Reports that are primarily analytical usually require conclusions. These are sometimes combined with recommendations. Proposals often use conclusions to provide a final word to the readers (i.e. the potential donors) because having an impact at the end of the proposal is important. You can also improve executive summaries and large sections of major reports by including conclusions. With some long reports, a conclusion may take up an entire section or chapter of the report. In cases like this, you will often also see conclusions for each chapter.
The conclusion enables you to reinforce the main messages of the document. A conclusion summarizes the report as a whole, drawing inferences from the entire process about what has been found, or decided, and the impact of those findings or decisions.
Even in a short report, it is useful to include a conclusion. A conclusion demonstrates good organization. When written well, it can help make the reader’s task easier. With a good conclusion, you can pull all the threads of the report details together and relate them to the initial purpose for writing the report. In other words, the conclusion should confirm for the reader that the report's purpose has been achieved.
Conclusion Example 1: A longer report
Conclusion Example 2: A proposal
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How to write a conclusion
What is a conclusion.
A conclusion is used in several different writing genres such as essays and reports and often includes:
- a restatement of the overall topic
- a reiteration or confirmation of the thesis statement
- a summary of the main points
It may also include:
- suggestions for further research
- broader implications of the ideas discussed
What does a good conclusion look like?
Essay question: Should Australia invest in a high-speed rail network between Sydney and Melbourne?
RESTATEMENT OF TOPIC: As the Australian population continues to grow, the question of whether to construct a high-speed rail network between Sydney and Melbourne will become more important. Since the first proposals emerged in the late 1970s, the project has been hampered not only by political apathy, but also by financial unfeasibility. SUMMARY OF MAIN ARGUMENTS: The latter was at first due to technological limitations but has eventually become attributed to the increasing affordability for passengers to utilise the existing air corridors. However, with the looming threat of global warming, increased flight traffic is unsustainable both environmentally and economically. An electro-magnetic rail network offers a considerable reduction in carbon emissions and also produces very little noise pollution. The short-term high cost of construction would still be minimal in comparison to the economic damage that would be caused by not addressing rising global temperatures. RESTATEMENT OF THESIS : Therefore, Australia must develop its own high-speed rail network between Melbourne and Sydney. Possible solutions to offset cost issues would be to implement a carbon tax on air travel or introduce subsidies for high-speed rail usage. CONCLUDING STATEMENT: However, if the various levels of government do not address this issue as soon as possible, Australia risks having sub-standard inter-city transport options for the foreseeable future.
How do I write a conclusion?
Ask yourself the following questions about your writing to check if your conclusion is effective . Click on each arrow to see more information about each question.
Have I restated the topic?
In the example above, the topic is restated to remind the reader about the issue that is being addressed. Very often, this might be a paraphrase of the assignment question. In the example above, the topic is restated as:
“ As the Australian population continues to grow, the question of whether to construct a high-speed rail network between Sydney and Melbourne will become more important . ”
Have I reiterated my thesis?
The topic can be followed immediately by the thesis, which is the writer’s perspective on the topic. Note that restatement of the thesis does not always have to follow immediately after the restatement of the topic. In the example above, the thesis is placed after the summary of the main arguments as:
“… Australia must develop its own high-speed rail network between Melbourne and Sydney.”
Have I summarised and synthesised my main arguments?
This section very briefly summarises and synthesises the arguments that were used in the discussion of the topic. Although you may have included opposing arguments as part of your critical analysis, as a whole this section should support your thesis. You do not need to include in your conclusion any of the citations used to support your discussion in the body of the assignment.
“…with the looming threat of global warming, increased flight traffic is unsustainable both environmentally and economically. An electro-magnetic rail network not only offers a considerable reduction in carbon emissions but also produces very little noise pollution. The short-term high cost of construction would still be minimal in comparison to the economic damage that would be caused by not addressing rising global temperatures.”
What else can I include?
