Undiagnosed Diabetes?
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257 Diabetes Essay Topics, Research Questions, & Presentation Titles

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder in which the body doesn’t make enough insulin or react properly to this hormone. There are two types of it: type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which the pancreas doesn’t produce insulin, while type 2 occurs when cells do not respond to insulin the way they should.

If you’re looking for diabetes-related research topics, you’re at the right place! StudyCorgi has prepared a list of interesting diabetes thesis topics, presentation titles, and essay ideas to write about. Read on to discover the most engaging diabetes project titles and research questions!

🏆 Best Essay Topics on Diabetes

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  • Improving Diabetes Lifestyle Diabetes is one of the health conditions affecting many people in different corners of the world. Individuals and family members affected by the condition should lead healthy lives.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Discussion Diabetes mellitus type 1, normally known as Type 1 Diabetes, is a type of diabetes that is caused by the lack of insulin resulting from the destruction of insulin-producing cells.
  • “Prandial Inhaled Insulin Plus Basal Insulin Glargine Versus Twice Daily Biaspart Insulin for Type 2 Diabetes: A Multicentre Randomised Trial”: Article Review The article under consideration dwells upon effectiveness of prandial inhaled insulin and basal insulin glargine compared to biaspart insulin used for treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 Diabetes mellitus type 2 is a chronic disorder which is common in people over 60. Nonetheless, the disorder is also becoming common in younger generations.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Integrated Management The paper defines critical positioning of the study in diabetes treatment history, discusses the study results, and gives clinical implications of integrated diabetes treatment.
  • Overweight Diabetes Patients With Cardiovascular Risk Diabetes affects people’s well-being adversely that is why professionals do their best to educate their patients regarding this issue.
  • Type 2 Diabetes: Disease Process and Screening The disease process selected for this assignment is type 2 diabetes. It was chosen because, among all the cases of diabetic known to modern medicine, this type is the most common.
  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Adolescents While type 2 diabetes associated with middle-aged and older patients is of more frequent occurrence, type 1 diabetes is rarer and predominates among younger people.
  • Diabetes and Dementia Relationships and Nursing The article discusses the possible links between the two illnesses, as well as the risk of developing one of the conditions when already having the other.
  • Diabetes and Possible Interventions This paper delves into diabetes’ peculiarities and the impact food habits might have on the development of the disease as this issue is crucial for the health of the nation.
  • Vitamin D Deficiency and Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 This research investigates if adult patients with vitamin D deficiency are at increased risk for diabetes mellitus type 2 compared with patients who have no deprivation of vitamin.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Type II: Diagnosis and Treatment Type II diabetes is caused by a combination of amplified tissue struggle to insulin, scarce insulin emission, or the surplus secretion of glucagon.
  • Diabetes in American Adolescents and Its Effects The purpose of this research paper is to establish the quantifiable effects of diabetes among adolescents in the US.
  • The Most Acute Problems With Patients With Diabetes One of the most widespread diseases among diabetics is cardiovascular disease. It appears since blood vessels become more rigid and easily get damaged.
  • Food Diversion as a Type-2 Diabetes Treatment This research paper examines its potential use for the treatment of type-2 diabetes in patients within the previously stipulated BMI range.
  • Diabetes and Its Economic Cost in the United States Governments in developing nations should lobby for resources from developed economies to deliver inexpensively and quality care to diabetes patients.
  • Diabetes Mellitus Patients and Supporting Resources Diabetes mellitus is a dangerous disease that affects the health outcomes. This discussion identifies three major resources that can support more patients with diabetes mellitus.
  • Types of Diabetes Mellitus: Role of Insulin Diabetes mellitus can be discussed as a metabolic disorder of a complex character, which is associated with hyperglycaemia.
  • Type II Diabetes: Patient Case Study The patient in the case study is 48 years old and utilizes cassia cinnamon to treat her Type II Diabetes, as well as ginseng as a remedy for her memory issues.
  • Treatment and Advances in Diabetes The problem investigated in the research is dedicated to the study of one of the ways of performing glycemic control.
  • Wound Care Tests in Diabetes Despite years of research and consistent data gathering, diabetes remains the disease with an incredibly high death toll.
  • Diabetes: Country Walk Community’s Health Problem Diabetes has been considered as the most serious community’s health problem due to associated risk factors that include obesity, high blood pressure, and ethnic beliefs.
  • Diabetes Treatment: Computer-Based Intervention A computer-based intervention aimed at improving self-management skills among adult patients with diabetes is the focus of research conducted by Pal et al.
  • Diabetic Nutritional Plan For a 15-Year-Old Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Patient Diabetic nutritional plan for a 15-year-old type 1 diabetes mellitus patient suggests having three meals and two snacks between them.
  • Using Dulaglutide in the Treatment of Patients with Diabetes Type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the diseases the prevalence of which continues to rise all around the world. It is confirmed to be a burden for patients because of increasing treatment costs.
  • Prevention and Management of Type 2 Diabetes The proposed paper will be based on the following hypothesis: meaningful changes in lifestyle are helpful for preventing type 2 diabetes.
  • Patients With Diabetes and Concomitant Diseases’ Risk Patients with strict BP control have lower chances to have stroke or any heart complication caused by diabetes.
  • Diabetes Genetic Risks in Diagnostics The introduction of the generic risks score in the diagnosis of diabetes has a high potential for use in the correct classification based on a particular type of diabetes.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Adults Type 2 diabetes is a current-day epidemic. Affecting more than 370 million adults worldwide (26 million people in the United States), it is one of the most critical health issues.
  • Chronic Disease: Diabetes Mellitus To provide the best management and treatment of diabetes and DKD, a Diabetes Self-Management Education Program (DSME) has been implemented.
  • Diabetes Patient and Holistic Nursing Intervention The nurse-led diabetes intervention and care management is an effective method of treatment for the acute problems caused by the illness and prevention of the adverse outcomes.
  • Diabetes and Status among Immigrants in California This paper investigates the relationship between the socioeconomic status of immigrants in California and the prevalence rates of diabetes.
  • Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in China The study by He et al. provides evidence suggesting that actions for improving health system performance can be taken to better manage DM patients in China.
  • Diabetes Among Hispanics in Miami: Risk Factors Diabetes is one of the most severe health-related threats in the world, as well as the USA. Hispanics develop diabetes due to their eating habits and sedentary life.
  • Risk Assessment Models for Diabetes Complications Red was diagnosed with diabetes six months ago and started taking medications, but three weeks ago the doctor changed the treatment to insulin injections.
  • Diabetes in Evidence-Based Nursing Practice The paper analyzes “Diabetic Foot Ulcer: An Evidence-Based Treatment Update” and “Assessment of Diabetes-Related Knowledge among Nursing Staff in a Hospital Setting”.
  • Prevention or Delay of Type 2 Diabetes Regardless of the critical role of genetic specificities in determining predisposition to type 2 diabetes, the influence of lifestyle is as well significant.
  • Weight Gain, Atherosclerosis, Diabetes Relationship This study explores the relationships between symptoms of metabolic syndrome, excessive weight gain, atherosclerosis, and intensive diabetes treatment.
  • Diabetes 2 Complications: Neuropathy and Retinopathy Neuropathy and retinopathy are dangerous complications of Type 2 Diabetes, and the providers need to choose alternative agents for diabetes treatment.
  • Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Patient Teaching Elderly males suffering from HBP and diabetes should be instructed to perform the basic self-assessment operations: checking blood pressure and monitoring blood glucose levels.
  • Type II Diabetes in Evidence-Based Pharmacology In this paper, diabetes mellitus (DM type 2) will be reviewed through a synthesis of relevant information about its pathophysiology, genomic issues, diagnosis, and treatment.
  • Type II Diabetes Treatment Patient’s main clinical problem is Type II Diabetes. This disease influences the level of glucose and sugar in the blood. In addition, she is overweighed.
  • Diabetes Diagnosis and Classification The adult participant is at risk of developing type 2 diabetes due to the prevalence of this disease in his family.
  • Chronic Fatigue in Diabetes Patients with diabetes require particular attention due to the complexity of this disease. The nurse should understand that patients with this illness are likely to have emotional outbursts.
  • Diabetes Interventions for Aging African Americans Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a disease that affects the quality of life of many people. In this paper, aging African Americans with T2DM will be chosen as a focus group.
  • Metformin for Type 2 Diabetes Patients Metformin is not metabolized by the organism: research in patients shows that the drug is excreted unaltered in the urine with not metabolites identified.
  • Education Strategies for Elderly Patients with Diabetes The increase in negative patient outcomes influenced by the lack of knowledge among elderly patients with diabetes can be viewed as the reason for the research to have been conducted.
  • Insulin Pharmacological Effects in Diabetes Management Insulin is a protein-peptide hormone produced by β-cells of the pancreas. This paper describes pharmacological properties and the effects of insulin in diabetes management.
  • Diabetes in Adolescents, Social and Medical Issues This essay identifies some of the peer-reviewed articles that qualitatively and/or quantitatively discuss diabetes in adolescents.
  • Transition’s Impact for Patients With Diabetes The process of transition plays an important role in ensuring that the health care needs of a patient are adequately met after they have been discharged from a hospital.
  • Insulin Pump Therapy in Diabetes This paper explores a study conducted by Johnson, Copper, Jones, and Davis to determine the long-term effect of using insulin pump therapy in the treatment of type 1 diabetes in children.
  • Type-2 Diabetes: Condition and Resources Analysis Type-2 diabetes is an increasingly prevalent health issue in the US, and its early onset has an aggressive disease phenotype and leads to unfavorable long-term prognosis.
  • Diabetes Self-Management Education in Elderly This project proposal depicts the major details of the study aimed at improving the health outcomes of older adults suffering from diabetes through the provision of training.
  • Foot Ulcers Management in Diabetes Patients The guideline “Assessment and management of foot ulcers for people with diabetes” comprises various recommendations for advanced practice nurses.
  • Type 2 Diabetes Patients Care Plan The current paper dwells on the elaboration of a care plan for type 2 diabetes patients. The mortality rates connected to type 2 diabetes grow bigger with every other year.
  • Diabetes in Children: Symptoms and Diagnostics Type 1 diabetes occurs owing to the inability of the pancreas to produce sufficient amounts of insulin and accounts for 5-10% of all cases of diabetes.
  • Diabetes Negligence in the Pediatric Population Recent studies have indicated that more children between 2 and 15 years are being diagnosed with diabetes every year.
  • Educational Programs for Hispanic Patients with Diabetes The main goals of this paper are to provide an evaluation plan and discuss the implications for the practice and future research. The research will be carried out in medical settings.
  • Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy and Diabetes The paper updates the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy guidelines and presents new ideas that can meet the health needs of many patients with diabetes.
  • Diabetes Type 2 Treatment and Health Promotion The purpose of this paper is to develop evidence-based management and a plan for a patient with diabetes type 2 and describe health promotion and possible follow-up.
  • Evidence-Based Practice: Diabetes Prevalence The prevalence of onset type-II diabetes remains the major health concern in the Eatonville population. The rate of the disease and its diagnosis remains at approximately 24.4 percent.
  • Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Treatment and Management Type 1 diabetes mellitus is associated with different complications. The disease can occur naturally and make it impossible for many patients to lead quality lives.
  • Developmental Care for Type 1 Diabetes The improvements in the quality of healthcare have seen many children who would have otherwise succumbed to chronic illnesses grow into adulthood.
  • Type 2 Diabetes, Risk Factors, Medical Intervention There are millions of undetected cases of type 2 diabetes worldwide. Therefore, it is sensible to seek medical assistance if a person belonged to a risk group.
  • Type 2 Diabetes: Possible Interventions and Prevention The last several decades could be characterized by the increased importance of dietary habits and the impact they have on the state of a person` health.
  • Diabetes Mellitus II: Screening and Statistics Diabetes is a health problem that bothers many people around the whole world despite their race, gender, and age.
  • Diabetes Management for Older Adults in Long-Term Care Diabetes mellitus maintains a high prevalence in long-term care facilities and creates a consequential disease burden which results in higher costs.
  • Diabetes in African American Patients This research project addresses the implications of diabetes for African American patients and reviews the possible ways of treating it.
  • EHR Database Management: Diabetes Prevention The data needed to prevent diabetes is usually collected throughout regular screenings conducted whenever a patient refers to a hospital, as well as by using various lab tests.
  • Older Rural People with Diabetes: Life Expectancy Understanding how patients view the concept of diabetes is crucial to the identification of the further means of approaching the disease and improving the quality of the services.
  • The Use of Diabetes Self-Management Apps by African-American Women This paper discusses the use of self-management smartphone apps for reinforcing and enhancing health behaviors in African-American women with diabetes.
  • Bariatric Surgery in Type 2 Diabetes Management The paper examines how bariatric surgery could fit into the evidence-based practice of T2DM management by outlining its effectiveness and the risks associated with it.
  • Diabetes Type 2 Self-Management Education The concept of diabetes self-management comprises several activities aimed to alleviate disease symptoms: medication intake, physical exercise, and diet.
  • Diabetes Conference as a Scholarly Activity I chose to attend a conference on diabetes held by Baptist Health South Florida, a non-profit medical organization. Diabetes is a too broad topic to be explained in a single day.
  • Cardiovascular Autonomic Neuropathy in Diabetes Patients The research discusses patient and physician perspectives on the worth of a new technology that can be used to detect cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.
  • Diabetes Control and Education: Four-Week Project The project will analyze the target population and study the impact of 4-week education on patients’ belief in treatment, quality of life, and blood glucose control.
  • Diabetes Issues in the United States and Florida Diabetes is a serious issue both in the US and in Florida in particular. In the state, it is number six in the list of illnesses that cause death.
  • Preventing Diabetes and Heart Failure Hospitalizations The goal of this research is to acquire data regarding the opinion given by patients suffering from diabetes mellitus (DM) and heart failure (HF).
  • Integrative Review on Adherence in Haitians With Diabetes Chronic kidney failure is a complex disorder that affects thousands of people every day. People from impoverished areas such as Haiti are especially vulnerable to the threat.
  • Impact of Establishing a Communication Network of Family Physicians on Level of Hba1c and FBS in Patients With Diabetes Frequency distributions can be presented in different ways. While the most popular and widely used method is a frequency distribution table, histograms and bar graphs can also be used.
  • Evaluation of the Clinical Outcomes of Telehealth for Managing Diabetes The present paper is dedicated to a critical overview of a systematic review “Evaluation of the Clinical Outcomes of Telehealth for Managing Diabetes”.
  • Insulin Pump Therapy in Children with Diabetes This project analyzes the study by Johnson et al. which investigates long-term outcomes of insulin pump therapy in children with Type 1 Diabetes.
  • Diabetes Mellitus and Self-Care Education In type 2 diabetic patients, the education provided about self-care reduce the rate of complications in comparison to patients who have not received this education.
  • Patient Education Technology: MySugr Diabetes Logbook The purpose of the MySugr Diabetes Logbook mHealth application is to track and manage critical health information related to diabetes treatment.
  • Mindful Eating Intervention and Diabetes Self-Management Intervention The paper discusses the article “Comparison of a mindful eating intervention to a diabetes self-management intervention among adults with type 2 diabetes” by Miller et al.
  • Diabetes Chronic Condition Management The purpose of this data review project is to examine the diabetes management practices applied by Anthem through data review of key indicators .
  • Mexican American Children and Type 2 Diabetes There are multiple programs that aim to cater for primary, secondary as well as tertiary care in children with diabetes, diabetes-related diseases, and disabilities.
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Article information, literature review of type 2 diabetes management and health literacy.

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Rulla Alsaedi , Kimberly McKeirnan; Literature Review of Type 2 Diabetes Management and Health Literacy. Diabetes Spectr 1 November 2021; 34 (4): 399–406. https://doi.org/10.2337/ds21-0014

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The purpose of this literature review was to identify educational approaches addressing low health literacy for people with type 2 diabetes. Low health literacy can lead to poor management of diabetes, low engagement with health care providers, increased hospitalization rates, and higher health care costs. These challenges can be even more profound among minority populations and non-English speakers in the United States.

A literature search and standard data extraction were performed using PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE databases. A total of 1,914 articles were identified, of which 1,858 were excluded based on the inclusion criteria, and 46 were excluded because of a lack of relevance to both diabetes management and health literacy. The remaining 10 articles were reviewed in detail.

Patients, including ethnic minorities and non-English speakers, who are engaged in diabetes education and health literacy improvement initiatives and ongoing follow-up showed significant improvement in A1C, medication adherence, medication knowledge, and treatment satisfaction. Clinicians considering implementing new interventions to address diabetes care for patients with low health literacy can use culturally tailored approaches, consider ways to create materials for different learning styles and in different languages, engage community health workers and pharmacists to help with patient education, use patient-centered medication labels, and engage instructors who share cultural and linguistic similarities with patients to provide educational sessions.

This literature review identified a variety of interventions that had a positive impact on provider-patient communication, medication adherence, and glycemic control by promoting diabetes self-management through educational efforts to address low health literacy.

Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States, and 30.3 million Americans, or 9.4% of the U.S. population, are living with diabetes ( 1 , 2 ). For successful management of a complicated condition such as diabetes, health literacy may play an important role. Low health literacy is a well-documented barrier to diabetes management and can lead to poor management of medical conditions, low engagement with health care providers (HCPs), increased hospitalizations, and, consequently, higher health care costs ( 3 – 5 ).

The Healthy People 2010 report ( 6 ) defined health literacy as the “degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.” Diabetes health literacy also encompasses a wide range of skills, including basic knowledge of the disease state, self-efficacy, glycemic control, and self-care behaviors, which are all important components of diabetes management ( 3 – 5 , 7 ). According to the Institute of Medicine’s Committee on Health Literacy, patients with poor health literacy are twice as likely to have poor glycemic control and were found to be twice as likely to be hospitalized as those with adequate health literacy ( 8 ). Associations between health literacy and health outcomes have been reported in many studies, the first of which was conducted in 1995 in two public hospitals and found that many patients had inadequate health literacy and could not perform the basic reading tasks necessary to understand their treatments and diagnoses ( 9 ).

Evaluation of health literacy is vital to the management and understanding of diabetes. Several tools for assessing health literacy have been evaluated, and the choice of which to use depends on the length of the patient encounter and the desired depth of the assessment. One widely used literacy assessment tool, the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (TOFHLA), consists of 36 comprehension questions and four numeric calculations ( 10 ). Additional tools that assess patients’ reading ability include the Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) and the Literacy Assessment for Diabetes. Tests that assess diabetes numeracy skills include the Diabetes Numeracy Test, the Newest Vital Sign (NVS), and the Single-Item Literacy Screener (SILS) ( 11 ).

Rates of both diabetes and low health literacy are higher in populations from low socioeconomic backgrounds ( 5 , 7 , 12 ). People living in disadvantaged communities face many barriers when seeking health care, including inconsistent housing, lack of transportation, financial difficulties, differing cultural beliefs about health care, and mistrust of the medical professions ( 13 , 14 ). People with high rates of medical mistrust tend to be less engaged in their care and to have poor communication with HCPs, which is another factor HCPs need to address when working with their patients with diabetes ( 15 ).

The cost of medical care for people with diabetes was $327 billion in 2017, a 26% increase since 2012 ( 1 , 16 ). Many of these medical expenditures are related to hospitalization and inpatient care, which accounts for 30% of total medical costs for people with diabetes ( 16 ).

People with diabetes also may neglect self-management tasks for various reasons, including low health literacy, lack of diabetes knowledge, and mistrust between patients and HCPs ( 7 , 15 ).

These challenges can be even more pronounced in vulnerable populations because of language barriers and patient-provider mistrust ( 17 – 19 ). Rates of diabetes are higher among racial and ethnic minority groups; 15.1% of American Indians and Alaskan Natives, 12.7% of Non-Hispanic Blacks, 12.1% of Hispanics, and 8% of Asian Americans have diagnosed diabetes, compared with 7.4% of non-Hispanic Whites ( 1 ). Additionally, patient-provider relationship deficits can be attributed to challenges with communication, including HCPs’ lack of attention to speaking slowly and clearly and checking for patients’ understanding when providing education or gathering information from people who speak English as a second language ( 15 ). White et al. ( 15 ) demonstrated that patients with higher provider mistrust felt that their provider’s communication style was less interpersonal and did not feel welcome as part of the decision-making process.

To the authors’ knowledge, there is no current literature review evaluating interventions focused on health literacy and diabetes management. There is a pressing need for such a comprehensive review to provide a framework for future intervention design. The objective of this literature review was to gather and summarize studies of health literacy–based diabetes management interventions and their effects on overall diabetes management. Medication adherence and glycemic control were considered secondary outcomes.

Search Strategy

A literature review was conducted using the PubMed, Medline, and EMBASE databases. Search criteria included articles published between 2015 and 2020 to identify the most recent studies on this topic. The search included the phrases “diabetes” and “health literacy” to specifically focus on health literacy and diabetes management interventions and was limited to original research conducted in humans and published in English within the defined 5-year period. Search results were exported to Microsoft Excel for evaluation.

