- , Revathi Kamath , Women in architecture
- Empowering Women in Architecture: a Study in India
International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN: 2319-7064 Index Copernicus Value (2016): 79.57 | Impact Factor (2017): 7.296 Empowering Women in Architecture: A Study in India
Managing Director and Chief Architect , Ashtitva Studio (OPC) Pvt. Ltd, Bhubaneswar , Odisha , India
Abstract: Council of Architecture, India data of 2018 shows clearly that the growth of number of registered architects is very slow till 2014 since 2003,we have marked a sudden spurt of the same from 2015 till 2017 again a sudden fall in the year 2018 in India. While women graduate from architecture schools at near parity with men, less than 20 percent become licensed practitioners. In the field of architecture women face a lot of gender discrimination in terms of retention, promotion, earnings, access to seniority, leadership opportunities or belief that their contribution has been taken seriously. One of the most peculiar things about architectural practice is the range of non-merit based factors that may determine the successful practice start up and expansion: access to the dominant socio- economic patronage group, access to capital, access to social networks, access to alternative income streams while the practice is being established, the social advantage of the old school tie or family connections, and even more personal factors – like physical attractiveness, charisma and romantic partners. Of course few women have broken this gendered barrier and came out successfully in their business. But in most of the cases enabling and motivational factors are not available. Marxist feminism weds theory to practice and encourages us to rethink the relationship between architecture schools and the larger professional world. By linking individuals to systems, feminism allows us to perceive structural limitations and to envision dissolving barriers.
Keywords: architects, gender discrimination, feminism, empowerment, women
1. Introduction suited to women‘s needs as well as to reduce their drudgery will be given a special focus too (NPFWE:2001)‖. The fast changing face of India is partly due to the brilliant architects in the country. There are so many notable names Women architects represent a technical group but it is not a who have achieved international fame and awards and are homogenous group so also the conditions of women who are working towards a sustainable society. Here is a small in architecture ; they differ widely according to their description of five of the top women architects in India qualification, talents, firms, work engagement and above all whose talents know no boundaries. They are Brinda depending on their networking and capital investment. Somaya an Architect and Conservationist, Sheila is an Women architects are group of entrepreneurs who have internationally acclaimed Architect, Urban Designer, and already selected their carrier for their creative business Sustainability Expert. Chitra Vishwanath‘s Biome .Within the concept of empowerment they have already Environmental Solutions is a Bangalore-based design firm crossed the first step , they have wished and chosen their focused on ecology, architecture and water. Shelia owns her carrier in the path to become an women entrepreneur and architectural firm SKJ Architects in Mumbai with 15 women thus to empower themselves. Next step is the motivational employees in her firm. She has diversified her activities to and enabling aspect which has remained skewed for which cover industrial buildings, educational institutions, they are not able to reach their desired goal. Our following bungalows and interior design of large spaces. Anupama analysis will clearly reveal how empowerment of Indian Kundoo has her focus set on material research and women architects has remained stunted. experimentation towards an architecture that has low environmental impact and is appropriate to the socio- I have conducted this study on the basis of secondary data of economic context(Achoriwala:2018) .Status of these world literature available in various websites, Council of exceptionally brilliant architects can not be generalized Architects (COA), India. Apart from this I have adopted while assessing the status or level of empowerment of participatory observation method, a feminist methodology to women architects in India. collect first hand data. Myself as an architect in the form of experience sharing data were collected from various women For empowerment of women in technological studies, India architects in 2016-17. has adopted special policy and in 2001 it enumerates that, ―Programmes will be strengthened to bring about a greater Table 1: Year Wise Registration of Architects (As on involvement of women in science and technology. These 07.08.2018) will include measures to motivate girls to take up science S.No. Year Number of Architects Percentage and technology for higher education and also ensure that 1 2003 2200 3.36 development projects with scientific and technical inputs 2 2004 2265 3.46 involve women fully. Efforts to develop a scientific temper 3 2005 2311 3.54 4 2006 1943 2.97 and awareness will also be stepped up. Special measures 5 2007 2333 3.56 would be taken for their training in areas where they have 6 2008 2316 3.54 special skills like communication and information 7 2009 3042 4.65 technology. Efforts to develop appropriate technologies 8 2010 4034 6.17 9 2011 3412 5.21 Volume 7 Issue 10, October 2018 www.ijsr.net Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Paper ID: ART20192343 DOI: 10.21275/ART20192343 1562 International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN: 2319-7064 Index Copernicus Value (2016): 79.57 | Impact Factor (2017): 7.296 10 2012 3898 5.96 Source;COA:2018,https://www.coa.gov.in/index1.php?lang 11 2013 4001 6.12 =1&level=1&sublinkid=31&lid=44 12 2014 4251 6.5 13 2015 7001 10.71 As on 07.08.2018, there are a total 65365 i.e. 14 2016 7306 11.17 approximately Sixty five thousand Architects in India. In the 15 2017 9631 14.73 past 15 years the number has increased by forty two 16 2018 5421 8.29 thousand. Total: 65365 Percentage 100
Figure 1 Source;COA:2018,https://www.coa.gov.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=1&sublinkid=31&lid=44
