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The Appendix (How to Use One in an Essay)
- 2-minute read
- 30th March 2017
The appendices in an essay are not typically essential, but they can play an important supporting role. Not everyone knows how to use an appendix in academic writing , though, so we’ve prepared this handy guide.
What Is an Appendix?
An appendix (plural: appendices ) is a section at the end of a book or essay containing details that aren’t essential to your work, but which could provide useful context or background material.
In the main body of your essay, you should indicate when you’re referring to an appendix by citing it in parentheses. For example:
The interviews show that most people like ice cream (see Appendix C).
What Should Go in the Appendices?
Appendices can include many things depending on your topic. Common examples of information added to an appendix include:
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- Raw data from tests
- Technical figures, graphs or tables
- Maps, charts or images
- Letters or emails used in research
- Sample questionnaires or surveys
- Full interview transcripts
What these have in common is that you might need to refer to them in an essay without going into too much detail. For example, you might summarise the results of a test in the ‘Results’ section of a dissertation, then include the full data in appendices to ensure clarity.
How to Format Appendices
Exactly how to format appendices can vary between universities, so you should always check your style guide. Generally, though, appendices should:
- Appear at the end of your document, often after the reference list
- Be divided into sections depending on topic (e.g. separate sections for questionnaire results and interview transcripts)
- Have each appendix section start on a new page
- Be labelled with a letter or number, along with a title clarifying content (Appendix A: Instrument Diagrams, Appendix B: Test Results, etc.)
- Appear in the table of contents at the beginning of your document
Are Appendices Included in the Word Count?
Appendices are not usually included in the word count for an essay. Consequently, you can focus on key information in your work and place extra data in an appendix without worrying about the word count.
However, you should always check your style guide on this. And remember that if you rely on something in your main essay, it needs to be included there: you can’t just shuffle it into the appendices to reduce the word count !
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Easy Guide on How to Write an Appendix in 2023
Understanding What Is an Appendix
Many students ask, 'What is an appendix in writing?'. Essentially, an appendix is a compilation of the references cited in an academic paper, prevalent in academic journals, which can be found in any academic publication, including books. Professors frequently require their students to include an appendix in their work.
Incorporating an appendix in your written piece can aid readers in comprehending the information presented. It is important to note that different professors may have varying guidelines on how to write an appendix. To learn more about how to write an appendix for a research paper according to APA, Chicago, and MLA styles, check out the following paragraphs prepared by our PRO nursing essay writing service !
Meanwhile, note that an appendix comprises all the information utilized in a paper, including references and statistics from several authors and sources (the number varies according to the type of academic paper). The purpose of the appendix is to prevent vague or irrelevant information and improve the reader's understanding of the paper.
The Purpose of an Appendix
To understand what an appendix tries to accomplish and how to write an appendix example, after all, we must first answer the key question, 'What is the purpose of an appendix?'. In short, an appendix is crucial for further explaining complex information that may be difficult to fully convey within the main text of an essay. It is intended to offer readers additional information about the topic addressed in the paper.
The material presented in an appendix has the potential to bolster the argument and sway the reader's opinion. Nonetheless, you should try to incorporate supporting material and examples toward the end of the paper to avoid disrupting the flow of the main text. Furthermore, the likelihood of including an appendix increases as a paper becomes more advanced. The use of an appendix is especially prevalent in the academic writing of a research document and journal-style scientific paper, in which extra information is usually needed to support a main point of view.
How to Structure an Appendix
While there are variations between formats, each one follows a basic structure. Thus, understanding the general structure is an essential first step in learning about this topic. No matter if you're tasked with 'how to write an appendix MLA or APA style?' - remember that both adhere to this structure, despite their differences:
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Every Appendix Should Contain:
- A clear title: The title of the appendix should be concise and descriptive, clearly indicating what information is contained within it. For example, 'Appendix A: Data Tables for Study Results or 'Appendix B: Images of Experimental Setup.'
- A list of contents: Including a table of contents in the appendix can be helpful for readers to navigate the information provided. For example:
Table of Contents:
A. Data Tables for Study Results
B. Images of Experimental Setup
C. Survey Questions and Responses
D. Sample Interview Transcripts
- Page numbers: The appendix should be a separate page, independently numbered from the main body of the paper, and specified uniformly (e.g., 'Appendix A,' 'Appendix B,' etc.). For example:
Page 1 of 5
- Relevant information: The appendix should contain all the relevant information supporting the main arguments of the document, including tables of data, raw statistical data, charts, or other documents. For example:
Figure 1: Experimental Results
[insert graph or chart here]
- Proper formatting: The appendix should be formatted in accordance with the specific requirements of the chosen citation style (e.g., APA, MLA, Chicago). For example:
Appendix B: Survey Questions and Responses
[insert survey questions and responses here, formatted following APA style guidelines]
- Clear labeling: Each element should have a clear appendix label so readers can easily understand its relevance to the paper. For example:
Table 1: Demographic Characteristics of Survey Respondents
- Concise explanation: It is important to provide short detailed descriptions of each element in the Appendix so that readers can understand its importance. For example:
Appendix C: Sample Interview Transcripts
Transcripts of the three interviews with the study participants shall be included for reference. These interviews provide further insights into the experiences of participants and their views on the subject addressed in this document.
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General Appendix Format
To ensure proper formatting, it is important to understand the basics of how to structure an appendix. Although it may seem overwhelming, the basic format is relatively easy to comprehend and serves as a foundation for understanding the APA and MLA formats. Additionally, mastering the basic format can be helpful when writing an appendix for a book or dissertation.
- Heading “Appendix #” . Contains a number or letter, that could be 1 or A.
- Reference List.
- Index Table followed a list of appendices.
- Page Number.
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How to Write an Appendix in Different Styles
There are two distinct styles for creating an appendix, and it's important to familiarize yourself with both since a professor may request one or the other. Our expert writers have compiled guidelines and rules for both formats - the Appendix APA format and the Appendix MLA format. Although they share some similarities, they also have unique features and regulations that must be strictly followed.
Many professors require students to write an appendix in a paper of this format. To master how to write an appendix APA format and get the structure correct, it's a good idea to follow these guidelines and rules:
The guidelines for Appendix APA:
- The appendix begins with the heading 'Appendix' followed by ABC.
- It should also be written on top of the appendix title.
- Every appendix follows the order of the stated information in the paper.
- Include the appendix after the reference list.
- Include page numbers for each appendix.
- Appendices are to have their own page, regardless of the size.
- Include Footnotes.
The general rules for Appendix APA are to be followed when writing. This is what professors look for when a paper is required when apprentices are to be written in this format. Learn the general rules to master how to write an appendix APA style and get you onto the right path to success. You may find it useful to memorize this information or keep a note of it.
Rules for APA:
- All appendices should include their own point.
- Include a title for each appendix.
- For multiple appendices, use ABC for tilting them.
- For reference within the body, include (see appendix a) after the text.
- The title should be centered.
- All appendices are to have their own page, regardless of the size.
- Paragraph One should be written without indents.
- The rest of the paragraphs should have the intended formatting.
- Include double spacing.
Whether you're tackling how to write an interview paper in APA appendix or any other type of academic work, the following example can serve as a valuable blueprint to guide you through the process.
Appendix Chicago Style
Writing an appendix Chicago style is rather similar to APA. Though, there are some minor differences. Take a look at these guidelines for this form of an appendix.
Guidelines for an Appendix Chicago Style
- More than one appendix is described as appendices.
- The font required for the appendix Chicago style is Times New Roman.
- The text size should be 12 points.
- The page numbers should be displayed on the top right of each page.
- The page numbers should also be labeled as 'Page 1,2,3'.
- Avoid including a page number on the front cover.
- The bibliography should be the final new page. It should not share a page with any other content.
- It is possible to include footnotes in the bibliography.
To better comprehend how to write an appendix in Chicago style, glance through the example below:
Appendix MLA Format
The guidelines and regulations for creating an appendix in MLA format are largely similar to those in APA format. However, there are some differences between the two, the most notable being that the MLA appendix is placed before the reference list.
The guidelines for MLA Format:
- The appendix is included before the list of references.
It may be useful to follow the example of an appendix to better understand how to write an appendix in MLA style. Doing so can increase the chances of getting a grasp of the MLA rules to fulfill the requirements of your professor on your academic paper.
Rules for MLA
- The title is to be centered.
- The list should be double-spaced.
- The first line should include each reference in the left margin. Every subsequent line is to be formatted so it's invented. This can be referred to as 'hanging indent' to make things easier.
- The reference list must be in alphabetical order. This can be done with the first letter of the title of the reference. Though, this is usually done if the writer is unknown. If the writer is known, you can also use the first letter of the surname.
- If you include the name of the known writer, use this order. SURNAME, FIRST NAME, YEAR.
- Italic fonts are required for the titles of complete writings, internet sites, books, and recordings.