Study Selection

Initial screening of the articles’ abstracts was conducted using the selection criteria to determine which articles to include or exclude ( Figure 1 ). The initial search results were reviewed for the following inclusion criteria: original research (clinical trials, cohort studies, and cross-sectional studies) conducted in human subjects with type 2 diabetes in the United States, and published in English between 2015 and 2020. Articles were considered to be relevant if diabetes was included as a medical condition in the study and an intervention was made to assess or improve health literacy. Studies involving type 1 diabetes or gestational diabetes and articles that were viewpoints, population surveys, commentaries, case reports, reviews, or reports of interventions conducted outside of the United States were excluded from further review. The criteria requiring articles to be from the past 5 years and from the United States were used because of the unique and quickly evolving nature of the U.S. health care system. Articles published more than 5 years ago or from other health care systems may have contributed information that was not applicable to or no longer relevant for HCPs in the United States. Articles were screened and reviewed independently by both authors. Disagreements were resolved through discussion to create the final list of articles for inclusion.

FIGURE 1. PRISMA diagram of the article selection process.

PRISMA diagram of the article selection process.

Data Extraction

A standard data extraction was performed for each included article to obtain information including author names, year of publication, journal, study design, type of intervention, primary outcome, tools used to assess health literacy or type 2 diabetes knowledge, and effects of intervention on overall diabetes management, glycemic control, and medication adherence.

A total of 1,914 articles were collected from a search of the PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE databases, of which 1,858 were excluded based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Of the 56 articles that met criteria for abstract review, 46 were excluded because of a lack of relevance to both diabetes management and health literacy. The remaining 10 studies identified various diabetes management interventions, including diabetes education tools such as electronic medication instructions and text message–based interventions, technology-based education videos, enhanced prescription labels, learner-based education materials, and culturally tailored interventions ( 15 , 20 – 28 ). Figure 1 shows the PRISMA diagram of the article selection process, and Table 1 summarizes the findings of the article reviews ( 15 , 20 – 28 ).

Findings of the Article Reviews (15,20–28)

SAHLSA, Short Assessment of Health Literacy for Spanish Adults.

Medical mistrust and poor communication are challenging variables in diabetes education. White et al. ( 15 ) examined the association between communication quality and medical mistrust in patients with type 2 diabetes. HCPs at five health department clinics received training in effective health communication and use of the PRIDE (Partnership to Improve Diabetes Education) toolkit in both English and Spanish, whereas control sites were only exposed to National Diabetes Education Program materials without training in effective communication. The study evaluated participant communication using several tools, including the Communication Assessment Tool (CAT), Interpersonal Processes of Care (IPC-18), and the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (s-TOFHLA). The authors found that higher levels of mistrust were associated with lower CAT and IPC-18 scores.

Patients with type 2 diabetes are also likely to benefit from personalized education delivery tools such as patient-centered labeling (PCL) of prescription drugs, learning style–based education materials, and tailored text messages ( 24 , 25 , 27 ). Wolf et al. ( 27 ) investigated the use of PCL in patients with type 2 diabetes and found that patients with low health literacy who take medication two or more times per day have higher rates of proper medication use when using PCL (85.9 vs. 77.4%, P = 0.03). The objective of the PCL intervention was to make medication instructions and other information on the labels easier to read to improve medication use and adherence rates. The labels incorporated best-practice strategies introduced by the Institute of Medicine for the Universal Medication Schedule. These strategies prioritize medication information, use of larger font sizes, and increased white space. Of note, the benefits of PCL were largely seen with English speakers. Spanish speakers did not have substantial improvement in medication use or adherence, which could be attributed to language barriers ( 27 ).

Nelson et al. ( 25 ) analyzed patients’ engagement with an automated text message approach to supporting diabetes self-care activities in a 12-month randomized controlled trial (RCT) called REACH (Rapid Education/Encouragement and Communications for Health) ( 25 ). Messages were tailored based on patients’ medication adherence, the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model of health behavior change, and self-care behaviors such as diet, exercise, and self-monitoring of blood glucose. Patients in this trial were native English speakers, so further research to evaluate the impact of the text message intervention in patients with limited English language skills is still needed. However, participants in the intervention group reported higher engagement with the text messages over the 12-month period ( 25 ).

Patients who receive educational materials based on their learning style also show significant improvement in their diabetes knowledge and health literacy. Koonce et al. ( 24 ) developed and evaluated educational materials based on patients’ learning style to improve health literacy in both English and Spanish languages. The materials were made available in multiple formats to target four different learning styles, including materials for visual learners, read/write learners, auditory learners, and kinesthetic learners. Spanish-language versions were also available. Researchers were primarily interested in measuring patients’ health literacy and knowledge of diabetes. The intervention group received materials in their preferred learning style and language, whereas the control group received standard of care education materials. The intervention group showed significant improvement in diabetes knowledge and health literacy, as indicated by Diabetes Knowledge Test (DKT) scores. More participants in the intervention group reported looking up information about their condition during week 2 of the intervention and showed an overall improvement in understanding symptoms of nerve damage and types of food used to treat hypoglycemic events. However, the study had limited enrollment of Spanish speakers, making the applicability of the results to Spanish-speaking patients highly variable.

Additionally, findings by Hofer et al. ( 22 ) suggest that patients with high A1C levels may benefit from interventions led by community health workers (CHWs) to bridge gaps in health literacy and equip patients with the tools to make health decisions. In this study, Hispanic and African American patients with low health literacy and diabetes not controlled by oral therapy benefited from education sessions led by CHWs. The CHWs led culturally tailored support groups to compare the effects of educational materials provided in an electronic format (via iDecide) and printed format on medication adherence and self-efficacy. The study found increased adherence with both formats, and women, specifically, had a significant increase in medication adherence and self-efficacy. One of the important aspects of this study was that the CHWs shared cultural and linguistic characteristics with the patients and HCPs, leading to increased trust and satisfaction with the information presented ( 22 ).

Kim et al. ( 23 ) found that Korean-American participants benefited greatly from group education sessions that provided integrated counseling led by a team of nurses and CHW educators. The intervention also had a health literacy component that focused on enhancing skills such as reading food package labels, understanding medical terminology, and accessing health care services. This intervention led to a significant reduction of 1–1.3% in A1C levels in the intervention group. The intervention established the value of collaboration between CHW educators and nurses to improve health information delivery and disease management.

A collaboration between CHW educators and pharmacists was also shown to reinforce diabetes knowledge and improve health literacy. Sharp et al. ( 26 ) conducted a cross-over study in four primary care ambulatory clinics that provided care for low-income patients. The study found that patients with low health literacy had more visits with pharmacists and CHWs than those with high health literacy. The CHWs provided individualized support to reinforce diabetes self-management education and referrals to resources such as food, shelter, and translation services. The translation services in this study were especially important for building trust with non-English speakers and helping patients understand their therapy. Similar to other studies, the CHWs shared cultural and linguistic characteristics with their populations, which helped to overcome communication-related and cultural barriers ( 23 , 26 ).

The use of electronic tools or educational videos yielded inconclusive results with regard to medication adherence. Graumlich et al. ( 20 ) implemented a new medication planning tool called Medtable within an electronic medical record system in several outpatient clinics serving patients with type 2 diabetes. The tool was designed to organize medication review and patient education. Providers can use this tool to search for medication instructions and actionable language that are appropriate for each patient’s health literacy level. The authors found no changes in medication knowledge or adherence, but the intervention group reported higher satisfaction. On the other hand, Yeung et al. ( 28 ) showed that pharmacist-led online education videos accessed using QR codes affixed to the patients’ medication bottles and health literacy flashcards increased patients’ medication adherence in an academic medical hospital.

Goessl et al. ( 21 ) found that patients with low health literacy had significantly higher retention of information when receiving evidence-based diabetes education through a DVD recording than through an in-person group class. This 18-month RCT randomized participants to either the DVD or in-person group education and assessed their information retention through a teach-back strategy. The curriculum consisted of diabetes prevention topics such as physical exercise, food portions, and food choices. Participants in the DVD group had significantly higher retention of information than those in the control (in-person) group. The authors suggested this may have been because participants in the DVD group have multiple opportunities to review the education material.

Management of type 2 diabetes remains a challenge for HCPs and patients, in part because of the challenges discussed in this review, including communication barriers between patients and HCPs and knowledge deficits about medications and disease states ( 29 ). HCPs can have a positive impact on the health outcomes of their patients with diabetes by improving patients’ disease state and medication knowledge.

One of the common themes identified in this literature review was the prevalence of culturally tailored diabetes education interventions. This is an important strategy that could improve diabetes outcomes and provide an alternative approach to diabetes self-management education when working with patients from culturally diverse backgrounds. HCPs might benefit from using culturally tailored educational approaches to improve communication with patients and overcome the medical mistrust many patients feel. Although such mistrust was not directly correlated with diabetes management, it was noted that patients who feel mistrustful tend to have poor communication with HCPs ( 20 ). Additionally, Latino/Hispanic patients who have language barriers tend to have poor glycemic control ( 19 ). Having CHWs work with HCPs might mitigate some patient-provider communication barriers. As noted earlier, CHWs who share cultural and linguistic characteristics with their patient populations have ongoing interactions and more frequent one-on-one encounters ( 12 ).

Medication adherence and glycemic control are important components of diabetes self-management, and we noted that the integration of CHWs into the diabetes health care team and the use of simplified medication label interventions were both successful in improving medication adherence ( 23 , 24 ). The use of culturally tailored education sessions and the integration of pharmacists and CHWs into the management of diabetes appear to be successful in reducing A1C levels ( 12 , 26 ). Electronic education tools and educational videos alone did not have an impact on medication knowledge or information retention in patients with low health literacy, but a combination of education tools and individualized sessions has the potential to improve diabetes medication knowledge and overall self-management ( 20 , 22 , 30 ).

There were several limitations to our literature review. We restricted our search criteria to articles published in English and studies conducted within the United States to ensure that the results would be relevant to U.S. HCPs. However, these limitations may have excluded important work on this topic. Additional research expanding this search beyond the United States and including articles published in other languages may demonstrate different outcomes. Additionally, this literature review did not focus on A1C as the primary outcome, although A1C is an important indicator of diabetes self-management. A1C was chosen as the method of evaluating the impact of health literacy interventions in patients with diabetes, but other considerations such as medication adherence, impact on comorbid conditions, and quality of life are also important factors.

The results of this work show that implementing health literacy interventions to help patients manage type 2 diabetes can have beneficial results. However, such interventions can have significant time and monetary costs. The potential financial and time costs of diabetes education interventions were not evaluated in this review and should be taken into account when designing interventions. The American Diabetes Association estimated the cost of medical care for people with diabetes to be $327 billion in 2017, with the majority of the expenditure related to hospitalizations and nursing home facilities ( 16 ). Another substantial cost of diabetes that can be difficult to measure is treatment for comorbid conditions and complications such as cardiovascular and renal diseases.

Interventions designed to address low health literacy and provide education about type 2 diabetes could be a valuable asset in preventing complications and reducing medical expenditures. Results of this work show that clinicians who are considering implementing new interventions may benefit from the following strategies: using culturally tailored approaches, creating materials for different learning styles and in patients’ languages, engaging CHWs and pharmacists to help with patient education, using PCLs for medications, and engaging education session instructors who share patients’ cultural and linguistic characteristics.

Diabetes self-management is crucial to improving health outcomes and reducing medical costs. This literature review identified interventions that had a positive impact on provider-patient communication, medication adherence, and glycemic control by promoting diabetes self-management through educational efforts to address low health literacy. Clinicians seeking to implement diabetes care and education interventions for patients with low health literacy may want to consider drawing on the strategies described in this article. Providing culturally sensitive education that is tailored to patients’ individual learning styles, spoken language, and individual needs can improve patient outcomes and build patients’ trust.

Duality of Interest

No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported.

Author Contributions

Both authors conceptualized the literature review, developed the methodology, analyzed the data, and wrote, reviewed, and edited the manuscript. R.A. collected the data. K.M. supervised the review. K.M. is the guarantor of this work and, as such, has full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Prior Presentation

Portions of this research were presented at the Washington State University College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Honors Research Day in April 2019.

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Writing help, paraphrasing tool, diabetes - free essay samples and topic ideas.

Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood due to insulin production issues or the body’s response to insulin. Essays on diabetes could delve into the types of diabetes, its prevalence, management strategies, and the impact on individuals and communities. Discussions might also explore ongoing research and advancements in diabetes care. A substantial compilation of free essay instances related to Diabetes you can find in Papersowl database. You can use our samples for inspiration to write your own essay, research paper, or just to explore a new topic for yourself.

A Problem of Hispanics with Diabetes

Introduction The health care industry changes each and every year. Making America a very diverse nation and with diversity many issues present itself in today's society. One of the main issues that is affecting society is the prevalence of Type 2 Diabetes in Hispanics. The purpose of this paper is to provide cultural information and awareness of this issue with ways to assist in the prevention of Diabetes. Knowledge about diabetes is very important and sometimes there is not enough […]

Clinical Problem of Diabetes Type i and II

Abstract This capstone paper integrates the current clinical problem of diabetes type I and II in the hospitalized adult and youth patients with the associated QSEN nursing competency of patient centered care by addressing and exploring the following question: Among patients with Diabetes, how does diabetes self-management education programs (DSME) compared with no diabetes self-management education programs affect diabetic self-care/self-management? After an introduction of the problem and its significance to patient centered care, a review of current research literature that […]

King’s Theory and Nursing Process

My institution, Overlake Hospital has a multidisciplinary diabetes inpatient team that include, endocrinologists, diabetes specialist podiatrist, nurses, wound care specialist, dietitian and social workers. Often patients expressed their concern and fear over not being able to self-manage their condition. Lack of knowledge on how to treat, lack of understanding of proper food choices, exercise regimen and overwhelming burden of this chronic disease causes depression. Our interdisciplinary team focuses on care for each and every individual's complex need and educate, train […]

General Characteristic of Type II Diabetes

Type 2 Diabetes Background about the disease- Type 2 Diabetes is a disorder caused by an imbalance of insulin. It is the more common form of diabetes, mostly seen in adults but now increasingly observed in young adults as well. Also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes, this lifelong disease causes your blood glucose level to rise above the normal range. Pathophysiology and causes- Type 2 diabetes stems from several factors. It can develop when your body becomes resistant to insulin or […]

Keto Diet and Type Diabetes

Some people experience autoimmune diseases while others do not. Maybe you have tried to understand how changes in your diet might help an autoimmune disease. Or maybe you are worried that what you are eating is contributing to it? Perhaps you are someone that is suffering from type 1 diabetes and wonder how the ketogenic (referred to as “keto”) diet might help to ease some of the symptoms. We want to assist you in choosing fuel for your body that […]

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Importance of Nursing Theories

Nursing theories are important tools for the designing, understanding, and application of diabetes patient education (Anderson, Funnell, & Hernandez, 2005). Imogene King is one of the nursing theorists who has made significant contributions to nursing. King's Conceptual Framework and Theory of Goal Attainment (TGA) is valuable in the care of diabetes patients and adherence to treatment. In my unit most commonly-used nursing theories include, King's theory of goal attainment to the care of the adult with diabetes mellitus. TGA theory […]

History and Types of Diabetes

The first sign of diabetes was discovered in 1500 B.C.E by the Egyptians. According to one study, ancient Indians were familiar with the condition and had even determined two types of the condition. They called it "honey urine" and tested for it by determining if the ants were drawn to the urine. The first mention of the word diabetes was by the Greeks. It means "to go through", it was named this because of its main symptom: the excessive passing […]

The Basic Problem of Diabetes

Uncontrolled levels of blood glucose are the basic problem in patients admitted to our unit. Many are related to lack of knowledge and self-care in diabetes management, sedentary lifestyle, and food habits. This reveals that when assessing a patient in the hospital, a nurse must consider all factors and design a care plan accordingly. Nurses need to be non-judgmental and assess what factors may limit patients' abilities to follow lifestyle recommendations. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), uncontrolled blood […]

My Work as a Nurse

I work at Overlake Hospital Medical Center on a Medical Surgical and Oncology Unit. As a bedside nurse, my job and responsibility not only centered around vigilant monitoring for physiological changes and immediate needs of patients but also centered around an emotional aspect of caring and advocating. Our 37-bed unit provides care for various medical-surgical conditions, chemotherapy infusion, blood transfusion, dialysis, oncology with hospice, and end of life care patients on a day to day basis. As a bedside nurse, […]

Diabetes and its Main Types

Diabetes is a disorder of the endocrine system, which messes with the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The metabolism is compromised because of a lack of insulin, either from destruction of the beta cells, which secrete insulin, or because of insulin resistance. Insulin is secreted by beta cells and it is what enables the cells to use glucose. Type 1 diabetes was formerly called juvenile diabetes because mostly kids were diagnosed with it. It is now changed to be […]

Adverse Health Effect of Environmental Heavy Metals on Diabetes

ABSTRACT Type 2 diabetes (T2D) and its complications constitute a major public health problem for both developed and developing countries due to the high rate of morbidity and mortality associated with the disease.  New evidence from both experimental and human studies has resulted in increased interest in analyzing the relationship between T2D and heavy metal exposures that are ubiquitous in the environment. Vellore district is a major leather- processing centre in Tamil Nadu, with an estimated 60,000 tannery workers. Tannery […]

Becoming an Endocrinology Nurse Practitioner

Since the introduction and continued implementation of the Affordable Care Act, millions of individuals now have access to health care who did not before. With this influx of patients in the health care system, there has been an increased demand for primary care providers in a health care environment already dealing with shortage, (Buppert, 2015)A large amount of this population includes patients battling diabetes and hypertension. These patients would benefit from a nurse practitioner specializing in these diseases such as […]

An Issue of Nutrition and Diabetes

The article I've reviewed is called, "Nutrition Therapy Recommendations for the Management of Adults with Diabetes".  My decision to review this article is based upon interest in links with nutrition and chronic disease.  A National Center for Health Statistics study (Table 18) identified eight of the top ten killers in America as chronic diseases.  I've read multiple books that link the two and this article conducted a systematic review of 228 articles or studies.  The article goes fairly in depth […]

How is Low Carbohydrate Diet Beneficial to Diabetes

Abstract: This essay is about the global status of diabetes, what is diabetes, how insulin works, why people easy to have diabetes, what is carbohydrate and why low carbohydrate diet beneficial to the diabetes. With the development of society, people's living standards have gradually improved. The choice of food is gradually becoming more and more, also it has brought us many diseases. Diabetes, as one of the top ten death diseases in the world, has attracted the attention of people […]

What should you Know about Diabetes

What is diabetes? Diabetes is when your blood sugars, or blood glucose, is to high.  Your main source of energy is blood glucose, which comes from the food you eat.  Your pancreas creates a hormone called insulin.  Insulin helps all the glucose from the food you eat get into your body's cells and use it for energy.  But in some cases, the body doesn't create enough insulin, sometimes the body doesn't make any insulin at all.  If this is the […]

Diabetes: One of the Hardest Illness

Diabetes is a standout amongst the most widely recognized maladies that can prompt passing if not treated right. In any case there are particular sorts of this ailment which is Type 1,Type 2, and Gestational diabetes. Diabetes is an illness that happens when your blood glucose, additionally called glucose, is too high. Blood glucose is your fundamental wellspring of significance and begins from the sustenance you eat. Diabetes is the sort of ailment that goes with conspicuous signs with in […]

IDDM: Pathophysiology and Pre-hospital Management

Introduction Diabetes mellitus is a global problem facing various populations. As such, many victims tend to appreciate the underlying treatment prescribed by doctors to reduce its effects. There exist two categories of diabetes that includes types 1 and type 2 covered in  film. The movie  shows that type 1 diabetes is insulin-related and when the body cells are unable to absorb glucose in the presence of insulin to produce energy. Type 2 diabetes is non-dependent on insulin and can develop […]

Connection between Genetics and Diabetes

Each single person has a specific set of genes; however, these genetics are greatly influenced by their families. Genetics can also be affected via one's environmental surroundings, as well. These genetics are associated with most diseases, such as cancer, kidney diseases, and psychologic diseases. Diabetes is no different. Genetics are not the only causative factor in diabetes, but it can alert healthcare members to look for this disease due to predisposition. According to the American Diabetes Association (2018), "Type 1 […]

Diabetes Type One in the Pediatric Patient

Diabetes is a very complex disease that effects all the system of the body. Often people only think about blood sugar when the think of diabetes, nut this disease is so much more complicated than just controlling blood sugar. This is especially true in the pediatric population. These youngsters are not old enough or mature enough to understand this complex disease and rely on the parents to help them manage this disease (Perry, 2010). The pathophysiology of diabetes type one […]

Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus 1, more specifically known as IDDM is a disorder concerning glucose homeostasis, which needs insulin therapy is generally seen in children. Diabetes is generally classified into 2 types IDDM (Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus) and the other NIDDM (Non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus). Diabetes simply means an increase of glucose levels in the body as a result of the improper or no production of insulin from ones pancreatic ??-cells. The standard auto-immune response of type 1 diabetes is specific destruction […]

An Evolution of Diabetes

EVOLUTION Diabetes is a major public health problem with a rapid increase in prevalence globally. Twelve percent of all health care spending is related to diabetes. The diagnosis and treatment of diabetes has evolved extensively over the last century. Although there is still no cure for the disorder, diabetes is much more manageable due to advancement in medicine and technology. In the beginning of the 20th century, Edward Schafer concluded that the pancreas of diabetics was unable to produce insulin […]

Problem: Childhood Obesity in America

As you've probably heard, more children are becoming overweight today in America than ever before. Experts are calling this an "obesity epidemic." To first understand childhood obesity we must ask ourselves what is obesity? Obesity is a diet-related chronic disease involving excessive body fat that increases the risk of health problems. Many doctors have expressed obesity has an increasing problem in today's youth as obesity can lead to many health issues such as type 2 diabetes, high blood pressure, heart […]

Treatment of Diabetes in Adolescents

Abstract Background: Diabetes is a significant public health challenge facing the US and several other countries around the world. It is mostly perceived as a lifestyle disease, although type 1 diabetes can be viewed as a congenital autoimmune disorder. Diabetes is increasingly becoming a problem among young adolescents in America, with high prevalence and incidence rates. This study sought to establish the impact of treatment of adolescents for diabetes on their maturity process, demand for independence, parent-adolescent conflict, and their […]

What are the Main Causes and Treatments of Diabetes

Diabetes is a chronic disease that can cause complications and death if left untreated. It is one of the most common chronic diseases in the world and affects nearly half of the global population. According to Koye et al. (2018), it is also a leading cause of disability worldwide, affecting more than 300 million people globally. Diabetes is one of the most common diseases in the United States, with more than 100 million adults affected by type 2 diabetes and over 6.3 […]

Diabetes a Matter of the Heart

Diabetes.  Cardiovascular disease (CVD).  What do these two diagnoses have in common?  Well, diabetes does impact the cardiovascular system, according to the 2018 research (REF).  There is research showing that diabetes does impact existing CVD risk factors for example high-density lipoproteins.  Research is demonstrating that by following a few rules to improve insulin-resistance, that in return it will reduce the cardiovascular risk factors (REF). Diabetes, a chronic disease that is managed today with oral anti hyperglycemic agents, exercise, and diet.  […]

Importance of Speech about Diabetes

On 14th November this year on World Diabetes Day we witnessed an amazing talk by the keynote speaker Dr. Ronny Bell at the University of Florida. The title of the talk was 'Challenges and Opportunities in achieving diabetes health equity.' He spoke about important issues that often get lost and not given too much importance when we talk about diabetes. He mentioned that we all know about the complications, we all know about the emergencies, but what we often don't […]

The Stigma Surrounding Medical Cannabis

My understanding of diabetes.