Table No-1 reflects number of registered architects since imbalances, for while women graduate from architecture 2003 to 2018 in India(COA:2018).In the year 2003 they schools at near parity with men, less than 20 percent become were only 2200 which has raised as high as 5421 in 2018.It licensed practitioners( Stratigakos,D:2012)”. In the field of was the highest in 2017 i,e 9631.We have observed many Architecture women face a lot of gender discrimination. ups and down in this number within last one and half decade Burns expressed, ―I have experienced different treatment to in the country. Figure no –1 shows clearly that the growth male colleagues in terms of retention, promotion, earnings, of number of registered architects is very slow till 2014 access to seniority, leadership opportunities or belief that my since 2003,wehave marked a sudden spurt of the same from contribution has been taken seriously. The AJ 2012 survey 2015 till 2017 again a sudden fall in this in the year 2018 in confirmed that nearly 50% of the women surveyed had India. experienced these forms of gendered patterns of behavior‖
2. Ratio of Male and Female Architects in There is a gap between these two points of views, between India belief in individual agency – our capacity to act in the world and control our destiny – and belief in the actions of culture Out of these fifty thousand Architects, 60% (29,712) is male in producing and supporting non-merit based patterns in while 40% (19,751) is female. The number of women workplace treatment. One of the most peculiar things about architects has increased in the past 5 years from 34% to architectural practice is the range of non-merit based factors 40%. that may determine the successful practice start up and expansion: access to the dominant socio-economic patronage An interesting fact is that while 35% of the male architects group, access to capital, access to social networks, access to are self employed, only about 22 % of female architects are alternative income streams while the practice is being self employed (COA: 2013). This could be because the established, the social advantage of the old school tie or general perception about women architects is that they are family connections, and even more personal factors – like better suited to be the draftsmen, designers and so people physical attractiveness, charisma and romantic partners. hesitate to approach a woman architect for architectural Burn commented ―I have seen radically talented architects services. Due to non availability of gender divide data for fail in practice due to psychopathic personality traits even current year; this analysis is based on 2013. while their design practice and design innovation were brilliant‖(Burn:2012). Table 2: Age Groups of Architects as on 1.04.2017 Srl No Age Group Number Of Architects Percentage 1 20-25 5587 10.95 2 26-35 23828 46.70 3 36-45 12151 23.80 4 46-55 5050 09.90 5 56-65 2273 04.45 6 66-75 1471 02.88 7 76-85 589 01.15 8 86-above 49 0.09 Total 50998 (100) An international source says ―the crucial transition from Source:https://www.coa.gov.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=1 school to practice is at the heart of the profession‘s gender &sublinkid=31&lid=44 Volume 7 Issue 10, October 2018 www.ijsr.net Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Paper ID: ART20192343 DOI: 10.21275/ART20192343 1563 International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN: 2319-7064 Index Copernicus Value (2016): 79.57 | Impact Factor (2017): 7.296
Figure 2: Age Groups of Architects
Table no.2 reveals the percentage of young architects could still be practicing at 90! At a roundtable meeting of between the age group of 26 to 35 years are the maximum women architects in America, a woman in her late thirties i.e.; 46.7 percent ,next to it is the hub of middle aged group who works at a mid-sized firm spoke passionately during the constituting 23.8 percent who belong to the age group of Q-and-A about how hard she had struggled to ―make it to 36-45yrs. The youngest architects are between 20-25 years the table,‖ meaning to the project management level, only to of age are constituting 10.95 percent of the total licensed look around and discover she was the only woman there. architects in India. ‗Younger audience members confirmed that they knew that professional survival would depend upon finding mentors The data also shows that the architects have started their and tapping into professional networks, but felt that their carrier at the age of 20,after 35 years their number has solo efforts were largely ineffective‘( STRATIGAKOS,D decreased while going up the ladder of age groups and after DESPINA:2012) 56 of age the graph has shown a total fall ( see fig- 2). At the older age after 56 their number has reduced abruptly, the Table 3: Qualification of Architects reason might be that the architects are not available in this QUALIFICATION No. of Architects Percentage elderly age to take up hard and stressful work. It reflects B.ARCH 41398 83.69 while the architects are getting much experienced they don‘t G.D.ARCH 3919 7.92 get that much work demand from market and society .And MEMBERSHIP OF IIA 1850 3.74 other factor may be responsible for the explanation of this DIP.ARCH 1310 2.64 graph is that at young age they do a lot many work which U/S 25(B) 311 0.62 are heavy and hard in nature. N.D ARCH 219 0.44 OTHERS 456 0.92 TOTAL 49463 (100) But same table also shows surprisingly, there SOURCE:- are 1471Architects in the age group 66-75 and 589 architects https://www.coa.gov.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=1&sublin in 76 -85 age groups and believe it or not there are 49 kid=35&lid=48 Architects older than 85 who are still practicing.
Architecture being a creative field, one can just not fix an age of retirement. So if you have the enthusiasm for it, you
Volume 7 Issue 10, October 2018 www.ijsr.net Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Paper ID: ART20192343 DOI: 10.21275/ART20192343 1564 International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN: 2319-7064 Index Copernicus Value (2016): 79.57 | Impact Factor (2017): 7.296
Figure 3 SOURCE:- https://www.coa.gov.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=1&sublinkid=35&lid=48
Mostly the architects are having qualification of B.Arch (83.69%) degree holder than ground architecture(7.92%) member of IIA(3.74%) the diploma arch (2.64%) u/s25(e) (0.62%) ND Arch(0.44%) and 0.92 are other degree holders.