- It is important not to use an italic font on reference titles that only refer to the part of a source. This includes poetry, short papers, tabloids, sections of a PDF, and scholarly entries.
Before we conclude, let's dive deeper into the world of appendix writing by exploring an example of how to write an appendix MLA style.
Let's wrap this up! It's safe to say that following the APA, Chicago, and MLA formats is crucial when crafting an appendix. As we've seen, starting with an APA appendix example can help ease you in mastering how to write an appendix of paper. Once you have a handle on the precise formats and guidelines, creating an appendix becomes a piece of cake. Also, memorizing the format can help you whip up accurate appendices for any type of paper, whether an essay or a dissertation. Trust us, mastering this topic is a must if you want to excel in knowing how to write an appendix in a report or any other academic work.
Moreover, if you ever find yourself in need of additional academic assistance, be sure to check out our resources on how to write an article review . Or, better yet, why not let us handle your most challenging tasks with ease by simply sending us a ' write my paper request? We are here to support you every step of the way.
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An appendix contains supplementary material that is not an essential part of the text itself but which may be helpful in providing a more comprehensive understanding of the research problem or it is information that is too cumbersome to be included in the body of the paper. A separate appendix should be used for each distinct topic or set of data and always have a title descriptive of its contents.
Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.
Appendices are always supplementary to the research paper. As such, your study must be able to stand alone without the appendices, and the paper must contain all information including tables, diagrams, and results necessary to understand the research problem. The key point to remember when including an appendix or appendices is that the information is non-essential; if it were removed, the reader would still be able to comprehend the significance, validity , and implications of your research.
It is appropriate to include appendices for the following reasons:
- Including this material in the body of the paper that would render it poorly structured or interrupt the narrative flow;
- Information is too lengthy and detailed to be easily summarized in the body of the paper;
- Inclusion of helpful, supporting, or useful material would otherwise distract the reader from the main content of the paper;
- Provides relevant information or data that is more easily understood or analyzed in a self-contained section of the paper;
- Can be used when there are constraints placed on the length of your paper; and,
- Provides a place to further demonstrate your understanding of the research problem by giving additional details about a new or innovative method, technical details, or design protocols.
Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University.
Structure and Writing Style
I. General Points to Consider
When considering whether to include content in an appendix, keep in mind the following:
- It is usually good practice to include your raw data in an appendix, laying it out in a clear format so the reader can re-check your results. Another option if you have a large amount of raw data is to consider placing it online [e.g., on a Google drive] and note that this is the appendix to your research paper.
- Any tables and figures included in the appendix should be numbered as a separate sequence from the main paper . Remember that appendices contain non-essential information that, if removed, would not diminish a reader's ability to understand the research problem being investigated. This is why non-textual elements should not carry over the sequential numbering of non-textual elements in the body of your paper.
- If you have more than three appendices, consider listing them on a separate page in the table of contents . This will help the reader know what information is included in the appendices. Note that some works list appendices in the table of contents before the first chapter while other styles list the appendices after the conclusion but before your references. Consult with your professor to confirm if there is a preferred approach.
- The appendix can be a good place to put maps, photographs, diagrams, and other images , if you feel that it will help the reader to understand the content of your paper, while keeping in mind the study should be understood without them.
- An appendix should be streamlined and not loaded with a lot information . If you have a very long and complex appendix, it is a good idea to break it down into separate appendices, allowing the reader to find relevant information quickly as the information is covered in the body of the paper.
Never include an appendix that isn’t referred to in the text . All appendices should be summarized in your paper where it is relevant to the content. Appendices should also be arranged sequentially by the order they were first referenced in the text [i.e., Appendix 1 should not refer to text on page eight of your paper and Appendix 2 relate to text on page six].
There are very few rules regarding what type of material can be included in an appendix, but here are some common examples:
- Correspondence -- if your research included collaborations with others or outreach to others, then correspondence in the form of letters, memorandums, or copies of emails from those you interacted with could be included.
- Interview Transcripts -- in qualitative research, interviewing respondents is often used to gather information. The full transcript from an interview is important so the reader can read the entire dialog between researcher and respondent. The interview protocol [list of questions] should also be included.
- Non-textual elements -- as noted above, if there are a lot of non-textual items, such as, figures, tables, maps, charts, photographs, drawings, or graphs, think about highlighting examples in the text of the paper but include the remainder in an appendix.
- Questionnaires or surveys -- this is a common form of data gathering. Always include the survey instrument or questionnaires in an appendix so the reader understands not only the questions asked but the sequence in which they were asked. Include all variations of the instruments as well if different items were sent to different groups [e.g., those given to teachers and those given to administrators] .
- Raw statistical data – this can include any numerical data that is too lengthy to include in charts or tables in its entirety within the text. This is important because the entire source of data should be included even if you are referring to only certain parts of a chart or table in the text of your paper.
- Research instruments -- if you used a camera, or a recorder, or some other device to gather information and it is important for the reader to understand how, when, and/or where that device was used.
- Sample calculations – this can include quantitative research formulas or detailed descriptions of how calculations were used to determine relationships and significance.
NOTE: Appendices should not be a dumping ground for information. Do not include vague or irrelevant information in an appendix; this additional information will not help the reader’s overall understanding and interpretation of your research and may only distract the reader from understanding the significance of your overall study.
ANOTHER NOTE : Appendices are intended to provide supplementary information that you have gathered or created; it is not intended to replicate or provide a copy of the work of others. For example, if you need to contrast the techniques of analysis used by other authors with your own method of analysis, summarize that information, and cite to the original work. In this case, a citation to the original work is sufficient enough to lead the reader to where you got the information. You do not need to provide a copy of this in an appendix.
Here are some general guideline on how to format appendices . If needed, consult the writing style guide [e.g., APA, MLS, Chicago] your professor wants you to use for more detail:
- Appendices may precede or follow your list of references.
- Each appendix begins on a new page.
- The order they are presented is dictated by the order they are mentioned in the text of your research paper.
- The heading should be "Appendix," followed by a letter or number [e.g., "Appendix A" or "Appendix 1"], centered and written in bold type.
- If there is a table of contents, the appendices must be listed.
- The page number(s) of the appendix/appendices will continue on with the numbering from the last page of the text.
Appendices. The Structure, Format, Content, and Style of a Journal-Style Scientific Paper. Department of Biology. Bates College; Appendices. Academic Skills Office, University of New England; Appendices. Writing Center, Walden University; Chapter 12, "Use of Appendices." In Guide to Effective Grant Writing: How to Write a Successful NIH Grant . Otto O. Yang. (New York: Kluwer Academic, 2005), pp. 55-57 ; Tables, Appendices, Footnotes and Endnotes. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Lunsford, Andrea A. and Robert Connors. The St. Martin's Handbook . New York: St. Martin's Press, 1989; What To Know About The Purpose And Format Of A Research Paper Appendix. LoyolaCollegeCulion.com.
Consider Putting Your Appendices Online
Appendices are useful because they provide the reader with information that supports your study without breaking up the narrative or distracting from the main purpose of your paper. If you have a lot of raw data or information that is difficult to present in textual form, consider uploading it to an online site. This prevents your paper from having a large and unwieldy set of appendices and it supports a growing movement within academe to make data more freely available for re-analysis. If you do create an online portal to your data, note it prominently in your paper with the correct URL and access procedures if it is a secured site.
Piwowar, Heather A., Roger S. Day, and Douglas B. Fridsma. “Sharing Detailed Research Data Is Associated with Increased Citation Rate.” PloS ONE (March 21, 2007); Wicherts, Jelte M., Marjan Bakker, and Dylan Molenaar. “Willingness to Share Research Data Is Related to the Strength of the Evidence and the Quality of Reporting of Statistical Results.” PLoS ONE (November 2, 2011).
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How to Use an Appendix
Last Updated: September 28, 2022 Fact Checked
This article was co-authored by wikiHow staff writer, Danielle Blinka, MA, MPA . Danielle Blinka is a Writer, Editor, Podcaster, Improv Performer, and Artist currently living in Houston, TX. She also has experience teaching English and writing to others. Danielle holds a Bachelor of Arts in English, Bachelor of Arts in Political Science, Master of Arts in English with a concentration in writing, and Master of Public Administration from Lamar University. This article has been fact-checked, ensuring the accuracy of any cited facts and confirming the authority of its sources. This article has been viewed 63,808 times. Learn more...
You’ve probably seen an appendix (or appendices) at the end of an academic paper. However, you might be unsure of how to include them in your own work. When you’re writing an academic paper, you can use an appendix to add important information that doesn’t fit into your paper. You might include your research materials, raw data, or detailed information that’s good to know but not necessary for readers to understand.
Deciding When to Use an Appendix
- Surveys or questionnaires you used in your research
- Copies of letters or emails
- Transcripts from interviews
- Important words that need to be defined
- Further description of the testing methods or process for choosing a particular testing method
- A detailed description of the materials or testing equipment you used
- Interesting details that might interest the reader but aren’t necessary to understand your conclusions
- Additional background about your topic
- For instance, you might include your raw data in 1 appendix and your mathematical proofs in a separate appendix.