For this essay I'll be covering the topic of diabetes. I've always found diabetes as an interesting topic; maybe because it's a huge problem for most people in the United States. you might be wonder what diabetes is, Diabetes is a disease in which the body response to the hormone insulin is impaired or not fully functional, resluting  in complications with the metabolism. Having high glucose is also one of the main reasons people get diabetes. Having high glucose in […]

A Process of Teaching Diabetes Self-Management

Introduction You’ve been diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes, now what?  The idea and topic of diabetes can be overwhelming for anyone, from patient to provider.  The content outlined in this paper reflects the need for a plan to implement and educate patients newly diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes to help them be successful in managing their diabetes and not letting diabetes take control of their lives.  If you think about the idea of diabetes singularly as a diagnosis you have […]

Celiac Disease in Type Diabetes Mellitus

Introduction Celiac disease and Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus are both chronic autoimmune diseases exhibiting a steadily increasing prevalence, both in co-occurrence and individually, in the population. The purpose of this review is to outline the literature and studies conducted on Celiac disease in Type 1 diabetes mellitus and the risk factors associated with autoimmune comorbidity. Dietary control is significant to both diseases and plays an essential role in the management of short- and long-term complications. This review will discuss the […]

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Diabetes mellitus is a lifelong condition prevalent in children and adults. It is the sixth leading cause of death in the US, claiming over 178,000 lives annually. The disease is complex because the glucose level in the blood is abnormally high and endangers the functioning of other organs. Improper treatment and lack of insulin can lead to life-threatening outcomes; otherwise, diabetics can have a typical life.

Engaging essay topics can include the effects of uncontrolled diabetes, proper diet, ideal body mass, reducing the risk factors, and avoiding a sedentary lifestyle. However, ensure you check at least several free essay examples on diabetes before you write the introduction. You can also consult titles by eminent experts with years of experience to get inspired for your sample research paper on diabetes.

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Current Topics in Diabetes Research : 4th International Diabetes Conference, Florence, March 1992

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Current Topics in Diabetes Research : 4th International Diabetes Conference, Florence, March 1992 Edited by: R.N. Bergman, G.M. Molinatti, F. Belfiore https://doi.org/10.1159/isbn.978-3-318-03623-7 ISBN (print): 978-3-8055-5779-5 ISBN (electronic): 978-3-318-03623-7 Publisher: S.Karger AG Published: 1993

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  • I - X: Title Page / Contents / Preface Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422653 Open the PDF Link PDF for I - X: Title Page / Contents / Preface in another window
  • 1 - 11: Approaches to Studying the Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes By William C. Knowler William C. Knowler National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, Phoenix, Ariz., USA Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422652 Open the PDF Link PDF for 1 - 11: Approaches to Studying the Genetics of Type 2 Diabetes in another window
  • 12 - 23: Molecular Genetics of Lipid Disorders Associated with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus By David J. Galton David J. Galton Department of Human Metabolism and Genetics, St. Bartholomews Hospital, London, UK Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422654 Open the PDF Link PDF for 12 - 23: Molecular Genetics of Lipid Disorders Associated with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in another window
  • 24 - 31: The Glucose Clamp Technique By W. Waldhäusl W. Waldhäusl Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Department of Medicine III, Vienna, Austria Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422655 Open the PDF Link PDF for 24 - 31: The Glucose Clamp Technique in another window
  • 32 - 38: Indirect Calorimetry: A Method to Assess Energy and Substrate Balances By Eric Jéquier Eric Jéquier Institute of Physiology, University of Lausanne, Switzerland Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422656 Open the PDF Link PDF for 32 - 38: Indirect Calorimetry: A Method to Assess Energy and Substrate Balances in another window
  • 39 - 65: Concepts Emerging from the Minimal Model Approach By Richard N. Bergman ; Richard N. Bergman University of Southern California Medical School, Los Angeles, Calif., USA Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Marilyn Ader Marilyn Ader University of Southern California Medical School, Los Angeles, Calif., USA Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422657 Open the PDF Link PDF for 39 - 65: Concepts Emerging from the Minimal Model Approach in another window
  • 66 - 75: Measurement of Insulin Resistance and Beta-Cell Function: The HOMA and CIGMA Approach By R. C. Turner ; R. C. Turner Diabetes Research Laboratories, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar J. C. Levy ; J. C. Levy Diabetes Research Laboratories, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. S. Rudenski ; A. S. Rudenski Diabetes Research Laboratories, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar M. Hammersley ; M. Hammersley Diabetes Research Laboratories, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar R. Page R. Page Diabetes Research Laboratories, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford, UK Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422658 Open the PDF Link PDF for 66 - 75: Measurement of Insulin Resistance and Beta-Cell Function: The HOMA and CIGMA Approach in another window
  • 76 - 85: Computer-Controlled OGTT By Francesco Belfiore ; Francesco Belfiore Chair of Internal Medicine, Institute of ‘Clinica Medica Ia’, University of Catania Medical School, Ospedale Garibaldi, Catania, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Giovanni Volpicelli ; Giovanni Volpicelli Chair of Internal Medicine, Institute of ‘Clinica Medica Ia’, University of Catania Medical School, Ospedale Garibaldi, Catania, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Silvia Iannello ; Silvia Iannello Chair of Internal Medicine, Institute of ‘Clinica Medica Ia’, University of Catania Medical School, Ospedale Garibaldi, Catania, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Rosa Campione Rosa Campione Chair of Internal Medicine, Institute of ‘Clinica Medica Ia’, University of Catania Medical School, Ospedale Garibaldi, Catania, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422659 Open the PDF Link PDF for 76 - 85: Computer-Controlled OGTT in another window
  • 86 - 121: The Abnormal Albuminuria Syndrome in Diabetes : Microalbuminuria: Key to the Complications By Carl Erik Mogensen ; Carl Erik Mogensen a Medical Department M (Endocrinology and Diabetes), Aarhus Kommunehospital, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Cramer K. Christensen ; Cramer K. Christensen a Medical Department M (Endocrinology and Diabetes), Aarhus Kommunehospital, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Per Dahl Christensen ; Per Dahl Christensen b Cardiological Department B, Skejby Sygehus, University Hospitals, Aarhus, Denmark Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Klaus Würgler Hansen ; Klaus Würgler Hansen a Medical Department M (Endocrinology and Diabetes), Aarhus Kommunehospital, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Henning Mølgaard ; Henning Mølgaard b Cardiological Department B, Skejby Sygehus, University Hospitals, Aarhus, Denmark Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Margrethe Mau Pedersen ; Margrethe Mau Pedersen a Medical Department M (Endocrinology and Diabetes), Aarhus Kommunehospital, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Per Løgstrup Paulsen ; Per Løgstrup Paulsen a Medical Department M (Endocrinology and Diabetes), Aarhus Kommunehospital, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Anita Schmitz ; Anita Schmitz a Medical Department M (Endocrinology and Diabetes), Aarhus Kommunehospital, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Leif Thuesen ; Leif Thuesen b Cardiological Department B, Skejby Sygehus, University Hospitals, Aarhus, Denmark Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Ruth Østerby Ruth Østerby a Medical Department M (Endocrinology and Diabetes), Aarhus Kommunehospital, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422660 Open the PDF Link PDF for 86 - 121: The Abnormal Albuminuria Syndrome in Diabetes<span class="subtitle-colon">: </span><span class="subtitle">Microalbuminuria: Key to the Complications</span> in another window
  • 122 - 134: Lipoproteins and Apoproteins in Diabetes By Marja-Riitta Taskinen Marja-Riitta Taskinen Third Department of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Finland Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422661 Open the PDF Link PDF for 122 - 134: Lipoproteins and Apoproteins in Diabetes in another window
  • 135 - 146: Immunogenetics of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes mellitus : The Second-Event Hypothesis1 By Massimo Trucco Massimo Trucco Division of Immunogenetics, Department of Pediatrics, University of Pittsburgh, School of Medicine, Rangos Research Center, Children’s Hospital, Pittsburgh, Pa., USA Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422662 Open the PDF Link PDF for 135 - 146: Immunogenetics of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes mellitus<span class="subtitle-colon">: </span><span class="subtitle">The Second-Event Hypothesis1</span> in another window
  • 147 - 151: Multiple Antibodies in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes By Paolo Pozzilli ; Paolo Pozzilli Endocrinologia (I), Institute II Clinica Medica, University of Rome, ‘La Sapienza’, Rome, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Domenico Andreani Domenico Andreani Endocrinologia (I), Institute II Clinica Medica, University of Rome, ‘La Sapienza’, Rome, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422663 Open the PDF Link PDF for 147 - 151: Multiple Antibodies in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes in another window
  • 152 - 164: Plurimetabolic Syndrome or Syndrome X: Is It a Real Syndrome?1 By Gaetano Crepaldi ; Gaetano Crepaldi Department of Internal Medicine, University of Padua, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Enzo Manzato ; Enzo Manzato Department of Internal Medicine, University of Padua, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Romano Nosadini Romano Nosadini Department of Internal Medicine, University of Padua, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422664 Open the PDF Link PDF for 152 - 164: Plurimetabolic Syndrome or Syndrome X: Is It a Real Syndrome?1 in another window
  • 165 - 181: Animal Models of Syndrome X By Eleazar Shafrir Eleazar Shafrir Department of Biochemistry, Hadassah University Hospital and Hebrew University-Hadassah Medical School, Jerusalem, Israel Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422665 Open the PDF Link PDF for 165 - 181: Animal Models of Syndrome X in another window
  • 182 - 192: The Metabolic Syndrome in Man By Per Björntorp Per Björntorp Department of Medicine I, Sahlgren’s Hospital, University of Göteborg, Sweden Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422666 Open the PDF Link PDF for 182 - 192: The Metabolic Syndrome in Man in another window
  • 193 - 202: Pericytes and Control of Microvascular Growth and Function By Andrea B. Dodge ; Andrea B. Dodge a Laboratory for Surgical Research, The Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Patricia A. D’Amore Patricia A. D’Amore a Laboratory for Surgical Research, The Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, and b Department of Pathology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422667 Open the PDF Link PDF for 193 - 202: Pericytes and Control of Microvascular Growth and Function in another window
  • 203 - 212: Retinal Blood Flow in Diabetes By S. M. B. Rassam ; S. M. B. Rassam Diabetic Retinopathy Unit, Department of Medicine, RPMS, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar V. Patel ; V. Patel Diabetic Retinopathy Unit, Department of Medicine, RPMS, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar E. M. Kohner E. M. Kohner Diabetic Retinopathy Unit, Department of Medicine, RPMS, Hammersmith Hospital, London, UK Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422668 Open the PDF Link PDF for 203 - 212: Retinal Blood Flow in Diabetes in another window
  • 213 - 220: Diabetic Macular Edema: Natural History and Treatment By F. Cardillo Piccolino F. Cardillo Piccolino Department of Ophthalmology, University of Genoa, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422669 Open the PDF Link PDF for 213 - 220: Diabetic Macular Edema: Natural History and Treatment in another window
  • 221 - 226: Laser Treatment of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: Why, When, How? By Rosario Brancato ; Rosario Brancato Department of Ophthalmology, University of Milan, Scientific Institute S. Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Francesco Bandello ; Francesco Bandello Department of Ophthalmology, University of Milan, Scientific Institute S. Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Rosangela Lattanzio Rosangela Lattanzio Department of Ophthalmology, University of Milan, Scientific Institute S. Raffaele Hospital, Milan, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422670 Open the PDF Link PDF for 221 - 226: Laser Treatment of Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: Why, When, How? in another window
  • 227 - 230: Application of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis to Detect DNA Polymorphisms in the Renin Gene in IDDM Patients with and without Diabetic Nephropathy By M. Clara Angelico ; M. Clara Angelico Epidemiology and Genetics Section, Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Lori Laffel ; Lori Laffel Epidemiology and Genetics Section, Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Andrzej S. Krolewski Andrzej S. Krolewski Epidemiology and Genetics Section, Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422671 Open the PDF Link PDF for 227 - 230: Application of Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis to Detect DNA Polymorphisms in the Renin Gene in IDDM Patients with and without Diabetic Nephropathy in another window
  • 231 - 233: The in vivo Effects of Insulin and Euglycemia on Mevalonate Concentrations in Humans By A. Scoppola ; A. Scoppola a Cattedra di Endocrinologia, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. Lala ; A. Lala a Cattedra di Endocrinologia, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar S. Frontoni ; S. Frontoni a Cattedra di Endocrinologia, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. Ricci ; A. Ricci b Dipartimento degli Studi di Chimica e Tecnologia delle Sostanze Biologicamente Attive, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”, Italia Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar M. Lo Vecchio ; M. Lo Vecchio a Cattedra di Endocrinologia, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar S. Gambardella ; S. Gambardella a Cattedra di Endocrinologia, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. Menzinger G. Menzinger a Cattedra di Endocrinologia, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata”, Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422672 Open the PDF Link PDF for 231 - 233: The in vivo Effects of Insulin and Euglycemia on Mevalonate Concentrations in Humans in another window
  • 234 - 239: Diabetic Nephropathy in IDDM and NIDDM: Prevalence and Different Linkage with Arterial Hypertension and Retinal Involvement : Findings from the West-Tuscany Multicenter Study By O. Giampietro ; O. Giampietro Cattedra di Malattie del Metabolismo, Istituto di Clinica Medica II, University of Pisa, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. Penno ; G. Penno Cattedra di Malattie del Metabolismo, Istituto di Clinica Medica II, University of Pisa, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar M. Nannipieri ; M. Nannipieri Cattedra di Malattie del Metabolismo, Istituto di Clinica Medica II, University of Pisa, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar L. Rizzo ; L. Rizzo Cattedra di Malattie del Metabolismo, Istituto di Clinica Medica II, University of Pisa, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar M. Cecere ; M. Cecere Cattedra di Malattie del Metabolismo, Istituto di Clinica Medica II, University of Pisa, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. Rapuano ; A. Rapuano Cattedra di Malattie del Metabolismo, Istituto di Clinica Medica II, University of Pisa, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar L. Cruschelli ; L. Cruschelli Cattedra di Malattie del Metabolismo, Istituto di Clinica Medica II, University of Pisa, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. Lucchetti ; A. Lucchetti Cattedra di Malattie del Metabolismo, Istituto di Clinica Medica II, University of Pisa, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar R. Navalesi R. Navalesi Cattedra di Malattie del Metabolismo, Istituto di Clinica Medica II, University of Pisa, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422673 Open the PDF Link PDF for 234 - 239: Diabetic Nephropathy in IDDM and NIDDM: Prevalence and Different Linkage with Arterial Hypertension and Retinal Involvement<span class="subtitle-colon">: </span><span class="subtitle">Findings from the West-Tuscany Multicenter Study</span> in another window
  • 240 - 242: Glucose-Induced Thermogenesis and Insulin Resistance By C. Macor ; C. Macor Institute of Semeiotica Medica, Patologia Medica III, University of Padua, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar C. B. De Palo ; C. B. De Palo Institute of Semeiotica Medica, Patologia Medica III, University of Padua, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar S. Favro ; S. Favro Institute of Semeiotica Medica, Patologia Medica III, University of Padua, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar R. Vettor ; R. Vettor Institute of Semeiotica Medica, Patologia Medica III, University of Padua, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. Federspil ; G. Federspil Institute of Semeiotica Medica, Patologia Medica III, University of Padua, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar C. Scandellari C. Scandellari Institute of Semeiotica Medica, Patologia Medica III, University of Padua, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422674 Open the PDF Link PDF for 240 - 242: Glucose-Induced Thermogenesis and Insulin Resistance in another window
  • 243 - 245: Energy Balance in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes mellitus Patients by Respiration Chamber1 By P. A. Tataranni ; P. A. Tataranni a Clinica Medica, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. Ghirlanda ; G. Ghirlanda a Clinica Medica, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. Mingrone ; G. Mingrone a Clinica Medica, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar P. Cotroneo ; P. Cotroneo a Clinica Medica, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. Manto ; A. Manto a Clinica Medica, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar C. Raguso ; C. Raguso a Clinica Medica, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. De Gaetano ; A. De Gaetano b CNR, Centro Fisiopatologia Shock, Clinica Chirurgica, Catholic University, Rome, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. V. Greco A. V. Greco a Clinica Medica, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422675 Open the PDF Link PDF for 243 - 245: Energy Balance in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes mellitus Patients by Respiration Chamber1 in another window
  • 246 - 249: Fasting Respiratory Quotient in Normal Glucose-Tolerant Obese Subjects before and after Weight Reduction By S. Verga ; S. Verga a University of Palermo, Istituto di Clinica Medica, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar S. Buscemi ; S. Buscemi a University of Palermo, Istituto di Clinica Medica, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. Caimi ; G. Caimi b Cattedra di Fisiopatologia del Ricambio, Palermo, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. Candela ; A. Candela a University of Palermo, Istituto di Clinica Medica, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. D. Bompiani G. D. Bompiani a University of Palermo, Istituto di Clinica Medica, and Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422676 Open the PDF Link PDF for 246 - 249: Fasting Respiratory Quotient in Normal Glucose-Tolerant Obese Subjects before and after Weight Reduction in another window
  • 250 - 253: Insulin Sensitivity, Secretion and Hepatic Extraction in Untreated Hypertensive Patients By A. Kautzky-Willer ; A. Kautzky-Willer a Department III, University Clinic of Vienna, Austria; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar M. Capek ; M. Capek a Department III, University Clinic of Vienna, Austria; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar M. Weissel ; M. Weissel a Department III, University Clinic of Vienna, Austria; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar B. Ludvik ; B. Ludvik a Department III, University Clinic of Vienna, Austria; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar R. Prager ; R. Prager a Department III, University Clinic of Vienna, Austria; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. Pacini G. Pacini b CNR Institute of System Dynamics and Bioengineering (LADSEB-CNR), Padua, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422677 Open the PDF Link PDF for 250 - 253: Insulin Sensitivity, Secretion and Hepatic Extraction in Untreated Hypertensive Patients in another window
  • 254 - 256: A High Monounsaturated Fat-Low Carbohydrate Diet Reduces Insulin Resistance in NIDDM Patients By A. V. Ciardullo ; A. V. Ciardullo Institute of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, University “Federico II”, Naples, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar M. Parillo ; M. Parillo Institute of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, University “Federico II”, Naples, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar B. Capaldo ; B. Capaldo Institute of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, University “Federico II”, Naples, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. Giacco ; A. Giacco Institute of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, University “Federico II”, Naples, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. A. Rivellese ; A. A. Rivellese Institute of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, University “Federico II”, Naples, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. Riccardi G. Riccardi Institute of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Diseases, University “Federico II”, Naples, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422678 Open the PDF Link PDF for 254 - 256: A High Monounsaturated Fat-Low Carbohydrate Diet Reduces Insulin Resistance in NIDDM Patients in another window
  • 257 - 260: Assessment of Renal Function: Accurate Determination of Glomerular Filtration Rate, Renal Plasma Flow and Extracellular Fluid Volume By G. Pacini ; G. Pacini Institute of System Dynamics and Bioengineering, LADSEB-CNR, and Institute of Internal Medicine, University of Padua, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar K. Thomaseth ; K. Thomaseth Institute of System Dynamics and Bioengineering, LADSEB-CNR, and Institute of Internal Medicine, University of Padua, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar M. Sambataro ; M. Sambataro Institute of System Dynamics and Bioengineering, LADSEB-CNR, and Institute of Internal Medicine, University of Padua, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar R. Nosadini ; R. Nosadini Institute of System Dynamics and Bioengineering, LADSEB-CNR, and Institute of Internal Medicine, University of Padua, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. Crepaldi G. Crepaldi Institute of System Dynamics and Bioengineering, LADSEB-CNR, and Institute of Internal Medicine, University of Padua, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422679 Open the PDF Link PDF for 257 - 260: Assessment of Renal Function: Accurate Determination of Glomerular Filtration Rate, Renal Plasma Flow and Extracellular Fluid Volume in another window
  • 261 - 263: Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Subfractions and Lipase Activity in Normolipidemic IDDM Patients By G. Romano ; G. Romano Institute of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Disease, II Medical School, University of Naples, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar L. Patti ; L. Patti Institute of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Disease, II Medical School, University of Naples, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar L. di Marino ; L. di Marino Institute of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Disease, II Medical School, University of Naples, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. Annuzzi ; G. Annuzzi Institute of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Disease, II Medical School, University of Naples, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. Riccardi ; G. Riccardi Institute of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Disease, II Medical School, University of Naples, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. A. Rivellese A. A. Rivellese Institute of Internal Medicine and Metabolic Disease, II Medical School, University of Naples, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422680 Open the PDF Link PDF for 261 - 263: Very-Low-Density Lipoprotein Subfractions and Lipase Activity in Normolipidemic IDDM Patients in another window
  • 264 - 266: Genetic Polymorphism of Apolipoprotein B and Coronary Heart Disease in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus By L. Rigoli ; L. Rigoli Department of Internal Medicine, University of Messina, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. di Benedetto ; A. di Benedetto Department of Internal Medicine, University of Messina, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. Romano ; G. Romano Department of Internal Medicine, University of Messina, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. Romano ; G. Romano Department of Internal Medicine, University of Messina, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar R. Scoglio ; R. Scoglio Department of Internal Medicine, University of Messina, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. Mileto ; A. Mileto Department of Internal Medicine, University of Messina, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar S. Campo ; S. Campo Department of Internal Medicine, University of Messina, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. Squadrito ; G. Squadrito Department of Internal Medicine, University of Messina, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar D. Cucinotta D. Cucinotta Department of Internal Medicine, University of Messina, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422681 Open the PDF Link PDF for 264 - 266: Genetic Polymorphism of Apolipoprotein B and Coronary Heart Disease in Type 2 Diabetes mellitus in another window
  • 267 - 271: Effect of Different Immunosuppressive Regimens on Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Secretion in Non-Diabetic Kidney-Transplanted Patients By G. P. Reboldi ; G. P. Reboldi a Istituto di Medicana Interna e Scienze Endocrine e Metaboliche, Univershà di Perugia; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. Ruggeri ; A. Ruggeri b Dipartimento di Elettronica ed Informatica, Università di Padova; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar G. Quintaliani ; G. Quintaliani c UO Nefrologia e Dialisi, Ospedale R. Silvestrini, Perugia, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar U. Buoncristiani ; U. Buoncristiani c UO Nefrologia e Dialisi, Ospedale R. Silvestrini, Perugia, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar A. Bueti ; A. Bueti a Istituto di Medicana Interna e Scienze Endocrine e Metaboliche, Univershà di Perugia; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar F. Santeusanio ; F. Santeusanio a Istituto di Medicana Interna e Scienze Endocrine e Metaboliche, Univershà di Perugia; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar C. Cobelli ; C. Cobelli b Dipartimento di Elettronica ed Informatica, Università di Padova; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar P. Brunetti P. Brunetti a Istituto di Medicana Interna e Scienze Endocrine e Metaboliche, Univershà di Perugia; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422682 Open the PDF Link PDF for 267 - 271: Effect of Different Immunosuppressive Regimens on Glucose Tolerance and Insulin Secretion in Non-Diabetic Kidney-Transplanted Patients in another window
  • 272 - 274: Insulin Increases Endothelin-1 Production by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Derived from Human Microvessels By Giovanni Anfossi ; Giovanni Anfossi a Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences of the University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano-Torino, Italy; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Franco Cavalot ; Franco Cavalot a Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences of the University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano-Torino, Italy; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Paola Massucco ; Paola Massucco a Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences of the University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano-Torino, Italy; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Luigi Mattiello ; Luigi Mattiello a Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences of the University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano-Torino, Italy; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Elena Maria Mularoni ; Elena Maria Mularoni a Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences of the University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano-Torino, Italy; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Serenella Burzacca ; Serenella Burzacca a Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences of the University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano-Torino, Italy; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Alfred Hahn ; Alfred Hahn b Department of Research of the Basel University Hospital, Basel, Switzerland Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Mariella Trovati Mariella Trovati a Department of Clinical and Biological Sciences of the University of Turin, San Luigi Gonzaga Hospital, Orbassano-Torino, Italy; Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422683 Open the PDF Link PDF for 272 - 274: Insulin Increases Endothelin-1 Production by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Derived from Human Microvessels in another window
  • 275 - 277: Evaluation of Urinary Albumin Excretion Rate in Different Conditions of Severe Diabetic Retinopathy1 By Roberta Lugari ; Roberta Lugari Department of Endocrinology, University of Parma, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Lucia Scoccianti ; Lucia Scoccianti Department of Endocrinology, University of Parma, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Paolo Tagliavini ; Paolo Tagliavini Department of Endocrinology, University of Parma, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Daniela Pancotti ; Daniela Pancotti Department of Endocrinology, University of Parma, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Gloria Barbaglio ; Gloria Barbaglio Department of Endocrinology, University of Parma, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Maridia Tirelli ; Maridia Tirelli Department of Endocrinology, University of Parma, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Giuseppina Chierici ; Giuseppina Chierici Department of Endocrinology, University of Parma, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar M. Luisa De Franco ; M. Luisa De Franco Department of Endocrinology, University of Parma, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Angelo Gnudi Angelo Gnudi Department of Endocrinology, University of Parma, Italy Search for other works by this author on: This Site PubMed Google Scholar Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422684 Open the PDF Link PDF for 275 - 277: Evaluation of Urinary Albumin Excretion Rate in Different Conditions of Severe Diabetic Retinopathy1 in another window
  • 279 - 285: Subject Index Doi: https://doi.org/10.1159/000422685 Open the PDF Link PDF for 279 - 285: Subject Index in another window