Table 4: Placement of Women Architects (AS ON 15.04.2017) Sl. Practice No. of Percentage No. Architects 1 Employment in Private Sector 13566 59.02 2 Others 3979 17.31 3 Practicing Independently 3926 17.08 4 Employed 968 4.21 5 Employed in Government Sector 331 1.44 6 Practicing as Partners 166 0.72 7 Teachers 53 0.23 Figure 4: Placement of Women Architects Total (22985) (100) SOURCE: - Table no -4 reflects placement of women architects in India https://www.coa.gov.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=1&sublin .It shows maximum number of women are employed in kid=34&lid=47 private sector i.e.; 59.02 percentage(seeFig-4) .Women architects who are practicing independently in their field constitutes 17.08 percentage and a similar section (17.31 percentage) work on contractual basis as freelancers with contractors etc(see table 1 and table 2). Around 4.1 percentage are employed in other than government sectors and only 1.44 percentage are employed in government sectors .Women who are practicing as partner are less than even 1 percentage which is only 0.72 percentage and only 0.23 percentage women are engaged in teaching job in the field of architecture.
While analysing this data we observe that 59percent of women architects who are employed in private sector do the drafting, 3D visuals, of the design made by other architects Volume 7 Issue 10, October 2018 www.ijsr.net Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Paper ID: ART20192343 DOI: 10.21275/ART20192343 1565 International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN: 2319-7064 Index Copernicus Value (2016): 79.57 | Impact Factor (2017): 7.296 which is in general supposed to be the lowest rank of work Number of Percentage of S.No. State Name in architecture field having minimum earnings.Design works Architects Architects are mostly done by chief architects and are rarely given to 1 Andaman & Nicobar islands 20 0.034 female architects who are mostly not willing to go for site 2 Andhra Pradesh 708 1.21 visits and are more oriented to work inside office and the 3 Arunachal Pradesh 38 0.065 scope of site visits is also not given to them for security 4 Assam 425 0.73 reasons in the plea of women specific vulnerability. 5 Bihar 421 0.72 6 C/o 56 apo 1 0.0017
7 C/o 99 apo 1 0.0017 It reflects clear cut gender discrimination in work allocation 8 Chandigarh 561 0.96 in the field of architecture. Heavy concentration of women 9 Chhattisgarh 507 0.87 architects in private sector also leads to casualisation, 10 Dadra & nagar haveli 14 0.24 marginalization, hiring and firing and misutilisation of cheap 11 Daman & diu 18 0.030 female labor of women architects in this field. ‗We all want 12 Delhi 6198 10.64 to be valued for the quality of the work we do, not framed by 13 Goa 536 0.92 the fact of our gender. But despite our best efforts we are not 14 Gujarat 3112 5.34 always in control of how others see us. Karen Burns reflects 15 Haryana 2156 3.70 on the complex interactions between culture and individual 16 Himachal pradesh 311 0.53 agency‘(KAREN BURNS:May 1st, 2012). 17 Jammu & kashmir 230 0.395 18 Jharkhand 321 0.55 Around 17.31 percentage of women architects are in the 19 Karnataka 4413 7.58 field of ―other‖ which means they are doing personal work 20 Kerala 2742 4.71 with or without payment, this is also a causal treatment of 21 Lakshadweep 3 0.051 women architects in India. Women architect constitute a 22 Madhya pradesh 1471 2.52 major portion 17.08 percentage women in this group get 23 Maharashtra 17286 29.70 24 Manipur 71 0.12 experience and training from renowned firm or degree from 25 Meghalaya 86 0.14 renowned institutes and have established their independent 26 Mizoram 52 0.089 firm .They are mostly located in developed cities of India 27 Nagaland 34 0.058 and generally having strong financial background. This is 28 Odisha 658 1.13 the most empowered group among the female architects who 29 Puducherry 108 0.18 have established their carrier. 30 Punjab 1130 1.94 31 Rajasthan 1320 2.26 Only 4.21 percentage of women architects are employed in 32 Sikkim 54 0.092 other than Government sector, having a good paycheck. In 33 Tamil nadu 4943 8.49 Government sector only 1.4 percentage of women architects 34 Telangana 2306 3.96 are employed who are getting good salary of class one. If 35 Tripura 21 0.36 government could have created more job opportunity the 36 Uttar pradesh 3980 6.83 condition of women architects would have developed. This 37 Uttarakhand 426 0.73 is a challenge on the part of Government of India to create 38 West bengal 1519 2.06 Total 58201 100 more job opportunities to empower women architects of our country. Source:https://www.coa.gov.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=1 &sublinkid=376&lid=330 Women architects who are practicing as partner are very minimum constituting 0.72 percentage in India. Women Table no- 05 shows state wise distribution of architects in architects who are capable enough are taken as partners and India.It shows 58201 number of architects are available in who are relatives or space are also considered as partners different states in India as on 15.04.2017.Maharastra tops the list having 29.7% architects ,next comes Delhi having exempting their capability and are taken as sleeping partners st too. But this is also a promising section where empowered 10.64%,Tamilnadu marks third in the 1 having 8.49% of women architects can become practicing partners except the concentration of architects. Karnataka has 7.58% ,UP, spousal and relative entrepreneur. Here women architects are 6.83% ,Gujarat 5.34%,Kerala 4.71%,Telengana not considered as architects having independent human 3.96%,kera,Haryana 3.70%,2.61% West Bengal and all rights who can also flourish as their male counterparts. other states having less than 2% of architects in the country .Odisha has 1.18% of architects. Table 5: State Wise Architects (As On 15.04.2017)
Volume 7 Issue 10, October 2018 www.ijsr.net Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Paper ID: ART20192343 DOI: 10.21275/ART20192343 1566 International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN: 2319-7064 Index Copernicus Value (2016): 79.57 | Impact Factor (2017): 7.296
Figure 5: State Wise Architects (As on 15.04.2017)