- For example, let’s say you conducted an environmental study. You might include a map of the area you studied.
- Similarly, you might include a photo of your lab setup for a chemistry experiment.
- For instance, let’s say you want to create appendices for a questionnaire, emails you exchanged with an expert on your topic, and raw data from an experiment you did. You’d need 3 separate appendices.
- For instance, Appendix A might be on pg. 23, Appendix B may be on pg. 25, and Appendix C could be on pg. 26.
- If you have 3 or fewer short appendices, you may decide to include them on the same page. However, it’s easier for readers to scan them if they’re on separate pages.
- You don’t need to describe what’s included in the appendix in the title.
Variation: You can use numbers if you prefer. You might choose to label multiple appendices “Appendix 1,” “Appendix 2,” Appendix 3,” and so on.  X Research source
- For instance, you might have an “Appendix A,” Appendix B,” and Appendix C” at the end of your paper. Similarly, you could write, “Appendix 1,” Appendix 2,” and “Appendix 3.”
- For instance, you might start over with “Appendix Table 1” or “Appendix Figure A.”
- If a particular table or graph is necessary for your reader to understand your conclusions, include in your paper rather than an appendix.
Inserting Appendices into Your Paper
- For instance, when discussing survey results, you might include this text: “See Appendix A for a copy of the survey.”
- For example, let’s say you have an appendix for a survey, an appendix for your raw data, and an appendix for an interview transcript. If you reference the interview first, followed by the survey and data, you’d put the appendices in that order.
- Check the instructions from your instructor or the journal where you’re submitting to see if they have specific rules about where the appendices should be placed.
- For instance, if your paper ended on page 22, your first appendix would be page 23.
- You don't need a table of contents to have appendices.
- You can typically use an appendix for information or materials that mess up your paper structure. For instance, putting a copy of a survey in your paper would likely throw off the format of the paper.  X Research source
- If information is essential for your reader to know, include it in the body of your paper instead of an appendix.  X Research source
- Don’t include your appendices in your word count.
- ↑ https://www.une.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0008/392156/WE_Appendices.pdf
- ↑ https://libguides.usc.edu/writingguide/appendices
- ↑ https://library.sacredheart.edu/c.php?g=29803&p=185936
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/subject_specific_writing/writing_in_the_social_sciences/writing_in_psychology_experimental_report_writing/tables_appendices_footnotes_and_endnotes.html
- ↑ https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/footnotes_appendices.html
- ↑ https://www.unlv.edu/sites/default/files/page_files/3/13_AppendixFormat.pdf
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Citations - APA: Formatting - Essay, Reference List, Appendix, & Sample Paper
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- Government Documents
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APA Sample Paper Template
- APA Sample Paper Template
The APA Sample Paper Template may be used to set up your assignment. The template includes:
- a title page;
- a sample assignment page;
- and a references list in APA format.
If your instructor requires you to use APA style headings and sub-headings, this document will show you how they work.
- APA Headings This sample demonstrates and describes how to use different levels of headings in APA format.
If you are adding an appendix to your paper there are a few rules to follow that comply with APA guidelines:
- The Appendix appears after the References list
- If you have more than one appendix you would name the first appendix Appendix A, the second Appendix B, etc.
- The appendices should appear in the order that the information is mentioned in your essay
- Each appendix begins on a new page
- APA Sample Paper Template - with Appendix (Seneca example)
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Quick Rules for an APA Reference List
Your research paper ends with a list of all the sources cited in the text of the paper. Here are nine quick rules for this Reference list.
- Start a new page for your Reference list. Centre the title, References, at the top of the page.
- Double-space the list.
- Start the first line of each reference at the left margin; indent each subsequent line five spaces (a hanging indent).
- Put your list in alphabetical order. Alphabetize the list by the first word in the reference. In most cases, the first word will be the author’s last name. Where the author is unknown, alphabetize by the first word in the title, ignoring the words a, an, the.
- For each author, give the last name followed by a comma and the first (and middle, if listed) initials followed by periods.
- Italicize the titles of works: books, audiovisual material, internet documents and newspapers, and the title and volume number of journals and magazines.
- Do not italicize titles of parts of works, such as: articles from newspapers, magazines, or journals / essays, poems, short stories or chapter titles from a book / chapters or sections of an Internet document.
- In titles of non-periodicals (books, videotapes, websites, reports, poems, essays, chapters, etc), capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, and all proper nouns (names of people, places, organizations, nationalities).
- If more than one place of publication is listed give the publisher's home office. If the home office is not given or known then choose the first location listed.
APA End of Paper Checklist
- End of Paper Checklist
Finished your assignment? Use this checklist to be sure you haven't missed any information needed for APA style.
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How do I do an APPENDIX in APA style?
How do I create an APPENDIX in APA style?
What is an appendix?
- A section at the end of a paper that includes information that is too detailed for the text of the paper itself and would "burden the reader" or be "distracting," or "inappropriate" (APA, 2019, p. 41-42).
- lengthy lists (short lists belong in the paper itself)
- detailed descriptions (essential details should be in the paper itself)
- instructions to participants; tests, scales, inventories
- demographic details for subpopulations studied by the paper
Where does the Appendix appear in the paper?
- text of paper
- references list
How to format an appendix:
- You may have more than one appendix (aka appendices)
- Each appendix should deal with a separate topic
- In addition to the limitations of email, Cummings et al. (2002) reviewed studies that focused on international bank employees and college students (see Appendix B for demographic information).
- The first appendix referred to in the paper would be named Appendix A
- The second appendix referred to in the paper would be named Appendix B
- If you have more than 26 appendices, start the alphabet over with AA, BB, CC, and so on.
- If there is only one appendix, it is just called Appendix
- Each appendix must also have a title
- Begin each appendix on a separate page with page number
- Place the label and title of each appendix at the top of the page, centered, bold, using normal capitalization. Label first, title second.
- The first paragraph is flush left and not indented.
- The second and following paragraphs are indented as "normal" paragraphs are.
- All paragraphs are double spaced.
- Exception to the tables/figures numbering rule: add the letter of the appendix (A, B, C, etc.) to the figure or table number (e.g., Table B3 would be the third table in Appendix B).
- If your appendices use information from an outside source, cite it parenthetically within the text of the appendix and include the reference in the main references list for the paper (do not create a separate references list).
A sample appendix is below.