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  • Introduction
  • Conclusions
  • Article Information

A, Diabetes prevalence. B, Hypertension prevalence.

a Diabetes prevalence under the assumption that all Annual Health Survey participants had not fasted are shown in eFigure 3 in the Supplement .

A, Diabetes prevalence. B, Hypertension prevalence. Predicted probabilities were obtained from multivariable logistic regressions of diabetes and hypertension on individuals’ sociodemographic characteristics (age group, household wealth quintile, education, marital status, sex, and rural vs urban location), district-level fixed effects, and an interaction term between age group and household wealth quintile. Predicted probabilities assuming that all Annual Health Survey respondents had not fasted are shown in eFigure 6 in the Supplement .

A, Diabetes prevalence. B, Hypertension prevalence. No data were available for Jammu and Kashmir, and Gujarat. The Union Territories of Chandigarh, Daman and Diu, and Puducherry are not visible in the map owing to their small area. Point estimates and 95% CIs for each state are shown in eTable 7 in the Supplement . AP indicates Andhra Pradesh; AR, Arunachal Pradesh; AS, Assam; BR, Bihar; CG, Chhattisgarh; CH, Chandigarh; DD, Daman and Diu; DL, Delhi; GA, Goa; HR, Haryana; HP, Himachal Pradesh; JH, Jharkhand; KA, Karnataka; KL, Kerala; MP, Madhya Pradesh; MH, Maharashtra; MN, Manipur; ML, Meghalaya; MZ, Mizoram; NL, Nagaland; OD, Odisha (Orissa); PB, Punjab; PY, Puducherry; RJ, Rajasthan; SK, Sikkim; TN, Tamil Nadu; TS, Telangana State; TR, Tripura; UP, Uttar Pradesh; UK, Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal); WB, West Bengal.

eMethods 1. Methodology of the AHS and DLHS-4

eFigure 1. States and Union Territories covered by each survey

eMethods 2. Matching Annual Health Survey biomarker data to participants’ socio-demographic data

eMethods 3. Computation of the household wealth index

eMethods 4. Computation of sampling weights

eTable 1. Sample characteristics stratified by whether the blood glucose or blood pressure measurement was missing

eTable 2. National diabetes and hypertension prevalence by age group and sex

eTable 3. National diabetes prevalence assuming all AHS respondents were unfasted

eFigure 2. Hypertension prevalence by five-year age group for India and WHO/NCD-RisC regions

eFigure 3. Prevalence of diabetes by rural vs urban residence, sex, and household wealth quintile assuming all AHS respondents were unfasted

eFigure 4. Prevalence of diabetes and hypertension by rural vs urban residence, sex, and education

eFigure 5. Prevalence of diabetes by rural vs urban residence, sex, and education assuming all AHS respondents were unfasted

eTable 4. Regression results for diabetes assuming all AHS participants were unfasted

eTable 5. Regression results for diabetes among those in whom fasting status could be ascertained (ie, DLHS-4 participants only)

eFigure 6. The predicted probability of diabetes by age group, rural-urban location, and household wealth quintile assuming AHS participants were unfasted

eFigure 7. The predicted probability of diabetes by age group, rural-urban location, and household wealth quintile among those in whom fasting status could be ascertained (ie, DLHS-4 participants only)

eTable 6. State-level age-standardized diabetes and hypertension prevalence estimates by sex

eTable 7. State-level age-standardized diabetes and hypertension prevalence estimates by rural vs urban location

eTable 8. State-level crude diabetes and hypertension prevalence estimates by age group

eTable 9. State-level age-standardized diabetes prevalence estimates by sex assuming all AHS respondents were unfasted

eTable 10. State-level age-standardized diabetes prevalence estimates by rural vs urban location assuming all AHS respondents were unfasted

eTable 11. State-level crude diabetes prevalence estimates by age group assuming all AHS respondents were unfasted

eFigure 8. Association of the state- and district-level age-standardized prevalence of diabetes with mean household wealth quintile

eFigure 9. Association of the state- and district-level age-standardized prevalence of hypertension with mean household wealth quintile

eFigure 10. Comparison of age-standardized national diabetes prevalence reported in different studies

eReferences

  • India’s Call to Action—Prioritize Chronic Cardiovascular Disease JAMA Internal Medicine Invited Commentary March 1, 2018 Alka M. Kanaya, MD

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Geldsetzer P , Manne-Goehler J , Theilmann M, et al. Diabetes and Hypertension in India : A Nationally Representative Study of 1.3 Million Adults . JAMA Intern Med. 2018;178(3):363–372. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.8094

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Diabetes and Hypertension in India : A Nationally Representative Study of 1.3 Million Adults

  • 1 Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts
  • 2 Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts
  • 3 Department of Economics & Centre for Modern Indian Studies, University of Goettingen, Göttingen, Germany
  • 4 MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit, School of Public Health, Education Campus, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa
  • 5 Centre for Global Health, King's College London, London, England
  • 6 Indian Institute of Public Health, Gandhinagar, India
  • 7 Public Health Foundation of India, Delhi NCR, India
  • 8 Institute of Public Health, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany
  • 9 Africa Health Research Institute, Mtubatuba, South Africa
  • Invited Commentary India’s Call to Action—Prioritize Chronic Cardiovascular Disease Alka M. Kanaya, MD JAMA Internal Medicine

Question   How does the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in India vary by geographical area and sociodemographic characteristics?

Findings   Diabetes and hypertension prevalence varied widely among states (by more than a factor of 6 for diabetes and more than a factor of 2 for hypertension); while household wealth and urban location were positively associated with both conditions, the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension among those older than 40 years in the poorest household wealth quintile in rural areas was nonetheless high (5.9% and 30.0%, respectively).

Meaning   The prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in India varies substantially by age, rural vs urban location, and state—knowledge that could be used to target relevant programs to those most in need.

Importance   Understanding how diabetes and hypertension prevalence varies within a country as large as India is essential for targeting of prevention, screening, and treatment services. However, to our knowledge there has been no prior nationally representative study of these conditions to guide the design of effective policies.

Objective   To determine the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in India, and its variation by state, rural vs urban location, and individual-level sociodemographic characteristics.

Design, Setting, and Participants   This was a cross-sectional, nationally representative, population-based study carried out between 2012 and 2014. A total of 1 320 555 adults 18 years or older with plasma glucose (PG) and blood pressure (BP) measurements were included in the analysis.

Exposures   State, rural vs urban location, age, sex, household wealth quintile, education, and marital status.

Main Outcomes and Measures   Diabetes (PG level ≥126 mg/dL if the participant had fasted or ≥200 mg/dL if the participant had not fasted) and hypertension (systolic BP≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP≥90 mm Hg).

Results   Of the 1 320 555 adults, 701 408 (53.1%) were women. The crude prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was 7.5% (95% CI, 7.3%-7.7%) and 25.3% (95% CI, 25.0%-25.6%), respectively. Notably, hypertension was common even among younger age groups (eg, 18-25 years: 12.1%; 95% CI, 11.8%-12.5%). Being in the richest household wealth quintile compared with being in the poorest quintile was associated with only a modestly higher probability of diabetes (rural: 2.81 percentage points; 95% CI, 2.53-3.08 and urban: 3.47 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.03-3.91) and hypertension (rural: 4.15 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.68-4.61 and urban: 3.01 percentage points; 95% CI, 2.38-3.65). The differences in the probability of both conditions by educational category were generally small (≤2 percentage points). Among states, the crude prevalence of diabetes and hypertension varied from 3.2% (95% CI, 2.7%-3.7%) to 19.9% (95% CI, 17.6%-22.3%), and 18.0% (95% CI, 16.6%-19.5%) to 41.6% (95% CI, 37.8%-45.5%), respectively.

Conclusions and Relevance   Diabetes and hypertension prevalence is high in middle and old age across all geographical areas and sociodemographic groups in India, and hypertension prevalence among young adults is higher than previously thought. Evidence on the variations in prevalence by state, age group, and rural vs urban location is critical to effectively target diabetes and hypertension prevention, screening, and treatment programs to those most in need.

In 2011, World Health Organization (WHO) member states signed the Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases, 1 which aimed to halt the rise of diabetes by 2025 and reduce the prevalence of hypertension by 25% between 2010 and 2025. In 2015, as part of Sustainable Development Goal 3, the United Nations (UN) member states set the target of reducing premature mortality from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) by one-third by 2030. Given India’s huge population, 2 its achievements are critical to reaching these global targets.

India is in the midst of a rapid epidemiological transition: the estimated proportion of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) attributable to NCDs in India has risen from 31% of total DALYs in 1990 to 55% in 2016. 3 An increasing prevalence of diabetes and hypertension is thought to be both an important driver and consequence of this transition. The NCD Risk Factor Collaboration (NCD-RisC) estimates suggest that between 1980 and 2014, the age-standardized diabetes and hypertension prevalence among men in India grew from 3.7% to 9.1% and 24.5% to 26.6%, respectively, and among women from 4.6% to 8.3% and 22.7% to 24.7%, respectively. 4 The prevalence of both conditions is likely to continue increasing in the future given that (1) India’s population is aging and urbanizing rapidly 2 , 5 and (2) standards of living in the country are improving, 6 which tends to be accompanied by an increase in obesity and its associated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, 7 including diabetes and hypertension. The latter is particularly concerning given that adults of Asian Indian ethnicity are thought to be predisposed to developing CVD when exposed to obesogenic environments and lifestyles. 8

For effective targeting of health system resources and services, it is essential to understand how the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension varies among population groups across this vast country. Yet, to date, there has not been a nationally representative study of diabetes and hypertension in India to provide the evidence needed to inform policymaking. 9 , 10 Pooling data from a nationally representative sample of 1.3 million adults, this study aims to provide a new (and more accurate) diabetes and hypertension prevalence estimate for India, and to examine how the prevalence of these conditions varies by state, rural vs urban location, and individual-level sociodemographic characteristics.

We pooled data from 2 large household surveys in India: The District-Level Household Survey-4 (DLHS-4) and the second update of the Annual Health Survey (AHS), which were both carried out between 2012 and 2014, are representative at the district level and jointly cover all 29 states of India except (1) Jammu and Kashmir and (2) Gujarat. More details on the surveys are provided in eMethods 1, eMethods 2, and eFigure 1 in the Supplement . This analysis of an existing data set in the public domain received a determination of “not human subjects research” by the institutional review board of the Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health.

Both the AHS and DLHS-4 measured blood glucose and blood pressure (BP) in men and nonpregnant women 18 years or older. A capillary blood sample (using a finger prick) was taken and blood glucose measured using the SD CodeFree handheld glucometer (Bionsensor Inc), which multiplied capillary glucose readings by 1.11 to display their plasma equivalent. 11 Blood pressure was measured twice in the left upper arm (with the patient sitting) using an electronic BP monitor (Rossmax AW150, Rossmax International Ltd).

Diabetes was defined as having a high plasma glucose reading (≥126 mg/dL [7.0 mmol/L] if patients reported having fasted or ≥200 mg/dL [11.1 mmol/L] if patients reported not fasting per the recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation and WHO 12 ). All participants were asked to fast overnight until the time of the blood glucose measurement in the morning. Fasting status was verified by self-report in the DLHS-4 (58.4% of participants reported to have fasted) but was not recorded in the AHS. The prevalence and regression results in this article assume all AHS respondents to have fasted. However, in the Supplement , we present all prevalence and regression estimates assuming AHS participants had not fasted, as well as regression results among only those respondents in whom fasting status was verified by self-report (ie, DLHS-4 participants only).

Based on the mean of the 2 BP measurements taken in the AHS and DLHS-4, we defined hypertension as systolic BP of at least 140 mm Hg or diastolic BP of at least 90 mm Hg. 13

The independent variables for this study were state, household wealth quintile, education, marital status (currently married or not), and whether the household was located in a rural or urban area. We used household ownership of 12 assets (radio, TV, computer, phone, refrigerator, bike, scooter, car, washing machine, sewing machine, house, and land) and 5 key housing characteristics (water supply, type of toilet and whether it is shared, cooking fuel, housing material, and source of lighting) to generate a household wealth index in a principal component analysis (PCA). Following the methodology developed by Filmer and Pritchett, 14 , 15 we extracted the first component in the PCA separately for urban and rural areas and divided this variable into quintiles (again, separately for rural and urban areas) based on the distribution in the national data set. More details on the computation of the household wealth index are provided in eMethods 3 in the Supplement .

Diabetes and hypertension prevalence was calculated by state, rural vs urban location, sex, age group, and household wealth quintile using sampling weights to account for both the survey design and the pooling of AHS with DLHS-4 data (see eMethods 4 in the Supplement ). Age-standardized prevalence estimates were weighted to the age distribution of the WHO’s standard population. 16 We fitted multivariable linear probability models (LPMs)—run separately for rural and urban areas—to further investigate the association of diabetes and hypertension with individual-level sociodemographic characteristics. Our regressions included a binary indicator (“fixed effect”) for each of 18 126 primary sampling units (PSUs) to filter out area-level effects on diabetes and hypertension. Because there are relatively few observations in each PSU, we fitted LPMs rather than logistic or probit models to avoid the incidental parameter problem. 17 An added advantage of the LPM is the interpretability of the regression coefficients as simple absolute differences in the probability of the outcome. To avoid the possibility of fitted probabilities greater than 1 and less than 0, we use logistic regression (with district-level fixed effects to sidestep the incidental parameter problem) for predicted probability plots. The standard errors in all regression models were adjusted for clustering at the PSU level. Statistical analyses were performed with R software (version 3.3.2; R Foundation), and all figures were created with the ggplot2 package.