Avoid introducing any new information and try to keep the need to reference to a minimum. However, the conclusion may also include one or more of the following:
- recommendations for, or possible solutions to, any specific problems that have been presented
- suggestions for further research that needs to be conducted
- other implications that result from the issues presented or solutions proposed
In the example conclusion given on this page, possible solutions and implications of inaction have been given as a way of concluding the assignment:
“Possible solutions to offset cost issues would be to implement a carbon tax on air travel or introduce subsidies for high-speed rail usage. However, if the various levels of government do not address this issue as soon as possible, Australia risks having sub-standard inter-city transport options for the foreseeable future.”
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How to conclude a report – like a rock star
6 minute read
Grab a pair of headphones and a lighter to wave in the air. Ready? Then let’s rock.
When you’re trying to bring your report to a conclusion, do you ever feel like Paul McCartney at the Olympics opening ceremony , rehashing the same points (‘na na na nananana …’) as the audience sneaks quietly for the exits? Or do you take the John Lennon approach in ‘ I Want You (She’s So Heavy) ‘ and crash to a sudden halt?
Endings can be tough to write, but they’re so important. You want to send your reader away thinking about what they’ve read – or even persuade them to make a decision right there and then. Going out with a whimper isn’t an option. Here’s Neil Sedaka demonstrating just how awkward a bad ending can be – ‘ Breaking up is hard to do ‘ indeed.
Four types of conclusion: PQRS
If your report includes recommendations, you’ll already have stated them in the executive summary and supported them throughout the document. So your conclusion should contain no surprises – no Brotherhood of Man-style twist .
There are four basic types of conclusion you can use, summed up by the letters PQRS: P redict, Q uote, R epeat or S ummarise.
Predict the future (Take my hand and we’ll make it I swear)
There are two main ways you can use predictions. If your report is about a decision already taken, you can use the ending to sum up the effects you expect to see. For example:
‘The council continues to expand its recycling scheme at an incredible rate. We will soon be recycling over 40% of our waste.’
But if the purpose of your report is to persuade the reader to take a certain action, predicting what will happen if they don’t take that action can be a persuasive tactic. For example:
‘Unless we expand our recycling scheme, we are almost certain to fall short of our targets for this year and to perform worse than both of our neighbouring councils.’
Then follow this up with a prediction of how things will be different if they take your advice. You’ll already have mentioned this in the body of the report, but you should crank it up a gear in the conclusion.
Think ‘ Livin’ on a Prayer ‘, where the key changes for the final chorus. (Getting a shaggy perm is optional, but we’d admire your dedication.)
Quote (Who’ll come a-waltzing Matilda with me?)
If you do it with care and justification, ending with a quotation can be powerful. But don’t be tempted to stray into show-off territory; this isn’t the time to demonstrate your encyclopaedic knowledge of Latin or Shakespeare.
A relevant and pithy quote from someone influential and well-informed, however, can be persuasive. It could be someone you’ve already cited in the report, or someone new. For example:
‘As the Chairman of Lambeth First says: “The Lambeth No Knife Charter won’t on its own stop people carrying knives. But if we can make it hard for people to get hold of knives and reduce the number in circulation, then that is a step in the right direction.”‘
This works on two fronts: first, it reinforces your message, showing that others support you. And second, it offers a slightly different angle, and often a chance for a personal opinion.
Here are The Pogues, doing it very well in Eric Bogle’s ‘ And the Band Played Waltzing Matilda ‘. After seven-and-a-half minutes of the horror of war, it cuts to the original song, with the old soldier – now a double amputee – asking ‘Who’ll go a-waltzing Matilda with me?’
Repeat a major issue (Seriously, she is totally buying a stairway to heaven)
This can be tricky. You don’t want your reader to feel like you’re repeatedly bashing them over the head with the same message. But at the same time, you do want them to walk away with that message in their head.
Basically, you want to bash them very gently, without them noticing. The secret is to keep it brief, to-the-point and memorable. For example:
‘Today, Lambeth – like all councils – faces a major challenge due to the increased uptake of adult health and social services. It is vital that we secure additional funding.’
Go for the Led Zeppelin effect. When Robert Plant finishes his slow, deliberate howl at the end of ‘ Stairway to Heaven ‘, you’re in no doubt about what the protagonist is buying, but you don’t feel as if you never want to hear about a stairway ever again.