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- Not only did this answer my question, it answered several questions I hadn't even considered yet. Excellent resource! by Magnus on Nov 23, 2016
- Great resource to use, very helpful info. Thank you for the visual example. by Anonymous on Dec 15, 2016
- Extraordinarily helpful by Ashna on Feb 27, 2017
- This information was very helpful! The instructions and example provided clarity. by Student on Mar 06, 2017
- What about page numbering? Is it continuous or does it restart at the beginning of the appendix section or does each appendix have its own page numbering (e.g. A1, A2, B1, B2...)? Sara, Librarian Answer: Page numbering is continuous, it does not restart at the appendix section. by Brent on Apr 21, 2017
- Does APA style require a whole section page for appendices? As in, a page with APPENDIX (or APPENDICES) written in the middle of the page before the actual appendices themselves? Sara, Librarian Answer: No. A page like that is unnecessary. by Sara on Apr 28, 2017
- When I have an assignment limiting to a particular number of pages (lets say 6 pages), do the appendix pages count as one of those six pages? Sara, Librarian Answer: Typically the appendix pages do not count as part of the paper. However, we suggest that you check with your instructor to make sure that's their expectation. by Katie on May 03, 2017
- Hello If I add tables or/and figures to my appendix. Do I have to make a new page for every new table/figure or am I allowed to just leave a line and then begin with the new table/figure? Sara, Librarian Answer: You can have as many figures and/or tables in one single appendix as makes sense. Each figure/table should still be formatted in APA and include a caption. by Kerstin on May 09, 2017
- If I have multiple pages to a report that I'd like to include in one appendix (they are all part of the same report), do I continue to title each page Appendix A? Sara, Librarian Reply: No. You only need to title the first page of each different appendix. by Allison on Jun 06, 2017
- Thank you for this exceedingly abundantly helpful resource. Janie Richter by Jane Richter on Jun 23, 2017
- How are appendices displayed in the ToC? Since the title is on a separate line my template is only showing "Appendix" but I'm wondering if it should show "Appendix - Title." Sara, Librarian Reply: Hi Brad, different colleges and universities, departments and individual instructors have their own preferences for the format of the title page, table of contents, and other items that are particular to academic papers, so the APA manual doesn’t cover these formats. Since your instructor is responsible for the curriculum and grading rubrics, check with them to find out how they would like your appendix titles to appear in the table of contents. by Brad on Jul 29, 2017
- I'm required to transcript an interview and add it to my paper. My first question is, do I add this interview as an appendix? If so, how do I do this considering the parameters of the APA style? Thank you in advance! Sara, Librarian Reply: You can add an interview transcript as an appendix. We highly recommend you talk to your instructor about how they want the transcript formatted and added to your paper. If your instructor doesn't have any specific parameters for formatting in the appendix, we recommend sticking to standard APA formatting style: 12pt, Times New Roman font, double spaced, and 1 inch margins. by dcrada on Aug 01, 2017
- Hi, I was just wondering what you name your appendix if you have more than 26 and have run out of alphabet letters? Sara, Librarian Reply: If you run through the alphabet and still have additionally appendices, then we recommend you start over again with Appendix AA, BB, CC, and so on. by F on Aug 31, 2017
- This is great! Much easier and quicker to read and grasp than the APA style guide. by Lily on Sep 03, 2017
- How do I provide in text reference to a table which appears in my appendix? I know I have to refer to the table by table number but how do I say which page it is on in the appendices? Sara, Librarian Reply: Hi Robin, you would do an in-text reference like you would for any other source: (Appendix B, Figure 1). See the APA Style Blog for more information about citing parts of a work: http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/11/how-to-cite-part-of-a-work.html by Robin on Oct 30, 2017
- How would you reference a figure from an appendix in-text? (see Fig. 4) or (see Appendix B, Fig.4 for more information). Sara, Librarian Reply: Hi TJ, we recommend that you include which appendix you are referencing in-text. So the example you would use is (Appendix B, Figure 4). Please see the APA Style Blog if you need any additional clarification http://blog.apastyle.org/apastyle/2013/11/how-to-cite-part-of-a-work.html by Me on Oct 31, 2017
- Do I need to reference an appendix each time it comes up in the document or just the first time it is referenced? Sara, Librarian Reply: Just as you would with an in-text citation, every time you mention an appendix make sure you reference it. by Linda G on Nov 05, 2017
- If the appendix is a survey or other pre-formatted document, what are the requirements for spacing of the body? Does it still need to be double spaced? Sara, Librarian Reply: Different colleges and universities, departments and individual instructors have their own preferences for the formatting of documents added as appendices. We highly recommend that you talk with your instructor/advisor about if they want your document reformatted to be double spaced. by Deborah on Dec 21, 2017
- Nice work helped me alot by Leo Rice on Mar 04, 2018
- How would I go about citing information that I used to create a figure within my appendix? Do I need to cite in the appendix where I obtained the information that I used in the graphs/tables? Sara, Librarian Reply: Do an in-text citation in your appendix (just like you would in the body of your paper) for the information you are quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing. Then add the full reference/citation information to the main references list for your paper. by Nikki on Mar 13, 2018
- Hi, can you clarify how I refer to tables in an appendix in APA 6th? Do I need to write (see Table 1 in Appendix A) or is it (see Table A1) or is there another way? thank you. Sara, Librarian Reply: Hi Bill, to refer to the Appendix within your text, write (see Appendix A) at the end of the sentence in parentheses. If you are referring to a table, you would then write (see Appendix A, Table 1). I hope that helps clarify things for you! by Bill on Mar 14, 2018
- I adapted a figure from an image I found in the 2nd page of a paper Appendix. In the caption of figure, should I write ,Appendices, instead of the page number which is not available? Thank you in advance. Sara, Librarian Reply: Yes, in the caption you should write which appendix you got the figure from. by Souha on Mar 14, 2018
- Excellent and detailed explanation. Very helpful... by Murox Tobby on Mar 20, 2018
- Thank you this was so helpful by angie on Mar 25, 2018
- My paper includes a long part with a lot of different events and dates. Therefore, I want to summarize each event and attach it as a table in the Appendix. Do I have to add citations in this table, although I already included all citations in the text and the table does solely contain information from my main text? Sara, Librarian Reply: Hi Jake. Yes, if your appendix includes tables or figures, treat them as they would be treated in the main text and add the citations. by Jake on Apr 26, 2018
- If a text in my paper refers to the Appendix more than once in my text, should I reference the Appendix each time? Sara, Librarian Reply: Yes. As with citing, so with referencing your appendices: always cite/reference your source. by Adrian on Apr 30, 2018
- Hello :) If I have a few pages from a manual I used for my dissertation, and I want to place them in the appendix, how do I do so? Because if I insert them normally, the plagiarism detection software will detect them as copied, I presume. Thanks! Sara, Librarian Reply: Hi Martina, is there a reason you want to put them in an appendix instead of just citing the section of the source in your dissertation? Do the pages themselves add something to your paper that justifies the duplication? If you still want to add those pages to your appendix, then add them normally. You should also ask your faculty advisor for their opinion or reference your institution's formatting guide. by Martina on May 01, 2018
- Thank you so much for this! The visual representation was very helpful, particularly because the APA Guide was very hard to interpret in respect to the Appendices. I would've put the label and name down incorrectly in my thesis if it wasn't for this! by Maddy on Oct 27, 2018
- Great work! Your presentation helps me a lot, including the questions and answers portion! by Belen,php on Nov 23, 2018
- Does the appendix include a page number and a header? Sara, Librarian reply: Yes. The appendix should include a page number and a header. by Alyssa on Feb 03, 2019
- I am trying to cite the appendix of my e-book for my paper. How do I do that? by Shashi on Mar 21, 2019
- Very helpful. Well detailed and on point. Thank you so much by Peter Wanyangi on Apr 02, 2019
- Thank you for this reference. The example helped solidify my questions about how to effectively use and appendix. Great! by A on May 07, 2019
- A very useful and highly relevant information. Thank you all. by Dr Sam V Daniel on Sep 23, 2019
- Excellent, nicely presented and comprehensive. Loved going through it. by Anoop Tiwari on Oct 28, 2019
- Excellent explanation, love it, fully helped and thanks a lot. by Godwine Okoth on Jan 22, 2020
- This was exceedingly helpful,thanks a lot by Favour Anne on Mar 18, 2020
- This resource is so incredibly helpful - thank you by Jennifer on Jun 06, 2021
- This is a very useful explanation. It has answered more than one question.Highly relevant information. by Carol Nelson on Nov 14, 2022
- This is a great reference. thank you! by Carlos on Apr 28, 2023
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- Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates
Research Paper Appendix | Example & Templates
Published on August 4, 2022 by Tegan George and Kirsten Dingemanse. Revised on July 18, 2023.
An appendix is a supplementary document that facilitates your reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to your core argument. Appendices are a useful tool for providing additional information or clarification in a research paper , dissertation , or thesis without making your final product too long.
Appendices help you provide more background information and nuance about your thesis or dissertation topic without disrupting your text with too many tables and figures or other distracting elements.
We’ve prepared some examples and templates for you, for inclusions such as research protocols, survey questions, and interview transcripts. All are worthy additions to an appendix. You can download these in the format of your choice below.
Download Word doc Download Google doc
Table of contents
What is an appendix in a research paper, what to include in an appendix, how to format an appendix, how to refer to an appendix, where to put your appendices, other components to consider, appendix checklist, other interesting articles, frequently asked questions about appendices.
In the main body of your research paper, it’s important to provide clear and concise information that supports your argument and conclusions . However, after doing all that research, you’ll often find that you have a lot of other interesting information that you want to share with your reader.
While including it all in the body would make your paper too long and unwieldy, this is exactly what an appendix is for.
As a rule of thumb, any detailed information that is not immediately needed to make your point can go in an appendix. This helps to keep your main text focused but still allows you to include the information you want to include somewhere in your paper.
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An appendix can be used for different types of information, such as:
- Supplementary results : Research findings are often presented in different ways, but they don’t all need to go in your paper. The results most relevant to your research question should always appear in the main text, while less significant results (such as detailed descriptions of your sample or supplemental analyses that do not help answer your main question), can be put in an appendix.
- Statistical analyses : If you conducted statistical tests using software like Stata or R, you may also want to include the outputs of your analysis in an appendix.
- Further information on surveys or interviews : Written materials or transcripts related to things such as surveys and interviews can also be placed in an appendix.
You can opt to have one long appendix, but separating components (like interview transcripts, supplementary results, or surveys ) into different appendices makes the information simpler to navigate.
Here are a few tips to keep in mind:
- Always start each appendix on a new page.
- Assign it both a number (or letter) and a clear title, such as “Appendix A. Interview transcripts.” This makes it easier for your reader to find the appendix, as well as for you to refer back to it in your main text.
- Number and title the individual elements within each appendix (e.g., “Transcripts”) to make it clear what you are referring to. Restart the numbering in each appendix at 1.
It is important that you refer to each of your appendices at least once in the main body of your paper. This can be done by mentioning the appendix and its number or letter, either in parentheses or within the main part of a sentence. It’s also possible to refer to a particular component of an appendix.
Appendix B presents the correspondence exchanged with the fitness boutique. Example 2. Referring to an appendix component These results (see Appendix 2, Table 1) show that …
It is common to capitalize “Appendix” when referring to a specific appendix, but it is not mandatory. The key is just to make sure that you are consistent throughout your entire paper, similarly to consistency in capitalizing headings and titles in academic writing .