A total of 1 618 359 nonpregnant adults were interviewed; 297 804 (18.4%) had a missing value for the plasma glucose measurement or at least 1 of the 2 BP readings, yielding a sample size for analysis of 1 320 555 adults. Table 1 shows the (unweighted) characteristics of the participants; 7.6% of participants had diabetes, 26.5% had hypertension, 43.4% of participants were ages 18 to 35 years, and 47.0% of women and 28.6% of men had not completed primary school. Three quarters of participants were married, and a third (32.5%) were living in urban areas.

The crude (weighted) prevalence of diabetes was 7.3% (95% CI, 7.1%-7.4%) and 7.8% (95% CI, 7.6%-8.0%) among women and men, respectively, and ranged from 2.4% (95% CI, 2.2%-2.5%) among men ages 18 to 25 years to 14.0% (95% CI, 13.5%-14.5%) among men older than 65 years (eTable 2 in the Supplement ). Crude hypertension prevalence was 23.6% (95% CI, 23.3%-23.8%) among women and 27.4% (95% CI, 27.0%-27.7%) among men, ranging from 9.2% (95% CI, 8.9%-9.6%) among women ages 18 to 25 years to 48.6% (95% CI, 47.9%-49.3%) among women older than 65 years.

Stratification of crude prevalence by individuals’ sociodemographic characteristics ( Figure 1 and eFigure 4 in the Supplement ) and multivariable regressions ( Table 2 and Figure 2 ) show that (1) household wealth quintile was positively associated with both conditions, although—compared with the poorest quintile—the richest quintile had only a modestly higher probability of diabetes (rural areas: 2.81 percentage points; 95% CI, 2.53-3.08 and urban areas: 3.47 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.03-3.91) and hypertension (rural areas: 4.15 percentage points; 95% CI, 3.68-4.61 and urban areas: 3.01 percentage points; 95% CI, 2.38-3.65); (2) the differences in the probability of both conditions by educational attainment were generally small (≤2.00 percentage points); (3) for both conditions, prevalence tended to be higher in urban than rural areas; (4) the relative differences in prevalence by urban vs rural location and household wealth quintile were markedly higher for diabetes than for hypertension; (5) the relative differences between household wealth quintiles in the probability of both conditions were higher in rural areas than in urban areas; (6) while for both diabetes and hypertension men had a greater probability of having the condition than women, the absolute difference in the probability by sex was substantially larger for hypertension; and (7) the differences in the probability of both conditions with age group were higher than for any other sociodemographic characteristic.

The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes varied from 2.33% (95% CI, 1.98%-2.75%) among women in Madhya Pradesh to 17.90% (95% CI, 15.37%-20.74%) among men in Goa (eTable 6 in the Supplement ). For hypertension, the age-standardized prevalence ranged from 13.50% (95% CI, 12.19%-14.93%) among women in Chhattisgarh to 43.53% (95% CI, 38.33%-48.87%) among men in Daman and Diu. While diabetes was most prevalent in the South of India (Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu) as well as in Delhi and West Bengal, hypertension prevalence tended to be highest in the northern states of Punjab and Himachal Pradesh, the southern state of Kerala, and the northeastern states of Sikkim and Nagaland ( Figure 3 ). The state- and district-level prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was positively correlated with each area’s standard of living (as measured by the state- or district-level mean household wealth quintile) (eFigure 8 and eFigure 9 in the Supplement ).

To our knowledge, our study is the first to analyze nationally representative, individual-level blood glucose level and BP data in India—a country that is home to more than a sixth of the world’s population and 22% of the population in low- and middle-income countries 2 —to provide empirical evidence on the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension and its variation among different geographical areas and sociodemographic groups. The age-standardized prevalence of diabetes was 6.1% (95% CI, 6.0%-6.3%) among women and 6.5% (95% CI, 6.4%-6.7%) among men. For comparison, NCD-RisC estimates that the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes in the United States was 6.4% among women and 8.1% among men. 18 For hypertension, the age-standardized prevalence was considerably higher in India than estimates for the United States (20.0% among women in India compared with 10.8% in the United States, and 24.5% among men in India compared with 15.5% in the United States). 19 While we found substantial variation in diabetes and hypertension prevalence among Indian states, we show that diabetes and hypertension are common in middle and older age across all geographical settings and population groups in the country. Specifically, even though household wealth and living in an urban area were positively associated with both diabetes and hypertension, the prevalence of these conditions in middle and old age among the lowest household wealth quintile in rural areas was still high. For instance, among those older than 40 years in the poorest wealth quintile in rural areas, 5.9% (95% CI, 5.5%-6.2%) had diabetes and 30.0% (95% CI, 29.2%-30.7%) had hypertension.

While the key strength of this study is its ability to disaggregate prevalence by state- and individual-level sociodemographic characteristics, we also provide a new diabetes and hypertension prevalence estimate for India. To date, prevalence estimates for both conditions have been obtained by extrapolating findings from subnational studies to the national level. We observed an age-standardized diabetes prevalence of 6.3% (95% CI, 6.2%-6.5%). As depicted in eFigure 14, this figure is lower than the age-standardized estimates provided by the International Diabetes Federation (which has estimated an adult prevalence of 9.3% [95% CI, 7.6%-11.4%] for 2015), 20 NCD-RisC (estimating an adult prevalence of 9.1% [95% CI, 5.2%-14.2%] for 2014), 4 and the Global Burden of Disease Project (estimating an age-standardized prevalence among the entire population of 6.5% [uncertainty range: 6.0%-7.1%] in 2015). 21 The lower value for prevalence in our study is partly because we defined diabetes based on blood glucose level only (because information on diabetes medications or diagnosis was not available in the AHS and DLHS-4). While our prevalence figures are lower than these previous modeled estimates, our state-level prevalence estimates are similar to those obtained using data from the largest subnational study to date. 22

For hypertension, our age-standardized prevalence estimate of 24.5% (95% CI, 24.2%-24.9%) among men and 20.0% (95% CI, 19.7%-20.3%) among women is within the uncertainty intervals of the modeled estimates by WHO/NCD-RisC for India for 2015 (26.5% [95% uncertainty level, 21.2%-32.4%] among men and 24.7% [95% uncertainty level, 19.9%-29.9%] among women), which used the same definition of hypertension as was used in this study. 19 , 23 More strikingly however, as shown in eFigure 2 in the Supplement , we found substantially higher prevalence of hypertension among age groups younger than 45 years than estimated by WHO/NCD-RisC for South Asia (India contributed 76% of the population of South Asia, as defined by WHO/NCD-RisC). 2 , 19 In fact, in younger age groups, our hypertension prevalence estimates for India were higher than those for Central and Eastern Europe—a region that WHO/NCD-RisC identified as having the highest hypertension prevalence globally. 19 , 23 An important finding of our study, therefore, is the unexpectedly high prevalence of hypertension among young adults in India, which—if ineffectively treated—will likely result in longer lifetime exposure to this risk factor and thus higher CVD rates in the future.

Equity concerns have been raised about investing limited resources for health in LMICs into CVD screening and treatment because CVD is generally thought to occur more frequently in wealthier strata of society than in poorer strata. 24 , 25 In this study, we show that the wealth and education gradients in diabetes and hypertension prevalence are relatively minor, especially when compared with age gradients. A limitation of this study, however, is that if wealthier and more educated individuals were more likely to achieve control of their diabetes or hypertension through better access to treatment, then the socioeconomic gradients in diabetes and hypertension in this analysis (which defined these conditions based on blood glucose level and BP only) are flatter than they would have been had these conditions been defined as either reporting to be on treatment or having a high blood glucose level and BP. More generally, prevalence of CVD risk factors by wealth groups can only partially inform equity-focused policy decisions because of 2 main limitations. The first is that prevalence estimates do not take into account that CVD events are likely to have more detrimental effects among the poor than among the wealthy because poorer individuals have lower access to high-quality health care services and have less financial risk protection. 26 - 31 The second limitation is that examining a single risk factor or disease at a time does not provide information on the relative contribution of the disease to the wealth group’s total disease burden. In particular, many areas of India are still facing a substantial infectious disease burden and poor maternal and child health indicators 32 —health problems that disproportionately affect the poor.

Our study has several additional limitations. As in any population-based survey, some adults (18.4%) had a missing value for their blood glucose measurement or at least 1 of the 2 systolic or diastolic BP measurements. Of these, 87.0% had a missing consent variable (basic sociodemographic information on these participants was still collected from the household head), suggesting that missing measurements were mostly due to some adults being absent at the time of the household visit (rather than refusal to consent or data entry errors). Second, a 1-time capillary blood glucose measurement is not recommended for the diagnosis of diabetes in clinical settings. 33 It has, however, been shown to have an acceptable sensitivity and specificity for defining diabetes in population-based research and is the recommended method for monitoring diabetes prevalence in the WHO’s STEPwise Approach to NCD Risk Factor Surveillance. 34 - 36 Third, the study was unable to distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The International Diabetes Federation estimates that 72 000 children with type 1 diabetes from birth to age 14 years lived in India in 2015; 0.02% of the country’s population was in this age range. 2 , 20 Extrapolating this percentage to adults would suggest that the proportion of adults with type 1 diabetes in our sample is likely very small. Fourth, in contrast with the DLHS-4, fasting status was not verified through self-report in the AHS. Applying a fasting blood glucose threshold to participants who had not fasted in the AHS (which covers the poorer states of India) may be partially responsible for the high diabetes prevalence among poorer individuals. We addressed this limitation by also providing prevalence estimates assuming that all AHS respondents had not fasted instead of fasted (eTables 3 and 9-11 and eFigures 5 and 6, in the Supplement ). In addition, we show our regression results after restricting the sample to DLHS-4 respondents (eTable 5 and eFigure 7 in the Supplement ) and find that among these participants, for whom fasting status was verified through self-report, the probability of diabetes in the lowest national household wealth quintile was even higher than among AHS respondents (eFigure 7 in the Supplement ).

While we identified important variation in diabetes and hypertension prevalence among states and by rural vs urban location, prevalence levels in India are high across all geographical settings and socioeconomic groups in middle and old age. Major investments in targeted diabetes and hypertension prevention, detection, and treatment programs are needed across the country if India is to avert catastrophic health, social, and economic consequences of these conditions and their sequelae. Given the size, growth, rapid urbanization, and aging of India’s population, 2 , 5 as well as the high levels of impoverishing health care expenditures caused by NCDs, 31 the country’s success in tackling its diabetes and hypertension epidemic will be crucial to achieving Sustainable Development Goals globally.

Corresponding Author: Lindsay M. Jaacks, PhD, Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health, 655 Huntington Ave, Boston, MA 02115 ( [email protected] ).

Accepted for Publication: November 24, 2017.

Published Online: January 29, 2018. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2017.8094

Author Contributions: Dr Jaacks had full access to all of the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Study concept and design: Geldsetzer, Manne-Goehler, Davies, Awasthi, Vollmer, Jaacks, Bärnighausen, Atun.

Acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data: Geldsetzer, Manne-Goehler, Theilmann, Davies, Awasthi, Jaacks, Bärnighausen, Atun.

Drafting of the manuscript: Geldsetzer.

Critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content: Geldsetzer, Manne-Goehler, Theilmann, Davies, Awasthi, Vollmer, Jaacks, Bärnighausen, Atun.

Statistical analysis: Geldsetzer, Theilmann, Vollmer.

Obtained funding: Geldsetzer, Jaacks.

Study supervision: Davies, Jaacks, Bärnighausen, Vollmer, Atun.

Conflict of Interest Disclosures: None reported.

Additional Information: Drs Vollmer, Jaacks, Bärnighausen, and Atun are co–senior authors.

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  • v.21(2); 2018 Apr

Diabetes‐related complications: Which research topics matter to diverse patients and caregivers?

Maman joyce dogba.

1 Department of Family and Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada

2 Office of Education and Professional Development, Faculty of Medicine, Laval University, Quebec City, QC, Canada

Mylène Tantchou Dipankui

Selma chipenda dansokho, france légaré, holly o. witteman.

3 Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec (CHU de Québec) Research Centre [Health of populations and best health practices axis], Quebec City, QC, Canada

Associated Data

Diabetes is a chronic disease with increasing prevalence worldwide. Although research has improved its treatment and management, little is known about which research topics matter to people living with diabetes, particularly among under‐represented groups.

To explore the importance of research topics among a diverse range of people living with any type of diabetes or caring for someone living with any type of diabetes.

We used a convergent mixed‐method design with quantitative and qualitative aspects. We surveyed a national sample of people living with diabetes and caregivers of people with diabetes, asking them to rate the importance of 10 predetermined important research topics. We also held three focus groups in two major cities to explore research concerns of people who are under‐represented in research.

469 adults (57% men, 42% women) in Canada completed the online survey, indicating that all 10 areas of research mattered to them, with the highest ratings accorded to preventing and treating kidney, eye and nerve complications. Fourteen individuals participated in three focus groups and similarly noted the importance of research on those three complications. Additionally, focus group participants also noted the importance of research around daily management. No new topics were identified.

Conclusions

This study confirmed the importance of research topics among a population of people living with or caring for someone with diabetes. Findings from this study were used to inform the vision for Diabetes Action Canada—a pan‐Canadian Strategy for Patient‐Oriented Research ( SPOR ) Network on diabetes and its complications.

1. INTRODUCTION

Diabetes is a chronic disease with increasing prevalence worldwide. 1 In 2014, an estimated 422 million adults, representing 8.5% of the global population, were living with diabetes. 2 The economic burden of this disease and its complications account for a growing proportion of local and national budgets. 3 , 4 For individuals, diabetes has negative psychosocial consequences that diminish quality of life. 5 While research has improved the treatment and management of diabetes and increased longevity, 6 mismatches between the focus of research and what matters to patients may lead to research waste. 7 , 8 Involving patients in the early stages of research is the first step in reducing such waste, as it helps increase the relevance of topics studied regarding such chronic diseases as diabetes. 9 People living with chronic diseases may develop a high degree of expertise which can provide new insight into how to improve their conditions and self‐care. 10 , 11 The patient perspective may complement that of the clinician and researcher by providing a more holistic interpretation of health and the experience of a health condition. 11

When seeking to involve patients as partners in research, it is critical to avoid reproducing or even exacerbating health inequities. Major disparities persist in the diagnosis, treatment, disease management and health outcomes of groups such as ethnic minorities, immigrants, people living in poverty, people whose mental health require regular follow‐up with a psychiatrist and seniors, all of whom are more vulnerable to diabetes‐related complications. 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 In spite of these continuing disparities, minority groups continue to be under‐represented in research, and engagement in defining research questions is no exception. Additionally, there is little guidance on how to facilitate the full participation of members of these groups in setting research priorities. 17 , 18 For example, although previous research in the United Kingdom has identified research priorities among people living with type 1 diabetes, those involved were predominantly white and female. 19

This study aimed to involve a national sample of people living with diabetes and caregivers of people living with diabetes in rating the importance of research topics around diabetes‐related complications. We further sought to capture the perspectives of people who are under‐represented in research. Our primary research question was as follows: What topics are most important to people living with or caring for someone living with diabetes regarding disease‐related complications as a means to help better orient future research priorities?

2.1. Study design

We used a multipronged mixed‐methods (QUAN + QUAL) approach with a convergent design 20 to capture what was important to people living with diabetes and caregivers regarding research on diabetes‐related complications. 21 , 22 According to the convergent mixed‐methods design, quantitative and qualitative methods are complementary during data collection, data analysis or both. In our case, we combined 21 the quantitative and qualitative data after we completed both sets of data collection. The study consisted of two components accordingly: (i) quantitative: an anonymous online survey to poll a national sample of people living with diabetes or caregivers of people living with diabetes on the importance of 10 predetermined research topics; and (ii) qualitative: holding focus groups with people living with diabetes who are members of under‐represented groups, in order to explore the views and experiences of those predicted to be under‐represented in the online survey. 23

2.2. Research ethics

This study was approved by the Research Ethics Board of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec (Quebec City, approval #: 2016‐2578). In agreeing to follow the link and take the online survey, participants provided implied consent. No survey questions were mandatory, meaning that respondents could skip questions if they wished. No attention filter was included. Prior to each focus group, we described the project and allowed participants to ask questions. Verbal consent of focus group participants was recorded.

2.3. Procedures

2.3.1. online survey.

The online survey included questions on socio‐demographics, the person's experience with diabetes‐related complications and analog scales to rate the importance of 10 pertinent disease‐related complication research topics. These topics were identified in the literature describing previous priority‐setting exercises conducted with people living with type 1 diabetes, 19 and via email consultation with researchers, clinicians, representatives of patient organizations, caregivers and patient partners as part of a 6‐month funding application planning process.

Demographic data gathered from participants included: age, gender, ethnicity, income and education levels, geographical location and country of birth (inside or outside of Canada). Prior to finalizing the survey, all survey questions were iteratively reviewed by a person living with type 1 diabetes, a person living with type 2 diabetes, and a parent of a child with type 1 diabetes. The survey also contained three validated scales 24 , 25 , 26 , 27 , 28 to measure fear or distress associated with living with diabetes and its complications (see Appendix S1 ). These scales were included because we believed that fear or distress might influence how individuals rate the importance of research topics relative to the levels of fear they experience regarding these complications. If we were to observe large variations in ratings of importance, these data would allow us to explore potential reasons for the variation. The survey also included comment boxes where participants could provide additional information, including an open‐ended question asking for their ideas on additional topics concerning diabetes and diabetes‐related complications that require more research.

2.3.2. Survey participants

Over a 3‐day period in September 2015, we recruited participants through Qualtrics online sampling services. 29 To be included in the study, participants had to be living in Canada, aged ≥18 years, living with type 1 or type 2 diabetes, or caring for a child or an adult with diabetes and able to complete the survey in English or French. To ensure demographic diversity and offset variations in response rates, we established desired quotas based on gender (50/50 men and women), type of diabetes and relationship with diabetes (people with diabetes themselves, parents of children with diabetes, caregivers for adults with diabetes). We could not put quotas in place regarding ethnicity due to sampling constraints. In keeping with standard amounts for surveys administered by panel services, participants who completed the survey received $1.00‐$1.50 in compensation for their time answering our questions. We aimed for approximately 500 respondents. This target was selected as an achievable sample size that would allow for a broad sample of respondents and aligned with previous, similar research that sought feedback from 583 people living with diabetes about research questions they would like to see addressed. 19

2.3.3. Focus groups

Members of some groups may be less likely to complete online surveys, and thus, be under‐represented in survey‐based research. Therefore, we held 3 focus groups with patients and caregivers who were members of such groups. 30 To ensure variation in perspectives, we partnered with community organizations working with seniors, economically disadvantaged people, immigrants and people whose mental health requires follow‐up with a psychiatrist. 31 , 32 , 33 Two experienced qualitative researchers (MJD and MDT) conducted the focus groups using an established protocol. During the focus groups, patients were invited to discuss their experience with diabetes and its related complications, their perspectives and their concerns about the long‐term complications of diabetes. Participants also explained why, in their view, the concerns raised should be investigated by researchers.

2.3.4. Focus group participants

We used a convenience sample of members of under‐represented populations in the province of Quebec. We recruited focus group participants through three community‐based organizations that provide services to seniors, immigrants and people whose mental health requires regular follow‐up with a psychiatrist. To be eligible to participate in the focus groups, participants needed to be: living in Canada, aged ≥18 years, living with type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes or caring for a person with diabetes, and able to understand and express themselves in French. Participants who were unable to comfortably express themselves in French were excluded from the study.

To recruit participants, the organizations circulated information about the study to its clients or members. Interested participants contacted the research associate either by email or by phone. The research associate contacted all potential participants to explain the study, assess their eligibility, answer questions and discuss logistics. A reminder call and/or email was sent to all participants 2 days prior to the scheduled focus group to confirm the time and location.