This fig-5 of sate wise distribution of architects reflects two 18 Chandigarh 562 1.60 things. Only in developed and comparatively richer states 19 Vadodara 557 1.58 like: Maharastra, Delhi, Tamilnadu, Karnataka, U.P, Gujarat 20 Surat 547 1.55 have somehow good demand for architects .But all other 21 Kolapur 535 1.52 states are yet to develop an aptitudes for developing the TOTAL 35096 entrepreneurship of architects. SOURCE:- https://www.coa.gov.in/index1.php?lang=1&level=1&sublin Table 6: Cities Having More than 500 Architects (As On kid=32&lid=45 15.04.2017) Cities Having more than 500 Architects (As On 15.04.2017) S. No. City Name Number of Architects Percentage 1 Mumbai 5853 16.67 2 New Delhi 4996 14.23 3 Pune 3742 10.66 4 Bangalore 3176 9.04 5 Chennai 2926 8.33 6 Hyderabad 1838 5.23 7 Nagpur 1236 3.52 8 Thane 1197 3.41 9 Delhi 1161 3.30 10 Kolkata 1136 3.23 11 Gurgaon 951 2.70 12 Lucknow 889 2.53 13 Jaipur 830 2.36 14 Navi Mumbai 822 2.34 15 Nashik 792 2.25 16 Anantnag 759 2.16 17 Ghaziabad 591 1.68 Volume 7 Issue 10, October 2018 www.ijsr.net Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Paper ID: ART20192343 DOI: 10.21275/ART20192343 1567 International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN: 2319-7064 Index Copernicus Value (2016): 79.57 | Impact Factor (2017): 7.296 sector has to respond to their demands to address gender imbalances with various initiatives.
‗Today an increasing number of men insist that many traditional aspects of architectural practice the long hours, expectation of round-the-clock availability, lack of work/life balance, and glorification of the lone creator over collaborative work — are alienating to male as well as female professionals. Many would argue that being employed in architecture and the pursuit of happiness are irreconcilable. It can reasonably be argued that most architects, and almost all recent graduates, are working in conditions that are unhealthy, unsustainable and exploitative‘ (MAYNARD ,A. : 2012).
Of course few women have broken this gendered barrier and came out successfully in their business. But in most of the cases enabling and motivational factors are not available. Opening up of enough placements of women in the job and availability of projects for business of the architects is the need of the time for empowerment of women architect. It is observed that percentage of experienced women architects have reduced in India .Along the ladder of age number of women architects have reduced may be due to non- Figure- 6 availability of patronization and support from government and society. Cities Having More Than 500 Architects (As On 15.04.2017) It will not only develop human resource but will also Table no 6 shows the picture of availability of increase the GNP of the country .Resourceful experiences of architects(more than 500) in Indian cities (see fig no -6). women architects are to be capitalized and utilized for the Mumbai having the highest percentage of architects at growth of the country.Another positive factor is found from 16.67% and KOLAPUR having 1.52% as lowest. Pune, our data that where there is a little more concentration of Bangalore, Chennai comes next to the previous cities women architects; those states have developed a lot like (10.66 to 8.33% ) .Hyderbad Nagpur Thane, Delhi, Kolkata Maharastra etc, it may be otherwisely true that rich states comes third in the rank considering the of architects have afforded to the survival of women architects. For between ( 5.32 to 3.23)%.Gurgaon, Lucknow, Jaipur, Navi empowerment of women architect patronization of Mumbai ,Nasik and Anatanag have the 4th group of Government and corporate sector is needed. Patriarchal architects consisting between (2.70 to2.16%);while society needs to change its outlook to view women architect Gazaiabad, Chandiguard ,Vadadora ,Surat Kolhapur have ( as women only. They should be treated as architects then as 1.68to 1.52% ). gender category .Women are essentially creative ,when this is combined with architecture out comes will excel . For Our observation from the above discussion shows maximum empowerment of women architects security system of the percentage of women architects are engaged in private sector society may be strengthened. i.e; 59% which opens very little scope for the growth of individual women‘s empowerment. Though 17% of women What feminism contributes to the architectural profession are practicing their entrepreneurship independently but 83% I‘d like to explore some neglected issues that contribute to women architects are left behind due to various factors such gender inequities in architecture and to suggest an expanded as non-availability of funds ,work ,projects ,training , definition of feminism in the field. As theorist Karen patronage of government .Patriarchal society does not Burns has noted, women in architecture may wish to be seen appreciate such independent business of women as it first and foremost as architects (not as women architects), demands time and space beyond family hours of home. but they cannot control the gendering gaze of society. Acting Working with male partners is neither well appreciated by or dressing ―like a man‖ — the advice women have received family nor by society. For security reasons also women are for decades as the means to blend into the workplace — only not encouraged for site works which is hazardous , entrenches a masculine norm. Yet difference in itself is not painstaking, and comes under so called male domain . the issue. Indeed, feminism encourages practices that accommodate differences among people and cultures. What is the need of the hour is to offer mentoring and Difference that grades into discrimination, however, is coaching; but while their efforts are to be applauded , drop- something else(Burn,K:2012). A recent survey of some 700 out rate of women during the pivotal early years demands a female architects published in The Architects’ Journal broader and more systematic approach to leadership training. shows that discrimination remains, if not a universal Professional survival would depend upon finding mentors experience, then surprisingly commonplace. From lower pay and tapping into professional networks, but felt that their and fewer promotions to stereotypes about their design solo efforts were largely ineffective. State and Corporate skills, the survey documents how women architects continue Volume 7 Issue 10, October 2018 www.ijsr.net Licensed Under Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Paper ID: ART20192343 DOI: 10.21275/ART20192343 1568 International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR) ISSN: 2319-7064 Index Copernicus Value (2016): 79.57 | Impact Factor (2017): 7.296 to struggle to be accepted as equal players. For example, 47 percent of the female respondents believed they would be paid more if they were male, while 22 percent experienced sexual discrimination at work on a weekly or monthly basis(Revathi Kamath :1955). Whether ―old‖ or ―new,‖ feminism remains an inherently positive approach: it insists not only on the necessity but also on the possibility of change. Marxist feminism weds theory to practice and encourages us to rethink the relationship between architecture schools and the larger professional world. By linking individuals to systems, feminism allows us to perceive structural limitations and to envision dissolving barriers. Both relations of production and modes of production determine the situation of women in architecture field. And Marxist feminism‘s attention to practice — and not just to practitioners — fosters new ways of understanding and experimenting with process.