However, note that lowercase should always be used if you are referring to appendices in general. For instance, “The appendices to this paper include additional information about both the survey and the interviews .”
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The simplest option is to add your appendices after the main body of your text, after you finish citing your sources in the citation style of your choice. If this is what you choose to do, simply continue with the next page number. Another option is to put the appendices in a separate document that is delivered with your dissertation.
Remember that any appendices should be listed in your paper’s table of contents .
There are a few other supplementary components related to appendices that you may want to consider. These include:
- List of abbreviations : If you use a lot of abbreviations or field-specific symbols in your dissertation, it can be helpful to create a list of abbreviations .
- Glossary : If you utilize many specialized or technical terms, it can also be helpful to create a glossary .
- Tables, figures and other graphics : You may find you have too many tables, figures, and other graphics (such as charts and illustrations) to include in the main body of your dissertation. If this is the case, consider adding a figure and table list .
All appendices contain information that is relevant, but not essential, to the main text.
Each appendix starts on a new page.
I have given each appendix a number and clear title.
I have assigned any specific sub-components (e.g., tables and figures) their own numbers and titles.
My appendices are easy to follow and clearly formatted.
I have referred to each appendix at least once in the main text.
Your appendices look great! Use the other checklists to further improve your thesis.
If you want to know more about AI for academic writing, AI tools, or research bias, make sure to check out some of our other articles with explanations and examples or go directly to our tools!
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Yes, if relevant you can and should include APA in-text citations in your appendices . Use author-date citations as you do in the main text.
Any sources cited in your appendices should appear in your reference list . Do not create a separate reference list for your appendices.
An appendix contains information that supplements the reader’s understanding of your research but is not essential to it. For example:
- Interview transcripts
- Detailed descriptions of equipment
Something is only worth including as an appendix if you refer to information from it at some point in the text (e.g. quoting from an interview transcript). If you don’t, it should probably be removed.
When you include more than one appendix in an APA Style paper , they should be labeled “Appendix A,” “Appendix B,” and so on.
When you only include a single appendix, it is simply called “Appendix” and referred to as such in the main text.
Appendices in an APA Style paper appear right at the end, after the reference list and after your tables and figures if you’ve also included these at the end.
You may have seen both “appendices” or “appendixes” as pluralizations of “ appendix .” Either spelling can be used, but “appendices” is more common (including in APA Style ). Consistency is key here: make sure you use the same spelling throughout your paper.
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How to Write an APA Appendix
Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."
Amanda Tust is a fact-checker, researcher, and writer with a Master of Science in Journalism from Northwestern University's Medill School of Journalism.
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- When to Use an Appendix
- What to Include
- Basic Rules
If you are writing a psychology paper for a class or for publication, you may be required to include an appendix in APA format. An APA appendix is found at the end of a paper and contains information that supplements the text but that is too unwieldy or distracting to include in the main body of the paper.
APA format is the official writing style used by the American Psychological Association . This format dictates how academic and professional papers should be structured and formatted.
Does Your Paper Need an APA Appendix?
Some questions to ask about whether you should put information in the body of the paper or in an appendix:
- Is the material necessary for the reader to understand the research? If the answer is yes, it should be in your paper and not in an appendix.
- Would including the information interrupt the flow of the paper? If the answer is yes, then it should likely appear in the appendix.
- Would the information supplement what already appears in your paper? If yes, then it is a good candidate for including in an appendix.
Your appendix is not meant to become an information dump. While the information in your appendices is supplementary to your paper and research, it should still be useful and relevant. Only include what will help readers gain insight and understanding, not clutter or unnecessary confusion.
What to Include in an APA Appendix
The APA official stylebook suggests that the appendix should include information that would be distracting or inappropriate in the text of the paper.
Some examples of information you might include in an appendix include:
- Correspondence (if it pertains directly to your research)
- Demographic details about participants or groups
- Examples of participant responses
- Extended or detailed descriptions
- Lists that are too lengthy to include in the main text
- Large amounts of raw data
- Lists of supporting research and articles that are not directly referenced in-text
- Materials and instruments (if your research relied on special materials or instruments, you might want to include images and further information about how these items work or were used)
- Questionnaires that were used as part of your research
- Raw data (presented in an organized, readable format)
- Research surveys
While the content found in the appendix is too cumbersome to include in the main text of your paper, it should still be easily presented in print format.
The appendices should always act as a supplement to your paper. The body of your paper should be able to stand alone and fully describe your research or your arguments.
The body of your paper should not be dependent upon what is in the appendices. Instead, each appendix should act to supplement what is in the primary text, adding additional (but not essential) information that provides extra insight or information for the reader.
Basic Rules for an APA Appendix
Here are some basic APA appendix rules to keep in mind when working on your paper:
- Your paper may have more than one appendix.
- Each item usually gets its own appendix section.
- Begin each appendix on a separate page.
- Each appendix must have a title.
- Use title case for your title and labels (the first letter of each word should be capitalized, while remaining letters should be lowercase).
- If your paper only has one appendix, simply title it Appendix.
- If you have more than one appendix, each one should be labeled Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C, and so on.
- Put the appendix label centered at the top of the page.
- On the next line under the appendix label, place the centered title of the appendix.
- If you refer to a source in your appendix, include an in-text citation just as you would in the main body of your paper and then include the source in your main reference section.
- Each appendix may contain headings, subheadings, figures, and tables.
- Each figure or table in your appendix should include a brief but explanatory title, which should be italicized.
- If you want to reference your appendix within the text of your paper, include a parenthetical note in the text. For example, you would write (See Appendix A).
Formatting an APA Appendix
How do you format an appendix in APA? An APA appendix should follow the overall rules on how to format text. Such rules specify what font and font size you should use, the size of your margins, and the spacing of the text.
Some of the APA format guidelines you need to observe:
- Use a consistent font, such as 12-point Times New Roman or 11-point Calibri
- Double-space your text
- All paragraphs should be indented on the first line
- Page numbering should be continuous with the rest of your paper
The appendix label should appear centered and bolded at the top of the page. A descriptive title should follow and should also be bolded and centered. As with other pages in your paper, your APA format appendix should be left-aligned and double-spaced. Each page should include a page number in the top right corner. You can also have more than one appendix, but each one should begin on a new page.
Data Displays in an APA Appendix
When presenting information in an appendix, use a logical layout for any data displays such as tables or figures. All tables and figures should be labeled with the words “Table” or “Figure” (sans quotation marks) and the letter of the appendix and then numbered.
For example, Table A1 would be the first table in an Appendix A. Data displays should be presented in the appendix following the same order that they first appear in the text of your paper.
In addition to following basic APA formatting rules, you should also check to see if there are additional guidelines you need to follow. Individual instructors or publications may have their own specific requirements.
Where to Include an APA Appendix
If your paper does require an appendix, it should be the very last pages of your finished paper. An APA format paper is usually structured in the following way:
Your paper may not necessarily include all of these sections. At a minimum, however, your paper may consist of a title page, abstract, main text, and reference section. Also, if your paper does not contain tables, figures, or footnotes, then the appendix would follow the references.
Never include an appendix containing information that is not referred to in your text.
A Word From Verywell
Writing a paper for class or publication requires a great deal of research, but you should pay special attention to your APA formatting. Each section of your paper, including the appendix section, needs to follow the rules and guidelines provided in the American Psychological Association’s stylebook.
American Psychological Association. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). Washington DC: The American Psychological Association; 2020.
By Kendra Cherry, MSEd Kendra Cherry, MS, is a psychosocial rehabilitation specialist, psychology educator, and author of the "Everything Psychology Book."
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How do I format an appendix and style its heads?
Note: This post relates to content in the eighth edition of the MLA Handbook . For up-to-date guidance, see the ninth edition of the MLA Handbook .
There are many possible ways to format an appendix. A rule of thumb is to let the content guide the choice of format. Types of appendix content include the following: prose explanations that supplement the main text, numbered and unnumbered lists, bibliographies and suggestions for further reading, samples of questionnaires and surveys, and charts and tables.
An appendix that consists mainly of prose requires no special formatting. Use paragraphs, as in your main text, and consider adding titled subheads if the appendix is long.
