- Awards Season
- Big Stories
- Pop Culture
- Video Games
How to Create an Effective Thesis Statement in 5 Easy Steps
Creating a thesis statement can be a daunting task. It’s one of the most important sentences in your paper, and it needs to be done right. But don’t worry — with these five easy steps, you’ll be able to create an effective thesis statement in no time.
Step 1: Brainstorm Ideas
The first step is to brainstorm ideas for your paper. Think about what you want to say and write down any ideas that come to mind. This will help you narrow down your focus and make it easier to create your thesis statement.
Step 2: Research Your Topic
Once you have some ideas, it’s time to do some research on your topic. Look for sources that support your ideas and provide evidence for the points you want to make. This will help you refine your argument and make it more convincing.
Step 3: Formulate Your Argument
Now that you have done some research, it’s time to formulate your argument. Take the points you want to make and put them into one or two sentences that clearly state what your paper is about. This will be the basis of your thesis statement.
Step 4: Refine Your Thesis Statement
Once you have formulated your argument, it’s time to refine your thesis statement. Make sure that it is clear, concise, and specific. It should also be arguable so that readers can disagree with it if they choose.
Step 5: Test Your Thesis Statement
The last step is to test your thesis statement. Does it accurately reflect the points you want to make? Is it clear and concise? Does it make an arguable point? If not, go back and refine it until it meets all of these criteria.
Creating an effective thesis statement doesn’t have to be a daunting task. With these five easy steps, you can create a strong thesis statement in no time at all.
This text was generated using a large language model, and select text has been reviewed and moderated for purposes such as readability.
MORE FROM ASK.COM
Structuring a thesis by compilation, on this page.
Typical structure Declarations Relationship between the papers Introduction Order of papers Handling repetition *Many thanks to Jack Pezzey of the Fenner School who gave us permission to adapt his own 'Supplementary brief on thesis by compilation (TbC)' for Crawford's purposes.
Although there is no set format for a thesis by compilation at Crawford, the following generic outline might assist you in the planning of your thesis:
Front matter: title, abstract, acknowledgements, table of contents, list of figures, etc.
Declarations, stating publication status and authorship of all papers
Chapter 1. Introduction
Foreword to Chapter 2
Chapter 2. The exact text of first paper, maybe as a PDF supplied by the journal
Foreword to Chapter 3
Chapter 3. The exact text of second paper, maybe as a PDF supplied by the journal
Foreword to Chapter 4
Chapter 4. The exact text of third paper, maybe as a PDF supplied by the journal
Chapters 5, 6, 7, etc. (Can include chapters not yet accepted or submitted, or never intended for publication)
Final chapter). Conclusion
References list containing all works referred to in all parts of the thesis
A number of distinct papers is expected, and while some overlap between related papers is acceptable, each paper should nevertheless be substantially different in focus or content. A thesis by compilation must be presented in a logical and coherent way and will require the addition of linking text to establish the relationship between one chapter and the next. This could, for example, be achieved by the inclusion of a foreword to each chapter.
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE CHAPTERS
An introduction demonstrating the relationship between all aspects of the research is also required as part of the thesis. This will include an introduction to the field of study and the hypothesis or research questions, how these are addressed through the ensuing chapters, and a general account of the theory and methodological components of the research where these components may be distributed across separate papers. The introduction should be in the order of 10,000 words in length. The outcomes of the project and the author’s conclusions will either be summarised in the context statement or covered in a concluding chapter.
ORDER OF PAPERS
The order of papers in your thesis should have been logical and coherent since at least your mid-term review, ideally earlier, but writing the Introduction will be a key test of whether you can explain that logical coherence to your examiners. Writing may make you switch the order of a chapter or two, and will almost certainly show you what you need to add requirements for “linking text to establish the relationship between one chapter and the next”. Because of the vagaries of publication, your chapters/papers may not fit together as well as you might ideally wish. For example, maybe you always intended Chapter 3 to be a pre-cursor to Chapter 4, but Chapter 4 actually got accepted for publication first and so could not directly refer to Chapter 3. In that case, add short forewords to both chapters in your TbC to explain how Chapter 4 draws on Chapter 3, but why that connection doesn’t appear in the published text.
How can you minimise repetition in terms of, for example, a methodology section or chapter in the thesis and an explanation of the methodology required for each journal article? Can journal articles included in the final thesis be edited to minimise repetition? There are no simple answers to these questions, beyond not changing any text from your published/accepted papers and doing what you and your panel think will be most appreciated by busy examiners. But for some ideas on the range of possibilities, here are three contrasting examples.
Case A. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 (all published) have near-identical methodology sections, which are all fine in themselves. Possible solution: Mention this repetition clearly in Chapter 1 (Introduction) and in the forewords to each chapter, but do not omit the published text of any chapter.