 Achoriwala,R,2018,Top women architects in India,Realty NXT,file:///C:/Users/user/Desktop/Top%20Women%20 Architects%20In%20India%20_%20RealtyNXT.html)  AnupamaKundoo ,2018https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A nupama_Kundoo  Brinda Somaya,2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brinda_Som aya  Burns ,K ,May1st,2012 Who wants to be a Woman Architect?file:///C:/Users/user/Desktop/Who%20wants %20to%20be%20a%20Woman%20Architect_%20- %20Parlour.html , PARLOUR, Women Equity , Architechture  COA:2018,https://www.coa.gov.in/index1.php?lang=1 &level=1&sublinkid=31&lid=44  COA:2013,Statistics of Architects in India,file:///C:/Users/user/Desktop/Statistics%20Of%20 Architects%20In%20India%20_%20Architecture%20Id eas.html  Kamath , R,2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Revathi_Kamath  Maynard, A, 2012, Work/life/work balance http://archi  NPFWE,2001, National Policy for Empowerment of Women ,pdf reader  Stratigakos ,D,2012,Why Architects Need Feminism, Places JournalAccessed 20Jul2018. https://doi.org/10.22269/120912,file:///C:/Us ers/user/Desktop/Why%20Architects%20Need%20Fem inism.html  Stratigakos,D,2012file:///C:/Users/user/Desktop/Why% 20Architects%20Need%20Feminism.html  Vishwanath, C, 2018,https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chitra_Vishwanath
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International Journal of Research and Innovation in Social Science (IJRISS) | Volume V, Issue VIII, August 2021 | ISSN 2454–6186
A Study on Women Empowerment in India: Challenges and Remedies
P.Gnaneswari 1 , Dr. M. Sravani 2 , 1 Asst. Professor (Ad hoc), Krishna University 2 Asst. Professor, Krishna University.
ABSTRACT Women are the epitome of strength, love, sacrifice and courage. The role of women in today’s world has changed significantly and for better. Earlier they were under the shadow of a husband or a father, but now they have established their own identity and are independent. Education is an important key to success. With the encouragement of co-education, women are now marching side by side with men, in every walk of life. Women are now self-sufficient, well aware and financially independent. They have attained immense success in every field, whether it’s sports, politics or academics. The 21st century has brought a new hope and has empowered women during a positive manner. Empowering women would become more pertinent if women were well informed and educated. The role of women has changed tremendously and that they are able to create a positive impression within the society. From housewives to CEOs, the transition are often seen at an accelerating rate. Modernization and therefore the advent of the latest technology have widened hope and opportunities for them. They have established themselves socially, politically and economically in almost every field. Women are no longer considered unfit or weak for military or for other defense forces. Still the women of India are relatively disempowered and they enjoy somewhat lower status than that of men in spite of many efforts undertaken by government. Now this study attempts to know the problems and challenges faced by women in India.
Keywords: Epitome, empowerment, financially, independent, self- sufficient, modernization, etc.
India is a country having rich cultural heritage. Women who once treated as Devi and Devata and were given much importance gradually lose importance and just restricted to kitchen rooms and mean to take care of children and families. The women were facing a lot of problems because of male dominated, patriarchal society system, practice of old traditional believes, etc. Women were only responsible to the traditional roles like child bearing and child rearing. In the modern times, where women status has been improved a little while, still they’re facing problems. They have to perform both family and professional responsibilities together without the assistance of their husbands. In some cases, the condition of women becomes more embarrassed once they get tortured by their family members instead of getting help. Sexual harassment is more common at homes as well as in the offices by the family members, relatives, neighbors, friends, boss, etc. They have to suffer a lot in their daily life to nourish their career also as saving their family relationships.