Appendix 1: An Introduction to the Language of the C Text The language in the C text of William Langland’s Piers Plowman can be strikingly different from present-day English and even from Chaucer’s English. The manuscript on which Pearsall’s annotated edition, Piers Plowman : A New Annotated Edition of the C-Text , is written in a South West Midlands dialect, which frequently varies from Chaucer’s London dialect. This introduction provides students with the basic knowledge necessary to smoothly read Pearsall’s edition. Since difficult lines in the poem are explained in its footnotes and annotations, this guide provides only a rudimentary working knowledge of the most pressing grammatical and lexical issues. No specific linguistic knowledge is assumed. Pronunciation and Spelling Reading Langland’s text aloud is the key to comprehending it. The letters i , e , a , o , u are usually pronounced closer to the Spanish or French pronunciations. Normally, i sounds like the vowel in American English beat , e like that in bait , a like in bot , o like in boat , and u like in boot . All consonants are pronounced, even when clustered together like in knowe (pronounced kuh-no ). Sometimes gg is pronounced like the y in year , for example, in Middle English segge (“say”). The letter y sometimes interchanges with the letter i , for example, mornyng (“morning”). The letters v and u can interchange, for example vp (“up”) and haue (“have”). Nouns Plural nouns normally end in -es , as in thynges (“things”). Possessive nouns also end in -es , as in goddes loue (“God’s love”). Adjectives Sometimes, but not always, adjectives have an – e on the end, as in gode seyntes (“good saints”), especially if the noun is plural.
For an appendix that consists of a list of items, decide if the items should be numbered or not. (Hint: Are the numbers meaningful to the content? If not, consider omitting numbers.) If the list is unnumbered, ensure that each item is clearly distinct from the others. For items with multiple components, style each component consistently. For example, in the following annotated list of web resources, the annotation appears indented on a line below the site name and URL.
Appendix Asclepio , asclepio.revistas.csic.es The journal of the history of medicine published by Spain’s National Research Council offers free access to all of their issues. Colección Historicomédica de la Universitat de València , hicido.uv.es/Expo_medicina The website of the University of Valencia’s History of Medicine Collection offers well-curated links to exhibitions, including online images, texts, and clinical studies. Diccionario de la Real Academia Española , www.rae.es The Royal Academy’s Diccionario de la lengua española is the essential starting point for exploring general vocabulary. It contains links to historical dictionaries as well. Diccionario médico-biológico, histórico y etimológico , www.dicciomed.eusal.es This online medical dictionary is a valuable resource for technical words and historical usages.
An appendix that takes the form of a list of sources or recommended readings can be formatted much like a works-cited list: alphabetize the items, follow a consistent format for the entries, and use a hanging indentation.
Appendix 1 The following editions were consulted for this volume: Bercot, Martine, et al., editors. Anthologie de la poésie française: XVIII e , XIX e , XX e siècles. Vol. 2, Gallimard/Pléiade, 2000. Boucher, Gwenaëlle, editor. Poètes créoles du XVIII e siècle: Parny, Bertin, Léonard . Vol. 1, L’Harmattan, 2009. Parny, Évariste. Œuvres complètes . Edited by Gwenaëlle Boucher, L’Harmattan, 2010. 4 vols. ———. Œuvres complètes d’Évariste de Parny . Edited by Pierre-Jean de Béranger, 1831. ———. Œuvres inédites d’Evariste Parny precédées d’une notice sur sa vie et ses ouvrages par P. F. Tissot . A. Dupont, 1827. ———. La guerre des dieux . Edited by J. C. Lemaire, Champion, 2002. Seth, Catriona. Les poètes créoles du XVIII e siècle: Parny-Bertin-Leonard . Memini, 1998.
Questionnaires and Surveys
An appendix may reproduce a questionnaire or survey used by a researcher. It is usually not necessary to reproduce the exact format of the questionnaire.
Appendix A What were your preconceived notions for this study abroad trip prior to arrival? How do those compare with your actual experiences thus far in Honduras? In what ways, if at all, have your thoughts on what it means to be a teacher changed since your time in Honduras? What sort of teaching strategies did you find teachers use in the classroom in Honduras? How do they compare and contrast with the instructional practices you have witnessed in the United States? How have you managed to communicate without knowing much Spanish? How does it feel to be in a country where the majority of the people are Latino and Latina and speak Spanish, not English? What has been your reaction to the poverty you have seen in Honduras? Has your perception of English-language learners changed? What is your perception of bilingual classrooms? Are there any experiences on this trip that you feel have helped prepare you to be a teacher?
Charts and Tables
Sometimes a chart or table is the best way to convey information in an appendix. However, don’t use a chart or table to present information that can be shared in a simpler format, such as a list.
Appendix: Sample Fieldwork Schedule Morning Afternoon Day 1 Breakfast; depart for Bolʹshie Koty Settle in at Bolʹshie Koty; tour of biostation with Evgenii Zilov Day 2 Hike to Chernaia Creek; work at biostation Collect samples at Chernaia Creek; discuss student hypotheses Day 3 Trip to Listvianka; visit Museum of Baikal, Limnological Institute Dry suit divers collect benthic samples; discussion of samples Day 4 Guided tour of Kadilʹnaia Valley Preserve with ISU botanists Discussion with Svetlana Sizykh and other botanists from ISU Botanical Garden Day 5 Guided tour of Bolʹshie Koty valley with botanists Collection of samples; discussion Day 6 Visit site of Great Baikal Trail; discussion with trail leader Ecotourism discussion with Tatʹiana Klepikova, Great Baikal Trail
Heads in Appendixes
Structuring and styling the heads in an appendix follow the same principles as using heads in your main text . Short appendixes may need only a title and no heads, while longer, more complex appendixes may benefit from the structure that heads can provide. The styling and size of heads should be used to signal prominence and subordination of head levels: larger, boldface fonts indicate the most prominent head levels, while a smaller or italic font indicates subordinate head levels.
Titles of Appendixes
If your work has more than one appendix, label the appendixes numerically or alphabetically. Appendixes may also bear titles, which should be short and descriptive.
An appendix** comes at the end (after the reference list) of a report, research project, or dissertation and contains any additional information such as raw data or interview transcripts. The information in the appendices is relevant but is too long or too detailed to include in the main body of your work.
**Note: Appendix is singular and appendices is plural. When you want to refer to one of your appendices, use appendix - for example, ‘See Appendix 1’.
Scroll down for our recommended strategies and resources.
Ensure everything in your appendices has a purpose. This guide gives a useful overview of the structure, format, and effective use of appendices:
Appendices (University of Southern California)
Your appendices should have a clear labelling system (Appendix 1, Appendix 2, Appendix 3) and each item in an appendix should have a descriptive title saying what it is (‘Appendix 1: Flowchart of purchasing decision-making process).
You need to refer to your appendices in the body of your assignment or the reader will not know they are there. Use a short phrase such as ‘See Appendix 1’.
If you have taken data, diagrams, or information from other sources to put in your appendices, you need to reference them as normal; include an in-text citation next to the item in your appendices and a full reference in your reference list. If you have created your own graphs or tables using data from another source you can explain this in your in-text citation: (Table author’s own, data from Jones, 2017).
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A Complete Appendix Writing Guide for Beginners
Published on: Feb 29, 2020
Last updated on: Jan 24, 2023
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An appendix is a separate section at the end of your paper containing information that may be helpful to readers. However, it's not necessary unless you have some detailed info that doesn't fit neatly into the main body text.
Therefore, if you want to know more about it, read this guide and learn what information is added in the appendix section.
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Appendix Writing Definition
An appendix is a section that is added at the end of a research paper . It includes additional information that does not fit into the main text of the paper.
The main purpose of writing an appendix is to:
- Provide the reader with information that supports your study without distracting from the main purpose.
- Include information that is too long or detailed for the main body text.
- Include raw test data or results.
Moreover, in MLA and APA style, an appendix is placed after the reference list. It contains the following information:
- Graph and charts
- Tables and Figures
- Interview transcripts
- Detailed descriptions of equipment used
- Letters and emails
- Research survey forms and questionnaires
- Links to websites
Further, it is important to reference the appendix in your main text discussed in the paper. If you don't mention any information from an appendix, it should not be included at all in your paper.
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Appendix Writing Format
Including an appendix is a good way to store information that isn't essential but still needs to be included in the paper. Formatting the appendix can seem difficult at first, but you'll find that it isn't too complicated.
Here is a general appendix format for your ease.
- Heading “Appendix #” (contains a letter or number that might be A or 1)
- Put it after the reference list and end of your document
- Add all appendices at the start of the document in the table of contents
- For each type of information, use a separate page of the appendix
However, the format for the appendix depends on your professor’s requirements. Therefore, ask them first and then start writing it.
How to Write an Appendix?
You know the format of the appendix, but do you know how to write it? Therefore, for your help, we gathered some steps that you should follow when you start writing the appendix.
Let’s discuss them in detail.
1. Insert Raw Data
The appendix is a space where you can include raw data that may not receive much attention but will help to support your paper. However, you should only add relevant information about the topic and make sure it's still accessible for readers to understand.
Raw data like sample calculations that you referred to in the body of the paper and specialized data that expands on information or ideas discussed in your work. You can also include raw statistical data and contributory facts from other sources in an appendix to help support the findings of your paper.
2. Add Supporting Graphs, Images, and Charts
One way to make your paper more engaging is by adding creative visual supporting documents, such as graphs and charts. Also, you may create your own or find an existing one to support the findings in your paper.