We held the three focus groups at times convenient for participants. Furthermore, to increase accessibility, the focus groups were held in the offices of the partnering community organizations; a common practice when working with members of vulnerable populations. 34 We conducted two focus groups in Quebec City: (i) seniors; and (ii) people whose mental health requires regular follow‐up with a psychiatrist. We conducted the third in Montreal with a group of immigrants. Each focus group was audio‐recorded and lasted between 70 and 90 minutes. Participants received $50 in appreciation for their time and 10$ for transportation. 19

2.4. Data analysis

Our interest in conducting both qualitative and quantitative portions was to ensure inclusion of diverse perspectives. In other words, while research often uses quantitative and qualitative methods to collect different types of data from the same population to inform a research question, we used different methods to collect data from groups both more and less likely to participate in different types of research, in an attempt to capture more representative results. Therefore, we carried out quantitative and qualitative analyses separately before bringing both parts together. Our first step was to conduct descriptive statistics using SPSS version 22 (Armonk, NY, USA: IBM Corp.) to measure central tendency and examine the range of variation in responses to our questions about the importance of 10 important diabetes research areas. We recorded focus group discussions and transcribed them verbatim. We performed a six‐stage thematic analysis 35 , 36 using NVivo qualitative analysis software (QSR International Pty Ltd. Version 10, 2012). We started by generating initial codes and themes, and inductively refining these themes based on the data. MTD analysed focus group data under the guidance of MJD. The codes were labelled with short phrases using the words of participants. Then, MTD sorted codes into potential themes and collated all relevant coded data extracts within the identified themes and subthemes. During this analysis, the codes, themes and subthemes were revised and refined. We used field notes 37 to validate and complete the information gathered during the focus groups. After separate analyses were completed, we combined the findings from each study to analyse how complementary or contradictory they were. We additionally examined how focus group findings could improve our interpretation of the statistical analysis.

3.1. Characteristics of participants

3.1.1. online survey.

Of the 500 participants surveyed, 31 were excluded from our analyses because they either completed the survey in a time deemed too fast to provide thoughtful answers (ie, 10 minutes or less) or because their responses were inconsistent with the questions. The remaining 469 participants were 57% men, had a mean age of 44 (SD = 15), came from across the 10 provinces and 3 territories of Canada, and represented a broad range of educational backgrounds and income levels. In line with our concerns and predictions about representation, participants predominantly identified as White or Caucasian (93%). Participants completed the survey in English (78%) or French (22%) and were either living with diabetes (96%) and/or caring for a child (<1%) or adult with diabetes (3%). Ten percent (10%) of participants were dealing with type 1 diabetes; 89% with type 2 diabetes; and 1% with another or unknown type. Median time living with diabetes was 19.5 years for type 1 diabetes (IQR 9.8‐30.0 years) and 8.0 years for type 2 diabetes (IQR 4.0‐15.0 years.) (See Table  1 A,B).

Online Survey Data

SD, sample standard deviation; IQR, interquartile range.

A vast majority of participants with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (45% and 60%, respectively) reported other health concerns, some of which may be diabetes‐related complications (see Table S1 ). These concerns were, for types 1 and 2 respectively, eye complications (34% and 15% of participants), heart complications (13% and 24% of participants), kidney complications (22% and 8% of participants), mental health complications (34% and 27% of participants) and nerve complications (40% and 30% of participants). Many participants reported not having been screened for these complications in the previous year. Of those with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively, 63% and 78% reported not receiving screening for eye complications within the past year; 71% and 68% reported not receiving screening for heart complications; 53% and 70% reported not receiving screening for kidney complications; 68% and 86% reported not receiving screening for mental health complications; and 61% and 70% reported not receiving screening for nerve complications.

3.1.2. Focus groups

Of the 23 people who initially expressed an interest in participating in the study, 5 were ineligible because they neither had diabetes nor cared for a person with diabetes; 2 withdrew because they were unavailable on the day of the focus group and 2 withdrew without explanation. Of the 14 remaining individuals who participated in the 3 focus groups, 7 (50%) were female and 3 total (21%) were living with type 1 diabetes. The characteristics of participants are shown in Table  2 .

Focus Groups: Characteristics of the 14 participants

3.2. Data analysis

3.2.1. online survey.

We report here the medians rather than the means because the distribution of responses to the survey questions about the importance of research topics regarding preventing and treating the complications of diabetes was not symmetrical. The median scores for people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes were between 84 and 100 (on a 0 to 100 rating scale, with 100 indicating extremely important) indicating that participants assigned high importance to all 10 predetermined research topics with relatively little variation between topics. Topics that had the highest median scores and the least variation in responses were preventing and treating kidney, eye, heart and nerve problems. Research topics for which participants had the widest interquartile range in scores were as follows: preventing and treating mental health problems, developing and testing smart insulin, patient and caregiver education, and artificial pancreas research (type 1) (see Table  3 ).

Online survey results regarding the importance of diabetes‐related research topics

Cronbach's alphas were .94, .93 and .94, respectively, for the Fear of Complications Scale, 28 Hypoglycemia Fear Scale 24 , 25 , 26 and Diabetes Distress Scale. 27 People with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes had mean scores of 23 (SD 10) and 18 (SD 10), respectively, on the Fear of Complications Scale (range 0‐45). Participants with type 1 diabetes had a mean score of 34 (SD 17) on the Hypoglycemia Fear Scale (range 0‐108) indicating sometimes fearing hypoglycaemia, while participants with type 2 diabetes had a mean score of 21 (SD 16) indicating being concerned less often. Finally, participants with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes had mean scores of 2.81 (SD 1.23) and 2.23 (SD 1.27) on the Diabetes Distress Scale. Using the cut‐off score recommended by Fisher et al 38 this indicates that on average, participants with type 1 diabetes had moderate but non‐clinical levels of distress (threshold = 3) (see Table S1 ).

Comments provided by participants in the open box sections of the survey aligned with the quantitative findings and illustrate the emotional distress linked to diabetes and diabetes management, the fear associated with episodes of hypoglycaemia and its consequences, and with the long‐term complications of the disease (see Table  3 ).

3.2.2. Focus groups

The thematic analysis allowed us to identify a set of general concerns about diabetes‐related complications as reported by members of under‐represented groups.

3.3. General concerns about diabetes‐related complications

Participants in the focus groups provided further insight into the nature of their concerns about the impact of diabetes on their quality of life, life‐expectancy (Table  4 , citation 1) and vulnerability to other diseases (Table  4 , citation 2). Most participants reported being most afraid of complications that potentially lead to functional impairment (blindness), additional morbidity (chronic renal failure) or death (hypoglycaemia) (Table  4 , citation 3). Furthermore, participants pointed to the challenge of continuously monitoring and managing the disease (Table  4 , citations 4, 5 and 6).

Citations from focus groups participants

In addition to these general and common concerns, four specific themes arose from the focus group discussions:

Theme 1: The bidirectional relation between individual history and socio‐economic context, and the management of diabetes

Two aspects of individual history and context were mentioned by participants: (i) the influence of previous life‐experiences on the management of diabetes; and (ii) the impact of socio‐economic conditions on the outcomes of the disease. Regarding the first point, participants said they suspected a strong relation between their previous life‐experiences and the management of diabetes‐related complications. They wished that this relation could be investigated. For example, one participant talked about adopting bad eating habits such as dieting during the day and binging at night because she saw a loved one in a diabetic coma. (Table  4 , citations 7 and 8).

With respect to the second point, discussions in both focus groups focused on the need for studies examining the cost of diabetes treatment (Table  4 , citation 9). For example, some participants argued that they sometimes had to choose between paying their rent and buying insulin and complained that this should be a concern to researchers.

Theme 2: The need to better understand the danger of polymedication toxicity in patients with multiple comorbidities

Focus group participants who were either elderly or had experienced mental health problems expressed their concerns about toxic drug interactions resulting from polymedication. They stressed the urgent need to understand, whether and/or to what extent, there may be interactions between their diabetes medication and other treatments (Table  4 , citation 10).

Theme 3: The need to better understand barriers to quality care for immigrants living with diabetes

Focus group participants who were immigrants had two core concerns regarding diabetes and its related complications for researchers to address, notably: (i) how to improve access to quality care for immigrants with diabetes; and (ii) how to make health‐care professionals more knowledgeable about the specific care needs of immigrants living with diabetes. Most immigrants in the study talked about cultural or linguistic barriers to navigating the health system. For example, one participant talked about how she had learned to be assertive in expressing her needs (Table  4 , citation 11). Another participant talked about his experience going back and forth between the doctor and the pharmacist without answers to his needs (Table  4 , citation 12). Finally, participants who were immigrants unanimously reported that health‐care professionals were inadequately trained to detect symptoms and diagnose diabetes among individuals who are newcomers to the country. One participant, for example, said that this led to a failure to recognise pre‐diabetes symptoms, forcing this person to consult multiple physicians before a glycaemia test was requested (Table  4 , citation 13).

Theme 4: The need for better dissemination of the research results on diabetes

Focus group participants also expressed concerns about not having access to updated information on diabetes. They reported being aware of on‐going research, but were never informed by community organizations about the research results (Table  4 , citations 14 and 15).

Participants also pointed to a need for better information for their loved ones and relatives, to help them understand and provide better support in the management of the disease (Table  4 , citations 16, 17, 18).

4. DISCUSSION

This study aimed to explore the importance of diabetes‐related complication research topics relevant to those living with or caring for someone living with diabetes. Additionally, we wished to explore the reasons why these topics are important from the perspective of under‐represented populations. Findings from both the quantitative and qualitative components of the study complement each other and can be summarized in three main points.

First, the alignment of what is important for patients in diabetes research. Both survey and focus group participants indicated the importance of preventing and treating well‐known complications of diabetes such as kidney, eye and nerve problems. This finding confirms that research on such complications matters to patients and caregivers. Second, the need for more research about the bidirectional influence of the “life context” on diabetes.   Our participants also pointed out that there are a number of individual and contextual factors, such as individual circumstances (eg, life conditions, previous experiences), socio‐economic status and the experience of managing the condition that need further exploration, especially for the most under‐represented people included in this study. Finally, the third point was the need to deepen diabetes‐related research in under‐represented populations. Our results further suggest that research topics should be tailored to address specific challenges such as access to culturally relevant care for immigrants. 39

Consistent with other studies, 40 , 41 our quantitative data show that participants had moderate levels of emotional distress around diabetes‐related complications. Our qualitative analysis provided some insight into the nature of these concerns. For example, the fear that diabetes‐related complications (eg, kidney failure or blindness) may result in functional impairment or death (eg, as a result of a hypoglycaemia). Additionally, fears were often amplified not only by personal experience as shown in other studies, 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 but also by witnessing others dealing with such complications (such as having seen a loved one with kidney failure or experiencing a hypoglycaemic episode). These experiences impact how research topics are rated by those whose lives are touched by the disease. Unfortunately, further investigation of these questions was not possible with this study for two reasons: (i) the focus group participants were not asked to rate the complications as did online survey participants; and (ii) the focus groups were conducted separately from the quantitative portion of the study.

Overall, our findings point to a need for more research on diabetes, its complications and the bidirectional influence of a number of individual and contextual factors such as individual circumstances (eg, life conditions, previous experiences, emotional distress); socio‐economic status; and the experience of managing the condition, especially for the most under‐represented groups included in this study. It was suggested that research topics should be tailored to address specific challenges, such as access to culturally competent care for immigrants. 39

Our study did, however, have a few limitations. Due to time and budget constraints, focus group activities were restricted to Montreal and Quebec City, where our team is based. This limited our ability to recruit in other cities across Canada and also limited a true representation of the country's population. Although our respondents and their experiences reflect a broad sample of the population of Canada, several other groups who may have particular needs (eg, pregnant women, Indigenous peoples, parents or guardians of children with diabetes, as well as caregivers) were under‐represented in the online survey and were absent in the focus groups. Therefore, our sample lacks representation of some other under‐represented populations in Canada. Additionally, language barriers may have limited our selection of participants and excluded individuals, particularly those from under‐represented groups such as immigrants. Furthermore, because this online survey and focus group based study relied on participant self‐reports, the data could be limited by the subjects’ ability for introspection, their individual interpretations and social desirability bias. 47 Finally, because this was a preliminary study aimed at exploring the importance of different research topics to those living with diabetes and caregivers in Canada, we did not undertake prioritization activities that require trading‐off one priority against another to produce a ranked list. Such activities are planned for future research.

One strength of this study is its use of qualitative and quantitative methods to help capture the experiences of under‐represented groups and diverse participants from across Canada. This approach proved feasible as a method for efficiently exploring patients’ and caregivers’ preliminary views on research topics within a short period of time.

5. CONCLUSIONS

This study confirmed the importance of research topics regarding diabetes‐related complications within a population of people living with diabetes or caring for someone with diabetes, and further explored reasons why these topics might be important for certain groups of under‐represented people. The results of this study about what matters most to people living with, and caring for those living with diabetes, including people from under‐represented populations, informed the research program of a 5‐year pan‐Canadian Strategy for Patient‐Oriented Research Network on Diabetes and its related complications (2016‐2021). 39 A broad range of people living with diabetes are now involved as patient partners in this network, collaborating on research projects, research planning and supporting network governance. We anticipate that our results and on‐going work will contribute to the development of targeted interventions better aligned with improving the health and well‐being of people whose lives are touched by diabetes.

AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS

M.J.D. provided the study concept and design, supervised the protocol development and research, enrolled patients for the qualitative stage, facilitated focus groups, analysed data and provided the first draft of the manuscript. S.C.D. conducted the descriptive statistics, wrote the quantitative part of the manuscript, reviewed and edited the manuscript. M.T.D. enrolled patients for the qualitative stage, facilitated focus groups, analysed data and wrote the manuscript. F.L. reviewed and edited the manuscript. H.O.W. supervised the survey data collection, reviewed and edited the manuscript. M.J.D. is the guarantor of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors report no conflict of interest.

Supporting information

Acknowledgements.

The authors thank people living with diabetes, their caregivers and community organizations across Canada for their invaluable contributions to this study. The authors thank Judith Kashul for linguistic editing of this manuscript. Additionally, we thank Mary Zettl, for her contribution editing, coordinating and finalizing this article for publication.

Dogba MJ, Dipankui MT, Chipenda Dansokho S, Légaré F, Witteman HO. Diabetes‐related complications: Which research topics matter to diverse patients and caregivers? Health Expect . 2018; 21 :549–559. https://doi.org/10.1111/hex.12649 [ PMC free article ] [ PubMed ] [ Google Scholar ]

This study was funded through a subgrant of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR SCD 139932)

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Diabetes evidence-based practice diabetes is a disease.

Diabetes Evidence-Based Practice Diabetes Diabetes is a disease which stays with the patient life-long except in some cases where the diabetes is gestational which occurs during pregnancy and often goes back to normal after the delivery. Typically there are two types of diabetes which are type 1 and type 2 diabetes but less common are gestational diabetes and other types which contain features of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes (Cowle et al., 2006). The management of diabetes mostly depends on the patient himself/herself because in diabetes it is all about self-care. But of course the guidance comes from the nurses and doctors and they need to educate the patients in order to control their condition. In order to prevent (in cases where there are chances of diabetes occurrence) or control (in cases where the person already has diabetes) diabetes it is very essential to take care of patient's weight, blood….

Aekplakorn W. et al. (2007). Prevalence and management of diabetes and associated risk factors by regions of Thailand: Third National Health Examination Survey 2004. Diabetes Care;30:2007-12. doi:10.2337/dcO6-2319 PMiD:17468342

American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE) (2007). Diabetes Mellitus Clinical Practice Guidelines Task Force. American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the management of diabetes mellitus. Endocr Pract.;13(suppl I); 1-68.

American Diabetes Association. (2010). Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 33 SuppI 1;S62'69,

Bogdan-Lovis EA, Sousa A (2006). The contextual influence of professional culture: certified nurse-midwives' knowledge of and reliance on evidence-based practice. Soc Sci Med.;62:2681-2693.

Diabetes Mellitus Is a Disease

As blood flows, it starts attracting the fluid from the tissues and therefore more fluid is entering the kidneys when filtering the blood, causing an increase in urination. And because the body is losing so much fluid, dry mouth and an increase in thirst are initiated (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 2011). Other symptoms include fatigue, blurred vision, and sudden loss of weight (American Diabetes Association, 2013). These symptoms are a sign that the body's cells are not getting the glucose that they need to function properly and give the body the energy to conduct its daily functions. Once an individual is diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, a series of treatment options are available. Type 2 diabetes does not entail the permanent lack of production of insulin, but it does reduce the amount of insulin receptors that are functional, therefore insulin injections are used as a form of treatment (American Diabetes….

References:

American Diabetes Association. (2013). Diabetes basics. Retrieved from  http://www.diabetes.org/diabetes-basics/?loc=GlobalNavDB 

Martini, F.H., Nath, J.L., & Bartholomew, E.F., (2011). Fundamentals of anatomy & physiology. (9th ed.). San Francisco, CA: Pearson.

Diabetes Care in the Elderly Curriculum Development

Diabetes Care in the Elderly Curriculum Development Project Curriculum Development Project: Diabetes in the Skilled Nursing Home esidents Curriculum Development Project: Diabetes in the Skilled Nursing Home esidents The increased prevalence of diabetes in developed nations has been blamed in part on the obesity epidemic, but a portion of that increase is also due to longer life-spans (reviewed by Vischer et al., 2009). While this may be a mixed blessing from the perspective of health policy makers, the increased prevalence of diabetes among the elderly contributes to the emergence of a variety of debilitating comorbid conditions and a significant decline in quality of life. What makes matters worse is that diabetes sometimes goes untreated or undiagnosed in the elderly (reviewed by Vischer et al., 2009). When 2,307 skilled nursing home residents were assessed for the presence of this disease, 77 were found to be undiagnosed (Dybicz, Thompson, Molotsky, and Stuart, 2011). While this represents a….

CDC (U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). (2011). National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2011. CDC.gov. Retrieved 3 Aug. 2012 from http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/DDTSTRS/FactSheet.aspx.

Cotter, Valerie T. And Strumpf, Neville E. (Eds.). (2002). Advanced Practice Nursing with Older Adults: Clinical Guidelines. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

Dybicz, Sharon B., Thompson, Stephen, Molotsky, Sandra, and Stuart, Bruce. (2011). Prevalence of diabetes and the burden of comorbid conditions among elderly nursing home residents. American Journal of Geriatric Pharmacotherapy, 9(12), 212-223.

Lisko, Susan A. And O'Dell, Valerie. (2010). Integration of theory and practice: Experiential learning theory and nursing education. Nursing Education Perspectives, 31(2), 106-108.

Diabetes The Future of a Chronic Disease

Diabetes: The future of a chronic disease The number of cases of type II diabetes has seen a dramatic increase in recent years, both in the United States and worldwide. The primary reasons for this increase are generally attributed to increased consumption of high-sugar, high-starch, and highly caloric food and a lack of exercise. The International Diabetes Foundation estimates that "one in 10 of the world's population will have diabetes by 2035" (Greenberg 2013). Diabetes is "the sixth leading cause of death in the United States" alone (Diabetes disparities among racial and ethnic minorities, 2001, AHQ). Addressing this national and global epidemic is essential given the common, conventional wisdom in public health that "people will make the healthy choice when the healthy choice is the easy choice" (Greenberg 2013). In the developed, developing, and even the minimally developed world, it is increasingly easy to eat foods associated with triggering the disorder….

Diabetes: Times topics. (2013). The New York Times. Retrieved from:

 http://www.nytimes.com/health/guides/disease/diabetes/ 

Diabetes disparities among racial and ethnic minorities. (2001). AHRQ. Retrieved from:

 http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/factsheets/diabetes/diabdisp/index.html

Diabetes as Presented Online From Two Different

Diabetes as Presented Online From Two Different Websites Diabetes is a common condition which is a form of affliction that pervasive in the U.S. Diabetes is a condition where a person's blood glucose levels are higher than normal as a result of the fact that the pancreas is unable to make enough insulin or can't use insulin as well as it should -- thus, causing insulin to be built up in one's blood. Type II diabetes is a condition which is preventable and which adults and children don't have to suffer from, as long as they engage in the proper lifestyle and dietary precautions. At this time, a plethora of websites do exist which seek to explore and educate the general public about issues which are connected to diabetes and ways that individuals and families can protect themselves from having this happen. This is of particular concern because diabetes can cause….

Cdc.gov. (2013). Basics About Diabetes. Retrieved from CDC.gov:  http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/consumer/learn.htm 

Stoppler, M. (2012). Diabetes Mellitus. Retrieved from Medicinenet.com:  http://www.medicinenet.com/diabetes_mellitus/article.htm

Diabetes Why Study Diabetes There

Researchers used this information, and designed it in such a way that it fit in with the lifestyle that this population was accustomed to (Acton, Shields, Rith-Najarian, Tolbert, Kelly, Moore, Valdez, Skipper, & Gohdes, 2001). This allowed the researchers not only to study the population more closely, but also to achieve a major degree of success that might not have been possible in a standard intervention program. The study found that many of those who completed the intervention program had lowered blood pressure, lowered weight, and lowered blood sugar levels (Acton, Shields, Rith-Najarian, Tolbert, Kelly, Moore, Valdez, Skipper, & Gohdes, 2001). While this was encouraging, the researchers were also careful to note that the only way the Native American population will actually decrease in their levels of diabetes is to continue the changes made during the intervention program over the course of their lives. Another study detailing the importance of intervention….