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WOMEN' S EMPOWERMENT CENTRE, A 6TH YEAR DESIGN THESIS PROJECT KAWANGWARE KARIUKI CAROLINE WANGUI PROJECT DETAILS
Journal of Architectural Education
This paper examines the relationship between “modern” aesthetics and ethics in the context of Rwandan architecture and urbanism. “Modern” aesthetics are laden with many pressures, especially in Rwanda where global capital and the general desire for an improved life manifest in urban high-rises and rural villages that look like those in developed countries. Local realities challenge the existing understanding of “modern” aesthetics, and ask designers to redefine their roles in an unevenly globalized world. Using Rwandan housing projects as a case study, I investigate the meanings, expectations and possibilities for “modern” aesthetics.
what has Rwanda done to increase the development of rwanda economic wise. look here
The elaboration process of Huye District Development Strategy (DDS) has been guided by the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning (MINECOFIN) in collaboration with the Ministry of Local Government (MINALOC) as the overall coordinating entities; while the District championed the elaboration process by engaging all concerned stakeholders through extensive consultation meetings at all levels. Throughout the process, a participatory approach was used and boosted the exclusivity of the local population in the planning and decision-making process, which gave them a clear understanding and ownership of the proposed interventions that will lead, not only to the District social economic development, but also the overall contribution of the National Strategic ambitions (NST1). As a host of one of the Secondary Cities identified in EDPRS2, Huye District envisions its City to develop as a Green Secondary City with essential focus on agribusiness, manufacturing, cultural tourism and education, reinforced by guidelines provided in the National Roadmap for Green Secondary City Development, a green growth policy document that was developed by the Government of Rwanda in close collaboration with Global Green Growth Institute (GGGI) with focus on Secondary Cities. GGGI further supported in the elaboration of Huye DDS by mainstreaming green growth and green urbanization strategies in this strategic document. With a total area of 581.5 Km2, Huye District is one of the eights Districts comprising the southern province of Rwanda bordering with Nyanza District in the North, Gisagara in the East and South, Nyaruguru in the South West and Nyamagabe in the North West. Huye District is located on the main road between Kigali and the Southern Province towards the Republic of Burundi, being a strategic location for exchange of goods and services. The local economy of Huye District is driven by the agricultural and manufacturing sector, where it produces high amount of various food crops, and possess expertise in tin processing, brick making, carpentry, handcrafting and pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, District economic potentialities are basically the suitability of its lands for crops and livestock production, the historical and cultural tourism industry, abundance of water bodies for water and energy production, the industrial park, the academic research and culture, abundance of forests for manufacturing; all together creating a favorable environment for modern business. Huye District Development Strategy is aligned to the National Strategy for Transformation (NST1), a new national strategic framework that is set to guide the initial phase of the revised country vision 2050 which targets at making the making Rwanda a upper-middle income by 2030 and high-income country by 2050, with $1240 income per capita. By doing so, Huye District will be contributing to the implementation of the sector strategies, as well as national and international commitments.
The Visibility of Research: Proceedings of the 2013 Architectural Research Centers Consortium (ARCC) Spring Research Conference
Brandon R Ro
ABSTRACT: Throughout the global history of architecture, many cultures and religions have built sacred buildings and symbolic monuments under the rubric of ‘temples.’ In many instances, temple spaces have influenced the world’s cultural identity in the spheres of politics, sociology, and religion. The power of architecture lies in its ability to shape human understanding. In other words, human perceptions are often transformed to some degree when people interact with architectural configurations. Yet understanding the impact of the phenomenology of architecture on perception in such encounters is rather difficult to quantify because of the subjectivity of human experience. In the following study, however, survey research is proving to be a viable method for: 1) testing the relevance and public reaction to conceptual models and theories of sacred architecture, 2) providing empirical and quantitative data documenting sacred architecture’s effect on human understanding and perception, and 3) producing an idealized morphology or set of design strategies that can guide architects and religious specialists in the planning phases of new projects. Overall, the study reports data gathered from over a hundred survey respondents from a convenience sampling (n=112) and serves as a preliminary attempt at bringing research into ‘sharper focus’ by surveying the public perception of sacred architecture. KEYWORDS: perception, survey research, sacred space, design process, phenomenology Full abstract can be found at the PDF link on pages 740-741
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8 Initiatives that Empower Women in the Architectural and Urban Fields
- Written by Christele Harrouk
- Published on March 11, 2021
While in a lot of countries around the world, the construction, architecture, engineering, and urban planning sectors, are still reserved for men, initiatives that empower women in these fields are surfacing everywhere around the globe. Playing a huge role in the integration of female power into these disciplines, these movements take on many forms such as organizations, websites, platforms, etc. working with professionals, artisans, and workers.
From providing skills, connecting outstanding females, ensuring exposure, and promoting the works of pioneers, these initiatives have the common purpose of encouraging women to have an impact on their built environment.
In order to learn more about these platforms, ArchDaily has gathered in this article 8 different programs that empower women in the architectural and construction sectors.
400 Forward is an initiative that seeks, inspires, and mentors the next generation of women designers. Named in light of the licensing of the 400th African American woman architect in 2017, the program aims to familiarize young girls with architecture, giving them tools to address social injustice issues. Founded by Tiffany Brown, 400 Forward also provides scholarships and tuitions for study material and licensing exams for African American women in architecture.
Warchée is an organization that has the purpose of integrating women into the construction field. Born from the observation that in a rapidly urbanizing world, particularly in the Middle East, women are still excluded from certain professions, the NGO, founded by Anastasia Elrouss, aims to create an all-inclusive and evolving world. Aiming to have a presence in every country where women in the construction field are marginalized, Warchée, the first organization of its kind in the Middle, provides females with the right tools and skills to be able to find a job in this sector and have an impact on their city.