3. Include Research Instruments
One of the most important aspects to consider when conducting research is your tools and materials. You want your reader to understand how you conducted your research, so it's best not to keep them in suspense and add in the appendix.
4. Put Interview and Transcripts
Interviews and surveys can be the most valuable part of your research because they provide a unique insight into people’s thoughts. You may also include photocopies of hand-written survey results or saved copies from online surveys completed by other people to provide supporting evidence for your argument if needed.
5. Formatting the Appendix
Appendices are always one of the most overlooked parts of any paper, but they're also really important. Here's how to format your appendix, so you don't get penalized for poor formatting:
- The appendix is titled at the top of the page.
- An appendix label is clearly labeled with a number or letter.
- Use capital letters or a sentence case for writing the word “appendix.”
- The font size and type remain the same.
- Use a letter or number if you have more than 1 appendix like appendix A, appendix 1.
- Begin each appendix with a new page if you have more than 1 appendix.
- Order the appendix according to the appearance of the content in the paper.
- Add page numbers at the center or bottom right corner of the page.
Therefore, keep these rules in your mind and avoid any mistakes that make your paper substandard.
6. Revising and Proofreading
It is important to check the appendix for any missing information before submitting your paper. Reviewing this section can help you avoid delays in getting it published and ensure that readers get a seamless reading experience.
One of the most important things to do when proofreading an appendix is to ensure that all areas are covered, and there aren't any errors. You should check for grammar, spelling, or content problems before you submit your paper. Make sure that every word makes sense and has good sentence structure as well by using correct punctuation.
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Appendix Writing Example
With the help of examples, you will easily write your research paper appendix. Therefore, here are some professionally written examples for your ease.
Appendix Writing Sample
Appendix Writing in a Report
Appendix Writing MLA
Appendix Writing Thesis
Appendix Writing APA
Now, you have a detailed guide to appendix writing. However, if you are still confused and need a professional writer’s help, consult MyPerfectWords.com . We are the best online essay writing service and offer excellent writing services.
So, what are you waiting for? Hire our paper writer now and avail the best academic writing help.
Frequently Asked Questions
Do you reference an appendix.
Avoid referencing your appendix in the paper; only signpost them. However, when you add an appendix to work and also include references within it. Then, insert the citations in the text of the appendix and include full references in your reference list.
How long should an appendix be?
Appendixes are not bound by a specific page or word count limit, but they should be lengthy and contain only relevant information.
What is the difference between references and appendices?
A reference shows the sources of the data or material used. It is also known as a bibliography. However, an appendix gives a detailed explanation of something not mentioned in the main text.
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APA Citation Style 7th Edition
- APA Style Overview
- Sample Documents & Guides
- Multiple Sources With the Same Author and Year
- Websites & Web Documents
- Course Materials (Slides, Lecture Notes, Specialty Software)
- Citing Business Databases
- Film, Videos, & Podcasts
- Art, Photos, Tables & Figures
- Legal Materials & Tax Codes
- Pamphlet or Brochure
- Interviews, E-mail, Intranet, Religious Works, & Secondary Sources (7th edition)
- Footnotes This link opens in a new window
What goes into an Appendix?
Where is an appendix placed, labeling the appendix, formatting the appendix.
- Evaluating Sources This link opens in a new window
- Understanding Plagiarism
- RefWorks This link opens in a new window
"Material that supplements the content of the paper, but would be distracting or inappropriate to include in the body of the paper is to be placed in an appendix." This includes "materials that are relatively brief and that are easily presented in print format" ( Publication Manual of the APA: 6th edition , section 2.13; Publication Manual of the APA: 7th edition , section 2.14). Examples include "mathematical proofs, lists of words, a questionnaire used in the research, a detailed description of an apparatus used in the research, etc" ( Purdue OWL .)
An appendix (or appendices) follow the reference list. Use the following order for your paper:
- Abstract ( if required, start on a new page, numbered page 2)
- Text (start on a new page, numbered 3)
- References (start on a new page)
- Tables (start each on a new page)
- Figures (start each on a new page; include caption on page with figure)
- Appendices (start each on a new page)
- If only one appendix, label it Appendix
- If more than one appendix: label each one with a capital letter (Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.) in the order in which it is mentioned in the text
- Each appendix must have a title
- In the text, refer to appendices by their labels:
"produced the same results for both studies (see Appendices A and B for complete proofs)."
- Begin each appendix on a separate page
- At the top of the page, center the word Appendix and the identifying capital letters (A, B, etc.) in the order in which they are mentioned in the text.
- Center the title of the appendix using uppercase and lowercase letter on the next line
- Begin the text of the appendix flush left, followed by indented paragraphs.
A sample appendix is below:
- << Previous: Footnotes
- Next: Evaluating Sources >>
- Last Updated: Oct 25, 2023 2:14 PM
- URL: https://guides.franklin.edu/APA
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Appendix In A Paper: Complete Guide To Writing
In many cases, you will be required to create an appendix for your academic papers. The word “appendix” or “appendices” (yes, you can have more than one) usually scares students of all ages. So, let’s see exactly what is an appendix in a paper and how you write one. Writing an appendix in a paper is definitely not difficult, but you need to pay attention to a lot of minor details. Another very important thing that we will be discussing is how to cite an appendix. Why? Because simply learning how to put an appendix in a paper is not enough. You need to know how to use it effectively. And remember, you must also know the appendix meaning in the research paper.
The Role Of The Appendix In A Paper
Before you learn what an appendix in a paper is, you need to understand the role of this section. In most cases, you will be writing an APA paper appendix, but it doesn’t really matter. Appendices are basically the same – only their format differs slightly. The role of an appendix in APA paper is to include information that would be too detailed and complex to include in the body of the essay. That section is created with the sole purpose of avoiding bombarding the readers with too much information. It helps you focus on the topic and avoid explaining everything in the body of the essay.
What Is An Appendix In A Paper: Simple Definition
Now that you know the role of an appendix let’s see what is an appendix in a research paper. As we ’ ve mentioned before, it is just a section at the end of the paper that includes some information that is too long and complex to include in the body of the essay. The appendix paper APA is there to basically avoid distracting the attention of your readers from the important parts of your research. The appendix research paper is located near the end of the essay, right before the Footnotes section (if you have this section, of course). Let’s take an example. You are discussing a topic like “Nanotechnology in medicine,” and you reach a point where some technical information about nanovesicles is required. Instead of writing an entire – complex – section about nanovesicles, you include all the relevant information in an appendix. You then just reference the appendix in the paper. Simple and effective!
Creating Appendix In A Paper
The appendix of a paper is not difficult to create. However, you must understand precisely what’s an appendix in a paper. Here is how you create an appendix in the paper:
- To start an appendix in research paper, you write the appendix label on a new page (with page number). The label is “Appendix A,” Appendix B,” “Appendix C,” and so on. The label must be centered.
- The next step to create an appendix for paper is to write a title for the appendix. The title goes below the label and should be centered. For example: “The List of Countries In Europe That Have the Largest Female Population.”
- Write the first paragraph of the appendix without any indent and flushed left.
- Write the following paragraphs formatted normally, indented.
That’s it! Your appendix is ready. Still wondering what does an appendix look like in a paper? Here is a quick example:
Appendix A (the label, centered)
The List of Countries in Europe That Have the Largest Female Population (the title, centered)
The first paragraph goes here. (flush left without any indent).
The second paragraph goes here (normal indent and standard formatting).
The third paragraph…and so on.
Learning How To Cite An Appendix
Now you know how to create a research paper appendix. But do you know how to reference an appendix in the paper? It’s pretty simple, actually. You just refer to the appendix in the text by writing “(see Appendix A)” at the end of the sentence where the information is needed. Here is an example:
“Spain has the third largest female population in Europe (see Appendix A).”
And that is how you reference a paper appendix. Remember that you can have as many appendices as you need. If you have more than 26 of them, you will need to start the alphabet over with two letters (AA, BB, CC, etc.). For example, Appendix 27 will be labeled “Appendix AA.”
Some Useful Tips For Writing Appendix
You may know how to make an appendix for a paper, but do you know how to avoid making mistakes in the process? Unless you decide to get help of our professional writers , follow one simple rule – when you make an appendix for a paper, you must always have a label and a title for it. Also, each appendix goes on a separate page. If you have just one appendix, it will be labeled “Appendix” and referenced with “(see Appendix).” The last tip is very important: each one of your appendices must discuss a separate topic. Don’t write two appendices that deal with the same thing or you will get penalized. And remember, you can include any information from outside sources in appendices, as long as you cite it parenthetically and include it in the References section of the essay. And no, you don’t have to write a new References section for the appendices. Good luck!
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How to Write an Appendix Essay
Are you wondering how to write an appendix essay for the document you have just created? If so, then you have landed in the right place. A literary appendix, just like its human body counterpart, includes supplementary information, which is not strictly compulsory to the main body of the document.
What is an Appendix?