Summarise (Where do we go now?)
When summarising, resist the urge to go over all your points again, and keep it brief. Your summary should just bring together your main points, and reinforce any recommended plan of action. For example:
‘The new programme aims to make “every Lambeth child a talker” by involving parents as well as professionals in children’s language development. In the first two years it will concentrate on 20 groups of pre-school children, but it will then link with other groups to pass on good practice.’
This example includes both a summary and a prediction – you can combine the different endings to make the right conclusion for your document.
Most importantly of all, you’re looking to be concise, memorable and powerful. Think the impact of ‘ Sweet Child o’ Mine’ , but with less ‘where do we go?’ and more ‘this is where we go’.
Conclusions, in conclusion
Most importantly of all, your ending needs to be arresting and to leave a lasting impression. Not for you, the gradual fade out. Use the techniques above and aim for a grand finale. Rock on!
Do you have any tips for writing a great conclusion? And what’s your favourite (or least favourite) song ending? Tell us what you think in the comments section below.
These tips (minus the music) were taken from our High-impact business writing course, which is available both to bring in house for teams and for individuals .
To learn more about making report writing a much easier and less painful task, check out our free webinar recording How to turn your expert analysis into exceptional reports . It’s ideal if you have to write reports to colleagues and clients as part of your day-to-day job – whether that’s as a traditional written report or as a slide deck.
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ON YOUR 1ST ORDER
How To Write A Conclusion For A Report?
By Laura Brown on 5th September 2020
If you are required to put up a conclusion for a report, you need to take care of a few components,
- Start with touching upon the introduction
- Restate the research question
- Touch upon your findings and research
- Highlight the significance of your findings
- Mention room for the future research
- End with an impressive concluding statement
Without further ado, let’s have a look at a project report conclusion example to better understand what has been written above.
In conclusion, the research has shown that social media overuse is strongly linked to negative impacts on mental health, particularly in adolescents and young adults. The study provides evidence that excessive social media usage can lead to increased feelings of depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. It is clear that there is a need for further research in this area to understand the mechanisms by which excessive social media usage affects mental health and to identify interventions that can help individuals reduce their social media usage and promote mental health.
The findings suggest that educators, parents, and healthcare professionals need to be aware of the potential risks associated with excessive social media usage and to provide support and resources to individuals who may be struggling with mental health issues as a result. Overall, the research will contribute to a greater understanding of the relationship between social media usage and mental health and encourage further investigation into the topic.
Getting the correct answer for how to conclude a report can be a daunting task. Concluding paragraphs should have all 7C’s of communication, i.e. clear, concise, concrete, correct, coherent, complete and courteous. A conclusion paragraph is a sum of what you have written in the report without sounding redundant. But first, we need to understand that does a report need a conclusion?
Having an impactful concluding paragraph in the report will increase your chances of scoring high and leave a lasting impression on your professor. This article is mainly written for those people looking for how to write a report conclusion.
Thinking About How To Write Conclusion In Report?
Are you a student wondering about the essentials of concluding paragraphs for your upcoming report project? If you have a fear of low grades but don’t know what is academic writing and how to write a conclusion for an essay , don’t worry. We’ve got you covered at Crowd Writer UK.
A conclusion paragraph is a wrap-up. It tells the reader whether and how you accomplished your goals, what was the purpose of the report, and lastly, it must give a sense of closure on the specific topic.
How To Write A Good Conclusion For A Report in 5 Easy Steps
These five steps presented by the report writing team at Crowd Writer will surely help you a lot to conclude a report.
1. Use The Introduction As A Guide
Remember that introduction is not meant to elaborate or describe the topic in the conclusion paragraph. Your conclusion should restate your whole report body . You should never rewrite the opening or any part again. Use your introduction as a guide and take help in reiterating the fact.
2. Leave Your Reader For Something To Ponder Upon
How to write a conclusion for a report is the question that hits minds. The other thought that answers it is the idea or a fact that leaves the reader to think over something, which is a win-win point for the writer and reader. Remember not to mention anything new or your opinion in the concluding body. Create a lasting impression by having a good summary that connects the significance of the report.