Architecture in the Periphery
The project Architecture in the Periphery is the result of a master's thesis by architect Carina Guedes. It has been running since 2014, offering technical assistance courses to women in territories with insufficient housing and infrastructure, such as peripheral communities and occupations. The project is structured in workshops that last from four to six months and begin with drawing and sketching classes.
Rebelarchitette has created an interactive public world map showcasing 732 outstanding women architects from all over the world. Released 2 years after the launch of their e-book Architette=Women Architects, the WAW Map is an open, collaborative constantly updated platform. Going beyond the #timefor50 #timeforequality campaign, advocating for equal participation of men and women in the public face of architecture, the new platform encourages collaboration versus competition and richness in diversity.
Pioneering Women of American Architecture
Pioneering Women of American Architecture is a website launched by The Beverly Willis Architecture Foundation, seeking to promote and document important women in architecture. It is the end result of numerous house conducting interviews, collecting research and photo documentation, as well as fact-checking. Since 2012, Beverly Willis and Wanda Bubriski have been working towards bringing to light the complete works of women architects in America.
MMW- Mulher, Mujer, Woman
MMW is an online platform dedicated to architectural representations, whose objective is to spread women's production within our professional field. Created by the Brazilian architects Carol Vasques and Débora Boniatti as a reaction to the still scarce diffusion of female references, the platform seeks to "highlight the importance and relevance of women in the past, present and future of the profession."
HerCity is a platform that involves women in urban development, in order to make better cities for everyone. Turning the tables and putting girls in the expert position , the digital toolbox aims to create more inclusive, equal, and sustainable cities and communities. The initiative makes methods and tools available to urban actors globally, in order to support cities in integrating girls’ participation in their long-term strategies.
Wiki Women Design
The Flanders Architecture Institute has been working to bring “ women who have left their mark on Belgium's design heritage out of the shadows ”, through Wiki Women Design . Using Wikipedia as a platform, the initiative aims to organize edit-a-thons or writing sessions, to make up for this backlog.
Editor's Note: This article was originally published on the 10th of August 2020, and updated on the 11th of March 2021.
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12 Organizations That Are Empowering Women in Architecture and Breaking Stereotypes
- 25th March, 2022
Mahnaz Afkhami , founder and president of women’s learning partnership for right development and peace, stated that “Women’s empowerment is intertwined with respect for human rights”
With International Women’s Day being celebrated every year, women all over the world are rethinking their place in society. The new millennium is all about trying new thoughts, ideas, empathy, and empowerment.
Just like any other profession, Architecture around the 50s was always treated as a male-dominant profession. Even today, the construction industry has an odd figure of imbalance in the ratio of men and women. Although, this decade has seen a major uprising in the construction industry as a new stream of empowered women are hustling and are getting inequity with the men in the building industry. Women have penetrated successfully in the architectural profession and are breaking varied stereotypes through their expression of design thinking and art execution.
The stalwart designers like Zaha Hadid have amused the entire era with her timeless designs that have provoked ravishing results in the construction industry. Thinking beyond the 360 degrees, her structures have brought in a new uproar of parametric design which is said to be her core idea. Fusing the fluidity of art in a robust system like the construction industry, feminist architects like Zaha Hadid have exemplified women empowerment and have left the world awestruck. Other female designers like Jeanne Gang, Kazuyo Sejima, Shelly McNamara, Yvonne Farrell, and many more have been a part of successful design stories and have climbed equally with the ‘men in the construction industry’.
Although we are focused on the star architects, let’s turn back to developing and underdeveloped countries where this gender imbalance is still evident, crystal clear. These stalwart women have started uproar of breaking the stereotype but we still have got a long way to go.
To make sure that gender equality and empowerment are a global phenomenon, several organizations have been operating to ensure it. Here is the list of 12 organizations that work for empowering the ‘Women in architecture’:
Let’s have a look at organization who empowers the “Woman in Architecture”
It is a non-profit organization that is focused on Gender Equality in the architectural and construction sector. They ensure it by looking into at the right from the educational to the professional perspective. An important aspect would be that it is focused on all women-identified, non-binary, gender non-conforming, etc. that encourages women from different strata and mindsets to communalize and build together.
The founder and Nina Freedman are both successful advocates of women empowerment. They aspire to have an open dialogue within the organization that allows change initiation and growth amongst the community as a whole out their official website to know more: ARCHITEXX
02. Warch(ee) Design:
Warch(ee) is a Beirut-based organization, also it is a platform that helps both, women and men to establish themselves in the construction industry. It also envisions in providing opportunities globally. Anastasia Elrouss , the founder, aims to create an all-inclusive world. Within the construction field, she has the vision to include women’s inclusivity in site construction and the site world as well rather than just having the generic desk jobs. aims to create an all-inclusive world. Within the construction field, she has the vision to include women’s inclusivity in site construction and the site world as well rather than just having the generic desk jobs.
The organization also aims in providing traditional jobs in the construction field and also, it establishes partnerships and collaborations with different collaterals. Its core intention is to induce self-sufficiency and self-worth amongst a global audience. Check out their official website here: Warch(ee)`
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03. women in design (denver):.