Appendices are often added at the end of a document to give additional information that will help a reader understand the materials presented. This can include and reference section for students, summary of raw data or additional details on techniques behind the work.
Why Appendix Writing is Important
Writing an appendix is an efficient way of presenting vital information that is too large to be included in your paper. It contains those explanatory details that your readers should reference in case of such a need. Including appendix information is always beneficial for both the reader and writer if one wants to achieve a custom research paper with good references. To create a professional appendix, read the introduction part for your assignment. It will help you remember the general objectives and aims of your writing. You may include all supporting materials in appendices without creating clutter in your paper, making it convenient for your readers. As someone reaches the final part, it is always possible to check appendices before the list of references and your Bibliography page. A well-written appendix must be easily accessible, valuable, and engaging. If you are struggling to know how to make an appendix, knowing why it is important will be beneficial as you learn and come up with a perfect assignment.
What should be Included in Appendices
How to do an appendix? This is a common question asked by every other student stuck in the situation of preparing appendices for his essay or document. Collecting all the relevant content for the appendices is key to get your job done in a simple way. While it will always depend on your subject and the necessity of an appendix, it will contain the following essential elements as you learn how to write an appendix:
- Raw data collected during research work for your essay
- Supporting charts, images and graphs
- Instruments used to conduct research work
- All statistics, surveys and interview transcripts
- Research methods and sample calculations
- Appendix Number or Letter corresponding to your assignment.
- References related to your body paragraphs with a # sign placed after the sentence.
- Corresponding page numbers if there are multiple appendix cases.
- Label + Title. It must be centered and use normal capitalized fonts. Your title must be followed by the appendix label.
- Provide a clear link to Appendix and your body text to ensure that everything is linked properly.
- Your first paragraph must not be intended. The second, third, and subsequent body paragraphs go with indents.
- Format each paragraph using double-spacing.
- If your appendix essay represents some date, it must be referenced as a number in the body text.
- In case some third-party references have been mentioned, they must be cited as usual within body paragraphs.
- There is no need to create a separate references list.
Regardless of your structure, remember that only supporting evidence and relevant contributory facts must be included. If there is any specialized data with technical figures, tables, maps, or any technical descriptions, it must be mentioned and properly referenced as well.
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Adding Raw Data
Add all raw data that you have collected during research for your document. There’s no need to get worried about the details as you can add anything that you consider relevant to the text in your paper. Anything that supports your findings is worth adding to appendices. Some students want to know how to use appendices. This is because information given there might not separated in a useful way or in accordance with the details discuss earlier.
- Raw data should include sample calculations, specialized data and raw statistical data.
- Feel free to add contributory facts from other informative sources that support the findings in your writing. Never forget to cite information that you are giving from other sources.
Include Supporting Charts, Graphs and Images
All visual supporting papers including images, maps, charts, drawing, graphics and photographs need to be presented in your appendices.
- You can include charts and graphs that you have created specifically for the appendices or can refer to another source for such details.
- Keep a straightforward structure for all supporting maps, graphs and images.
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Mention Research Instruments
Never forget to note research instruments that you have used throughout the research work, meaning tools like tape recorder, video camera or any other device.
- For instance, you can write in your appendices, “All surveys and interviews were recorder with a tape recorder.”
- Mention details about any other device that you used for gathering any specific information related to your study.
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Include Surveys or Interview Transcripts
Interviews and surveys are an important part of the overall layout. So always make sure to add all the surveys and interview transcripts conducted as part of research. The transcript being added should include all questions and answers. Feel free to include stuff like photocopies of hand-written surveys for a better impression.
How to Format an Appendix?
Before you collect relevant information for your appendix, it is vital to learn appendix format rules. Luckily, there is not much to learn as it follows basic (APA or MLA) formatting rules. An additional data may be included if you are dealing with a book or dissertation writing.
The basic appendix essay rules:
- Heading with corresponding [Appendix #]. It should also contain a number or letter that may be either 1 or A, depending on what formatting style you choose.
- Your References list should come next.
- Index Table. The list of relevant appendencies must come next.
- The corresponding page number.
There may be some minor differences in some appendices in an essay (like in some engineering research papers) where you have to provide files that have been generated by the specialised software. In such a case, it will include additional references with a full explanation of the online links.
Do not forget that some papers will include several appendices, which will introduce additional formatting rules. For example:
- Each appendix that you include must be related to a single topic.
- Refer to each appendix by using Name in a bold font like Appendix A, Appendix B, etc.
When you include the Appendix in your text, refer to it as “see Appendix A” at the end of some sentences in parentheses.
An appendix example of citation:
In addition to provided information regarding cyberbullying, Jones et al. (2009) researched relevant studies that focused on illegal gambling and exchange of intellectual property materials in private closed networks (see Appendix B for detailed information).
Each appendix that you use must be labeled with a corresponding letter (like A, B, C, and so on) depending on where exactly it appears in your text. In other words, your first appendix mentioned would become “Appendix A”, the second Appendix (a separate one) would become Appendix B. However, if you must include over 26 appendices, it is recommended to proceed with the AA, BB, CC patterns. Using only one appendix, it does not come with any letter or number and is mentioned in a bold font just as “ Appendix “.
As you learn how to use an appendix in an essay, remember that:
- Each appendix must have a title.
- Start each new appendix on a separate page with a page number.
- Title and label of each appendix must be placed at the top of the page with the normal capitalisation.
- First paragraph must be flushed left with an indent.
- If you include tables or figures, use the same references system as you would with the usual text, except for tables and figures with a numbering rule where it would become Table B4 as the fourth table in Appendix B. It is also relevant for appendices in report cases.
How to Write an Appendix in Different Styles
Here is how to create an appendix in popular academic writing styles:
- All appendices should refer to a relevant point.
- Include a title for each appendix used.
- Use the ABC title pattern for multiple appendices.
- When referencing appendix within the body, use “see appendix A” format.
- Your APA appendix title must be centered.
- All appendices must start at their separate page.
- First paragraph is written without indents. Subsequent paragraphs have normal indented formatting.
- Pages must be double-spaced.
- Font: Times New Roman, 12.
The rules are mostly the same as in APA:
- Appendix must be placed before your Works Cited page.
- Appendix label and title must be centered and capitalised.
The same rules as above apply, except for:
- Page numbers must be labeled as “page, 1,2,3”
- Front cover page number is not included.
- Your bibliography should be the final page that starts on a separate page.
- You are allowed to include footnotes for your Bibliography.
Here is how to structure an appendix in Harvard style:
- Appendices must be placed before the end of research work or essay and before the reference list.
- Anything that is placed in an appendix must be cited in the body of your essay as “Appendix”.
The rest follows the same set of rules as APA and MLA formats.
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Read the full House Ethics report on George Santos’ alleged campaign crimes
WASHINGTON (AP) — The House Ethics committee in a scathing report Thursday said it has amassed “overwhelming evidence” of lawbreaking by Rep. George Santos of New York that has been sent to the Justice Department, concluding flatly that the Republican “cannot be trusted” after a monthslong investigation into his conduct.
Read the full report below.
Shortly after the panel’s report was released, Santos blasted it as a “politicized smear” in a tweet on X but said that he would not be seeking reelection to a second term.
The panel said that Santos knowingly caused his campaign committee to file false or incomplete reports with the Federal Election Commission; used campaign funds for personal purposes; and engaged in violations of the Ethics in Government Act as it relates to financial disclosure statements filed with the House.
Santos has maintained his innocence and had long refused to resign despite calls from many of his colleagues to do so.
The ethics panel’s report also detailed Santos’ lack of cooperation with its investigation and how he “evaded” straightforward requests for information.
The information that he did provide, according to the committee, “included material misstatements that further advanced falsehoods he made during his 2022 campaign.”
WATCH: House rejects effort to expel Rep. George Santos
The report says that an investigative subcommittee decided to forgo bringing formal charges because it would have resulted in a “lengthy trial-like public adjudication and sanctions hearing” that only would have given Santos “further opportunity to delay any accountability.” The committee decided instead to send the full report to the House.
It urges House members “to take any action they deem appropriate and necessary” based on the report.
The findings by the investigative panel may be the least of Santos’ worries. The congressman faces a 23-count federal indictment that alleges he stole the identities of campaign donors and then used their credit cards to make tens of thousands of dollars in unauthorized charges. Federal prosecutors say Santos, who has pleaded not guilty, wired some of the money to his personal bank account and used the rest to pad his campaign coffers.
Santos, who represents parts of Queens and Long Island, is also accused of falsely reporting to the Federal Elections Commission that he had loaned his campaign $500,000 when he actually hadn’t given anything and had less than $8,000 in the bank. The fake loan was an attempt to convince Republican Party officials that he was a serious candidate, worth their financial support, the indictment says.
Santos easily survived a vote earlier this month to expel him from the House as most Republicans and 31 Democrats opted to withhold punishment while both his criminal trial and the House Ethics Committee investigation continued.
— Kevin Freking, Associated Press
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