3. Predict The Future
While concluding a report, predicting the future is something that solely depends on the context of your chosen topic. You can use predictions in two main ways:
- The report you are writing is about a decision already taken, then you can use the ending, to sum up the results you expect to see.
- But if the purpose of your report is to persuade the audience to take a sure call to action. It could work if you go on to predict what will happen.
4. Answer The ‘So What’ Questions
Whatever the topic you choose to write on provides you with a chance to explain the context of the issue that your audience is a part of. It is considered an important part of your report because it describes why the topic truly matters to the reader. Your conclusion must answer all the ‘So What’ questions of the readers.
Maybe the topic of your report isn’t clear or evident to the readers, so answering the ‘so what’ question can allow the reader to understand why the topic matters to them.
If you are looking for how to write a conclusion for a lab report, then you need to understand that summarising the key findings is crucial for a report to get accepted. You are not supposed to write the full outline in it. Just restate and summarise the main points as you do.
Still, if things are a bit unclear, you should have a look at the following sections to understand what should be there in the conclusion and the things you have to avoid while writing the conclusion for your report.
To-Do List Of A Report Conclusion
Once you know how to start a conclusion in a report, you should consider the following points,
- Summarise the keywords: Make sure to summarise the main points of your report. You should summarise the most important findings and ideas that you have presented throughout your report.
- Restate the research question: In conclusion, you must remind the reader of the research question or hypothesis that you addressed in your report.
- Highlight the significance of your findings: It is empirical to explain why your research is important and what contributions it makes to the field. Discuss the practical implications of your findings and how they may influence future research.
- Provide recommendations: Most importantly, provide recommendations for future research. You may also suggest areas that need further investigation and propose methodological improvements that could be made in future studies.
- End with a final thought: Finally, end your conclusion with a final statement that leaves a lasting impression on the reader. This could be a call to action, a prediction for the future, or a reflection on the broader implications of your research.
Things To Avoid In The Conclusion Of A Report
Here are some points you must avoid while writing the conclusion for a report.
- Introducing new information: You must not introduce new information or present any new idea that has not been discussed in the body of the report.
- Using vague language: You must avoid using vague or generic language in your conclusion for a report.
- Being too repetitive: Researchers often keep repeating sentences and ideas in conclusion. You must not practise it to keep your readers engaged.
- Making sweeping generalisations: Avoid making sweeping generalisations, generic examples and statements that lack evidence.
- References & Citations: Avoid adding new references and in-text citations in the conclusion part.
Do’s & Don’t In One Go
The following table can help you with your task to conclude a report.
Summary: How To Conclude A Report
In short, your endings have to be enchanting and captivating, which leaves the reader to think and give 5-star to your report. You can use the suggested easy steps on how to write a conclusion for a report and rock the grand finale part in summary. If you are looking for any coursework writing service , get connected with Crowd Writer, an excellent platform to avail of writing services.
Laura Brown, a senior content writer who writes actionable blogs at Crowd Writer.
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Writing a conclusion for your report
This page shows an example conclusion from a real report and shows how the authors summarise the findings and draw interpretations from those findings
The best way to learn how to write a good conclusion to a report is to look at a real-life good example and consider what the writer does in it.
This page looks at a report written by the British Council entitled Culture at Work: the value of intercultural skills in the workplace . You can read the whole report in that link (but you might not want to!) otherwise read on here for some comments on the report and extracts from the conclusion.
The report carries out research into the value that employers place on employees having good intercultural skills. You will not be surprised to hear that the British Council found that employers like their employees to have such skills. The conclusion to the report summarises the findings of the research and draws conclusions from those findings. Drawing conclusions from research means first giving the facts of what you discovered, and then discussing what those facts could mean. The facts could mean a lot of different things, to different people. They could lead to different ideas, be interpreted differently by different people so you need to use cautious hedging language when you draw your conclusions. This is why you see words such as ‘suggests’ and ‘implies’ in conclusions.
Here is the conclusion from the report which summarises the factual findings from the report and then interprets those facts.