Case B. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 (all published) have near-identical methodology sections, all of which were too short and hard to follow in your view because of the journals’ tight word limits. Possible solution: Write a more detailed methodology section as a special Appendix to Chapter 2, and note this in Chapter 1 (Introduction) and the chapter forewords.
Case C. Chapters 2, 3, and 4 (all published) have very similar methodology sections, but Chapter 3 (as published) has a better, more detailed exposition than the other two chapters. Possible solution: Note this in the Chapter 1 (Introduction), and particularly in the Forewords to Chapters 2 and 3.
- Denna sida på svenska
- Medarbetarportalen startsida
- ki.se startsida
Content of the thesis
It is praxis at KI and other medical faculties in Sweden to compose so called compilation theses with a kappa (comprehensive summary) and separate original papers.
The requirements for the original papers are defined in the Rules for doctoral education at KI.
Layout and content of the thesis
The Committee for doctoral education has produced an instruction regarding the content of the template for a compilation thesis.
US-AB has been procured by KI for printing of theses for degree of licentiate and degree of doctor. The printing house US-AB has produced a template for theses based on instructions from KI. US-AB needs to be contacted to get access to the template and for printing of the thesis.
It is recommended to include the following headings in the kappa (comprehensive summary):
- It is strongly recommended that the thesis contains a popular science summary in English
- It is permitted for anyone who so wishes to additionally write a popular science summary in Swedish or in another optional language.
- LIST OF SCIENTIFIC PAPERS
- LIST OF ABBREVATIONS
- LITERATURE REVIEW
- RESEARCH AIMS
- It is strongly recommended to include ” Ethical considerations ”
- e.g. for future research, clinical implications, or health policy
The original papers numbered I, II, III etc. are put in the end after the references.
To have in mind when composing the kappa
The purpose of the kappa (comprehensive summary of the thesis) can be summarised as following:.
- To demonstrate depth and breadth of knowledge and understanding of the research field, and ability to identify a need for further knowledge in the field
- To encapsulate the aim of the research project and the hypotheses/points of enquiry that have been addressed
- To demonstrate familiarity with the methods applied in the research field
- To demonstrate an ability to place their own research in a wider context of the latest research in the field
The kappa should be weighted towards a reflective discussion and contextualisation of the student’s own research results.
The text of the kappa must be the student’s own original work without the extensive reproduction of extracts from the constituent papers. Failing to acknowledge sources when quoting from the work of others constitutes plagiarism.
Composing the kappa contributes to achieving the intended learning outcomes (ILOs) for doctoral education set out by the Higher Education Ordinance and is a possibility for the doctoral student to show that the objectives for degree have been achieved (see also below).
The kappa is a public document and is published digitally. It may be used to present preliminary (unpublished) results, but its public nature should be borne in mind if, for example, the research group is considering patenting any aspect of their work. Including preliminary results in the kappa might also cause difficulties for the group should they wish to have their results published in certain journals at a later date.
Support for writing the thesis
Additional support to write a good thesis/kappa:.
- The document Support for writing the thesis
- Workshops and seminars organised by KI University Library (KIB) . Keep your eyes open for additional educational opportunities regarding writing of the kappa, for example organised by your department or a doctoral programme.
- Text matching system iThenticate
Intended learning outcomes and the kappa
The kappa (comprehensive summary of the thesis) is part of the examination and is included in the assessment of whether the ILOs set out by the Higher Education Ordinance for doctoral education have been achieved.
The doctoral student can show achievement of the ILOs for doctoral degree (and in a corresponding way for ILOs for Licentiate degree) in the following sections of the kappa:
Examples of how students can achieve the outcomes for the degree of doctor (PDF, 191.6 KB)
Examples of how students can achieve the outcomes for the degree of licentiate (PDF, 146.62 KB)
Schematic matrix for achievement of the outcomes for doctoral degree at KI (PDF, 215.07 KB)
Information to Examination Board, Opponent and Defence Chairperson (PDF, 243.74 KB)
Information for the Examination Board and Seminar Chairperson, licentiate thesis (PDF, 214.16 KB)
Rules for doctoral education at KI (PDF, 729.32 KB)
Guidelines for writing a compilation thesis summary chapter (PDF, 181.97 KB)
Support for writing the thesis (PDF, 246.46 KB)
- AWELU contents
- Writing at university
- Different kinds of student texts
- Understanding instructions and stylesheets
- Understanding essay/exam questions
- Peer review instructions
- Dealing with feedback
- Checklist for writers
- Research writing resources
- Administrative writing resources
- LU language policy
- What characterises academic writing?