Being the only women’s organization in Denver, ‘Women in Design’ is for the women in the construction industry. The organization was founded in 2005 by Martha Bennett, Cheryl Bicknell, and Peggy Kinsey who have a common goal to have a self-supporting community including female professionals through varied social as well as community service. Even the professional activities are vision by them to be run by women solely..
Women in design Denver drew around 50 women from varied strata of engineering, architecture, and interior design in their first public gathering. Now they have reached the mark of 500 women that come from diverse parts of the society with intriguing experiences. Know more by checking out their official website: Women in Design (Denver)
04. Built by Women:
The organization Built by women, aims to celebrate women’s contribution in the field of the built environment. It is curated and created by Willis Architecture Foundation. It provides an insight into some of the strongest feminist architect role models for aspiring architects to take inspiration from. role models for aspiring architects to take inspiration from.
Also, it comes up with an entire stretch across Los Angeles that showcased buildings designed or built by women architects. Their core goal remains to increase the impact of women in architecture and construction industry through a conscious approach. Check out their official website to know more: Built by Women
05. Association for Women in Architecture and Design:
Founded in 1990, Association for Women in Architecture and Design is the oldest organization that is focused on empowering women in the architecture and construction industry. It was founded at a time when women needed to help and support each other in the fields of construction and design.
The core intention was to provide educational programming, mentorship, and career opportunities for women in the field. Check out their official website to know more about them: Association for Women in Architecture and Design
06. Organization of Women Architects:
The Organization of Women Architect or OWA was founded in 1972 by only twelve women from California. Eventually, the network resource and support group has now grown to over 300 members from varied disciplines like interior design, planners, landscape architects, artists, lighting designers, photographers, etc. The organization is run by volunteers and staff members who are committed to the goal of empowering women in the fields of architecture. Students, as well as volunteers, are also welcome to join the organization. Check out their official website to know more: Organization of Women Architects
07. Pioneering Women of American Architecture:
Supported by Willis Architecture Foundations, the Pioneering Women of American Architecture is a collective team of fifty women who have made a substantial contribution to the skyline of American Architecture. Being an old foundation, it intends to honor all the women who were a part of making a breakthrough in the early years to inspire an entire generation of women architects. Check out their official website to know more: Pioneering Women of American Architecture
It is a research-based organization that intends to promote gender equality in architecture as well as advocacy programs. It also intends to empower women to generate healthy debate and discussion while strengthening networks and communities in the Australian architectural domain. They envision celebrating women in the profession by providing them equal opportunity. ‘ Equity and Diversity in the Australian Architecture Profession: Women, Work and Leadership’ was a research project that was funded by the council. The research was headed by the stalwarts Naomi Stead with Justine Clark, Karen Burns, Amanda Roan , and several others. Check out their official website to know more: Parlor
09. Chicago Women in Architecture:
The organization’s core intention involves supporting and joining together to fight the stereotypical thought process against women in architecture. Founded by 8 Women, the organization intends to address lack of recognition, access to public projects, pay equity, sensitivity towards gender differences, etc. The organization has seen a major uproar since 1974 . Being a non-profit, volunteer-led organization the Chicago Women in Architecture visions to support young and rising women throughout their career paths. Check out their official website to know more: Chicago Women in Architecture
10. Women in Architecture:
It is a sub-organization of the American Institute of Architects or AIA which is exclusively dedicated to empowering women. It plays an essential role in maintaining as well as protecting the increasing number of Women in Architecture and their principles. and their principles.
Their mission is to increase the visibility of women in the industry of design as well as construction. One of their intentions is to allow opportunities and exposure to women in architecture to give them access to achieve their fullest potential through varied interactive activities. Check out their official website to know more: Women in Architecture .
Regardless of gender, there are some things that all architects have in common, check this article to read more: 7 Myths vs. Truths of an Architect’s Life!
11. 400 Forward:
It intends to uplift women and give them the tools that they might need to access the issues created by an unjust built environment in the inner-city communities. They intend to provide support to the next 400 women architects with a core focus on the African American girls through mentorship, financial assistance, and exposure.
They provide several scholarships, services, study materials, licensing exams for African American women in architecture. Check out their official website to know more: Atlas of the Future .
12. MMW- Mulher, Mujer, Woman:
It is an online platform which is dedicated to architectural representations to spread women-produced works in the professional fields. Carol Vasques and Debora Bonatti, two Brazilian Architects were the eye behind creating this platform for emerging design thinkers.
Check out their official website to know more: MMW- Mulher, Mujer, Woman
The new age has seen the rise of empowered women in architecture who are headstrong towards their ideas, visions and creativity. Through these organizations, equal opportunities, equal pay and equal exposure are increasing day by day. But the true women empowerment would only be then when we won’t require any NGO or organization to make sure that Women are empowered!
Apart from these organizations, there are some benefits that government of India gives to women, Read more here:
Good News for Women Home buyers in Mumbai and Pune!
Hope you like reading this article and you may also like to read our other articles written on Architecture practice:
15 Reasons to Hire an Architect to Build your Dream Home
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Saili Sawantt – She is an Architect and Interior Designer by profession. Writing is what she treats as her passion. She has worked as an Architectural Writer, Editor, and Journalist for various design as well as digital portals, both national and international. Formerly she has also worked with Godrej Properties Limited (GPL) Design Studio, Mumbai, due to her keen interested in learning about Sustainability and Green buildings. Apart from this, she runs her blog ‘The Reader’s Express’ and is a practicing Architect & Interior Designer.
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