Read the text and as you read it try to identify which parts of the text are referring to factual findings and which parts of the text show the writer’s interpretation and conclusions drawn from those facts.
Here is the conclusion:
Employers around the world face a wide range of business challenges. A common challenge shared by employers around the world is finding employees with adequate intercultural skills. Given that the operating environments of all organisations is increasingly global, it comes as no surprise that employers need employees who can understand and adapt to different cultural contexts.
Employers place a high value on intercultural skills in the workplace and associate having workers with strong intercultural skills with business benefits, such as increased productivity and sales. They also associate a lack of intercultural skills with business risks, such as miscommunication and team conflict.
While employers universally value intercultural skills, they do not often assess these skills in the application or interview process. This lack of skills assessment in the recruitment process may indicate that HR recruitment processes and staff are not always aligned with the needs of the teams that interact internationally. This also implies that employers could benefit from improving their ability to identify and assess intercultural skills in prospective employees.
Employers also generally feel that education systems in their countries could do more to provide students with intercultural skills. To mitigate the risk of having a workforce that is unprepared for the global work environment, employers often provide training for their employees to develop intercultural skills.
British Council, (2013) Culture at Work Available: https://www.britishcouncil.org/sites/default/files/culture-at-work-report-v2.pdf
Are you ready to check your ideas about which parts of the text present factual findings and which parts present interpretation and draw conclusions?
Here you go:
You should notice that the parts of the text where the writers interpret the facts and draw conclusions from them use the following language:
…may indicate that…
This (also) implies that…
This research suggests that…
This is a good example of an academic report because it summarises the factual findings of the report and draws conclusions which discuss the implications of those findings.
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- Research paper
Writing a Research Paper Conclusion | Step-by-Step Guide
Published on October 30, 2022 by Jack Caulfield . Revised on April 13, 2023.
- Restate the problem statement addressed in the paper
- Summarize your overall arguments or findings
- Suggest the key takeaways from your paper
The content of the conclusion varies depending on whether your paper presents the results of original empirical research or constructs an argument through engagement with sources .
Table of contents
Step 1: restate the problem, step 2: sum up the paper, step 3: discuss the implications, research paper conclusion examples, frequently asked questions about research paper conclusions.
The first task of your conclusion is to remind the reader of your research problem . You will have discussed this problem in depth throughout the body, but now the point is to zoom back out from the details to the bigger picture.
While you are restating a problem you’ve already introduced, you should avoid phrasing it identically to how it appeared in the introduction . Ideally, you’ll find a novel way to circle back to the problem from the more detailed ideas discussed in the body.
For example, an argumentative paper advocating new measures to reduce the environmental impact of agriculture might restate its problem as follows:
Meanwhile, an empirical paper studying the relationship of Instagram use with body image issues might present its problem like this:
“In conclusion …”
Avoid starting your conclusion with phrases like “In conclusion” or “To conclude,” as this can come across as too obvious and make your writing seem unsophisticated. The content and placement of your conclusion should make its function clear without the need for additional signposting.
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Having zoomed back in on the problem, it’s time to summarize how the body of the paper went about addressing it, and what conclusions this approach led to.
Depending on the nature of your research paper, this might mean restating your thesis and arguments, or summarizing your overall findings.
Argumentative paper: Restate your thesis and arguments
In an argumentative paper, you will have presented a thesis statement in your introduction, expressing the overall claim your paper argues for. In the conclusion, you should restate the thesis and show how it has been developed through the body of the paper.
Briefly summarize the key arguments made in the body, showing how each of them contributes to proving your thesis. You may also mention any counterarguments you addressed, emphasizing why your thesis holds up against them, particularly if your argument is a controversial one.
Don’t go into the details of your evidence or present new ideas; focus on outlining in broad strokes the argument you have made.
Empirical paper: Summarize your findings
In an empirical paper, this is the time to summarize your key findings. Don’t go into great detail here (you will have presented your in-depth results and discussion already), but do clearly express the answers to the research questions you investigated.