Bibliography

Acton, Kelly J., Shields, Ray, Rith-Najarian, Stephen, Tolbert, Bernadine, Kelly, Jane, Moore, Kelly, Valdez, Lorraine, Skipper, Betty, and Gohdes, Dorothy. 2001 Jan. Applying the Diabetes Quality Improvement Project Indicators in the Indian Health Service Primary Care Setting. Diabetes Care, v24 i1 p22.

Costacou, Tina, Levin, Sarah, and Mayer-Davis, Elizabeth J. 2000 July. Dietary patterns among members of the Catawba Indian nation. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, v100 i7 p833.

Gilliland, Susan S., Azen, Stanley P., Perez, Georgia E., and Carter, Janette S. 2002 Jan. Strong in body and spirit: Lifestyle intervention for native American adults with diabetes in New Mexico. Diabetes Care, v25 i1 p78-83.

Gilliland, Susan S., Carter, Janette S., Skipper, Betty, and Acton, Kelly J. 2002 Dec. [hba.sub.1c] levels among American Indian/Alaska Native adults. Diabetes Care, v25 i12 p2178-2184.

Diabetes Self-Care This Research Study

Individuals are asked to work toward those goals and values they hold while experience their thoughts and positive feelings." (Gregg et al., 2007) ACT is stated to have "shown positive outcomes for a wide variety of conditions including for chronic medical conditions, even when presented in very brief form." (Gregg, et al., 2007) Gregg et al. additionally states: "Diabetes researchers have called for the development of interventions designed to reduce diabetes-related distress in order to increase adherence with medical regimens (Melkus et al., 2003).Given this, there may be practical advantages to acceptance, mindfulness, and values-based action as a method of dealing with the psychological challenges of this chronic disease. Diabetes carries a substantial risk of disability and death, and it is reasonable for a person to respond to such threats with fear, worry, sadness, and avoidance. It can be invalidating and disempowering not to address these difficult thoughts and….

Williams, K.E. And Bond, M.J. (2002) the Roles of Self-Efficacy, Outcome Expectancies and Social Support in the Self-Care Behaviors of Diabetics. Psychology, Health & Medicine Vol. 7 No. 2, 2002. BrunnerRoutledge: Taylor & Francis Healthsciences.

Wdowik, Melissa J. et al. (2001) Expanded Health Belief Model Predicts Diabetes Self-Management in College Students. Society for Nutrition Education January/February 2001.

Utz, Sharon W. et al. (2006) Working Hard With it: Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes by Rural African-Americans. Family Community Health. Vol. 29, No. 3 pp. 195-205 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. 2006.

Davies, Karen (2006) What is Effective Intervention? - Using Theories of Health Promotion. British Journal of Nursing, 2006, Vol. 13 No. 3

Diabetes and Special Education in School

Diabetes and Special Education in School Characteristics and Definition of Diabetes The Centers for Disease Control 2005 survey reports that 21 million individuals or 7% of the total U.S. population have Diabetes. Furthermore, it is reported that one in every four to six-hundred students under the age of 20 years will have diabetes. (Belson, 2010) Diabetes is a "chronic metabolic disorder that results from failure of the pancreas to produce insulin (Type 1) or from insulin resistance with inadequate insulin secretion to sustain normal metabolism (Type 2)." (American Diabetes Association 2003; Centers for Disease Control, 2002 in: Getch, Bhukanwala, and euharth-Pritchett, 2007, p.1) Characteristics of Diabetes Children with diabetes have two problems that teachers must understand: (1) Hypoglycemia; and (2) Hyperglycemia. (Children With Diabetes.com, 2010) Hypoglycemia is low blood sugar and hyperglycemia is high blood sugar. Children with low blood sugar are known to have erratic behavior or alternatively act tired and to be hungry and….

National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (2002). National diabetes statistics fact sheet: General information, and nahona? estimates OR diabetes in the United States, 2000 in: Getch, Yvette; Bhukhanwala, Forma; and Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey (2007) Strategies for Helping Children with Diabetes in Elementary and Middle Schools. Teaching Exceptional Children. Jan/Feb 2007. Retrieved from:  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_7749/is_200701/ai_n32208659/pg_4/?tag=content;col1 

National Institutes oi Health. (2003). Helping the student with diabetes succeed: A guide for school personnel. Washington, DC: Author.

National Institutes of Health. (2004). Diabetes overview. Retrieved May 14, 2004, fromhttp://diabetes. niddk.nih. gov/dm / pubs/overview/index.htm other

Diabetes and Learning Diabetes Is a Chronic

Diabetes and Learning Diabetes is a chronic disease, which induces learning disabilities and cognitive disorders. Proactive care and Symptomatic management are critical aspects of diabetes control. Successful intervention involves a collaborative effort on the part of the school staff, parents and health care providers. Diabetes is a serious health concern for the United States with more than 18.2 million people affected by the disease. The prevalence of Diabetes among children is alarming, as every year more than 13000 are being diagnosed with type-1 diabetes and even more unusual is the increasing incidence of type-2 diabetes[American Diabetes Association]. Studies have indicated that cognitive skills may be severely impaired if diabetes is not properly treated. Left unattended extreme cases of hypoglycemia may even result in severe complications such as seizures or coma. Understanding the effect of diabetes in the learning process is important in our efforts to provide optimal learning ability for the affected….

Joanne F. Rovet, Robert M. Ehrlich and Maria Hoppe, "Specific Intellectual Deficits in Children With Early Onset Diabetes Mellitus," Child Development 1988, 225-234

Joanne F. Rovet, Robert M. Ehrlich, Debora Czuchta and Michelle Akler, "Psychoeducational Characteristics of Children And Adolescents with Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus," Journal of Learning Disabilities, Vol 26, Jan 1990-page 7-22

Thies, Kathleen M, "Identifying the Educational Implications of Chronic Illness in School Children," Journal of School Health, Dec 1999, Vol 69 Issue 10, pg 392

Davidson Mayor B, "Diabetes Mellitus: Diagnosis and Treatment," Churchill Livignstone Inc., Third Edition

Diabetes Type II in Adults

Yet they gained tremendous benefits from the diabetes prevention program. It reduced the risks at 71% by choosing a moderate lifestyle. Good health could allow 20 more years to those over 65. It showed that lifestyle intervention dramatically decreased the risks of diabetes. Regular exercise was an important component of the management of Type II diabetes. It kept the weight down. The lack of exercise brought the weight up. Overweight and de-conditioning, in turn, made it harder to exercise. The type of exercises depended on the health condition or issues of the patient. Those who are somehow healthy could start walking but not too fast to talk with someone walking with them. The walk could be five to 10 minutes on flat ground increasing to 45 minutes on hilly ground at a faster pace. Those who found it hard to walk, such as those with arthritis in the hips….

Funey, J. (2005). Type II diabetes can lower blood sugar, strengthen vessels in the pine tree bark. 3 pages. Market Wire. Retrieved on April 16, 2008 at  http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_pww1/is_200511/ai_n15749219 

Gaby, a.R. (2007). Cinnamon for Type 2 Diabetes. Townsend Letter for Doctors and Patients: The Townsend Letter Group

Martin, B. (2005). Healthy people 2010. 2 pages. Chart: Illinois Nurses Association

Nathan, D. (2004). Novel drugs for type II diabetics. Harvard Health Letter: President and Fellows of Harvard College

Diabetes Type 2 Type 2

One must remember that poor coping skills would render the patient more susceptible to diabetes related complications, and also have an adverse impact on self-care. It is in order to counter this that individuals and their families are advised to undergo regular screening procedures, so that psychological and related problems could be handled at the very outset, instead of allowing them to fester, thereby putting the patient at greater risk. Anxiety, eating disorders, and depression can be some of the more serious complications created by untreated psychological traumas related to diabetes and its diagnosis. ("Psychological aspects of diabetes," 2003) Community resources can be very helpful indeed for a patient who may feel depressed and anxious; when he meets others who are like him, it would automatically help in alleviating some of these psychological symptoms that aggravate his disease. ("Community esources for patients with diabetes," 2007) Conclusion: To conclude, it must be….

American Diabetes Association. (2007a) "Type 2 Diabetes" Retrieved 4 November, 2007 at  http://www.diabetes.org/type-2-diabetes.jsp 

American Diabetes Association. (2007b) "Diabetes, heart disease and stroke, taking care of your heart" Retrieved 4 November, 2007 at  http://www.diabetes.org/type-1-diabetes/well-being/taking-care-heart.jsp 

Ezrin, Calvin; Kowalski, Robert E. (1999) "The type 2 diabetes diet book" McGraw-Hill

Professional.

Diabetes Is a Disease in Which the

Diabetes is a disease in which the body does not generate or properly use insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced in the body that is needed to convert sugar, starches and other food into energy needed for daily life (Wan). Prevalence Diabetes is among the five leading causes of death by diseases in most countries. However, what exactly cause diabetes is still unknown, but both genetics and environmental elements such as overweight and lack of exercise are recognized as diabetes-induced factors (Minaker). According to Piette et al., the global prevalence of diabetes mellitus is expected to double from 171 million to 366 million over the next 20 years and "developing countries will likely experience 80% of this burden" (Piette, et al., 2010, p. 56). Signs and Symptoms The signs and symptoms of type 2 diabetes may include unexplained weight loss, constant hunger, weight gain, flu-like symptoms including weakness, fatigue, blurred vision, slow healing of….

Causes and symptoms of pre-diabetes (2007) available at  http://www.diabitieslife.com/diabetes/diabetes-care/type-1/causes-and-symptoms  -of-pre-diabetes.htm, Accessed December 6, 2010

Cohen, A.S.; Ayello, E.A.; (2005) Diabetes has taken a toll on your patients, Nursing, Vol. 35, Issue 5, pp. 44-47

George, J.T.; Valdovinos, A.P.; Russell, I.; Dromgoole, P.; Lomax, S.; Torgerson, D.J.; Wells, T.; Thow, J.C. (2008) Clinical effectiveness of a brief educational intervention in Type 1 diabetes: Results from the BITES (Brief Intervention in Type 1 Diabetes, Education for Self-efficacy) trial, Diabetic Medicine, Vol. 25, Issue 12, pp. 447-1453

Lee, D.S.; Remington, P.; Madagame, J.; Blustein, J.; (2000) A cost analysis of community screening for diabetes in the central Wisconsin Medicare population (results from the MetaStar pilot project in Wausau), WMJ, Vol. 99, pp. 39 -- 43.

Diabetes the Diabetic Epidemic the

There was therefore no coercion, evasion or unethical procedure in the study. The authors also make it clear that adequate information was provided to all those agreed to participate. There was obviously an open and transparent sharing of informstion about the project. After discussing the homework, the theme of the session was introduced and patients were invited to share their beliefs, emotions and experiences with regard to the theme. Subsequently, participants wrote their own individual action plans to attain a goal and discussed these with the group (Thoolen et al. 2008, p. 56). This is also evidenced by the positive evaluation that the patient's gave the course and their trainers. eferences Diabetes. etrieved from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/diabetes/article_em.htm Canning, C. (2009, January). Diabetes -- a Global Health Concern. The Middle East 38. etrieved March 7, 2010, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5030241539 Dabelko, H.I., & Decoster, V.A. (2007). Diabetes and Adult Day Health Services. Health and Social Work, 32(4), 279+. Galvin,….

Diabetes. Retrieved from  http://www.emedicinehealth.com/diabetes/article_em.htm 

Canning, C. (2009, January). Diabetes -- a Global Health Concern. The Middle East 38. Retrieved March 7, 2010, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5030241539 

Dabelko, H.I., & Decoster, V.A. (2007). Diabetes and Adult Day Health Services. Health and Social Work, 32(4), 279+.

Galvin, J.R. (2006, March). Diabetes. Ebony, 61, 157.

Diabetes An Example of a

In Vallejo, however, because of the Hispanic ethnic background of much of the population, there is a profound, healthy, and deeply culturally ingrained appreciation for the sport of baseball. Thus, to foster this interest, expanding the Little League and offering financial support to existing community organizations is one of the physical activity components of the action plan designed for the area ("Children and eight: Taking Action in the Vallejo Community," 2004). In terms of community reform in Vallejo, however, so that even parents and children not involved in sports could become active, sidewalks and areas of safe play were targeted for repair and construction, and new grocery stores within low income areas that provided fresh produce were another logistical community priority, so that parents could have access to healthy food after taking their children to practice, and that children would not snack on unhealthy foods after coming home from community….

Works Cited

"All about diabetes." ADA: American Diabetes Association Website. 2007.

Available at:  http://www.diabetes.org/about-diabetes.jsp . Accessed April 13, 2007.

"Children and Weight: Taking Action in the Benicia Community." May 29, 2003.

Available at: http://www.cwcsc.com/00assets_master/docs/takingactionpdfs/TakingactioninBenicia5.03.pdf. Accessed April 13, 2007.

Diabetes Diagnosis in Elderly Patients

Classically, the initial symptoms in young and middle age people with Type 2 diabetes are a high level of thirst and appetite and "frequent urination"; and those exact same symptoms may occur with elderly people who are near to getting diabetes. However, the difference is that the above-mentioned typical symptoms "may be replaced or accompanied by episodes of confusion, incontinence, and dryness of the eyes and mouth," Kagan continues. Another bit of confusion for doctors seeking signs of diabetes is the fact that the elderly, when their blood sugar levels are high, they are "…less likely to spill sugar into their urine, and as a result, "many elderly-onset diabetics go undiagnosed" (203). There are estimates that as many as 2.4 million people (many elderly) have diabetes but are unaware they have it, Kagan explains. From a technical point-of-view, the commonly used method of diagnosis, which is "repeated fasting glucose levels," can….

Clinical Trials. (2006). A Study to Investigate the Benefits of the Early Detection and Intensive

Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes. U.S. National institutes of Health. Retrieved June 21, 2011,

From  http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00318032 .

Draheim, Marcia, and Burke, Sandra Drozdz. (2009). Diabetes and aging in the workplace: an understanding of diabetes and its relationship to aging can help EAPs better assist employees with the disease and encourage healthy behaviors among those who are susceptible to it. The Journal of Employee Assistance, 39(2), 7-10.

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Yet they gained tremendous benefits from the diabetes prevention program. It reduced the risks at 71% by choosing a moderate lifestyle. Good health could allow 20 more years…

One must remember that poor coping skills would render the patient more susceptible to diabetes related complications, and also have an adverse impact on self-care. It is in…

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April 16, 2020

The Diabetes Essays: Research Topics and Work Hints

Navigation of contents

Diabetes is a severe disease that happens when the body is not able to produce insulin as needed. As a result, it can’t convert the glucose from the food to become the source of energy for the body cells. The level of blood sugar becomes too high, and the adverse effects on human health are terrible, up to lethal.

It is vital to make the society conscious about this disease, as it is widespread enough. Diabetes with proper treatment won’t prevent people from having an active life. But as many people as possible must understand how diabetes affects us and learn the ways to treat it.

Doing such a research paper is an excellent means for understanding the problem. The more people will get familiar with the basics, the better they can fight this disease.  

Writing a research paper: methods and tips

Any research paper should start by searching for information on the problem. Speaking of a diabetes essay , we need to be extra careful about the trustworthiness of this information. There are still many dubious data and myths around this disease. Thus, the initial goal of the student doing this research is to find reliable sources and pick up the weighty arguments.

Refer to the professional books and journal articles, and check the records from the medical conferences dedicated to diabetes problems. Make sure to use only the verified information. When it comes to such a complicated and severe issue, it is obligatory to get the trusted data.

When you’ve collected the data and analyzed them, you can start the paper composition. No matter if you work on an essay or some other assignment type, you need a well-built structure of the text: the introduction, the body, and the conclusion.  

Beginning of a diabetes research paper

The introduction is, perhaps, an essential part of the text in terms of your work success. It serves to present the topic and the main idea of your research and to help the listeners/readers follow it. But the primary goal is to grasp the audience.

If you are going to deal with medical terms like gestational diabetes, and explore more scientific data, the chances are that your public may get bored. Thus, you have to make them interested from the very beginning.

The introduction part must have a “hook” that is a short piece at the very beginning of the text. The best options to use are some thought-provoking statements, quotes, catchy facts, or stats data. The audience should want to learn more about the subject.

This part includes the diabetes thesis statement that is the most critical segment of the whole essay. It is the main idea of the diabetes-related aspects you offer to the public. Later in the text, you will prove that idea with reliable evidence from the researches.

The thesis statement should be placed right before the beginning of the body part. This statement is a kind of transition from the opening to the main text. You can formulate it in the way that it would lead the audience to the rest of the work directly. Or, you can use additional transitions to make it smoother for the reader/listener.  

How to compose and organize the body of an essay

The body of the research work takes 75-80% of the full text. It is a substantial part that presents the results of your examinations, and your interpretation of them.

Organize the information in paragraphs. Each paragraph should have its own main idea. You need to provide an opening of the section, and the logical conclusion. All items must be connected. The first section should lead to the next section.

The essay outline will be most helpful for sketching the essay body. There you can select the data to include in the text, the evidence, and references. It is an excellent tool for experimenting with their order and structure. Besides, you can track the “plotline” of the essay: it should start from the thesis statement and come through all the contents of the body until the conclusion part.

  • For instance, the first paragraph of the body can describe the type 1 and type 2 diabetes with medical definitions.
  • The second section would be about the causes of getting abnormal insulin in both cases.
  • The third paragraph will be dedicated to diabetic patients and their primary needs to fight these diseases.

You can have as many paragraphs as needed for your idea. The only condition is that they all must be logical and rely on factual scientific data.

The conclusion of a diabetes research paper

The end of an exceptional diabetes essay should summarize the information you’ve provided. But it is even more vital that it stresses your main idea. When you compose the conclusion, you need to revise the whole essay and check if your arguments were persuasive, and you could prove your rightness.

The conclusion also needs the final hit sentences. Your goal is to “refresh” the perception of your audience and attract their attention again. One of the best methods is asking a question, as it always provokes the reaction. Another option is putting the case into a bigger context – it stresses the importance of the topic you chose.

Some suggestions for research topics in diabetes

Similar to other writing tasks you get in college, you have to choose the right research topics. Speaking of diabetes, you have a wide variety of choices. There are more general or more specific topics. Or, you might choose between “scientific” and “practical” matters. Even if the question is defined in your assignment, you might have freedom of interpretation.

We’ve collected some samples of research topics for your diabetes essay. We hope you will find an inspirational idea among them.

Topics to research the type 1 diabetes

  • How to treat the complications to the eye for diabetic patients with type 1 diabetes? 
  • How to guarantee the correct insulin activity for the patients?
  • The main risk factors of this type.
  • Causes of type 1 diabetes.
  • Support therapy for patients with diabetes type 1.

Topics about diabetes for an argumentative essay

  • The impact of poor nutritional habits on the development of the disease.
  • Which ways are most effective for raising public awareness about diabetes?
  • The phenomenon of gestational diabetes is of genetic origin.
  • Efficient ways of preventing diabetes with a genetic predisposition.
  • Economic factors are contributing to the development of diabetes.

Causes of diabetes topics

  • Genetic causes and the role of heredity.
  • How the lack of education about the processes running in the human body affects the development of diabetes?
  • Obesity won’t let the body to produce insulin properly.
  • Family diabetes: is it the product of genetics or poor eating habits?
  • Diabetes as the complication of other diseases.

Diabetes research for nursing field essays

  • Developing the diet for type 1 or type 2 diabetes patients.
  • The help methods for diabetic foot ulcers.
  • Assisting patients with amputations because of diabetes.
  • How to improve the quality of life and immune system work of elderly patients suffering from this disease?
  • Urgent help for ketoacidosis complications. 

Writing the diabetes essay is not just submitting a paper to get the desired grade. While working on this task, you get vital information and gain awareness about this problem. However, if you experience difficulties with the writing process itself – we are here to help.

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December 4, 2023

This article has been reviewed according to Science X's editorial process and policies . Editors have highlighted the following attributes while ensuring the content's credibility:

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Researchers show how lipids and diabetes are closely linked

by University of Geneva

Lipids and diabetes are closely linked

Chronobiology to better identify diabetes

A crutch for beta cells.

Cecilia Jiménez-Sánchez et al, Lysophosphotidylinositols (LysoPIs) are upregulated following human ß-cell loss and act to potentiate insulin release, Diabetes (2023). DOI: 10.2337/db23-0205 Journal information: Diabetes , Cell Reports Medicine

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Diabetes Mellitus Theses Samples For Students

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WowEssays.com paper writer service proudly presents to you an open-access directory of Diabetes Mellitus Theses aimed to help struggling students tackle their writing challenges. In a practical sense, each Diabetes Mellitus Thesis sample presented here may be a guide that walks you through the crucial phases of the writing procedure and showcases how to compose an academic work that hits the mark. Besides, if you require more visionary help, these examples could give you a nudge toward a fresh Diabetes Mellitus Thesis topic or inspire a novice approach to a banal issue.