- The heterogeneity of academic writing
- Three-part essays
- IMRaD essays
- How to get started on your response paper
- Student literature review
- Annotated bibliography
- Three versions of the RA
- Examples of specificity within disciplines
- Reviews (review articles and book reviews)
- Popular science writing
- Research posters
- Grant proposals
- Writing for Publication
- Structuring your email
- Direct and indirect approaches
- Useful email phrases
- Language tips for email writers
- Writing memos
- Meeting terminology
- The writing process
- Identifying your audience
- Using invention techniques
- Developing reading strategies
- Taking notes
- Identifying language resources
- Choosing a writing tool
- Framing the text: Title and reference list
- Structure of the whole text
- Structuring the argument
- Structure of introductions
- Structure within sections of the text
- Structure within paragraphs
- Signposting the structure
- Using sources
- What needs to be revised?
- How to revise
- Many vs. much
- Other quantifiers
- Quantifiers in a table
- Miscellaneous quantifiers
- Adjectives and adverbs
- Sentence fragment
- Run-on sentences
- What or which?
- Singular noun phrases connected by "or"
- Singular noun phrases connected by "either/or"
- Connected singular and plural noun phrases
- Noun phrases conjoined by "and"
- Subjects containing "along with", "as well as", and "besides"
- Indefinite pronouns and agreement
- Sums of money and periods of time
- Words that indicate portions
- Uncountable nouns
- Dependent clauses and agreement
- Agreement with the right noun phrase
- Some important exceptions and words of advice
- Atypical nouns
- The major word classes
- The morphology of the major word classes
- Words and phrases
- Elements in the noun phrase
- Classes of nouns
- Elements in the verb phrase
- Classes of main verbs
- Auxiliary verbs
- Primary auxiliary verbs
- Modal auxiliary verbs
- Meanings of modal auxiliaries
- Marginal auxiliary verbs
- Time and tense
- Simple and progressive forms
- The perfect
- Active and passive voice
- Adjective phrases
- Adverb phrases
- Personal pronouns
- Dummy pronouns
- Possessive pronouns
- Interrogative pronouns
- Indefinite pronouns
- Prepositions and prepositional phrases
- More on adverbials
- The order of subjects and verbs
- Subject-Verb agreement
- Hyphen and dash
- English spelling rules
- Commonly confused words
- Differences between British and American spelling
- Vocabulary awareness
- Useful words and phrases
- Using abbreviations
- Register types
- Formal vs. informal
- DOs & DON'Ts
- General information on dictionary use
- Online dictionary resources
- What is a corpus?
- Examples of the usefulness of a corpus
- Using the World Wide Web as a corpus
- Online corpus resources
- Different kinds of sources
- The functions of references
- Reference accuracy
- Reference management tools
- Different kinds of reference styles
- Style format
- Elements of the reference list
- Documentary note style
- Writing acknowledgements
- What is academic integrity?
- Academic integrity and writing
- Academic integrity at LU
- Different kinds of plagiarism
- Avoiding plagiarism
- About Awelu
- Start here AWELU contents Student writing resources Research writing resources Administrative writing resources LU language policy
- Genres Introduction The Nature of Academic Writing Student writing genres Writing in Academic Genres Writing for Publication Writing for Administrative Purposes
- Writing The writing process Pre-writing stage Writing stage Rewriting stage
- Language Introduction Common problems and how to avoid them Selective mini grammar Coherence Punctuation Spelling Focus on vocabulary Register and style Dictionaries Corpora - resources for writer autonomy References
- Referencing Introduction Different kinds of sources The functions of references How to give references Reference accuracy Reference management tools Using a reference style Quick guides to reference styles Writing acknowledgements
- Academic integrity What is academic integrity? Academic integrity and writing Academic integrity at LU Plagiarism
Two main types of PhD theses
Thesis structures, a traditional structure of phd theses.
Introduction ↓ Literature Review/Survey ↓ Methods (Materials/Procedures) ↓ Results ↓ Discussion ↓ Conclusions (Implications/Recommendations) Swales (2004, p. 107)
A complex (article-compilation) structure of PhD theses
Introduction (definitions, justification, aims) ↓ Literature Review (sometimes included in the introduction) ↓ (General Methods) (optional) ↓ IMRD ↓ IMRD ↓ ... IMRD ↓ Conclusions Swales (2004, p. 108)
A topic-based structure of PhD theses
Introduction ↓ (Literature Review) ↓ (Theoretical Framework) ↓ Method ↓ Topic: Analysis-Discussion ↓ Topic: Analysis-Discussion ↓ Topic: Analysis-Discussion ↓ Conclusions Swales (2004, p. 109)
- Paltridge, B. (2002). Thesis and dissertation writing: An examination of published advice and actual practise. English for Specific Purposes, 21(2), 125-143. [Access via LibHub]
- Paltridge, B. (1997). Thesis and dissertation writing: Preparing ESL students for research. English for Specific Purposes, 16(1), 61-70. [Access via LibHub]