Describe your main findings, even if they weren’t necessarily the ones you expected or hoped for, and explain the overall conclusion they led you to.
Having summed up your key arguments or findings, the conclusion ends by considering the broader implications of your research. This means expressing the key takeaways, practical or theoretical, from your paper—often in the form of a call for action or suggestions for future research.
Argumentative paper: Strong closing statement
An argumentative paper generally ends with a strong closing statement. In the case of a practical argument, make a call for action: What actions do you think should be taken by the people or organizations concerned in response to your argument?
If your topic is more theoretical and unsuitable for a call for action, your closing statement should express the significance of your argument—for example, in proposing a new understanding of a topic or laying the groundwork for future research.
Empirical paper: Future research directions
In a more empirical paper, you can close by either making recommendations for practice (for example, in clinical or policy papers), or suggesting directions for future research.
Whatever the scope of your own research, there will always be room for further investigation of related topics, and you’ll often discover new questions and problems during the research process .
Finish your paper on a forward-looking note by suggesting how you or other researchers might build on this topic in the future and address any limitations of the current paper.
Full examples of research paper conclusions are shown in the tabs below: one for an argumentative paper, the other for an empirical paper.
- Argumentative paper
- Empirical paper
While the role of cattle in climate change is by now common knowledge, countries like the Netherlands continually fail to confront this issue with the urgency it deserves. The evidence is clear: To create a truly futureproof agricultural sector, Dutch farmers must be incentivized to transition from livestock farming to sustainable vegetable farming. As well as dramatically lowering emissions, plant-based agriculture, if approached in the right way, can produce more food with less land, providing opportunities for nature regeneration areas that will themselves contribute to climate targets. Although this approach would have economic ramifications, from a long-term perspective, it would represent a significant step towards a more sustainable and resilient national economy. Transitioning to sustainable vegetable farming will make the Netherlands greener and healthier, setting an example for other European governments. Farmers, policymakers, and consumers must focus on the future, not just on their own short-term interests, and work to implement this transition now.
As social media becomes increasingly central to young people’s everyday lives, it is important to understand how different platforms affect their developing self-conception. By testing the effect of daily Instagram use among teenage girls, this study established that highly visual social media does indeed have a significant effect on body image concerns, with a strong correlation between the amount of time spent on the platform and participants’ self-reported dissatisfaction with their appearance. However, the strength of this effect was moderated by pre-test self-esteem ratings: Participants with higher self-esteem were less likely to experience an increase in body image concerns after using Instagram. This suggests that, while Instagram does impact body image, it is also important to consider the wider social and psychological context in which this usage occurs: Teenagers who are already predisposed to self-esteem issues may be at greater risk of experiencing negative effects. Future research into Instagram and other highly visual social media should focus on establishing a clearer picture of how self-esteem and related constructs influence young people’s experiences of these platforms. Furthermore, while this experiment measured Instagram usage in terms of time spent on the platform, observational studies are required to gain more insight into different patterns of usage—to investigate, for instance, whether active posting is associated with different effects than passive consumption of social media content.
If you’re unsure about the conclusion, it can be helpful to ask a friend or fellow student to read your conclusion and summarize the main takeaways.
- Do they understand from your conclusion what your research was about?
- Are they able to summarize the implications of your findings?
- Can they answer your research question based on your conclusion?
You can also get an expert to proofread and feedback your paper with a paper editing service .
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The conclusion of a research paper has several key elements you should make sure to include:
- A restatement of the research problem
- A summary of your key arguments and/or findings
- A short discussion of the implications of your research
No, it’s not appropriate to present new arguments or evidence in the conclusion . While you might be tempted to save a striking argument for last, research papers follow a more formal structure than this.
All your findings and arguments should be presented in the body of the text (more specifically in the results and discussion sections if you are following a scientific structure). The conclusion is meant to summarize and reflect on the evidence and arguments you have already presented, not introduce new ones.
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Caulfield, J. (2023, April 13). Writing a Research Paper Conclusion | Step-by-Step Guide. Scribbr. Retrieved December 4, 2023, from https://www.scribbr.com/research-paper/research-paper-conclusion/
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