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15 Dissertation Topics On Diabetes Research And Health

One of the most difficult stages of dissertation writing in any discipline is needing to come up with a research topic. There are several places students can turn to on the internet but this can take up a lot of time. We have put together this collection of fifteen dissertation topics on diabetes research and health from the best dissertation writing service experts:

Dealing with the Onset of Diabetes Dissertation Topics

  • Why do patients recently diagnosed with diabetes have such a hard time of being accepting of the fact and begin to manage their health?
  • How do children react to recently being diagnosed with diabetes? What can be done to ensure they have a better understanding of how to manage the disease?
  • In long-term studies, people who were receiving intense treatment for the disease experienced a lower quality of life. What role should health providers play to minimize this effect?
  • Why do so many patients experience extreme levels of depression in the months following their diagnosis despite not showing any other symptoms of declining health?
  • Despite it being a global disease, there are certain ethnic groups that are more prone to being diagnosed as a result of diet and culture. What can be done to increase their health education?

Affects Diabetes Has on the Body Dissertation Topics

  • What recent treatments have had the biggest positive impact on minimizing the number of short term complications that arise rapidly in patients’ bodies?
  • How has the use of different types of steroids affected the way the body responds in patients that experience hypoglycemia more often than the norm?
  • What kind of impact do Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes have on a patient’s kidneys? How is this affected by monitoring techniques that are most commonly practiced?
  • Are patients from certain ethnic groups more at risk of developing heart disease or eye disease as a result of their diabetes diagnosis (e.g., the type of diabetes they have)?
  • How as the new A1C test helped minimize the negative effects diabetes has on the body through its early detection of the disease?

Dissertation Topics on Diabetes and Lifestyle Planning

  • What challenges do patients living with diabetes have when trying to monitor their glucose and maintaining a healthy diet plan?
  • How have some patients with Type 1 or Type 2 Diabetes managed to maintain healthier lifestyles than other people who do have the disease?
  • Why has the number of people that conduct self-tests of blood glucose dropped? Are there other factors such as social or environmental that have led to this decrease?
  • Why do patients in the U.S. still struggle to get the care they need to monitor and maintain healthy glucose levels? Is this a matter of rising health costs?
  • Nutrition plays an import role in a healthy lifestyle but many patients with diabetes don’t know what they should be eating. Should nutritionists take a more active role?

For more research paper, thesis, or dissertation topics on diabetes or other health-related areas, contact customer support for a custom list created by one of our professional writers. Our experts are all certified and highly-trained to develop great topics in a number of fields. And if you need even more assistance with your assignment, our experts are available to write, review, edit and more.

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Selection Of 12 Interesting Dissertation Ideas About Diabetes

Writing a paper about diabetes is something that pretty much anyone can be able to handle these days. When you go through this site, you will come across a lot of useful material that will eventually help you get nothing but the best information that will eventually help you make sure the paper you write will be one of the best you have ever worked on so far.

Remember that diabetes is something that is at the moment pretty common, to the extent that it would actually be a good idea for you to know how to or what to write in this paper, so that in the long run you can easily get to understand how the body system works, or reacts to such attacks.

For those who have never worked on a paper like this one before, the following are some interesting ideas that you can use for your paper:

  • Discuss some of the benefits to those who live with diabetes, of partaking in a low-carbohydrate and high fat diet
  • Discuss the concept of diabetes in pediatrics, and why it is important to undergo this study from time to time
  • Explain the threat and challenge of obesity and diabetes in young children today, highlighting some of the areas where parents are failing in their role as guardians to circumvent the situation
  • Explain some of the challenges that people who are living with diabetes have to go through, particularly when it comes to getting access to the information and medical care that they need
  • Explain some of the common complications that arise to those who are dealing with diabetes, and how these impact the prevalence of the same. Put forward measures that can be put in place to alleviate the situation
  • Discuss the challenge of diabetes in Asian American adolescents
  • Explain how self-management can come in handy as a means of dealing with diabetes, especially for those who are unable to immediately get help for their condition
  • Discuss the prospect of better management for those who are hospitalized with diabetes mellitus
  • Explain how ambient air pollution and diabetes mellitus go hand in hand
  • Explain the challenge of uncontrolled diabetes, and how it can eventually affect the kidneys and the heart.
  • Discuss how the genetic strain for diabetes can be passed down from one generation to the other
  • Explain how exercise would help in preventing diabetes

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  • Diabetes Thesis Statement
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diabetes thesis topics

Creating A Research Paper Thesis Statement About Diabetes

How To Make A Powerful Research Paper Thesis Statement About Diabetes Diabetes is a serious disease even though it does not look like a big deal in the beginning but as the stages advance, the disease becomes deadly. Medical researchers around the world find ways to prevent the disease from spreading or minimize its chances. However, it is genetically transferred as well as developed in an individual prone to it. The subject could be interesting if you collect genuine first and second hand results for your paper. A thesis statement is the core purpose of your paper. It is the heart of your assignment around which, the rest of your research and arguments revolve. You cannot form a thesis statement straight away after looking at the subject, rather you will have to pass through a proper detailed process and take gradual steps in order to create an effective thesis statement. This will act as the extract of your paper and the rest of your assignment must compliment and prove it. The first thing you should do to create a powerful statement about diabetes is to find a niche in the subject that you want to address. You can categorize the subject in to sub divisions and choose to talk about one of them in your paper. For example What are diabetes and its types/ the origin of the disease/ its background/ history etc? What are the best methods to cure diabetes/ effective methods/ meditational search/ treatment? What are the signs and symptoms of diabetes/ how to tell if someone is suffering from it What are the causes of this disease/ genetic/ viral/ any other When you choose a category, it will be easy for you to brainstorm ideas under it and create a list of possible arguments about it. You can choose the most valid and logical arguments by analyzing your list After you devel Continue reading >>

Diabetes Research Paper Thesis Statement

Diabetes Research Paper Thesis Statement

by | Mar 24, 2018 | Uncategorized | 0 comments We provide excellent essay writing Free research paper outline maker service 24/7. This step is especially important if your paper is a research paper. 25-3-2018. wiman is. therapeutic riding research papers The author also starts dna sequencing research paper off by giving A popular documentation style for research papers Richard Cory the characteristics of a happy Political science research paper literature review person instead diabetes research paper thesis statement of a Mla handbook for writer of research papers sixth edition person that was jonas salk research paper gloomy. Now supports how do you write an abstract for a research paper 7th edition of MLA. Rather, it is making a case, proving a point, using the facts you research to back up . Whether you struggle to best research paper editing service for university write an essay, coursework, research paper, annotated Format for social science research paper bibliography or . Robinson 1-4). Triepels Slagwerk - Geleen Limburg,Uw Drumspecialist, diabetes research paper thesis statement Outline for research paper on recycling Drumstel kopen, boomwhacker supply chain management research papers lessen Type or paste a DOI name into the text box. proper citation in research papers Reviews. pick your style of crust: original ny style, thin crust (only available in medium or . Pegasus Whirlpool Baths how to write a research paper examples is home of the Research paper human gnome NEW Pegasus Sensations whirlpool system - A Sensations Whirlpool bath brings the sample references page for research papers benefits of hydrotherapy into your own . Business Research Paper diabetes research paper thesis statement Topics negotiation research paper Business research paper topics from Continue reading >>

15 Thesis Statements On Diabetes For Your Essay, Research Paper

15 Thesis Statements On Diabetes For Your Essay, Research Paper

When the paper composition is looming at the horizon and topic is already chosen, the next step is to formulate the main idea of a text properly. Therefore, we have collected fifteen great thesis statements on diabetes so that you can easily choose one for your paper. The problems of obesity, abnormal insulin activity, and diabetes have attracted an increasing attention of scholars. According to the alarming statistics, millions of people die from diabetes every year. Specialists in medical research try to find solutions to reduce the percentage of affected people. Unfortunately, their attempts have not yet brought any significant results. Therefore, this issue is interesting for the great number of people all over the world. Besides, it will certainly attract attention of your papers readers. Students choose this topic because it has many ideas to discuss. A properly formulated thesis statement is the key to successful paper composition. Therefore, it is vital to think up a clear and persuasive sentence to arouse readers interest in the presented problem. Look at the following samples related to your topic and pick one that you like. Besides, you can use them as a template to formulate your own sentence. Diabetes affects both individual people and the whole society in general. The modern sedentary lifestyle and inadequate dietary patterns lead to the health problems and increased healthcare costs. Genetic diabetes is diagnosed in millions of people all over the world. If a mother has developing symptoms of diabetes, her child might also become ill. Diabetes is dangerous for the economy of developing countries. It is possible to reduce the risks for diabetes by doing some exercises and living a healthy life without any bad habits. Diabetes requires much time and effort Continue reading >>

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Thesis Statement For Essay On Diabetes - Thesis Statement On Juvenile Diabetes

Thesis Statement For Essay On Diabetes - Thesis Statement On Juvenile Diabetes

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Diabetes Research Paper Thesis Statement

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Thesis Statement For A Research Paper On Diabetes! John Mcgarvey Thesis Creator

Thesis Statement For A Research Paper On Diabetes! John Mcgarvey Thesis Creator

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Thesis Statement On Diabetes

Thesis Statement On Diabetes

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Thesis Statement About Diabetes

Thesis Statement About Diabetes

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Sample Thesis Statements On Diabetes - Mivian Strategies

Sample Thesis Statements On Diabetes - Mivian Strategies

Diabetes is one of the most common illnesses of people. Most people think that having diabetes is normal, or probably curable. Though it is not perceived to be fatal and contagious such as other feared diseases, diabetes can cause a number of disadvantages. There are two types of diabetes which makes it impossible to generalize the effects of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. Type 1 or juvenile diabetes is the first type of diabetes. Though it is known to be a childhood type of diabetes since it is commonly because of insulin dependence, diabetes is not limited to children alone. Type 1 diabetes is lethal unless the patients are treated with exogenous though injections to replace the missing hormones. Type 2 however, is non-insulin dependent diabetes. It is a disorder in the metabolism of the body, characterized by being resistant t insulin. This is the most common type of diabetes and the number of patients diagnosed to have type 2 diabetes are increasing. Type 1 may be caused by genetic disorder. It is a disorder in metabolism that directly affects the body in its process of using food for energy. This study would like to dwell more on type 1 diabetes being caused by genetic disorder. This study will be basically descriptive in nature since it aims to describe how type 1 diabetes has become a genetic disorder. This study will involve actual observations of patients with Type 1 diabetes. This study will be beneficial to the medical health in general and to patients aiming to know more about diabetes. Tags: diabetes, genetic disorder, paper, patients Continue reading >>

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Brilliant Term Papers Thesis Statement Working Outline

Brilliant Term Papers Thesis Statement Working Outline

Thesis Statement: Diabetic individuals are vulnerable to other conditions that can be fatal to their health. Diabetes is a condition that emanates from the inability of the pancreas to execute its blood sugar regulatory functions. The condition is caused by factors that deter the emission and the effects of the pancreatic hormones such as insulin. Diabetes results into the development of secondary conditions in the body like high blood pressure. The condition is very hazardous to the body and needs prevention which has really affected the developing nations especially Mauritius and immigrants of Japanese. Diabetes mainly causes lifestyle changes (Loveman and Clegg, 2008). Prevention, dietetic cure and medication effects on the diabetes patients. Prevalence in diverse places and the most vulnerable people. Thesis statement: Diabetic individuals are vulnerable to other conditions that can be fatal to their health. What are the contributing factors of diabetes in the past and current basing on: Age: especially in children (Maty, Lynch, & Kaplan, 2008) Class of people-sedentary lifestyle (Kolb, & Mandrup-Poulsen, 2009) Demographic placement and social economic factors (Edwards, Vincent, Cheng and Feldman, 2008). Family history (Edwards, Vincent, Cheng and Feldman, 2008). Racial background (Scientific Abstracts, 2009). Symptoms unique to this type of diabetes (Edwards, Vincent, Cheng and Feldman, 2008). i. Physical Prevalence based on gender, age, race or a particular environment (Gu1, D. et al, 2003). Symptoms unique to this type of diabetes (Edwards, Vincent, Cheng and Feldman, 2008). i. Physical Prevalence based on gender, age, race or a particular environment (Gu1, D. et al, 2003). Joining a support group (Loveman and Clegg, 2008). Self care (Akarsu, Buyukhatipoglu, Akt Continue reading >>

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Good Thesis Statement For A Research Paper On Diabetes?

Good Thesis Statement For A Research Paper On Diabetes?

Good thesis statement for a research paper on Diabetes? Oh gosh, haha, I hope my teacher isn't reading this lol.But I need a good thesis statement for a research paper on Diabetes.(Haha, I think I'll just delete this after I find what I need so my teacher can't find it lol).What should I say?There's like no prompt or anything.I wrote a... show more Oh gosh, haha, I hope my teacher isn't reading this lol. But I need a good thesis statement for a research paper on Diabetes. (Haha, I think I'll just delete this after I find what I need so my teacher can't find it lol). I wrote a research paper earlier in the year about how this invention benefited society and I got a 100 on it :) But that was easy because my teacher like told us to what it was supposed to be about, how the society benefits from that invention. So I thought of like three things to write about and I was good to go. And plus, my whole class had to do the same thing, but choose different inventions. But for this paper, my teacher didn't like be specific on what I had to really talk about. We just had to just pick what we want and write. But exactly what should I say? I'm going to talk about what Diabetes is and the symptoms and like what should you do about it. But it's kinda hard. Well, it's easy because I can find lots of info on Diabetes, but its hard because I don't know how to put it all together. That's where the thesis statement comes. Thesis statements like shape it together. I can follow it if I had one, then my paper would sound all smooth and stuff haha. Can you think of something I can use as a thesis statement about Diabetes? (I won't copy it word for word, I'll just paraphrase it) I need to finish this paper as soon as I can. Thanks again! Continue reading >>

Thesis Statement For Essay On Diabetes

Thesis Statement For Essay On Diabetes

the history of racism and anti semitism in literature This post contains background information on the topic of diabetes and also includes few diabetes thesis statement examples. What is a good thesis statement for diabetes type 1 a good thesis statement to i am doing an essay about dogs and i good statement would be using a. Thesis statement diabetes professional essay and resume writing services offering expertise in writing cvs, resumes and cover letters customized by the industry and. Thesis statement on diabetes thesis statement for diabetes thesis statement for diabetes thesis statement for informative essay diabetes 1read about a. Essay on obesity: free examples of essays, research and term papers examples of obesity essay topics, questions and thesis satatements. This free health essay on essay: diabetes is perfect for health students to use as an example personal statement essay writing guide thesis guide. Dissertation help service juridique thesis statement for diabetes homework help grade 9 math dissertation sur les changes internationaux. Thesis statement examples on diabetes click to continue friday night lights college essay episode to kill a. Thesis statement for a argumentative essay on or periodic electricity thesis statement for a research paper on diabetes shree. Diabetes research paper thesis statement click to order essay thesis research proposal topics hire someone to write an. Explore to come up with a good thesis statement whether its childhood or child 6 thesis statement ideas for obesity research paper diabetes mellitus. Thesis statement for informative essay diabetes 1 notice that this sentence is different in structure from the one you started with (drive-ins represent. Thesis statement for diabetes - mindful vitality siddhartha essay this i Continue reading >>

Diabetes Health Insurance Research Paper Thesis Statement

Diabetes Health Insurance Research Paper Thesis Statement

Writing A Thesis Statement Of A Research Paper On Diabetes Health Insurance A thesis statement is a very important part of a research paper on diabetes. If you dont compose it in a proper way, it might convey a wrong message and confuse the reader. Also, a bad thesis statement wont allow you to get the highest score for your project, so its important to approach the task of composing it rather seriously. Tips for Creating a Diabetes Research Paper Thesis Statement There are many types of term papers. Some of them try to analyze particular issues and others illuminate particular facts. The purpose of a paper may also be to make a claim and support a particular opinion. Before you start composing your thesis statement, make sure that you understand what type of paper you should create. In your paper, its advisable to discuss a matter that hasnt been fully explored by anyone else before. This way, your paper will have a greater significance. Also, itll allow you to come up with a stronger thesis. You may concentrate on diabetes health insurance, for example. If there can be many opinions on the topic that youve chosen, you should take a particular stance to defend in your paper. Based on the topic and position that youve chosen, ask a question that this topic implies. An answer to this question will be your thesis statement that youll be able to support with different points in the body of your paper. Usually, a thesis statement should be placed at the end of the introductory chapter and restated in the conclusion for diabetes research paper. Tips for Improving Your Academic Writing Skills In order to write thesis statements and other parts of term papers properly, you should have more than just theoretical knowledge. Its very important to practice writing regularly to de Continue reading >>

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Diabetes Thesis Statement Examples

Diabetes Thesis Statement Examples

Diabetes Mellitus or Diabetes, as it is commonly known is one of the most rapidly spreading diseases in the world. According to the World Health Organization, there were nearly 171 million people suffering from diabetes in 2000 and the number is projected to increase to 366 million by the year 2030. Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder in which the amount of insulin produced by the body falls below the normal range. Insulin is normally responsible for lowering the blood sugar level in the body. In the absence of adequate amount of insulin, the blood sugar levels increase leading to symptoms like frequent urination, extreme thirst and increased hunger. There are primarily two types of diabetes Type I and Type II diabetes. The former is caused when the body is unable to produce sufficient quantity of insulin while the latter is due to the inability of the body to respond to insulin. Diabetes can either be genetic or acquired in nature. The rapidly growing number of people suffering from diabetes has forced the Center for Disease Control to declare it an epidemic. In the United States of America, nearly 26 million people were diagnosed with diabetes while 57 million had pre-diabetes. Experts believe that a major cause behind these increasing figures is the change in lifestyle brought about by the forces of urbanization and capitalization. The significant change in dietary patterns and the shift from home cooked meals to high calorie junk food has played a crucial role in the spread of Type II diabetes which is the more prevalent form of diabetes in developed nations by a huge margin. In USA, 90% of the people suffering from diabetes belong to the Type II category. At the same time however, diabetes is spreading at a rampant rate in Asia and Africa as well and it is es Continue reading >>

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  1. 45 of the Best Diabetes Dissertation Topics

    45 of the Best Diabetes Dissertation Topics Published by Owen Ingram at January 2nd, 2023 , Revised On August 16, 2023 The prevalence of diabetes among the world's population has been increasing steadily over the last few decades, thanks to the growing consumption of fast food and an increasingly comfortable lifestyle.

  2. 341 Diabetes Essay Topics & Examples

    🏆 Best Diabetes Essay Examples & Topics Hemoglobin A1C Test for Diabetes Higher levels of glucose appendages in the RBCs will most probably demonstrate high and unsustainable levels of blood sugars that have the capacity to occasion or worsen diabetic complications. Age Influence on Physical Activity: Exercise and Diabetes

  3. 257 Diabetes Essay Topics, Research Questions ...

    Learn more 🏆 Best Essay Topics on Diabetes Improving Diabetes Lifestyle Diabetes is one of the health conditions affecting many people in different corners of the world. Individuals and family members affected by the condition should lead healthy lives. Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 Discussion

  4. PDF Barriers to self-management in type II diabetes A thesis submitted to

    Thesis title: Barriers to self-management in type II diabetes. Conducted at The University of Manchester by Emily Bland for the award of Master of Philosophy (MPhil) ... Background: Type II diabetes is both a worldwide and national healthcare. Certain self-management practices can help people with diabetes to control the condition, these ...

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    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease in which T-cells and macrophages invade the islets of Langerhans and selectively destroy the insulin producing β-cells, either directly or through the secretion of e.g. cytokines and nitric oxide (NO). This thesis has studied possible strategies to prevent T1DM.

  13. Diabetes Free Essay Examples And Topic Ideas

    59 essay samples found. Diabetes is a chronic disease characterized by high levels of sugar in the blood due to insulin production issues or the body's response to insulin. Essays on diabetes could delve into the types of diabetes, its prevalence, management strategies, and the impact on individuals and communities.

  14. Current Topics in Diabetes Research4th International Diabetes

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    1. Introduction Though it is hard to establish, the link between cancer and glucose does exist. This is especially disturbing given the fact that the link between diabetes and glucose has been of particular interest to the science community for the past three decades.

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    15 Dissertation Topics On Diabetes Research And Health One of the most difficult stages of dissertation writing in any discipline is needing to come up with a research topic. There are several places students can turn to on the internet but this can take up a lot of time.

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    Writing a thesis on such a topic as medicine you should have good knowledge and a properly formulated title. You may select an idea from the list below.

  24. Diabetes Thesis Statement

    Diabetes mainly causes lifestyle changes (Loveman and Clegg, 2008). Prevention, dietetic cure and medication effects on the diabetes patients. Prevalence in diverse places and the most vulnerable people. Thesis statement: Diabetic individuals are vulnerable to other conditions that can be fatal to their health.